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Dr.Hussam Abu-Hajjar

Student ID : 8180021

September 2019

Multiple Liner Regression

Contents

1 General Overview of The Project Problem ................................... 3

Descriptive analysis and normality test for each Variable .......................................................... 5

Model 1: .................................................................................................................................... 8

Model 2: ...................................................................................................................................15

Model 3: .................................................................................................................................. 22

Logistic Model [2] : .................................................................................................................. 39

5 Appendices ............................................................................. 48

Appendix 2 [ Case Summary For Model 2] ................................................................................51

Appendix 3 [ Case Summary For Model 3] ............................................................................... 54

Appendix 4 [ Case Summary For Logistic Model 1] ...................................................................57

Appendix 5 [ Case Summary For Logistic Model 2] .................................................................. 60

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Multiple Liner Regression

The scope of this Project is to find a relation between 1 independent variable with multiple

dependent variables throughout multiple linear regression and logistics regression as

shown using SPSS Software.

The Experiment that used in this project is a Number of Fish In Water Stream [Y]

calculating multiple factors:

Dissolved Oxygen (in mg/liter) [X2]

The Maximum Depth in Studied Cross-section (in cm) [X3]

Nitrate Concentration (mg/liter) [X4]

Sulfate Concentration (mg/liter) [X5]

The Water Temperature on The Sampling Date (in degrees C) [X6]

calculate number of in water stream with 0.75 cm cross-sectional width, then they are

calculating the concentration for Dissolved Oxygen, Nitrate No3, Sulfate So4, and calculate

the water temperature

Moreover, the maximum depth of the stream will be measured along the cross-sectional

width.

1- Dissolved Oxygen:

2-4 mg/L only a few fish and aquatic insects can survive.

4-7 mg/L good for many aquatic animals, low for cold water fish

2- Nitrate No3:

Nitrate is measured in mg/L. Natural levels of nitrate are usually less than 1 mg/L.

Concentrations over 10 mg/L will have an effect on the freshwater aquatic environment. 10

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Multiple Liner Regression

mg/L is also the maximum concentration allowed in human drinking water by the U.S.

Public Health Service. For a sensitive fish such as salmon the recommended concentration

is 0.06 mg/L

3- Temperature:

In hot weather, the first thing to do is to increase water movement. The warmer water

is, the less oxygen will be dissolved in it, but at higher temperatures, your fish’s

metabolism will be higher, increasing their need for oxygen.

number of fish counted will depend on the watershed size, we assume that larger

drained area by stream will result a more fishes, because when drained area increased

the flow rate and the collected water volume will be increased

5-Depth of Stream:

Stream Channel depth vary along the stream cross section, the experiment calculate the

maximum depth in the stream cross-section, the fish does not prefer shallow stream water

to be there

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Multiple Liner Regression

6-Sulfate: Sulfate has effects on fish at high concentration only, when reach

hundred mg/l.

Dissolved Oxygen (in mg/liter) [X2]

The Maximum Depth in Studied Cross-section (in cm) [X3]

Nitrate Concentration (mg/liter) [X4]

Sulfate Concentration (mg/liter) [X5]

The Water Temperature on The Sampling Date (in degrees C) [X6]

All the Above independent variable will model in order to find their relation with the

dependent variable which is the Number of Fish the stream [Y]

All Variable is continuous variable, in the last section we will convert the independent

variable into binary categorical variable and convert one dependent variable into binary

categorical variable

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Multiple Liner Regression

6

Multiple Liner Regression

As shown above from descriptive statists table we have a quick review for the data and we

can see that we have 68 Sample Case, we can also see the mean and Std deviation and

compare them together. For Example, [X4] Has mean Value of 5.6, and it Std deviation

is equal to 3.27 this is massive STD comparing to the mean!!

As Shown Above is the Descriptive Statistics for each Variable and Normality Test for each

for them using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk.

We can note that only Number of Fish [Y1] and Maximum Water Depth [X3] is normally

distributed because their Sig > 0.005 [ Null is accepted], and other variable [X1], [X2], [X4],

[X5] [X6] is not normally distributed because their Sig < 0.05. [Null is rejected].

But Anyway the Non-Normality in Variables is not important and not an assumption in

linear regression or logistics regression model, the major assumption for linear

regression methods is the Normality of residuals not the variable themselves.

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Multiple Liner Regression

Model 1:

Model 1 is the first trial model that contains all

variables together that entered in Forced Entry

method and assumed this model have constant

[have intercept with Y Axis], the result is as

following

We can see that all Variable is entered without any exclusion, therefore the R2 for the

model will be for all these variable with [Y]

2- For This Model Adjusted R Square 58.7% which is close to 62.4%, from 62.4% to 58.7

is not that big reduction so we can make Model Generalization.

3- Durbin Watson to check for Independent Errors equal to 1.022 which is good

Because typical value for it is from [1 to 3] so that we are near the lower limits but

still fine

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Multiple Liner Regression

This F Test Represent us a statistics test for the overall significance of the regression model, we

always seek to High F Value, and seek a value of Sig < 0.005 to state that the observed

difference is real not due to chance.

Alternative Hypothesis : at least 1 slope coefficient ≠ 0

In-our Model Sig is equal to 0.000 which is less than 0.005, so that the null hypothesis is

rejected and the observed difference is real not due to chance.

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Multiple Liner Regression

From Coefficients table we can see B value for each variable and whether it is significant or

not.

We can see from the coefficients table that Constant, [X5] , [X6] have Sig Higher Than

0.05 therefore the null hypothesis accepted [ this coefficients is bad in our model ]

On other hand it seems that [X1] ,[X2],[X3],[X4] have a Sig Value less than 0.05 , therefore

the null hypothesis is rejected and they are well fit in the model .

We Can interpret from coefficients table the VIF Values that help us to identify Collinearity

First of all, we don’t have any variable have VIF > 10, on other hand all Predictors have VIF

around 1, expect The Water Temperature [X6] and Dissolved Oxygen [X2] both have 3.187

and 3.451 respectively. As first indication these to two variables Temperature and dissolved

Oxygen maybe have a multi-collinearity problem, but let us take a look in the coloration

and covariance matrix.

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Multiple Liner Regression

From The Coefficients Correlations we can that all variable have small values of r between

them expect Water Temperature [X6] and Dissolved Oxygen [X2] they have correlation

0.821 !!!!, this impressive result is correspond with VIF in Page 10, so that Water

Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen have high probability to be multi-collinear variable,

Maybe the next Model [ Model 2] [Backward] will eliminate one of them if one of them does

not add any significance effect on the model. Because in multi-collinearity one of the

variables is enough in model, and the other one is redundant and we can eliminate one of

them from model.

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Multiple Liner Regression

The condition indices are computed as the square roots of the ratios of the largest

eigenvalue to each successive eigenvalue. Values greater than 15 indicate a possible

problem with collinearity; greater than 30, a serious problem. [ In our Model We have only

one parameter which is temperature is have Condition Index 53.511 > 30.

Eigen Value Problem Is that it does not have cutoff point to judge with it.

Case-wise: There is only two cases in the model which is consider as outliers because these

two cases have Std Residual > 1.96, 2 Cases Over 68 Cases is equal to 2/68 = 2.94%, which

is fine 2.95% < 5%. In My Opinion I don’t like to remove outliers in-case std residuals at 2

Std is less than 5%, Because sometimes removing outliers is an endless process every

time you will remove outliers the model will adjusted and find a new outliers according the

new fit model and so on.

I’m trying to remove these residuals from the model, and I have a three new residuals, so

that my theory is correct about if only 5% of your Std Residual or less lays below 2 Std

deviation then you are Ok!

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Multiple Liner Regression

From Scatter Plot we can find that the data here is Heteroscedasticity, so that the residual

increase with increase of predicted value, the variance of the residuals is not constant at

each level of predictor variables. No Clear Evidence on linearity or not

From The Test of normality above we can see that all residuals type is normally distributed

because it has Sig > 0.05.

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Multiple Liner Regression

1-Cooks distance, it should be < 1, if not (>1) then this case in concerning

From our model no case have cooks distance more than 1 , and this is perfect

2-Leverage: average leverage in our model 1 = (K+1)/n, (6+1)/68 = 0.103 cases with 3 times

average leverage 3 time is concerning 3 X 0.103=0.309 .

From our model only case 28 have leverage value more than 0.309 but is cooks distance is

less than 1 so we can consider it as ok !

No DF Betas are more than 1 expect case No.1 but it is slightly near 1 and its cooks distance

is also fine.

3∗(𝑘+1) 3∗(𝑘+1)

4-Covariance Ratios , values greater than 1+ and less than 1- are concerning

𝑛 𝑛

3∗(6+1)

, then 1± , then the range between [0.691 to 1.309 ] is acceptable range , any case out

68

Covariance Ratios only case 1,7,22,28,38,48,57 have values of CVR out of this range

[0.691 to 1.309], but also their cooks distance is also fine less than 1.

5-Mahalanobis distance: for our sample small one (68)<100 , any values above 15 need to

take care of it . only case 12,22 have value higher than 15, but their cooks distance is also

fine

AS a conclusion the model has not have many influential point and there are too little

indicators for them and because all of them does not have cooks distance more than 1

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Multiple Liner Regression

Model 2:

This method start the model with all variable [X1],

[X2],[X3],[X4],[X5],[X6] , and then it is trying to remove

the variable that its removal will not affect the model

Significantly , and then it is remove the most second

variable that its removal is will not affect the model

significantly and so on .

probability of 0.1 , sothat any removable of variable will

result a Sig > 0.1 , will be consider as no signifance

change if we remove it , then it will be removed ,

As we can see the model start with full variable then it removes the water temperature

because it has Sig 0.983 > 0.1, after that it removes Sulfate Concentration because it has Sig

0.921 > 0.1, after than the model stop removing because any variable removed it will have a

Sig < 0.1, so its removal will be significantly change the model!

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Multiple Liner Regression

As we can see from the model summary the model the 1st model it starts with 0.624 and

removing 2 variable [X6] and [X5] will not affect the model, but it is improving the

difference between R Square and Adjusted R Square Now R square 0.624 and adjusted R

Square 0.601. , Durbin Watson for independent error check is 1.018 > 1 and that is ok

because it is collinear with the dissolved

oxygen and this appear clearly in the

Previous Model [1]: in page 10 and in page 11

with high VIF and Pearson coloration.

temperature and dissolved oxygen have

inverse relationship, whenever the

temperature increase then the dissolved

oxygen will be decreased.

In my opinion I think sulfate does not have any effect on fishes at these low level, the level

measured in samples does not affect fish significantly, sulfate effect fishes at high

concertation when sulfate reach a hundred of mg/l.

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Multiple Liner Regression

ANOVA Test Also Shows us how F Improve through model elimination process we always

seek for Higher F Value with Sig <.05 , and in this model Sig < 0.05 , So it is very good

As shown in coefficients table now in model [2] all variables have significance less than

0.05 and that is perfect, now only constant has Sig Higher than 0.05. Moreover No VIF >10

, and All VIF is Around 1 that result is away better than Model [1] .

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Multiple Liner Regression

The condition indices are computed as the square roots of the ratios of the largest eigenvalue

to each successive eigenvalue. Values greater than 15 indicate a possible problem with

collinearity; greater than 30, a serious problem. Six of these indices are larger than 30,

suggesting a very serious problem with collinearity. [ In our Model We have any only [X4]

with CI > 15, No Value More than 30 .

Same as model [1] the same outliers appear but they only represent less than 5% from all sample

so outliers is fine .

Side Note : there is no outliers more than 3 Std

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Multiple Liner Regression

From Scatter Plot we can find that the data here is Heteroscedasticity, so that the residual

increase with increase of predicted value, the variance of the residuals is not constant at

each level of predictor variables. No Clear Evidence on linearity or not

We can see from test for Normality that all residuals are normally distributed with Sig >

0.05, and that is perfect

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Multiple Liner Regression

1-Cooks distance, it should be < 1, if not (>1) then this case in concerning

2-Leverage: average leverage in our model 1 = (K+1)/n, (6+1)/68 = 0.103 cases with 3 times

average leverage 3 time is concerning 3 X 0.103=0.309

3∗(𝑘+1) 3∗(𝑘+1)

4-Covariance Ratios , values greater than 1+ and less than 1- are concerning

𝑛 𝑛

3∗(6+1)

, then 1± , then the range between [0.691 to 1.309 ] is acceptable range , any case out

68

5-Mahalanobis distance: for our sample small one (68)<100 , any values above 15 need to

take care of it .

As a conclusion the model has not have many indicators for influential points and all cases

does not have cooks distance more than 1

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Multiple Liner Regression

Side Note:

Model [2] : Can be Run through Forward Entry Method , and it will have the same result of

backward in this model , same R Square , same coefficient , same everything ) , but the

procedures that forward run out it is totally different way from Backward .

Here is how the forward for our model will be run out

As we see here the model start without any variables, then it is add the most variable will

give us a significant change in R Square with Sig < 0.05, after that [ addition of Maximum

water Depth], it is found that [nitrate is the most second variable] that if added will improve

the model, and so on …..

In this experiment Forward and backward model give the same result Same R2 and same

regression equation

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Multiple Liner Regression

Model 3:

based on real life, in our experiment we have the

Independent variable is number of fish in the water stream

based on area drained by this stream, water depth of stream,

Dissolved oxygen …etc. .

Based on the above if there is no area provide stream with water [X1=0] then there is no

stream at all then no fishes !! . Same concept can be applied on water depth if the stream

depth is zero [X3=0] then there is no water then no

fishes!!

any presence of Constant in Backward entry. we

can do that from options and untick include

constant in linear regression.

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Multiple Liner Regression

As we discussed in model 2 , the variable with Sig > 0.1 will be excluded , because their

removal from the model will not affect the model significantly

Sulfate and temperature excluded because they have Sig > 0.1

Wow !!!, Removing constant have massive improve in R Square it is jump from 0.624 to 0.914

and the difference between R Square and Adjusted R Square is decreased, on other hand

Durbin Watson here is less than 1 , but it is is too close to 1 , 0.98 approximately 1 .

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Multiple Liner Regression

ANOVA Test All F Values have Sig < 0.005 That is Very Good, and F is increasing per each

iteration

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Multiple Liner Regression

Look how the coefficient is Perfect! all Coefficients is Significant, and well fitted to the

model, all coefficients have sig value less than 0.05.

The Problem that appears here that we have two variables with VIF > 10, Dissolved Oxygen

and Maximum Water Depth this may lead to multi collinearity

The Only Problem in modeling through origin that the variable it seems to be multi-

collinear with high person coloration between themselves.

So That we need to keep any eye on high VIF Variable because it has also high correlation [

Keep an eye on Dissolved Oxygen and Maximum water depth] or remove one of them from

the model

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Multiple Liner Regression

The condition indices are computed as the square roots of the ratios of the largest

eigenvalue to each successive eigenvalue. Values greater than 15 indicate a possible

problem with collinearity; greater than 30, a serious problem. Six of these indices are larger

than 30, suggesting a very serious problem with collinearity. We don’t have any Varible with

CI > 15.

We can see from test for Normality that all residuals are normally distributed with Sig >

0.05, and that is perfect .

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Multiple Liner Regression

From Scatter Plot we can find that the data here is Heteroscedasticity, so that the residual

increase with increase of predicted value, the variance of the residuals is not constant at

each level of predictor variables.

No Clear Evidence on linearity or not

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Multiple Liner Regression

1-Cooks distance, it should be < 1, if not (>1) then this case in concerning

2-Leverage: average leverage in our model 1 = (K+1)/n, (6+1)/68 = 0.103 cases with 3 times

average leverage 3 time is concerning 3 X 0.103=0.309

3∗(𝑘+1) 3∗(𝑘+1)

4-Covariance Ratios , values greater than 1+ and less than 1- are concerning

𝑛 𝑛

3∗(6+1)

, then 1± , then the range between [0.691 to 1.309 ] is acceptable range , any case out

68

5-Mahalanobis distance: for our sample small one (68)<100 , any values above 15 need to

take care of it .

AS a conclusion the model has not have many influential point and there are too little

indicators for them and because all of them does not have cooks distance more than 1

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Multiple Liner Regression

3 Logistics Model:

In Logistics Model we are going to Convert the continuous dependent variable into a Binary

categorical variable by follow this category:

If the number of fish range from [ 0 – 60] then it is a Poor Stream with Aquatic life. [0]

If the number of fishes is more than 60 then it is a rich stream with Aquatic life. [1]

if the Area Drained by Steam is range from [ 0 to 7000] Acres, then it is a small area [0]

If the Area Drained by Steam is More than [ 7000] Acres, then it is a large area [1]

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Multiple Liner Regression

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Multiple Liner Regression

Logistic Model 1 :

By Forced Enter Method , We enter all variable , and make [X1] as Independent categorical

variable and make dummy coding by categorical option in binary regression .

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Multiple Liner Regression

Classification Table gives us a fast indication how the percent of model correctness in block zero in

our model it is 75% .

-2 L L = 76.478 , We Always Seek for minimum log likelihood , this number should be improve and

go down when model Block 1 .

Exp[B] is the Odd Raito this number should be far from 1, because, this number means how 1 unit

change in this variable will affect the independent variable probability of the outcome that coded

“1” to happen in our case “ Rich Aquatic Life “ Coded as “1” , Value of 3 is very good.

the null hypothesis is that the two coefficients of interest are simultaneously equal to zero. If the

test fails to reject the null hypothesis, this suggests that removing the variables from the model will

not substantially harm the fit of that. model

Then Sig = 000 then Sig < 0.05 we reject the null hypothesis so this is good one

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Multiple Liner Regression

Block 1:

AS we see each iteration the -2Log Likelihood is decreasing and this is what we want we want the

minimum 2log likelihood from the model

As we see from classification table the correctness percent increase from 75% to 95.6%, and it is

very good percent

As we can see also the model predict a 100% percent of cases in Rich Aquatic life , 51 out of 51

and 82.4 % from poor Aquatic Life 14 out of 17.

From Model Summary we can see that the new -2Log Likelihood is 17.632 which decreased from

the value in Block zero and that is good, Also we can here see both R Square Terms that equivalent

to the R Square in linear Regression Cox Snell = 0.579 and Nageelerke = 0.858 and both of them

depends on -2Log Likelihood. both of them can be consider as good R Square.

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Multiple Liner Regression

One of the most important test for the model fitness using Chi-Square Distortion the

Hosmer And Lemeshow Test, is testing

The Null Hypothesis is: the observed and expected proportions are the same across all

doses [ this mean well fitted model]

Alternative is: The alternative hypothesis is that the observed and expected proportions are

not the same

Therefore, we would like to accept the null hypothesis, in our model Sig = 0.89 > 0.05 , then

accept the null hypothesis that the model is well fitted

Omnibus Test is also good to know how significance the 2LL reduction is significant or not

for example in block 2LL was equal 76.47 and then in block 1 it was reduced to 17.623 is this

reduction from 76.47 to 17.623 significance or not??? Omnibus answer this question.

the null hypothesis of Omnibus test is : it reduction in 2LL from bassline model is not significant

In our model sig form omnibus test is 0 , which is < 0.05 so that we reject the null hypothesis

and accept that the reduction in 2LL is significant

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Multiple Liner Regression

Now Let take a look for Variable in Equation first of All we note that [x3] [x5] [x6] [X2] and

constant has Sig > 0.05 and this is bad. On other hand we have [X1] [X4] have the Sig < 0.05.

Another problem here for [X5] and [X3] the EXP(B) [Odds Ratio] is too close from 1, and this

is bad sing this mean that increasing 1 unit in this variable will not change the probabilities

of occurrence for “1” (Rich Aquatic life).

Another Problem Also is The Range of C.I This interval should not have passing throughout

[1] on it only variable that meet this criteria is [X1] [X4] , and other variable is all passing

through 1 and this is also bad sing

We can see from this plot that most value is clustered at edged and this is perfect because

we don’t want value near the 50% probability cutoff point, when value around 50% increase

the error increase in model but forint in our model the value scatter at edge.

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Multiple Liner Regression

Linearity has been met because all Sig > 0.05 that is amazing.

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Multiple Liner Regression

1- Cooks Distance >1 , we have 3 cases that have cooks distance more than 1 , Case 5 , Case 12

And Case 17 , we should care about these because these cases are outliers as shown in case

wise and also they are Influential Point .

2- Leverage: average leverage in our model 1 = (K+1)/n, (6+1)/68 = 0.103 cases with 3

In our Model we have case Marked in Red line in Appendix 4 have value more than

0.309, but all of them have cooks distance less than 1 so we can ignore them, but there

is only one case which is case 12

3-DF Value should be less than 1, these cases have marked in Red line in Appendix 4

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Multiple Liner Regression

All VIF Are Less Than 10, so this is fine, but maybe we need to take care of Temperature and

dissolved oxygen, because they are already have high correlation in the linear regression

process

Collinearity Statistics

1 (Constant)

Concentration [mg/l] [X2]

[X3]

[X4]

[X5]

The Sampling Date

[Degrees C] [X6]

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Multiple Liner Regression

The Purpose of this model is to make a Forward LR model in logistic regression this will

help to eliminate the multi collinear variable and will help to find the un significance

variable in the model , the

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Multiple Liner Regression

Block 1:

We can see that the correctness of our model is increasing by each step in forward method

our model final correctness is 95.6% [ Same As Model 1 ] as the forced entry method entry

but there is some variable is eliminated

We can notice from the model summary from block 1, that each step has a lower -2Log

Likelihood value this mean that each step has a better model than the step before and we

can notice that in step 3 2 Log the minimum value that we have possible get.

The step in forward start with empty model then it is adding the most significance variable

in the model after than it is add the second significance variable, the model stops when the

reduction by adding extra variable in in -2Log Likelihood is not significant anymore.

Our model have Cox Snell R – 0.573 and Nagelkerek R = 0.849 this R Squares is calculated

throughout -2 Log Likelihood [ Same As Model 1 ]

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Multiple Liner Regression

As we see the model start with [X4] , because it is the most significant from all other

variable , then in step 2 the model add [X1] , then the model add [X2] , after that the model

stop because any addition of the other reaming variable will not improve the model

significantly all remaining variable [x3][X5][X6] is all have Sig > 0.05 because of that

there is no addition happens .

From Variables in equation table we can find the following: [X2] [X4] [X1] have sig < 0.05,

this model has better coefficient significance than the Model 1 In page

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35 Good News here! is that EXP(B) CI No Passing 1 on all Variables !! that is amazing and

better than model Number 1 in the page 35

The Null Hypothesis is : the observed and expected proportions are the same across all

doses [ this mean well fitted model ]

In Our Model we have in step 3 Sig = 0.763, so that we will accept the null Hypothesis and

the model is well fitted

the null hypothesis of Omnibus test is: it reduction in 2LL from bassline model is not

significant

In our model sig form omnibus test is 0, which is < 0.05 so that we reject the null hypothesis

and accept that the reduction in 2LL is significant

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Multiple Liner Regression

We can see throughout these chart how our model is well scatter at the edge this mean that the

model is very good one, and we don’t have any values around 50% the cutoff point, if the model has

many values around 50% this mean the model is a bad one

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Multiple Liner Regression

Influential cases

1- Cooks Distance There is only one case with cooks distance > 1 , which is case 5,12 only

2- Leverage: average leverage in our model 1 = (K+1)/n, (3+1)/68 = 0.0588cases with 3

These cases have values more than 0.185. case Marked in red line in Appendix 5but

they are not concerning because they have cooks distance less than 1

3-Df Betas >1, these cases have DF beta > 1 , marked in red line in appendix 5

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Multiple Liner Regression

Regression:

A 20% and 80% from the sample will be taken then both sample will be compared their R Square

together , we have sample size of 68 , then 68 X 0.2 = 14 , 68 X 0.8 = 54

so we will divide the sample into two sample

Frist one with 14 case and the second one with 54 case then compare Square

Sample 1

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Multiple Liner Regression

Sample 2 :

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Modal Summary 2:

R Square for sample 1 with [14 ] cases : have R Square 0.757 , adjusted 0.548

R Square for sample 1 with [54] cases : have R Square 0.621 , adjusted 0.572

The R Square full sample in the model 1 can show in page 8 , with R square 0.624 and R Adjusted

0.587

As we note that Sample [2] is more near to the model 1 , because it has large number of

observation 54 while sample 1 have only 14 observation and this make it 0.757 a little between

different from 0.621 , Maybe we need larger sample to make a strong cross-validation check

I Just make this section as a fast application for this method and to show how it apply

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5 Appendices

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Multiple Liner Regression

Cook's Leverage Mahalanobi COVRAT d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA

Distance Value s Distance IO Intercept X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6

1 .00069 .15025 10.06677 1.34066 1.02138 -.00451 -.03909 -.00078 -.00248 .00807 -.00514

2 .00658 .14421 9.66225 1.29790 .05623 .00235 -.03863 -.10179 .03122 -.09536 -.00271

3 .00318 .15063 10.09191 1.32780 .00209 -.01670 -.04817 .01180 .02779 .07068 .01238

4 .01419 .10022 6.71468 1.16121 .01580 .04986 .09660 -.13285 -.03750 .02337 -.06391

5 .04988 .08951 5.99744 .88037 -.24060 .24578 .09800 .26243 .41436 .11511 .06246

6 .00288 .13559 9.08451 1.30403 .02732 -.01279 -.05957 .01575 .06016 .06395 -.02854

7 .15941 .14914 9.99236 .67612 -.10569 .40476 .14591 -.73090 -.64427 .20693 .34099

8 .03160 .10753 7.20438 1.06330 .30011 .06450 -.35407 .09146 -.24468 -.05557 -.24064

9 .00585 .08436 5.65182 1.19381 -.03886 .05666 -.02142 .04704 -.12855 .05272 .05971

10 .01547 .06336 4.24506 1.04984 -.12692 .12196 .13166 -.00706 .16230 .11941 .02553

11 .00049 .06990 4.68307 1.22116 .01846 -.00956 -.00303 -.03125 .01067 -.02927 -.00780

12 .14901 .26662 17.86387 1.14273 .33179 .08331 -.22796 -.21340 -.54978 -.73364 -.05450

13 .00068 .06719 4.50203 1.21534 -.02767 -.00038 .01314 -.00553 .01405 .00066 .03905

14 .00272 .06989 4.68249 1.19768 -.00537 .00107 -.00020 -.03216 .02438 -.06248 .03775

15 .01129 .09172 6.14491 1.16378 .05123 .01179 -.03649 -.06013 .15184 -.13737 -.02324

16 .00235 .12614 8.45117 1.29170 .04462 -.03031 -.00855 -.02725 .08195 -.01097 -.06313

17 .02383 .03277 2.19535 .79394 -.05308 -.18512 .19256 -.17194 .00437 -.04692 .02825

18 .02504 .10568 7.08039 1.10013 .06304 .17499 -.23836 .21971 .10246 .01237 -.07642

19 .00010 .09956 6.67076 1.26672 -.00770 .00438 -.00086 .02048 .01186 -.00240 .00231

20 .00106 .03453 2.31335 1.16160 -.04707 .04504 .03438 .01692 .03786 -.02085 .03351

21 .02560 .11504 7.70796 1.12231 -.32096 .19553 .27130 -.08757 .18763 .12234 .26377

22 .10289 .09015 6.03996 .59617 .00223 .34822 .00880 -.60408 .10836 .26364 .05974

23 .00248 .01524 1.02107 1.08475 -.06366 .03662 .04169 .01575 .07467 .02247 .03577

24 .00797 .15209 10.18976 1.30490 .00319 .08266 -.11265 .13202 .06633 .08982 -.02617

25 .00987 .05296 3.54803 1.07857 .01509 .06476 -.13598 .09842 .01512 .10613 -.01173

26 .01211 .14502 9.71612 1.26915 .10294 .09422 -.00954 -.11543 .12495 -.20149 -.11921

27 .00300 .04508 3.02032 1.14956 .00023 .01844 .01906 -.01683 .10811 .00440 -.03985

28 .03805 .36387 24.37918 1.71788 .20273 -.19940 -.14527 -.08424 -.13627 .36842 -.22369

29 .02059 .11886 7.96330 1.16291 .19611 -.15862 -.13562 -.11492 -.26659 -.08619 -.09947

30 .00017 .03041 2.03740 1.17229 .01465 -.00852 -.00619 -.01436 -.01469 .01202 -.01135

31 .03732 .09296 6.22819 .97692 .01463 -.36965 -.08344 .26839 .13969 -.01517 -.05436

32 .00003 .04284 2.87023 1.19075 .00271 -.00286 .00299 -.00727 -.00555 -.00732 .00000

33 .00153 .04237 2.83906 1.16660 .08152 -.00505 -.06631 .00484 .01090 -.04558 -.07508

34 .00052 .07023 4.70541 1.22138 .00332 -.01246 .02043 -.01934 .02397 -.02913 -.01153

35 .00014 .10459 7.00734 1.27370 -.01677 .01192 .02296 -.01139 .01609 -.00982 .01403

36 .00256 .14018 9.39174 1.31357 .06260 .08096 -.06307 -.02926 .03936 .02320 -.06817

37 .03623 .06047 4.05147 .84059 -.07031 -.22257 .11887 -.25032 -.02292 .10887 .11776

38 .00059 .21269 14.25001 1.45074 -.02941 -.04635 .02424 .01545 -.02323 .01924 .03055

49

Multiple Liner Regression

39 .00414 .02359 1.58025 1.07319 -.06072 -.05061 .03406 -.00211 .04930 .06656 .04960

40 .00319 .07894 5.28887 1.20824 .04196 -.02132 -.00383 .01864 .09687 -.05831 -.07140

41 .00207 .05313 3.55987 1.17712 -.08978 .02981 .07691 -.02045 -.00791 .00099 .10410

42 .00166 .02062 1.38135 1.12205 -.06710 .01601 .04276 .01322 .00172 .01608 .07602

43 .00014 .07952 5.32780 1.23813 .00279 -.00829 -.00473 .01383 .01225 -.01839 -.00445

44 .00020 .03234 2.16653 1.17423 -.01487 -.02114 .01061 .00437 -.00838 .00149 .01787

45 .00200 .10300 6.90090 1.25720 -.09762 .02883 .09747 -.00760 .04573 -.01718 .08950

46 .00532 .03030 2.02985 1.07298 .06689 -.05129 -.08048 -.03225 .03165 .04200 -.05883

47 .00000 .05314 3.56066 1.20438 .00012 -.00102 -.00057 .00123 .00043 .00009 -.00028

48 .00004 .18885 12.65286 1.40943 .00350 -.00756 .00222 -.00320 .00588 .00081 -.00695

49 .00137 .01545 1.03485 1.11715 -.03236 -.00723 .00633 .03988 -.02893 .02894 .04040

50 .00290 .04527 3.03292 1.15138 -.07696 .03317 .08000 -.03390 -.04122 -.04238 .10330

51 .00116 .04045 2.71032 1.16945 -.04467 .03070 .03600 -.00685 -.03255 -.01513 .06095

52 .01504 .09674 6.48182 1.14669 -.21589 .16041 .22961 -.09883 .07216 -.11718 .23272

53 .07472 .17385 11.64785 1.06339 -.55395 -.23474 .50208 .01523 -.08383 .35079 .53766

54 .00042 .04811 3.22362 1.19192 -.00797 -.02747 .01091 -.00028 .02103 -.01498 .00652

55 .00036 .07910 5.29974 1.23542 -.00785 -.02024 -.00302 .03923 -.00583 .02200 .00074

56 .00687 .02462 1.64943 1.01987 .15619 -.06248 -.12029 .03157 -.06349 -.00625 -.14992

57 .00022 .16033 10.74208 1.35974 .00164 -.02893 -.00357 .01113 -.00725 -.01183 .00306

58 .00249 .05697 3.81698 1.17833 .01596 -.00919 -.04061 .05214 -.05457 .08834 -.02076

59 .01012 .04501 3.01560 1.04931 -.01418 .01867 .02344 .13157 .14975 -.08761 -.04382

60 .01275 .04268 2.85928 1.00447 .08575 -.11786 -.11374 .20262 -.07803 -.04460 -.08120

61 .04674 .06237 4.17861 .76431 .12311 -.31207 -.10821 .37256 .19029 -.06223 -.22489

62 .03023 .06335 4.24451 .90855 -.11401 -.27798 .21738 .01923 -.17083 .05091 .10262

63 .02461 .17143 11.48592 1.26450 .00541 -.15093 -.05739 .35594 .06446 -.07628 -.06697

64 .02681 .03342 2.23894 .76002 .09741 -.27857 -.02610 .16583 -.11004 -.00386 -.12350

65 .00884 .04455 2.98477 1.06523 .05372 .09861 -.00889 .02986 .01904 -.07915 -.08344

66 .01239 .02170 1.45421 .89085 .07098 .06867 -.03627 .05534 -.06443 -.11314 -.06680

67 .02092 .03876 2.59716 .87518 .18214 .10130 -.18048 .11286 -.10699 -.03605 -.18265

68 .01724 .03862 2.58728 .92325 .07954 .18303 -.04189 .00220 -.07044 -.05912 -.08553

Total N 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68

50

Multiple Liner Regression

51

Multiple Liner Regression

Case Summariesa

Standardized

Cook's Centered Mahalanobis DFBETA Standardized Standardized Standardized Standardized Standardized Standardized

Distance Leverage Value Distance COVRATIO Intercept DFBETA X1 DFBETA X2 DFBETA X3 DFBETA X4 DFBETA X5 DFBETA X6

2 .00762 .11240 7.53083 1.21548 .11992 -.01107 -.07358 -.08998 .02038 . .

3 .00286 .11247 7.53580 1.23150 .05201 -.00800 -.07117 .00167 .03418 . .

4 .01906 .09460 6.33822 1.14310 -.10953 .06413 .23056 -.14481 -.04010 . .

5 .06771 .08481 5.68211 .93761 -.46669 .25980 .09761 .25554 .44032 . .

6 .00248 .09666 6.47602 1.20949 .01978 .00039 -.04385 .00307 .06033 . .

7 .19152 .12872 8.62454 .78586 .61325 .38693 -.14240 -.73719 -.59417 . .

8 .03111 .07494 5.02115 1.04809 .19516 .09206 -.26748 .07913 -.26614 . .

9 .00685 .06976 4.67365 1.14877 .05771 .05584 -.09450 .04414 -.11802 . .

10 .01861 .05290 3.54397 1.04820 -.24473 .13717 .19283 -.02381 .17934 . .

11 .00058 .04773 3.19778 1.15145 .02356 -.01359 -.00026 -.02953 .00715 . .

12 .07896 .12546 8.40578 1.03563 .47853 -.01055 -.35579 -.09125 -.56217 . .

13 .00065 .04051 2.71421 1.14155 .02231 -.00621 -.02597 -.00235 .01732 . .

14 .00279 .04449 2.98099 1.13131 .06247 -.01388 -.05660 -.01992 .02053 . .

15 .01213 .06587 4.41317 1.11491 .04149 -.00423 -.05193 -.04156 .13635 . .

16 .00233 .09114 6.10625 1.20208 -.03786 -.02230 .05802 -.03047 .07449 . .

17 .03387 .03190 2.13714 .85634 -.08875 -.20326 .26207 -.16752 .00099 . .

18 .03443 .10148 6.79942 1.10350 -.01548 .19349 -.27974 .21642 .10013 . .

19 .00016 .09759 6.53828 1.21972 -.01694 .00405 -.00478 .02289 .01271 . .

20 .00120 .02337 1.56578 1.11266 -.05165 .03888 .01047 .02400 .03928 . .

21 .01775 .05673 3.80060 1.06365 -.16976 .16810 .12164 -.08104 .21225 . .

22 .13143 .08065 5.40341 .71118 .23103 .38443 -.01404 -.65065 .14536 . .

23 .00320 .01230 .82405 1.06341 -.07795 .03558 .02624 .01569 .08169 . .

24 .00841 .12460 8.34852 1.23290 -.02872 .09608 -.12260 .11163 .07190 . .

25 .01133 .04159 2.78626 1.06397 .04225 .08245 -.17841 .08146 .02678 . .

26 .00575 .04617 3.09318 1.11346 -.07128 .08032 .08827 -.09015 .08812 . .

27 .00392 .04037 2.70449 1.11618 -.09765 .02561 .07807 -.02139 .10747 . .

28 .00538 .08142 5.45503 1.17464 .06345 -.07357 .06302 -.10290 -.06977 . .

29 .02582 .10372 6.94952 1.13792 .26054 -.16003 -.10717 -.11220 -.28852 . .

30 .00016 .01926 1.29066 1.11934 .01415 -.00496 .00550 -.01652 -.01348 . .

31 .05318 .09171 6.14442 1.01218 -.10120 -.37663 -.06853 .27426 .13728 . .

32 .00004 .02755 1.84569 1.13063 .00635 -.00483 .00418 -.00757 -.00787 . .

33 .00065 .00296 .19858 1.08704 .02099 -.00038 -.02111 .00558 -.00003 . .

34 .00060 .04781 3.20341 1.15143 -.02969 -.01603 .04295 -.01694 .02104 . .

35 .00017 .06491 4.34922 1.17608 -.01560 .01003 .02019 -.01020 .01874 . .

36 .00211 .09278 6.21593 1.20532 .00650 .08862 -.01220 -.03621 .03446 . .

37 .04663 .05355 3.58765 .89718 .13429 -.23055 .06304 -.26286 -.00142 . .

38 .00043 .14372 9.62895 1.28605 .00152 -.04231 .00392 .01316 -.01628 . .

39 .00450 .01496 1.00263 1.05279 -.02201 -.04954 .00494 -.00841 .06142 . .

52

Multiple Liner Regression

41 .00066 .00158 .10596 1.08383 .01515 .01453 -.00381 -.01162 -.00006 . .

42 .00113 .00245 .16427 1.07427 .01161 .00719 -.02113 .01745 .00935 . .

43 .00016 .04489 3.00735 1.15075 -.01024 -.01209 -.00589 .01922 .01144 . .

44 .00022 .02150 1.44040 1.12132 .00458 -.02445 -.00456 .00585 -.00706 . .

45 .00102 .03015 2.02038 1.12447 -.04609 .01315 .04131 .00270 .04967 . .

46 .00636 .02356 1.57855 1.05676 .04742 -.03750 -.04836 -.04459 .03261 . .

47 .00000 .05128 3.43551 1.15981 -.00024 -.00064 -.00035 .00079 .00028 . .

48 .00002 .14954 10.01908 1.29612 -.00539 -.00467 .00843 -.00284 .00393 . .

49 .00146 .00804 .53866 1.08124 .02108 -.00933 -.03343 .03952 -.02283 . .

50 .00141 .00621 .41594 1.07780 .03555 .01216 -.00525 -.01869 -.03882 . .

51 .00081 .01225 .82103 1.10052 .02615 .02016 -.01905 .00074 -.03040 . .

52 .00612 .02075 1.39050 1.05082 -.03929 .10686 .05853 -.05888 .07312 . .

53 .02093 .03618 2.42373 .97514 -.05495 -.23189 .17096 .00547 -.00236 . .

54 .00058 .04201 2.81462 1.14402 -.01022 -.03266 .00708 .00279 .02093 . .

55 .00033 .06080 4.07328 1.16986 -.01184 -.01598 -.00178 .03304 -.00293 . .

56 .00508 .00629 .42115 1.00641 .04879 -.04182 -.00988 .01994 -.07570 . .

57 .00037 .14235 9.53763 1.28410 .01005 -.03701 -.01299 .01571 -.00993 . .

58 .00156 .02161 1.44754 1.10580 .01627 .00604 -.02246 .03484 -.04338 . .

59 .01270 .03731 2.49965 1.04155 -.17514 .01326 .07510 .14586 .13968 . .

60 .01663 .03747 2.51057 1.01233 .01798 -.11582 -.08862 .20832 -.09134 . .

61 .05574 .05051 3.38428 .83521 -.24356 -.29433 .08881 .36983 .16852 . .

62 .04071 .05885 3.94292 .94995 -.03971 -.29476 .22635 .02055 -.16053 . .

63 .03322 .16091 10.78087 1.23473 -.17561 -.15654 -.02238 .37180 .05162 . .

64 .03541 .02968 1.98846 .82973 -.04434 -.26918 .10651 .16010 -.12230 . .

65 .01006 .03262 2.18553 1.04861 -.08535 .10274 .07285 .03599 .00362 . .

66 .01451 .01497 1.00325 .92151 -.00647 .06473 .00446 .06929 -.08465 . .

67 .02280 .02669 1.78818 .91230 .02956 .12601 -.06961 .10478 -.12644 . .

68 .02272 .03419 2.29064 .95275 -.01423 .19364 .02709 .00426 -.08573 . .

Total N 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68

53

Multiple Liner Regression

54

Multiple Liner Regression

Case Summariesa

Centered Standardize Standardize Standardize Standardize Standardize Standardize Standardize

Cook's Leverage Mahalanobis COVRATI d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA d DFBETA

Distance Value Distance O Intercept X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6

1 .00000 .08348 5.67640 1.16201 . .00008 -.00257 .00144 .00374 . .

2 .00335 .07854 5.34050 1.14446 . -.00148 .00546 -.03678 .10714 . .

3 .00160 .10276 6.98801 1.18287 . -.00302 -.03646 .01689 .07173 . .

4 .02312 .09550 6.49369 1.11430 . .05903 .22213 -.21113 -.16806 . .

5 .03233 .03762 2.55844 .89500 . .22652 -.28102 .08832 .16517 . .

6 .00249 .10780 7.33050 1.18755 . .00173 -.03734 .01026 .09295 . .

7 .12481 .09139 6.21440 .84867 . .39054 .31251 -.49212 -.21289 . .

8 .02538 .06790 4.61734 1.04628 . .09937 -.17112 .15182 -.16840 . .

9 .00663 .07617 5.17924 1.12981 . .05598 -.06958 .06560 -.10004 . .

10 .00911 .02429 1.65205 .99502 . .12432 .04387 -.12977 .01560 . .

11 .00033 .05026 3.41744 1.11965 . -.00886 .01519 -.01673 .02412 . .

12 .03018 .06073 4.12971 1.00724 . .02166 -.04497 .07872 -.26826 . .

13 .00046 .04663 3.17091 1.11451 . -.00369 -.01221 .00525 .03675 . .

14 .00186 .04246 2.88701 1.10060 . -.00790 -.01770 .00315 .07556 . .

15 .01405 .07828 5.32279 1.10841 . -.00105 -.03192 -.02744 .22207 . .

16 .00346 .09264 6.29949 1.16384 . -.02943 .05123 -.05602 .07780 . .

17 .04171 .04452 3.02749 .88539 . -.21401 .27502 -.21975 -.08425 . .

18 .04397 .11603 7.88996 1.10704 . .19512 -.38997 .22969 .12483 . .

19 .00057 .07044 4.79019 1.14357 . .00597 -.04573 .03852 .00312 . .

20 .00108 .02094 1.42410 1.07418 . .04003 -.03577 .00581 .00585 . .

21 .01644 .04829 3.28381 1.03115 . .16312 .01361 -.16311 .13780 . .

22 .14680 .08826 6.00189 .78436 . .39524 .18013 -.59643 .41162 . .

23 .00275 .01666 1.13318 1.03976 . .03145 -.03532 -.01527 .04084 . .

24 .01143 .13654 9.28493 1.21131 . .09923 -.19827 .11461 .07574 . .

25 .01328 .05452 3.70709 1.06294 . .08454 -.19698 .10312 .07582 . .

26 .00673 .05002 3.40154 1.08572 . .08021 .05863 -.13437 .05749 . .

27 .00305 .02796 1.90129 1.06694 . .02021 .02021 -.06906 .06147 . .

28 .00439 .08156 5.54593 1.14532 . -.06049 .12228 -.07491 -.03154 . .

29 .01041 .05611 3.81575 1.07977 . -.11577 .07061 -.01328 -.12388 . .

30 .00008 .02540 1.72686 1.09196 . -.00280 .01415 -.00869 -.00370 . .

31 .06681 .10240 6.96294 1.02210 . -.39423 -.18387 .26072 .09534 . .

32 .00001 .03451 2.34641 1.10302 . -.00187 .00477 -.00241 -.00207 . .

33 .00063 .01524 1.03657 1.07047 . .00116 -.00921 .01375 .01891 . .

34 .00086 .04378 2.97733 1.10856 . -.02355 .03992 -.03878 .00106 . .

35 .00043 .05665 3.85217 1.12695 . .01494 .02220 -.02910 .01859 . .

36 .00248 .10704 7.27898 1.18653 . .08687 -.01023 -.03540 .05219 . .

37 .05202 .06316 4.29482 .93288 . -.21680 .19765 -.22496 .12320 . .

38 .00048 .15825 10.76082 1.26444 . -.03999 .00618 .01399 -.01985 . .

39 .00571 .02903 1.97390 1.04541 . -.05237 -.01297 -.01827 .06505 . .

55

Multiple Liner Regression

41 .00073 .01515 1.02991 1.06869 . .01527 .00796 -.00624 .01389 . .

42 .00134 .01674 1.13849 1.06192 . .00801 -.01773 .02323 .02366 . .

43 .00033 .05185 3.52600 1.12158 . -.01751 -.02279 .02252 .00821 . .

44 .00024 .03552 2.41521 1.10244 . -.02262 -.00192 .00762 -.00505 . .

45 .00101 .02583 1.75627 1.08284 . .01139 .01713 -.01841 .02913 . .

46 .00704 .03555 2.41748 1.05248 . -.03319 -.02222 -.02831 .08786 . .

47 .00001 .06327 4.30205 1.13689 . -.00429 -.00435 .00486 .00102 . .

48 .00053 .11927 8.11041 1.20806 . -.02660 .03383 -.02730 .00158 . .

49 .00162 .02134 1.45126 1.06816 . -.00755 -.02530 .04976 -.01117 . .

50 .00131 .01712 1.16399 1.06336 . .01421 .02303 -.00557 -.01885 . .

51 .00070 .02232 1.51752 1.08095 . .02042 -.00222 .01041 -.01571 . .

52 .00765 .03367 2.28937 1.04288 . .10690 .04454 -.08134 .06519 . .

53 .02631 .04944 3.36161 .98526 . -.24099 .18235 -.01649 -.05643 . .

54 .00085 .05465 3.71592 1.12246 . -.03691 .00050 -.00121 .02109 . .

55 .00061 .06907 4.69707 1.14170 . -.02136 -.01607 .03894 -.01929 . .

56 .00559 .01903 1.29396 1.00959 . -.03766 .02918 .04052 -.05722 . .

57 .00013 .14845 10.09443 1.25045 . -.01976 -.00460 .01140 -.00225 . .

58 .00176 .03506 2.38412 1.09038 . .00707 -.01513 .04273 -.04300 . .

59 .00902 .02695 1.83281 1.00809 . -.00005 -.05619 .09096 .02757 . .

60 .02074 .05198 3.53436 1.02089 . -.11486 -.10213 .23192 -.10896 . .

61 .05767 .05201 3.53638 .85602 . -.32010 -.09725 .30674 .00113 . .

62 .05179 .07300 4.96401 .97132 . -.30251 .26959 .00626 -.26244 . .

63 .03842 .14289 9.71670 1.17252 . -.18189 -.19601 .35240 -.10204 . .

64 .04475 .04391 2.98614 .86639 . -.27643 .10391 .15648 -.21314 . .

65 .01157 .04047 2.75226 1.03579 . .10018 .02291 .00463 -.07892 . .

66 .01840 .02966 2.01709 .94151 . .06491 .00025 .07263 -.12383 . .

67 .02835 .04109 2.79387 .93805 . .12873 -.06671 .12493 -.14641 . .

68 .02887 .04881 3.31902 .97030 . .19491 .02377 -.00114 -.13295 . .

Total N 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68

a. Limited to first 100 cases.

56

Multiple Liner Regression

Model 1]

57

Multiple Liner Regression

Case Summariesa

Analog of

Cook's

influence DFBETA for DFBETA for

statistics Leverage value constant X1(1) DFBETA for X2 DFBETA for X3 DFBETA for X4 DFBETA for X5 DFBETA for X6

2 .00000 .00004 .00001 -.00001 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000

3 .00000 .00001 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000

4 .00000 .00034 .00013 -.00006 .00003 .00000 -.00003 .00000 -.00001

5 2.18002 .16787 -3.58578 -.00102 -.41987 .01958 .33708 .03960 .09051

6 .00000 .00002 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000 .00000

7 .11306 .48025 .36801 -.45116 .10861 -.00655 -.11247 .02768 -.00614

8 .01049 .23349 .58392 -.12311 .01390 .00257 -.04741 .00603 -.02861

9 .00049 .06355 .05209 -.02660 .00791 .00047 -.01021 .00136 -.00418

10 .05328 .34356 .22819 -.32053 .14793 .00355 -.10038 .01494 -.04871

11 .00002 .01744 .00944 -.00467 .00193 .00010 -.00194 .00023 -.00093

12 2.68435 .71950 4.85399 .10402 .11223 .00396 -.35071 -.23769 -.06691

13 .00000 .00101 .00053 -.00020 .00009 .00000 -.00008 .00001 -.00004

14 .00000 .00023 .00008 -.00004 .00002 .00000 -.00002 .00000 -.00001

15 .00000 .00133 .00063 -.00026 .00012 .00000 -.00011 .00001 -.00006

16 .00021 .04296 .01949 -.01779 .00598 .00030 -.00659 .00066 -.00220

17 1.20738 .10665 -3.45663 1.04256 .10131 -.02258 .20741 -.01150 .11407

18 .00001 .00880 .00146 -.00179 .00190 .00000 -.00102 -.00002 -.00037

19 .12767 .41399 .60069 .06566 .10388 -.01154 -.04535 .00235 -.00402

20 .25290 .27929 1.96122 .47193 -.10642 -.00499 -.00945 .01300 -.03919

21 .00126 .08209 .17911 -.01462 .00928 .00077 -.01406 -.00002 -.00944

22 .00000 .00030 .00012 -.00007 .00003 .00000 -.00003 .00000 -.00001

23 .00002 .01012 .01349 -.00593 .00238 .00005 -.00201 .00000 -.00085

24 .00000 .00401 .00059 -.00074 .00076 .00000 -.00039 -.00003 -.00014

25 .00000 .00063 .00019 -.00018 .00011 .00000 -.00006 .00000 -.00003

26 .37724 .52106 -.29371 .35568 -.10813 .01426 -.11381 .07871 -.01273

27 .00030 .06659 .07981 -.00827 .00440 .00013 -.00676 .00164 -.00430

28 .00002 .00959 .00880 -.00563 .00203 .00006 -.00190 .00002 -.00061

29 .02999 .18135 -.52960 -.12191 .07287 .00280 -.00965 -.00394 -.00098

30 .00001 .00841 .01068 -.00416 .00175 .00002 -.00149 .00009 -.00066

31 .00000 .00040 .00022 -.00011 .00006 .00000 -.00004 .00000 -.00002

32 .00000 .00358 .00188 -.00150 .00080 .00000 -.00050 -.00003 -.00017

33 .00787 .10228 .44185 -.08959 .01062 .00066 -.01755 -.00477 -.01520

34 .01115 .13478 .27572 -.09080 -.01629 .00168 -.02388 .00731 -.00729

35 .00381 .11746 -.22759 -.04705 .04189 -.00078 -.00413 -.00533 .00487

36 .53149 .44375 5.42398 -.21552 -.42762 -.00789 .06954 .04349 -.10122

37 .00000 .00097 .00061 -.00025 .00012 .00001 -.00010 .00000 -.00005

38 .00000 .00128 .00093 -.00041 .00019 .00001 -.00016 .00000 -.00007

58

Multiple Liner Regression

40 .00222 .08438 .07895 -.04427 .02474 .00046 -.01074 -.00304 -.00745

41 .01216 .13897 -.54007 -.08200 .04295 -.00164 .00111 -.00647 .02264

42 .01985 .12681 -.50853 -.10738 .02680 -.00104 .00556 -.00663 .02469

43 .00000 .00183 .00125 -.00061 .00029 .00000 -.00024 .00002 -.00010

44 .00003 .01288 .01870 -.00646 .00273 .00008 -.00233 .00006 -.00124

45 .00941 .15928 -.56301 -.06549 .05983 -.00084 -.00033 -.00842 .01574

46 .00000 .00036 .00013 -.00009 .00005 .00000 -.00004 .00000 -.00002

47 .00000 .00160 .00088 -.00058 .00030 .00000 -.00021 .00000 -.00008

48 .23415 .52520 -.62172 -.18754 -.20397 .00441 .03553 -.00859 .08559

49 .00028 .02545 .01935 -.02184 .00783 .00027 -.00659 .00015 -.00205

50 .00005 .01403 -.00739 -.00849 .00460 .00001 -.00228 -.00028 -.00021

51 .00002 .01015 -.00009 -.00620 .00301 .00004 -.00190 -.00009 -.00040

52 .00948 .16039 -.48571 -.06575 .05269 -.00144 .00123 -.00955 .01707

53 .08448 .33609 -2.02550 .08910 .17523 -.00232 -.02371 .00472 .04774

54 .00000 .00058 .00040 -.00016 .00007 .00000 -.00006 .00000 -.00003

55 .00000 .00197 .00112 -.00054 .00024 .00001 -.00022 .00001 -.00011

56 .00000 .00535 .00656 -.00214 .00088 .00003 -.00082 .00003 -.00042

57 .00000 .00138 .00094 -.00038 .00019 .00000 -.00016 .00001 -.00008

58 .00000 .00152 .00121 -.00043 .00017 .00001 -.00018 .00002 -.00009

59 .00006 .01877 .01087 -.00801 .00423 .00015 -.00271 -.00021 -.00137

60 .00000 .00568 .00523 -.00212 .00086 .00004 -.00081 .00001 -.00040

61 .20736 .46088 .98656 .16238 .12054 .01502 -.09172 -.01812 -.10155

62 .00000 .00321 .00107 -.00062 .00054 .00001 -.00037 .00001 -.00016

63 .00000 .00302 .00135 -.00066 .00032 .00002 -.00027 -.00001 -.00014

64 .00000 .00112 .00070 -.00033 .00017 .00001 -.00013 .00000 -.00006

65 .00000 .00027 .00014 -.00006 .00003 .00000 -.00002 .00000 -.00001

66 .00000 .00112 .00073 -.00034 .00017 .00001 -.00013 .00000 -.00006

67 .00000 .00084 .00065 -.00022 .00010 .00000 -.00009 .00000 -.00005

68 .00000 .00031 .00018 -.00008 .00004 .00000 -.00003 .00000 -.00001

Total N 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 68

59

Multiple Liner Regression

Model 2]

60

Multiple Liner Regression

Case Summariesa

Analog of Cook's influence statistics Leverage value DFBETA for constant

X1(1) for X2 for X4

2 0 0.0005 -0.00034 -0.0001 0.00008 -0.00003

3 0 0.00008 -0.00005 -0.00001 0.00001 0

4 0 0.00175 -0.00136 -0.00038 0.00031 -0.00013

5 1.38031 0.1159 0.02937 -0.13116 -0.28695 0.27082

6 0 0.00014 -0.00008 -0.00003 0.00002 -0.00001

7 0.01098 0.13747 -0.02945 -0.12845 0.0349 -0.02962

8 0.04485 0.2315 0.21078 -0.25009 0.02448 -0.05045

9 0.00116 0.06142 -0.03785 -0.03974 0.01614 -0.01059

10 0.08043 0.30474 -1.1339 -0.30908 0.21185 -0.05737

11 0.00019 0.03206 -0.03806 -0.01475 0.0095 -0.00422

12 1.09908 0.42899 2.12492 0.33152 -0.21055 -0.164

13 0 0.00585 -0.00522 -0.0017 0.00126 -0.00054

14 0 0.00116 -0.00081 -0.00028 0.0002 -0.00009

15 0 0.00619 -0.00565 -0.00177 0.00134 -0.00056

16 0.00039 0.04076 -0.02166 -0.02234 0.00942 -0.00624

17 0.86407 0.09714 -2.14388 0.86595 0.11755 0.07421

18 0.00002 0.01207 -0.01422 -0.00176 0.00317 -0.00121

19 0.01808 0.11984 -0.15214 0.0318 0.0504 -0.02872

20 0.18024 0.19921 0.48006 0.4022 -0.0655 0.00113

21 0.0074 0.0967 -0.0441 0.0021 0.02854 -0.02166

22 0 0.00112 -0.0009 -0.00036 0.00025 -0.00011

23 0.00005 0.01214 -0.00817 -0.00816 0.00374 -0.00216

24 0 0.00594 -0.0061 -0.00089 0.0014 -0.00056

25 0 0.00126 -0.00112 -0.00038 0.00029 -0.00012

26 0.05819 0.17164 0.17949 0.12369 0.00959 -0.03219

27 0.00111 0.05405 -0.09018 -0.00714 0.02175 -0.00925

28 0.00003 0.0103 -0.00248 -0.00617 0.00237 -0.00168

29 0.02266 0.14132 -0.35461 -0.1162 0.06826 -0.00725

30 0.00003 0.00944 -0.00867 -0.00565 0.00303 -0.00154

31 0 0.00084 -0.00061 -0.00026 0.00018 -0.00008

32 0 0.00429 -0.0038 -0.00197 0.00119 -0.00058

33 0.011 0.08129 0.17013 -0.10541 -0.00225 -0.00889

34 0.00711 0.09294 0.21023 -0.07644 -0.00998 -0.011

35 0.00082 0.04448 -0.08696 -0.02651 0.01931 -0.00572

36 0.33397 0.27788 1.96968 -0.17238 -0.3229 0.11407

37 0 0.00291 -0.00262 -0.00117 0.00076 -0.00035

38 0 0.00289 -0.00241 -0.0012 0.00074 -0.00036

39 0.13322 0.19809 0.95249 -0.18108 -0.14011 0.05107

40 0.00469 0.07749 -0.17782 -0.06346 0.03927 -0.00965

41 0.00113 0.03582 -0.01974 -0.04029 0.01365 -0.00778

61

Multiple Liner Regression

43 0 0.00227 -0.00185 -0.00089 0.00056 -0.00027

44 0.00012 0.01719 -0.02158 -0.01218 0.00672 -0.00305

45 0.00102 0.04328 -0.08532 -0.03215 0.02049 -0.0066

46 0 0.00093 -0.00075 -0.00028 0.0002 -0.00009

47 0 0.00229 -0.00199 -0.00087 0.00057 -0.00027

48 0.03475 0.23653 0.70589 -0.12255 -0.06892 -0.01272

49 0.00032 0.02345 -0.01334 -0.02107 0.0081 -0.00485

50 0.00003 0.0098 -0.0086 -0.00599 0.00313 -0.00163

51 0.00002 0.00893 -0.00676 -0.00535 0.00268 -0.00147

52 0.00073 0.03315 -0.05158 -0.03044 0.01558 -0.00638

53 0.00991 0.12641 -0.32489 0.00328 0.06614 -0.02164

54 0 0.00149 -0.00108 -0.00054 0.00034 -0.00017

55 0 0.00404 -0.00391 -0.00174 0.00113 -0.00052

56 0.00002 0.00891 -0.00807 -0.00523 0.00282 -0.00144

57 0 0.00303 -0.0031 -0.00106 0.00079 -0.00032

58 0 0.00308 -0.00237 -0.00132 0.00078 -0.0004

59 0.00023 0.0242 -0.03982 -0.01558 0.01012 -0.00375

60 0.00002 0.00903 -0.00732 -0.00541 0.00278 -0.00148

61 0.20037 0.23977 -0.98644 0.37756 0.13672 -0.00437

62 0.00001 0.00741 -0.00788 -0.00113 0.00183 -0.00074

63 0.00001 0.00719 -0.00832 -0.00342 0.00227 -0.00097

64 0 0.00269 -0.00246 -0.00104 0.0007 -0.00032

65 0 0.00108 -0.00091 -0.00033 0.00024 -0.0001

66 0 0.00266 -0.00229 -0.00106 0.00068 -0.00032

67 0 0.00248 -0.00195 -0.001 0.00062 -0.00031

68 0 0.00106 -0.00082 -0.00034 0.00023 -0.00011

Total N 68 68 68 68 68 68

62

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