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Ancient Pakistan, Vol.


Archaeological Survey of Charsadda District in the Peshawar Valley

Qasim Jan & Muhammad Nasim Khan

Aim of the Survey

Pushkalavati (Ancient name of the Charsadda The main aim of the present study is to focus on
district) is strategically located at the confluence the smaller mounds situated around Bala Hisar,
of Swat and Kabul rivers, previously connecting that have not yet been excavated. There are
ancient commercial routes of the east and west. positive signs and clues that could also be taken
It was because of its geographical location that help of in understanding the ancient history of
Alexander possibly wanted to subdue it and the area. The smaller mounds did not catch
establish a Macedonian garrison here. attention of the previous explorers. Because at
Charsadda has been under archaeological that time, probably nothing of cultural
explorations and excavations for more than a importance was procured from these sites. Bala
century and half. General Court was the first to Hisar attracted their attention because of its
begin archaeological research in Pushkalavati in great height. Inscriptions, Indo-Greek silver and
1836. For the first time he diverted attention of Kushan gold coins, as well as Gandhara Art
archaeologists to the high mound of Bala Hisar, sculptures, intaglios, terracotta figurines and
which afterwards became the focus of other items of cultural importance were
archaeological activities in Charsadda (Marshall constantly coming from those smaller and
and Vogel 1902-3: 142). Subsequently, General considered less significant mounds. It seems
Alexander Cunningham concluded that it was that other un-excavated mounds too could
the site of Pushkalavati, which was the first contribute a lot in reconstructing the ancient
ancient capital of Gandhara, when Alexander past of Charsadda, for the reason that
attacked this region. (Cunningham 1990: 42). procurement of ancient artifacts has accelerated.
Garrick, John Marshall, Wheeler, Dani and Consequently we planned for a more extensive
other local and international teams carried out surface survey in quest of finding the missing
excavations and surveyed the area, as a result links in the history and archaeology of the
the ancient past of Pushkalavati began to be district.
unfolding before us.
As the author of this work could not carry out
The earlier archaeologists had confined their excavation at some new site due to the
activities to Bala Hisar, the dominant landmark unavailability of funds, therefore focus was made
of Pushkalavathi, and its immediate on surface survey of the archaeological sites in the
neighbourhood i.e. Mir Ziyarat, Palatu Dheri, area and to the study of already excavated material
Ghaz Dheri, Sar Dheri, Sulai Kamar Dheri and and published reports. It looks that surface
Shaikhan Dheri. Other ancient settlements in collection can also sometimes reveal valuable
the vicinity were either not considered information that in future could lead to new
appropriate for investigation or they had not discoveries. The collected objects if
properly understood the true cultural comprehensively analysed with scientific methods
significance of these smaller mounds, which in could modify the cultural and historical profile of
actuality served as the suburbs of the capital. the district. Previous researches were aimed at
We observe that the marginal mounds dotted uncovering only the chronology of some specific
around the Bala Hisar are rings of the ancient sites, while other aspects of it's past were
historical chain, which if properly analysed will unfortunately not explored duly. In the present
significantly help in piecing together the ancient study we will not confine ourselves to the
history of Charsadda. chronology of the area only, but will also focus on
the study of different artifacts that came to light for
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 18

the first time in the area and its significance in the and Taxila situated on these trade routes thrived
cultural history of Charsadda. when came under the Achaemenid rule. These
places were already existing before the
Location extension of Persian power across the Hindu
Kush, but were not that much in the lime light
The ancient Pushkalavati, the present Charsadda
as they did later in the Achaemenid times.
district is one of the five Districts of Peshawar
Valley occupying its northwest portion. Up to the
The earliest human habitation in the Charsadda
British period the area was also known as
district has been traced at the site of Bala Hisar,
Hashtnagar. It is located at 34.2 and 34.32 degrees
located on the junction of Kabul and Swat
N and 71.30 and 71.56 degrees E that comprises of
rivers. Fertility of the soil, the leveled ground
an area of 995 square kilometers. It is surrounded
and availability of plenty of water for irrigation
by the districts of Peshawar and Nowshera in the
were some of the factors that paved the way for
south, Mardan in the East, Malakand Agency and
the emergence and development of a site like
Mohmand Agency in the North and West. Due to
Bala Hisar (Coningham et al 2007: 11).
the presence of various rivers, which go through
the area, Charsadda can truly be called the land of
It was indeed the strategic location of
rivers. Charsadda district comprises of Tehsil
Charsadda that a commercial center sprang up
Shabqadar, Tehsil Tangi and Tehsil Charsadda.
on the very spot. Bala Hisar, the capital of this
Geographically, it can be divided into Doaba and
area was placed on the spot, which is in the
Hashtnagar sectors. Doaba is the area between the
center of the wide and teaming plain of
rivers while Hashtnagar lies to the northeast of the
Gandhara. It is situated at the junction of the
rivers Swat and Kabul, due to which the
surrounding lands were under cultivation from
Strategic Significance
the times immemorial. Moreover from this
Charsadda is situated in the central part of the point onwards, the waters of these two rivers
Peshawar valley, within the river valley zone of are jointly capable of carrying sizable river-
the Peshawar basin (Gazetteer of the Peshawar craft. But it was the great trade route which this
District 1897-98: 14). The vale of Peshawar is spot commanded, that started from Inner-Asia
surrounded by the hills of Khyber Pass in the west to the Indo-Pakistan cities and coasts. That trade
to Afghanistan, the Malakand Pass in the north route starting from the ancient east-west axis of
leading to Chakdara, Dir and Swat and on to Asian commerce at Bactria in Afghanistan and
Chitral via the Lowari Pass and the Kohat Pass in piercing the Hindu Kush, made its way down
the south leading to the Kohat basin. These passes the Kabul valley towards the Indus valley and to
have been used for trade, movement and invasion the plains of India (Wheeler 1962: 4).
throughout history and prehistory. The area seems
to have been connected with the regions of east The routes lying in the Mohmand hills to the
and west. Evidence of this large distance trade north and northwest of Charsadda were
could be indicated by the presence of exotics such connected to the Silk Road. These also led to
as cowry Turbine/la pyrum, carnelian and lapis at the northern parts of Iran and along the Old Silk
BalaHisar. Road, to Asia Minor and beyond to Europe. The
Silk Road again provided access eastwards to
After the decline of the Indus Civilization until China. Along this main line of communication,
the emergence of the Achaemenid kings in the many Chinese travellers made their way to
middle of the sixth century BC, Peshawar valley Pakistan (Dani 1967: 7). On one such route
was the battlefield of local rulers, jealous of passing from Charsadda via the Mohmand hills
each other. The Persian Empire provided an and passing onward to Afghanistan and
opportunity of peace and prosperity to this connecting with the Silk Road we have
region, thus long-distance communications discovered a large number of rock carvings
were secured. Centres like Begram, Charsadda (Mohammadzai 2005: 199). Charsadda town
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 19

has still been home to hundreds of date palm Rivers

trees, another indication of its continuation
Charsadda has a very unique feature of three main
since ancient times. According to the local lot,
rivers flowing through its territozy. This is the
there were thick groves of date palm trees even
reason it used to be very fertile even before the
in the near past. These trees in such a large
introduction of canal-fed irrigation system by the
number are not encountered anywhere in the
English, and agriculture thrived before their
whole of Peshawar valley. Existence of its
arrival. Of the three main rivers, river Kabul forms
fertile flood plain provided opportunity for
the boundazy between Peshawar and Charsadda.
outsiders to settle here and practice agriculture.
After entering the Peshawar valley near W arsak,
Moreover temporary migrants from the
the Kabul River divides into many branches. One
Northern valleys have also contributed to the
comes across all these tributaries namely
development of the area from the time
Budhanai, Shah Alam, Nagoman and then the
immemorial. (Young 2003: 6).
main river Kabul known as Sar Daryab, while
coming from Peshawar to Charsadda by road.
Rainfall, Tomperature and Climate
These rivers and their numerous channels, not only
Rainfall is always a source of relief to the provided waters for agricultural purposes during
population. Charsadda receives a major portion of the ancient times, but most probably were used for
its total rainfall in the winter season. These rains communication as well. Discovery of a terracotta
are brought from the clouds rising from the seal impression from Majuki Dherai shows two
Mediterranean Sea, known as the western boats with two men sitting in it. It indicates that
disturbances. These rains sometimes continue for boats were not only used for transporting
days posing danger to the houses and crops. The commercial goods, but were also utelised for
area is at the extreme end of the monsoon winds, human transportation as well (
these clouds when reach the region, are almost dry 2010: 173).
and bring very little rain as compared to India or
eastern part of Pakistan. Nevertheless, whenever it The River Kabul
rains in summer, it is usually in the forms of quick, Alexander's historian Arrian has called it Kophen in his
heavy shower, which inflates the rivers Anabasis (M'Crindle 1992: 59). It originates from
immediately. The area being flat plain, results in Cbiantar Glacier situated in the northeast of Khyber
the inundation of regions close to the rivers or to Pakhtunkhwa In Baroghal valley of Chitral, 1he river is
the dry torrents, which results in loss of lives and called Chiantarogh, meaning the water of Chiantar. It
property. The average yearly rainfall is between travels 380 km in the Chi1ral valley before entering into
270-340 millimeters. Afghanistan. In 1he Afghan territory it flows 1hrough the
Kunarh province and again enters into Pakistan 1hrough
the Khyber hills (Faizi 2010: 6). The river enters the
The temperature in Charsadda is severe and Charsadda district at village Mahz.ara, tehsil Shabqadar.
extreme on both ends. In summer, it can rise to as About 1hree km below Warsak it divides into two
high as 50 degree centigrade; while it can also go branches. The northern hranch, known as the Adezai or
below freezing point in winters. Four seasons are, now canies 1he main body of the river and divides
recognized in the area that are Summer, Autumn, the Peshawar district from Charsadda for twenty six km.
Wi1h the name of Sardaryab it 1hen passes 1hrough part of
Winter and Spring. From May till August is the
the district for twenty km upto Nisatta (Garetteer of the
hottest time of the year and latter part of the period Peshawar District 1897-98: 7).
witness the arrival of Monsoon. In Autumn the
temperature slowly cools off after the arrival of Annual floods in the river during the Monsoon
monsoon. Winter is generally very cold and the period, is a routine phenomenon. One such
people enjoy the season as it also distinguishes the flood, which caused many damages in the
maturing of the sugarcane crop, which is the major Charsadda area was witnessed on June 16 1841.
cash crop of the area. The temperature at times But the recent flood of 2010, which almost
goes below freezing point. Spring is usually in the devastated about 70 % of the district's
months of March and April, which is the most agriculture and infrastructure, will be
pleasant time of the year.
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 20

remembered for a long time, because of its variety of fish, tortoise and eel or snake fish,
destruction on large scale. There is a thriving known as Mar-mahai are also extra specialties
picnic spot at Sar Daryab on the bank of this of the river. According to the older Hindu
river where hundreds of makeshift shops serve inhabitants of this neighbourhood, so late as the
roasted fish caught in its water. commencement of 19th century, this river was
generally known as by the Hindu name of Son-
The River Swat
Bhadr or Son-Bhadrat. (Garrick 1881-82: 98).
The Swat rises in the hills north-east of upper
Swat. Its course is at first south-westerly through The Kabul, Swat, and Bara rivers and Budnai
the Swat valley; but after being joined by the streams with all the drainage of the north-west,
Panjkora river from the north near Chakdara, it west and south-west, unite at Nisatta; and from
turns southwards till it enters the Peshawar valley that point to where the combined waters join the
above Abazai, thence it flows south-east till it Indus, the stream is known as the Landai or
joins the Kabul river at Nisatta. The river enters short river, in length only 58 km (Gazetteer of
the district just above the head of the canal in the the Peshawar District 1897-98: 12).
Abazai village, and almost at once divides into Geology
two main branches known as the Jindai and
Khialai. These rejoin after a separate course of Charsadda is part of the plain, which is
about 41 km near Prang and fall into the Kabul commonly known as Peshawar Valley. This
about 3 km lower down. Valley presents the appearance of having been
in remote centuries, the bed of a vast lake. Its
On this river almost the whole irrigation of the banks ware formed by the surrounding
Doaba or triangular tract between the Kabul and mountains and its waters fed by the rivers that
Swat rivers depends. The Swat canal draws its are now channeling throughout its former bed.
supply from the same source, as do also the Hills encircle it on every side except one, where
village canals irrigating the strip of country the Kabul river flows out to join the Indus river.
below the high bank of the east, which is known This large lake was drained by the deepening of
as the Sholgara or rice-growing tract. the Attock gorge either by a sudden change in
the geology of the mountains or through gradual
It flows in a stony bed, but the silt brought change. The plain itself consists of fine alluvial
down during the hot weather is valuable as a deposits, the composition and depth of which
fertilizer agent. The main stream is liable to varies in different localities and at different
shift between the two branches. During the last distances from the surface. In most part of the
land settlement, the greater volume of water plain, the soil is light and porous and contains
passed down the Khialai, but this is now almost more or less sand in depth of 1-6 meters.
dry in the cold weather, and the Jindai carries
most of the water. The Khiali is the most
important branch from the point of view of the The trees in Charsadda district are mainly
irrigation depending on it. The river is mulberry (Tut), Sissu (Shiwa), Tamarisk (Ghaz},
navigable by boats from Utmanzai down Poplar (Supaidar) and Eucalyptus (Lach1). Trees
stream, furthermore the bulk of the produce of are normally grown on the boundaries of the
Charsadda, mainly Gur (raw sugar) and Sho/ay fields and on water channels. The trend of
(rice) was transported by river to markets in growing trees as cash crops, is growing. Fruit
Nowshera, Attock and points further down the gardens are also numerous and the area is
Indus, before the development of road transport. known for its fine guava and peaches.
The River Jindai Vegetables are also grown due to persistent
demands from the cities. The improved means
The Jindai river with its steady flow of water
of communication has led to more people
runs along the eight ancient villages of
growing vegetables and they now fetch better
Charsadda. Willow trees grown on its banks, is
the distinctive feature of this river. Along with
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 21

Fauna The major crops of the area are wheat, barley,

tobacco, different kinds of vegetables, sugarcane,
Apart from domestic animals there are no
rice, maize, clover, melon etc. Previously the
considerable wild animals found in the district. As
farmers used to grow all the crops necessary for
the district is arable since many centuries, the
self-sustenance in a village, but now cash crops
inhabitants have killed the wild animals long ago.
have taken over as the lions share in the total land
Wild boar is still however found, as the cultivated
under cultivation. Perlraps this is the reason that
sugar cane provides them with good cover (Young
Charsadda is facing flour crisis for the last few
2003: 18).
years. The major cash crop of this land is
A number of wild animals ranging from tiger to sugarcane. There is a Sugar Mill in Charsadda,
wolf and leopards used to roam around here in the which can absorb almost all the sugar cane of the
past Babur has recorded the presence of district. Some of the sugarcane is also transported
rhinoceros in the jungles of Peshawar and to Khazana sugars mills Peshawar and Premier
Hashtnagar or Charsadda (Beveridge 1979: 490). sugar mills Mardan. But for the last many years
Some of the common fauna found in the district is the production of Gur has increased manifolds
jackal, mongoose, rat/mouse and porcupines. giving a severe blow to Sugar production. It finds
However traces of bones belonging to sheep-goat, a huge market in Afghanistan and Central Asian
cattle, pig and deer have been reported from Bala Countries. Once considered as inferior; this
Hisar (Young 2003: 58-9). product now fetches better price than sugar
Similar is the case of game animals. It is due to (District Records).
hawking, use of firearms of all classes and absence
of forests that the district has no game animals. The second cash crop of the region is Tobacco.
The only worth mentioning game is flocks of Although the chief areas of its cultivation are
ducks which travel from Siberia to lakes in Sindh Mardan and Swabi, parts of Charsadda,
where they spend their winters. While travelling especially tehsil Tangi also have large tracts of
they always find the watercourses flowing from land under tobacco cultivation. Another reason
north to south. All the rivers of Charsadda being is the export of tobacco to Central Asian
the natural transit points of these birds, the months Republics, which has resulted in over
of October, November, March and April find procurement and hence more demands. Apart
many hunters roaming on the rivers of Charsadda. from these two main cash crops, vegetables and
Fish are found in large quantities in the rivers of fruits are also grown. These are transported to
Charsadda. People catch these not only as a hobby Peshawar and other towns and cities.
but also as a means of livelihood. In fact this has
already become a thriving trade. Among the fish Irrigation
Mahasber, Rahu and China are favorites, due to The district has got a very extensive irrigation
their taste. system. Majority of the area is canal fed. A
Agriculture recent study revealed that 98 % of the total area
of land under cultivation in Charsadda is
Charsadda is by far one of the most fertile tracts of irrigated (Young 2003: 21). The British
the Province. Unlike other parts, where agriculture Government starting in 1880 dug these canals.
started after introduction of irrigation system by Three main ones are worth mention. The first
the English, this region was in remote antiquity the one is the Doaba Canal, which irrigates the
centre of agricultural activities. Similarly, the extreme southwestern portion of the district.
presence of rivers has made this land fertile and This canal originates from river Swat near
arable since long. As attested at Bala Hisar, rice, Munda head. The second canal is the Sardar
wheat, lentil and certain grasses were grown in Garhi canal that irrigates the area between river
Charsadda during the ancient times (Young 2003: Khialai and river Kabul. This canal emanates
56). from Doaba canal near its origin. The third
canal is the Lower Swat Canal starting from
Munda Headwork near Abazai. This canal
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 22

irrigating almost half of the total district is the beauty that attracted the Europeans to turn their
main source of irrigation water. It has a total of attention to the area. Moreover the high mound
six distributaries irrigating the central and of Bala Hisar and over a dozen others in the
eastern parts of Charsadda. vicinity, had a natural appeal to be investigated.
Easy access to the area from Peshawar was
Lower Swat Canal another factor that lured interested ones in these
ancient monuments.
It is due to the rich waters of river Swat, which
had helped the fertile lands of Charsadda to turn
The area was known to the Europeans well
into the breadbasket of the Peshawar valley.
?efore 1826 as a place of archaeological
Much of Charsadda' s agricultural prosperity
rrnportance ~hall & Vogel 1902-03: 142).
depends on the waters of river Swat taken from
In the late 18 and early 19th centuries the
the Lower Swat canal system. The canal takes
~scovery of Greek coins and stone sculptures
off from the left bank of the Swat river soon
m Gandhara provided an opportunity to the
after it enters Charsadda district about 5 km
Western scholars, who had been interested in its
above Abazai, at Munda, in the northwestern
Classical history and archaeology (Dani
end of the district, right on the border with
1967:17). Small-scale diggings (not proper
Mohmand Agency. The regulator is built across
excavations) began at some mounds the sole
the river a short distance below the take off of
aim of which was only to acquire stone
the canal and is built on a foundation of rock
which extends across raising a sufficient head
of water to fill the canal. The canal gates are
In 1882 the then Punjab Government deputed a
raised by a heavy iron crane, which moves on
company of Sappers and Miners to Charsadda
rails. During the recent flood of 2010, almost
to carry out excavations at some selected
80% of this facility was washed away, which
archaeological mounds headed by Lieutenant
was reconstructed in the record period of 21
~ - They made some hurried digs at the
sites of Bala Hisar and Mir Ziyarat (Marshall &
Vogel 1902-03: 142). The company worked
From Abazai the canal runs generally in a
only for twelve days and soon withdrew
so1:1theasterly direction, distributaries taking off
l~aving ~eir work incomplete. During thes~
at mtervals from the south bank. This canal was
digs Martin found an inscribed pedestal, which
opened for irrigation in 1885; the main canal
. . became known as the Charsadda Pedestal,
system stretches for 57 km, while there are 448
1t 1s now housed in the Lahore Museum. In a
km of distributaries. The cultivated area under
letter addressed to the secretary Public Works
its command is 143,314 acres, while the
Department, Government of the Punjab, he
ave_rage area irrigated annually is 159,744 acres;
made a brief description of these excavations
owmg to the richness of the soil. The whole of
(Marshall & Vogel 1902-3: 143, foot note No.
the southeastern part of Charsadda and the
5). What they found was never known, although
middle tract of Mardan, receives irrigation from
they had sufficient labour force and the
this canal. It is designed to discharge 700 cubic
necessary tools as well.
feet per second (N.W.F.P. Province Gazetteer
1931: 199).
In 1881-82 on the directives of Alexander
Cunningham, Director Genaral of the
Previous Archaeological Activities in
Archaeological Survey of India, H.B.W.
Charsadda Garri~k was deputed to Charsadda to explore
the rumed fortress of Bala Hisar. He gives detail
Charsadda or Pushkalavati is positioned in the
measurements of Bala Hisar and describes the
center of the Peshawar plain, commanding the
general shape of the entire mound as an
confluence of the Kabul and Swat rivers. It was
irregular triangle. There were twelve bastions or
from this area that the numerous archaeological
towers at its four corners, built of rubble stone
mounds showed cultural artifacts of immense
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 23

and bricks (Garrick 1881-82: 101, 106). To him meters. They presumed that an ancient gateway
the fort had 3 gates, wide enough for two might have existed at these walls, which has
elephants, in a row, to pass through it. He been termed as fortification wall of this high
further adds that on this fort was situated the fort. The excavators did not believe Foucher's
Raja's palace, the harem, bath-houses, treasury, suggestion that it was the site of Eye-Gift stupa
servants or soldiers quarters, a large hall, (Marshall & Vogel 1902-3:150). In order to
barracks and stables. confirm existence of any stupa on the site, the
same party conducted excavations at Mir
He then mentions the neighbouring ruined city Ziyarat. Trenches were laid at different portions
of Shahr-e- Napursan. He states that its remains of the site. Shallow trenches were sunk around
are extensive and interesting. To him the dig of the base of the mound to strike the outer
Sappers at the site was fruitless and felts sorry platforms of the stupa if there was any, but only
for their hasty withdrawal from the scene wall foundations were encountered just a few
without any progress at this important site of inches below the surface. The excavation
ancient history in this area. He also mentions a revealed four distinct settlements. Two of the
high-peaked mound north of the Bala Hisar, Buddhist period and two of the Muslim
almost parallel to Utmanzai, which at that time (Marshall & Vogel 1902-3: 156).
was called the Gumbaz, or cupola. There were
many ruins around that tower. To him it At Palatu Dherai also two mounds were
probably represented the monastery that could excavated where a brick wall running towards
be Xuanzang's stupa to the north of the city the north and east was hit upon in the lower
(Garrick 1881-82: 104). Garrick made his mound. Another wall of Buddhist period stone
excavation on the site of Shahr-e-Napursan by masonry was found running westward for a
selecting a spot where according to him its distance of 31 meters. To the northern side of
ground sounded very hollow. After a dig of 3 this stonewall a good number of sculptural
meters, he encountered a natural cavity where remains were discovered (Marshall & Vogel
he did not find any thing notable, except a 1902-3: 161). Four earthenware jars were
polygonal copper bead. Sensing archaeological found, three of these had Kharoshthi
importance of the site he suggested that in inscriptions of the Kushana period (Marshall &
future a thorough exploration will bring to light Vogel 1902-3:164).
many interesting objects (Garrick 1881-82:
110). Ghaz Dheri mound was situated about a quarter
of a kilometer to the south of Palatu Dheri. Here
The Archaeological Survey of India conducted during excavation a stupa base measuring ten
excavations at the site of Bala Hisar and its meters square was discovered. But the most
immediate vicinity in 1902-3 under the noteworthy find of this excavation was the
guidance of John Marshall and J.P. Vogel. They discovery of a relic casket in the center of the
followed the then prevailing hypothesis that this stupa base. Sculptures found from this mound
high mound was the site of Pushkalavati include nineteen pieces of Buddha and
mentioned by the earlier explorers and referred Bodhisattva statues, including eight heads.
to also in the classical literature (Marshall & Among the stone fragments is to be specially
Vogel 1902-3: 143). Leaving Muslim period mentioned, pedestal of a standing Bodhisattva
buildings in the center of the mound previously statue. On the pedestal of this relief is a
mentioned by Lieutenant Martin, they sunk trial fragmentary Kharoshthi inscription, which
pits on the east, west and northern edges of the reads in "in the district of Pushkala" (Marshall
high mound. In the western section a stone built & Vogel 1902-3: 176).
wall was encountered at the depth of five feet. It
was fashioned in the typical diaper style, Simone Corbiau in 1932 made some random
common in the Buddhist period buildings and and hasty excavations at the mound of Sar
was standing to a height of three and a half Dheri, about ten kilometers east of Bala Hisar.
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 24

It was Major D.H. Gordon mentioned its this region (Wheeler 1962: 13). But the later
terracotta figurines in quite detail. Her investigations proved that the city was founded
excavation revealed the earlier period grave much earlier (Coningham et al 2007: 94).
material such as a vase along with an iron Among the human figurines found were the
dagger. Archaic figurines from the earliest well-known female figurines that are found
levels were found from here, while numerous throughout Gandhara in general and in
Hellenistic fragments were found in the upper Charsadda in particular. Gordon calls them the
layers (Corbiau 1937: 3). Close to the village of mother goddess of Gandhara, while wheeler
Raj ar was the site of Sulai Dheri. It is now calls them Baroque ladies, because of their extra
called Sulai Kamar where there is no trace of decorations of headdress and jewelry (Wheeler
the ancient mound today. Here her digs were 1962: 104).
not that much disappointing as were in the
previous mound. Remains of the same periods During this excavation quite many sherds were
as attested in Sar Dheri were also noted here, found, however eight key types of pottery were
which showed similar sequence of cultures. The noted, which except one were all new and not
Hellenistic period remains were found on the previously known from any site (Wheeler 1962:
top and of the archaic period, in the lower levels 37). These include rippled rim ware, soapy red
of the mound. (Corbiau 1937: 3) The mound is ware, wavy-line bowls, tulip bowls, lotus bowls
no more existing, as the modern houses have and Northern Black Polished ware. Of all these,
occupied the site. Some of the Terracotta the lotus bowl has been termed "a present from
figurines of Sar Dheri excavation are housed at Pushkalavati (Wheeler 1962: 35).
the Peshawar Museum.
Taking hint from Wheeler's description of the
In 1958 S.M. Wheeler attempted to unveil the buried city of Shaikhan Dheri, Dani of the
buried history of Bala Hisar. It was a joint Department of Archaeology University of
project of the British Academy, through its Peshawar excavated the site in search of the
Stein-Arnold Fund and the Pakistan Department second city of Pushkalavati. Two-season
of Archaeology, Ministry of Education. It was excavations were carried out in 1963-1964, that
the first vertical digging in the Peshawar valley. revealed three main streets and different strata
At the eastern face of the mound a complete of occupation. Thus it was confirmed that the
vertical section called Ch. I was cut down from original planning of the city was made during
top to bottom, which showed fifty-two layers, Bactrian Greek period. Stratigraphically three
labelled from 1 - 50a. main phases of construction were distinguished
at Shaikhan Dheri. These include, 1. Kushan 2.
A defensive ditch was traced north and south Scytho-Parthian and 3. Greek phases of
along the eastern side of Bala Hisar. Traces of a occupation. Over 475 coins were found at
timber-lined back door were also discovered, different stratas of occupation, thus the three
which was assumed to have existed at the time phases of construction are dated firmly well, on
ofHephaistion's siege in 327 BC. the basis of coin evidence (Dani 1956-66: 21,
By taking advantage of its height and
commanding position in the middle of the During excavations a number of structures were
Peshawar plain, the high mound of Bala Hisar exposed covering all the three main periods
was said to have been utilized as a fortress or (Indo-Greek, Scytho-Parthian, Kushan). The
police-post during the later Muslim rule of structures were super-imposed one above the
Durrani and of Sikhs (Wheeler 1962: 36). other (Dani 1956-66: 26).
According to the excavator the early layers of
Bala Hisar has yielded iron, on the basis of The newly established Provincial Directorate of
which he has dated the foundation of Bala Hisar Archaeology and Museums conducted
coincide with the arrival of Achaemenian rule in excavations at Shaikhan Dheri for two seasons
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 25

during 1993-94. One of the aims of this A joint project of the Department of
excavation was to acquire antiquities for the Archaeology University of Peshawar and the
newly established Pushkalavati Archaeological Department of Archaeology and Museums,
Museum. A high ground was selected in the Government of Pakistan, headed by Prof. lhsan
northwestern portion of the mound, just west of Ali surveyed Charsadda district in 1993.
the spot where Dani had earlier conducted
excavations in 1963-64. Ten trenches of 5x5 The main aim of the survey was to prepare a
meters were laid. The trenches were dug up to gazetteer of existing archaeological sites and get
the virgin soil and the area was later turned into information on the size, chronology and surface
a single large trench. Stonewalls resting on condition. Surface collection at these sites
round river stones were encountered, which showed copper coins, beads and good number
seemed to be the walls of ordinary houses. A of potsherds (Ali 1994: 15).
large number of cultural material consisting of
terracotta animal and human figurines, Bala Hisar was once more under investigation
fragmentary schist stone sculptures, as well as by a joint team of the Department of
different kinds of household vessels of Archaeology, University of Peshawar and the
terracotta were among the numerous other Department of Archaeological Sciences,
finds. Several hundred beads of semi-precious University of Bradford (Ali et al 1997-98: 15;
stone, mostly of carnelian were recovered. More Cuningham et al 2007). To the east of the
than hundred copper coins mostly round in mound, geophysical survey was undertaken
shape were recovered, majority of which with the aim to detect subsurface features. The
belonged to the Kushan period. Report of the area including Wheeler's sondage trenches
excavation is not yet published. (The above note across the ditch (So 3-So 5), the buried riverbed
is based on personal observation of the writer, and the foot of the eastern mounds were
who was part of the excavation team). selected for study. Earth resistance survey was
carried out to identify buried remains that were
The Buddhist site of Khan Mahi is situated invisible from the surface (Coningham et al
about thirteen kilometers north east of 2007: 35).Wheeler's trench Ch. III was
Charsadda on the Rajar Takht-Bhai road. The reopened to further study the course of the
site occupies the building of a police station as ditch.
well as a mosque. The Department of
Archaeology, University of Peshawar made In order to determine the nature and date of the
rescue excavations at the site in 1992. The earliest occupation at the site, 13 samples of
treasure hunters had already robbed the main charcoal and bone were utelised to provide an
stupa of its antiquities. They had disturbed the absolute framework for the site. Radiocarbon
cultural profile of the site by making pits and measurements of these samples suggested that
tunnels at various points of the mound. The the earliest occupation of the site has a date
excavation exposed portion of the main stupa between 1420 and 1200 BC (Coningham et al
base, which was square in shape and coated 2007: 93-97).
with lime plaster. Very little artifacts and other
archaeological material except some To understand more about the subsistence
fragmentary stone sculptures were recovered, strategies and economic organization in the
now stored in Sir Sahabzada Abdul Qayum northwest of Pakistan during the 2nd
Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, millennium BC, Ruth Young in her Ph.D thesis
University of Peshawar. Report of the made reassessment of the published
excavation is not yet published, however the archaeological and environmental material. For
recovered fragmentary sculptures are this purpose two zones were selected, one was
documented here for the first time for benefit of the flat alluvial plain of the Peshawar Valley,
the researchers. with its major urban site of Bala Hisar and its
immediate surroundings and the other was the
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 26

Northern Hill Valleys of Swat and Dir. The were encountered having resemblance with that
chronological period under study was the late of the 1st millennium AD. Architectural
Bronze Age and early Iron Age. The study remains of the time included mud brick and
revealed that intensity of agriculture was greater mud lump walls, besides a fireplace.
in Charsadda than in Swat and Dir, where
rainfall is greater than Peshawar plain (Young Objectives of the Survey
2003: 1, 5).
• To make surface collection from the
The collected animal and plant remains at Bala whole of the district in order to correlate
Hisar were subjected to analysis (Young 2003: the new material with each other as well
56). Rice grain and husks in some quantity have as get tentative chronology of the area.
been noted from the later context (Young 2003:
50). During the study it was noted that rice in • To study the private collection from the
small quantities were available at Charsadda. area.

Rice, lentil, wheat, weed seeds of dock, • To know about the early inhabitants of
goosefoot or fat hen and bedstraw were present the area.
in small quantities at Bala Hisar. Animal bones
were collected from two trenches located at the • To know about the missing links in the
base of the mound. In total 57 bones were history of the area.
identified, associated to different species,
including cattle, sheep/goat, buffalo, pig and • To know about the practice of religions
deer. Deer was the only known wild animal, other than Buddhism.
which suggests that hunting was a known
activity. Because of the developed agriculture In order to carry out the survey, government
and pastoral exploitation of the surrounding land records were consulted to find out exact
area, Bala Hisar emerged as a major city of this location of the ancient sites. Moreover
region during the Iron Age or Early Historic topographic map sheets of the Survey of
Period (Young 2003: 57, 59, 82). Pakistan as well as published report of the
earlier archaeological activities in the district
In 2006 Bala Hisar was again under were consulted for cross-references. Extensive
archaeological excavation by a joint team foot walking was done to reach to the sites
constituted of the Department of Archaeology, situated in far-flung areas, some of which are
University of Peshawar and the Department of quite away from the road. One hundred and
Archaeology, University of Cambridge. forty six sites were visited, some were visited
Topographic surface survey was carried out at several times. During the survey a limited
the main mound, which revealed that especially number of artifacts were collected from the
those parts of the site, where Wheeler had dug surface of various mounds in the district. As
his trench Ch.l, are badly affected by erosion. majority of the artifacts discussed in this study
Furthermore the surrounding fields have also belong to private individuals therefore the
encroached upon the land of this mound, persons possessing such artifacts were
particularly on the northern and southern sides. approached who in majority of the cases were
quite cooperative because of the author's
An un-disturbed section on top of the mound personal connections in the area. They allowed
was selected for excavation at the north- eastern the author to study and photograph their
side of the mound, in order to know about the artifacts.
top layers (late period) of this huge mound. A
small trench was laid on the edge of the steep All the material collected and observed with
slope to determine position of later occupation private individuals were compared for
at the site. A good number of cultural materials correlation with the material from Charsadda
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 27

earlier excavated and with those from Swat, recorded. During our survey we encountered
Dir, Chitral, and other localities surroun~g eleven more sites belonging to this period, thus
Charsadda. Published reports of Survey of India reaching its total to twenty-five. During the
excavation reports in Charsadda, Bala Hisar, period not only the riversides but the non-
Shaikhan Dheri, Sardheri as well as Charsadda irrigated plains, away from the rivers were also
archaeological report of 1993 were of course the occupied. However majority of the sites are
main sources of reference. noticed in non-irrigated zone, in between the
Swat and Kabul rivers. For the first time we see
Distribution of the Settlements human activities in the centre and south of the
district. This pattern seems to have continued
The overall settlement perspective after the
during the Scytho-Parthian and Kushan times as
survey, indicated that Charsadda area was very
thinly populated during the period upto the
arrival of the Indo-Greeks. During the Gandhara The Scytho-Parthian phase in the history of this
Grave Culture phase, we have noted their region falls in the first century BC. Quite a large
presence at three localities at the northwest of number of settlements as attested through the
the district. It is generally believed that the discovery of their coins have been noted during
settled agricultural phase in the Peshawar plain the survey. A total of sixty-four sites were noted
begins with this phase. Other sites of this phase belonging to this period. The earlier survey
outside Charsadda have also been noted mainly records forty-one sites, while we have
in the west of the Peshawar valley, as well as in encountered twenty-three new sites of this
the hill zone of Gandhara. Other than the period. During this period also, not o~ly the
cemeteries no settlement of this phase has so far central part of the district was occupied but
been noted in Charsadda. settlements of this period spread in the north,
east and south as well.
During the second half of the sixth century BC,
Achaemenid presence has been noted at Bala From the first century AD to the third-forth
Hisar and Nisatta. During the survey a third site century AD the area of Charsadda was occupied
of this period has been noted at Ghurambak by the Kushans. Coins are the widely found
also. All the three sites are located in the objects of that time, which bespeak not only the
southwest of the district lying close to the economic stability and relative peace, and
rivers. prosperity of the time but also maturity of the
Gandhara Art. Although the Kushans shifted the
From the late forth century BC to the end of the
capital of Gandhara from Charsadda to
second century BC, the period is generally
Peshawar, yet the area was well populated
associated with the Mauryan period. Four sites
during the Kushan times. The survey indicates
of this period have earlier been noted in the
that Charsadda was densely populated at this
Charsadda area, no new site was encountered
time. A total of one hundred and forty one sites
during the recent survey. These sites too, like
belonging to this period were encountered,
the earlier phase, are located in the southwest of
which include eighteen new sites. The
the district close to the rivers. It seems probable
settlement distribution of this period indicates
that communication through rivers was
that nearly the whole of district was occupied in
preferred as compared to the land during the
which the northern and eastern portion of the
Mauryan and Achaemenian periods.
district was equally occupied. The density of
With the arrival of the Indo-Greeks after the end sites during the period as usual was
of the second century BC, the Charsadda area concentrated round the two major rivers of
seems to be gradually increasing in population Kabul and Swat as well as the area in between.
as we notice increase in the sites belonging to
After the Kushans we see presence of the
this period. In the previous survey fourteen sites
Kushano Sassanians on the historical canvas of
belonging to the Indo-Greek period are
the area. The only site of the period was for the
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 28

first time noticed in Charsadda at Majuki Wheeler 1962, Ali 1994: 35, Coningham 2007,
Dherai. Two of their coins have been found Mohammadzai 2008 & 2010.
from this site. May be in future other sites of
this period could also come to light, anyhow at It was because of this huge mound, which
the moment we have a single site of this period attracted attention of the European explorers in
in the district. the late 18th century.

After the Hun invasion of Gandhara, once again Their interest turned in to enthusiasm when
we see a rapid decline in the number of Alexander Cunningham who stated it to be the
settlements of the succeeding periods in the site of ancient Pushkalavati. Archaeological
district. The Hindu Shahi dynasty, which was in activities on the mound actually began in 862
constant tussle with the Ghaznavids, has little with the reports of General Court. Later on the
opportunities for activities other than saving site was subjected to extensive investigations,
their rule. During this dynasty the settlements in which still continues. Much work still is to be
the district drastically declined and only eleven done to know about one of the main sites in the
of the sites show evidence of the Hindu Shahi Peshawar valley.
period, as attested through the discovery of their
coins and ceramics. Six new sites of this period Copper and silver coins of the Hindu Shahis are
were noted during the recent survey. All these for the first time noted during the recent survey.
settlements are strictly located close to the Swat Apart from terracotta animal and human
and Kabul rivers. Majuki Dherai seems to have figurines a number of bronze seals, gems of
been a major site of this period in the Peshawar semi-precious gemstones used as seals and
plain other than Hund. terracotta tokens were noted with the locals. It
is also to be noted, that from here was obtained
In the beginning of eleventh century AD the a white marble head of Vishnu in 1923, that is
Peshawar valley came into the Ghaznavid rule. now on display at the Hindu Gallery of the
The Buddhist and Hindus of the area preferred Peshawar Museum (PM. 02881 ). This point, if
to shift for their safety and migrate to the taken for research in future, will throw fresh
surrounding hilly glens, thus once again we see light on the presence of Hinduism in the
a sudden decline in the number of settlements in Peshawar valley.
the valley. Only four of the settlements have
been noted in Charsadda that shows evidence of 2. Shaikhan Dheri-Marchakai (SHK)
the presence of early Islamic rule. All these
sites are located close to Bala Hisar, which Period: Kushan-Hindu Shahi
served as administrative centre during the Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 289, Survey
period. 1902-3, Wheeler 1962, Dani 1965-66, Ali 1994:
35, Mohammadzai 2010.
Gazetteer of the Sites
Gandhara Art stone pieces were found by the
Archaeological sites in Charsadda Tehsil local since long, some of which were later
purchased by the Peshawar Museum before
The following archaeological sites in the whole partition. These include stone panels depicting
of the distrct were surveyed. coffin carrying Buddha (PM. 0283 5), stupa
worship (PM. 02840) and meditating Buddha
1. Bala Hisar-Hisara Dherai (BLH) (PM. 02823). The site was later on excavated by
Period: Pre Achaemenid- Early Islamic Dani in 1964-65, its material is on display at Sir
Reference: Court 1836, Cunningham 1871: Sahabzada Abdul Qayum Museum of the
43, Garrick 1881-82: 104, Gopaldas 1874, Peshawar University. Later on the site was
Marshall & Vogel 1902-3: 274, Survey 1902-3, again excavated in 1993-94. but plundering of
antiquities from this vast site still continues.
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 29

Quite a large number of artifacts were noted at 7. Mra Dherai (MRA)

this site which include beads, bronze objects,
Period: Scythian-Kushan, Hindu Shahi
Gandhara Art architectural pieces, galiptic seals,
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 287, Survey
a large number of terracotta tokens and animal
1902-3, Survey 1918-19, Ali 1994: 18,
and human figurines.
Mohammadzai 2001, 41, Mohammadzai 2008
3. Shahr-e-Napursan-Rajaro Dherai,
Rajar(SHN) Once an extensive site with mounds of
considerable height, only agricultural fields
Period: Kushan, Early Islamic, Hindu
could be seen on the spot today. Soil of the
entire mound was taken away and used as
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 289, Garrick
foundation of the Ml motorway, which passes
1881-82, Survey 1902-3, Ali 1994,
close by the site. Besides other cultural material
Mohammadzai 2010.
of the site, bronze and terracotta seals and
tokens were noted during the recent survey.
The site was excavated during 1902-3 and its
material is housed in the Peshawar Museum.
8. Arbapano-Baretai-HinduDherai (BRT)
Besides a number of bronze seals a Hindu Shahi
coin was for the first time noted here during our Period: Greek, Scythian
survey. Reference: Gopaldas 1874:287, Survey
1918-19, Mohammadzai 2008 & 2010
4. Palatu-Angar Kali Dherai (PL T)
Remarks. The entire mound is covered by
Period: Kushan
Muslim graves. Besides other objects bronze
Reference: Survey 1902-3
seals and terracotta tokens were also noted
during the survey.
Its excavated material is housed in the Peshawar
Museum. The site is entirely covered by the
9. Majuki-Akhtar Dherai (MJK)
modern houses.
Period: Greek-Hindu Shahi
5. Ghaz Dheri-Gitkai-Shaikhabad (GHZ) Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 287, Survey
1902-3, Survey 1918-19, Ali 1994: 19,
Period: Kushan
Mohammadzai 2003, 79, Mohammadzai 2008
Reference: Survey 1902-3
Most of the excavated material is in the
Remarks. Besides collection of other small
Peshawar Museum. This site too is entirely
finds a notable feature of this site is the
covered by the modern dwellings.
presence of large quantity of stamped sherds of
over three hundred different designs, not
6. Sulai Kamar (SUL)
encountered anywhere else in the region. As
Period: Pre Kushan-Kushan compared to the other surrounding mounds,
Reference: Corbiau 193 7: 3 here gray ware potsherds are relatively
encountered in larger number on its surface.
Its excavated material is in Belgium. This site Bronze and terracotta seals as well as terracotta
also is covered by the modern houses. Besides tokens were noted with the inhabitants. Coins of
terracotta animal and human figurines a bronze Hindu Shahis and signs of Shiva worship found
seal was also noted with the locals. at the site. Two Kushano-Sassanian small
copper coins are found from here for the first
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 30

10. Mya KaW Prang/ Kharono/ Daramsal site is the find spot of stone toilet tray, obtained
by the Peshawar Museum in 1935. Its four
Dherai (PNG)
compartments contain four griffins (PM.
Period: Kushan 03172).
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 287, Survey
1902-3, Ali 1994: 19, Mohammadzai 2008 & 14. Maho Dherai, Malkadher (MHD
Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874:289,
Deva or Shiva temple was reported here by
Xuanzang. Only a small portion of the mound is
The site is covered with agricultural fields as
intact. Besides copper coins of the Kushans
well as irrigation canal, here dressed stone walls
some bronze seals were also noted here.
with lime plaster are recently exposed. A
terracotta token depicting Nike was noted here
11. Kanizaka Dherai (KN)
during the survey.
Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 274, Survey 15. Sar Dheri-Shaikhano Kale (SRD)
1902-3, Survey 1918-19, Ali 1994: 19
Period: Ancient Graves, Scythian,
The mound is entirely covered by modern Kushan
dwellings. Reference: Corbiau 1937, Gopaldas 1874:
274, Ali 1994: 20
12. Kula Dher (KLD) The mound has been entirely engulfed by the
modern houses
Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 274, Survey
16. Mani Khela (MNl)
1902-3, Ali 1994: 19
Period. Kushan
Several stone statues and other Buddhist period Reference. Ali 1994: 16
artifacts have been found from this site.
Peshawar Museum has two schist stone stupa 17. Qadim Patai-Manikhela(QDP)
models inscribed with Kharoshthi characters
Period. Kushan
(PM. 0328, 03219). These stupa models were
Reference. Ali 1994: 17
unearthed from here and were purchased for the
Museum in 1935.
18. Dwasare/Dosehra Dherai (DSR)
13. Malka Dher (MLD) Period: Kushan
Reference.: Ali 1994: 17
Period: Greek, Scythian, Kushan-Hindu
19. Bubak Dherai (BBK)
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 274, Ali 1994:
21,Mohammadzai2008 Period: Kushan
Reference: Survey 1918-19, Ali 1994: 17
On top of the mound is a 3.5 meters long
Muslim grave, attributed to an un-known saint.
20. Sparli Dherai, Nisatta-Dosehra road
People visit it for various wishes to be fulfilled.
Encroachments have been made recently from (SPR)
the northern side to get space for agricultural
Period: Kushan
fields and a government primary school has
Reference: Ali 1994: 17
been constructed to its southern side, which has
greatly reduces its size. During the recent
survey besides other finds a number of
terracotta token were noted with the locals. This
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 31

21. Ibrahimzai Dherai (IBR) 29. Muftipur Dherai, Gul Abad (MFT)
Period: Kushan Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 17 Reference: Ali1994:20

From this Buddhist site was found a well A schist stone piece was obtained from here for
preserved schist stone panel (PM. 03012), that the Peshawar Museum in 1909 (PM. 03134). It
was purchased for the Peshawar Museum in depicts seated Buddha on a high throne in
915. It represents Hariti and Panchika in seated preaching pose with attendants on either side.
30. Khan Mahi (KMH)
22. Dheri Zardad (DZR)
Period. Kushan
Period: Kushan Reference. Ali1994:20
Part of the site is occupied by the modern
houses, while the rest is disturbed. The site was excavated by Dr. Abdur Rahman
who exposed parts of a robbed stupa. Its report
23. Nisatta Dherai (NST) is unpublished. The stupa cum residential site is
badly devastated for antiques, however the
Period. Achaemenian-Early Islamic
portions covered by a mosque and police station
Reference. Ali 1994: 18
are still intact.
24. Momin Khan Dherai (MMK)
31. Wardaga Dherai (RDG)
Period: Scythian-Kushan
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 18
Reference: Ali1994:21
25. Ghunda Karkana Dherai, Firdos Khan
32. Ghani Dherai-Irrigation Rest House
Patai (KRI()
Period: Kushan
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 18
Reference: Ali1994:21
26. Zndo Dherai, Zarin Abad (ZND
On top of the mound is now constructed a
Period: Kushan library and Pushkalavati Archaeological
Reference: Survey 1918-19, Ali 1994: 18 Museum.

27. Kashmiryan Dherai, Manga (KSH) 33. Qala Koroona, Rajar-Mohammad Nari
Period: Kushan road(QLK)
Reference: Ali 1994: 19
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali1994:21
28. Sumbarai Dherai, Dargai (SMB)
Period: Kushan 34. Shahidano Dherai, Utmanzai-
Reference: Ali1994:20
Mohammad Nari road (SHD)
It was from this site that the Peshawar Museum Period: Kushan
acquired in 1926, a schist stone fragment, Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 281, Ali 1994:
depicting standing and seated human figures 21
(PM. 01024).
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 32

35. Tambulak Dherai, Bahlola (TMB) site is still intact that is under the mosque and
modern houses.
Period: Kushan
Besides fragmentary pieces of Gandhara Art a
Reference: Ali 1994: 22
few copper coins of the Kushan dynasty and a
bronze seal was also noted with the locals. The
36. Sarki Msharan Dherai, Utmanzai (SRK)
piece obtained from here, that is on display at
Period: Kushan the Gandhara Art Gallery of the Peshawar
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 284, Ali 1994: Museum was purchased in 1937. It is a
22 rectangular schist stone panel depicting a
multitude of human figures, including an
37. Khkari Baba Dherai, Utmanzai (KRB) enthroned king and Naga Rajas (PM. 02985).
Period: Kushan
41. Durmarjan Dherai (DRJ)
Reference: Ali 1994: 22, Mohammadzai
2010 Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 281, Ali 1994:
The site is covered by trees and Muslim graves. 34
During the survey Kushan period copper coins
and a bronze seal was also noted with the locals. This known stupa site is now left very small in
Peshawar Museum houses a number of size. Its remaining portion will soon be covered
Buddhist period artifacts that had its origin from by agricultural fields.
the village of Utmanzai. These include a
bearded stucco head (PM. 03392), three schist 42. Nimaorai Baba (NMB)
atone round shape relic caskets (PM. 03217,
Period: Kushan
03225 and 03227), and a schist stone toilet tray
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 281, Ali 1994:
(PM. 0370) showing Queen Maya standing with
other attendants.
Western art of the mound is covered by modern
38. Jangi Dherai, Turangzai (JNG) Muslim graves, while of its top is the shrine of
Bahauddin Nimaorai Baba.
Period: Greek, Scythian, Kushan 43. Sartor Baba, Nimaorai (SRT)
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 285, Ali 1994:
23 Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 284, Ali 1994:
39. Hindu Kamar, Turangzai (HDK) 34
The site is surrounded by thick woodland.
Period: Kushan 44. Parsa Baba (PRB)
Reference: Ali 1994: 23
The site is covered by Muslim graves. Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 34
40. Hamid Mya Dherai (HMD)
Silver coins of the Mughal period are found
Period: Kushan here. The site is surrounded by thick trees.
Reference: Ali 1994: 33, Mohammadzai
2010 45. Spinkai Dherai, Sbolgara (SPN)
This well-known stupa site is favorite spot of Period: Kushan
antique hunters since long. human size stone Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 281, Ali 1994:
sculptures are said to have been found from 34
here, the locals inform. Reports of stone
sculptures still come up. However part of the
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 33

46. Haji Faqir Patai, Solgara (FQR) 52. Jogyano Dherai, Hameed Mya Kale
Period: Kushan (JOG)
Reference: Ali 1994: 35
Period. Kushan
Reference. Gopaldas 1874: 281, Ali 1994:
47. Dost Muhammad Koroona, Nimaorai
53. Pia Dherai (PLD)
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 35 Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 274, Ali 1994:
48. Spera Dherai, Torapana (SPR) 37
Period: Scythian, Kushan
The entire mound has been covered by modern
Reference: Ali 1994: 36, Mohannnadzai
54. Spinavarai Dherai (SPW)
Lion and bull copper coins of Azes II, a bronze
seal and terracotta tokens were seen with the Period: Kushan
locals. Reference: Survey 1918-19

49. Tora Pana (TRP) Part of the mound has been converted in to
agricultural fields while modem dwellings have
Period: Kushan
covered the rest.
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 289, Survey
1902-3, Ali 1994: 36
55. Pkhana Dherai (PKN)
The entire site has been covered by modem Period: Greek, Kushan, Hindu Shahi,
dwellings. Islamic
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 274, Ali 1994:
50. Girawar Dherai (GIR) 37, Mohammadzai 2010
Period: Kushan Remarks. Part of the mound is still
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 289, Ali 1994: preserved while the rest is incorporated in to
36, Mohammadzai 2008 agricultural fields. Besides other minor
antiquities copper coins of Menander, Azes II,
The site was stupa cum residential mound, from of the Kushan kings and early Muslim rulers are
where Buddhist stone sculptures and Kushan note. A bronze seal was also noted with the
period copper coins were found. Some bronze locals.
selas and terracotta tokens were also notes here.
Nearly all the mound has now been bulldozed 56. Chathli Dherai, Tarnab (CHT)
and turned in to agricultural fields.
Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 284, Ali 1994:
51. Myana Dherai, Tarnab-Kot area (MYN)
Period: Kushan, Hindu Shahi
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 281, Ali 1994: 57. Khazana Dherai, Tarnab (KZN)
36 Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 37
The site is find spot of several pieces of
Gandhara Art that were purchased for the
Peshawar Museum in 1930. These include four
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 34

Persipolitan pilasters (PM. 02911, 02952, 02958 66. Momin Abad Dherai, Sherpao (MMN)
and 02900), one Indo-Corinthian pilaster (PM.
Period: Scythian, Kushan
02957), three schist stone panels depicting
Reference: Ali 1994: 25
worship of Buddha's turban (PM. 02843), child
seated on a dragon (PM. 02914) and marine bull
67. Aslam Patai, Sherpao (ASL)
in a triangular panel (PM. 02907).
Period: Kushan
58. Sandasar Dherai, Cheena (SND)
Reference: Ali 1994: 25
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 38 68. Mumano Dherai, Sherpao (MUM)
Period: Kushan
59. Dagi Ghulam Qadir (DGQ)
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 279, Ali 1994:
Period: Kushan 25
Reference: Ali 1994: 38
Remarks. One of the notable pieces of
60. Adamghar Baba, Tarnab (ADM) Gandhara Art collection in the Peshawar
Museum ''visit of Indra to the Indra Shala cave"
Period: Kushan
was obtained in 1928 from this site. Various
Reference: Ali 1994: 38
authorities of the Art have discussed this arched
shaped schist stone panel. It presents the figure
Archaeological Sites in Tangi Tebsil
of seated Buddha in meditation pose and
various other scenes containing human and
61. Rai Dherai, near Munda Head Works
animal figures. At the lower edge is inscribed
(RAI) Kharoshthi inscription (PM. 02805). Another
notable piece from here was obtained for the
Period: Scythian, Kushan
Museum in 1931. It is a well-preserved Buddha
Reference: Ali 1994: 16
head moulded in stucco (PM. 03417).
The site has been turned in to agricultural fields. 69. Sher Muhammad Patai, Sherpao (SHP)
62. Bangle Dherai, Ali Jan Kale (BNG) Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 25
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 24 70. Bachano Kale Dherai, Sherpao (BCH)
63. Malakano Dherai, Ali Jan Kale (MLK)
Period: Kushan
Period: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 25
Reference: Ali 1994: 24
71. Jamal Kale Dherai, Tangi (JMK)
64. Jhara Sikander Abad Dherai, Kanewar
Period: Kushan
(JAR) Reference: Ali 1994: 26
Period. Kushan
Reference. Ali 1994: 24 72. Dab Koroona Dherai, Sherpao (DAB)
Period: Scythian, Kushan
65. Mir Alam Patai, Sherpao (MAP)
Reference: Ali 1994: 26
Period. Kushan
Reference. Ali 1994: 24 73. Sokana Dherai, Kanewar (SKN)
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 26
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 35

74. Kanewar Dherai, near Petrol Station 84. Dherai Kale, Station Koroona (DRK)
(KNR) Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 28
Period: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 26
85. Kharono Dherai, Jura road (KRN)
75. Bajaoro Kale Dherai, Tangi (BJR) Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 29
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 26
86. Jura Kale Dherai (JUR)
76. Akhun Baba, Sherpao (AKN) Period: Greek, Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 29
Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 284, Ali 1994: 87. Pirano Adira, Jura (PIR)
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 29
77. Said Abad Dherai, Gandheri (SDB)
Period: Kushan 88. Kas Koroona, Sherpao (KSK)
Reference: Ali 1994: 27
Period: Kushan
78. Faqir Khan Patai, Gandheri (FQP) Reference: Ali 1994: 29

Period: Kushan 89. Mirza Dher Adira (MZD)

Reference: Ali 1994: 27
Perio: Scythian, Kushan
79. Chehil Ghazi, Gandheri (CHL) Reference: Ali 1994: 30

Period: Kushan 90. Sra Makha Dherai (SRM)

Reference: Ali 1994: 27
Period: Kushan
80. Kandase Baba, Buchi Pul (KND) Reference: Ali 1994: 30

Period: Scythian, Kushan The site is associated with the conversion of

Reference: Ali 1994: 28 Hariti Jataka, which Foucher has discussed in
detail. Coins from the early historic up to the
81. Sre Dherai, Marghuz (SRE) Sikh period are reported from here. There are
even reports of bent bar silver punch marked
Period: Kushan coins from the site.
Reference: Ali 1994: 28
91. Totakai (TTK)
82. Dobandi Kandare, Palai (DBK)
Period: Kushan
Period: Scythian, Kushan Reference: Ali 1994: 30
Reference: Ali 1994: 28
The site is covered by the modem dwellings.
83. Hamesh Gui Koroona Dherai. Sherpao
82. Ghandaghar-Gotki Dherai, Totakai
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 28 Period: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 274, Ali 1994:
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 36

93. Spilano-Dherai, Gumbati-Sherpao (SPL) 103. Harl Chand Dairy Farm Dherai (HRI)
Period: Greek, Scythian, Kushan Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali1994:30 Reference: Ali 1994: 32
94. Mula Dherai, Kochakai (MUL)
104. Qaroon Dherai, Tangi (QRN)
Period: Kushan
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali1994:30
Reference: Ali1994:33
95. Mughal Dherai, Mandani (MGL)
105. Fazle Karim Patai, Hameed Mya Dherai
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali1994:31 (FKP)
Period: Kushan
96. Momin Khan Dherai, Cbeena (MOM)
Reference: Ali1994:33
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali1994:31 106. Pappu Dherai, Hameed Mya Dherai
97. Cbalagram Dherai (CHL)
Period: Kushan
Perio: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali1994:33
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 284, Ali 1994:
31, Mohammadzai 2008 & 2010
107. Akhun Dheri (AKN)
Remarks. Traces of stupa bases and
Period: Scythian, Kushan
monastic cells are still to be seen. During the
Reference: Ali1994:33
survey Gandhara Art pieces in stone and stucco
as well as bronze seal and terracotta tokens A number of Buddhist period artifacts were
were noted at the site. found from this mound, some of which are
exhibited in the Peshawar Museum. These
98. Ghazo Dherai (GHZ) include a schist stone figure of seated Buddha in
Dhayana pose (PM. 0145) and four armed
Period: Kushan Shiva, standing with his bull, which has put its
Reference: Ali1994:31 head on the ground (PM. 03017).
The mound is covered by modern houses. 108. Skaro Dherai, Umarzai (SKR)
99. Dre Khule Thana, Harichand (DKT) Period: Greek, Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 284, Ali 1994:
Period: Kushan 23
Reference: Ali1994:32
100. Baram Khan Dherai, Shakoor (BRM) 109. Sartor Baba (SRT)

Period: Scythian, Kushan Period: Kushan

Reference: Ali1994:32 Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 284, Ali 1994:
101. Karim Jranda (KRJ)
Period: Kushan Remarks. There is a Muslim shrine on the
Reference: Ali1994:32 top. This site too is sometimes associated with
the conversion of Hariti Jataka.
102. Siwano Kale, Shakoor (SWN)
Period: Greek, Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 32
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 37

110. Lande Rud Cemetery (LND) 119. Goongi Dherai, Haryana (GNG)
Period: Gandharan Grave Culture Period: Kushan
Reference: Gopaldas 1874: 281, Ali 1994: 9
Remarks Traces of inhumation burials
and typical grave material like those of Swat 120. Sandasar Dherai, Daulatpura (SDS)
and Timargara are found.
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 9
111. Deo Dherai Cemetery (DEO)
Period: Gandharan Grave Culture 121. Tawani Dherai, Jamata (TWN)
Reference: lvlohanunadzai,2007:28
Period: Greek, Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 9
Remarks. The cemetery is scattered in to a
wider area, where stone built graves could still
122. Daulatpura Dherai (DLP)
be seen on the slopes of hillocks west of the
village. Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 10
Archaeological sites in Sbabqadar Tebsil
123. Ambadher Dherai (AMB)
112. Kula Dhand Dherai (KDD)
Period: Scythian, Kushan
Period: Kushan Reference: Ali 1994: 10
Reference: Ali 1994: 8
113. Khar Bandai (KBD) 124. Tarkha Dherai (TRK)
Period: Kushan
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 10
Reference: Ali 1994: 8
124. Shibli Dherai, Tarkha (SHB)
114. Khro Sha Dherai (KBR)
Period: Kushan
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994:10
Reference: Ali 1994: 8
126. Katyala Dherai (KTL)
115. Ghurambak Dherai (GBK)
Period: Kushan
Period: Achaemenian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 10
Reference: Ali 1994: 8
127. Nima Dherai, Tarkha (NMA)
116. Sikandar Khan Dherai (SKN)
Period: Scythian, Kushan
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 11
Reference: Ali 1994: 8
117. Sarwani Dherai (SRN) 128. Gula Jan Dherai, Kangra (GUL)
Period: Kushan Period: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 9 Reference: Ali 1994: 11

118. Saidano Dherai (SDN) 129. Mahboob Khan Dherai (MBB)

Period: Kushan Period: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 9 Reference: Ali 1994: 11
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 38

130. Usmani Dherai (SMN) 141. Kotak Dherai, Tarnab (KTK)

Period: Scythian, Kushan Period: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 11 Reference: Ali 1994: 14

131. Sukkar Dherai (SKR) 142. Kamangar Dherai, Mirzai (KMG)

Period: Scythian, Kushan Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 11 Reference: Ali 1994: 14
132. Nahqai Dherai (NHQ)
143. Uchawala Dherai (UCH)
Period: Greek, Scythian, Kushan
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 12
Reference: Ali 1994: 14
133. Spinorai, Kharakai (SNW)
144. Sokhta Dherai, Sokhta (SKT)
Period: Scythian, Kushan
Period: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 12
Reference: Ali 1994: 15
134. Datagram Dherai (BTG)
145. Shah Darga (DRG)
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 12 Period: Scythian, Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 15
135. Kandar Adira Dherai (KDR)
Period: Kushan 146. Changanro Dherai, Kotak (CHN)
Reference: Ali 1994: 12
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 15
136. Yaghiband Adira Dherai (YBN)
Period: Kushan 147. Mirzai Dherai (MIR)
Reference: Ali 1994: 13
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 15
137. Gonda Adira Dherai (GND)
148. Spinkai Dherai (SPN)
Period: Scythian, Kushan
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 13
Reference: Ali 1994: 15
138. Marsin Dherai, New Mathra (MRS)
149. Mughal Kas Dherai, Matta Mughal
Period: Kushan
Reference: Ali 1994: 13
Period: Kushan
139. Sreekh Adira Dherai (SRK) Reference: Ali 1994: 16
Period: Kushan
150. Katozai Dherai Koroona (KTZ 1)
Reference: Ali 1994: 13
Period: Kushan
140. Mandezai Dherai (MDZ) Reference: Ali 1994: 16
Period: Scythian, Kushan
151. Katozai Adira (KTZ 2)
Reference: Ali 1994: 14
Period: Gandharan Grave Culture
Reference: Mohammadzai 2001: 122
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 39

Apart from the usual Grave Culture material a No: 2

Five-cup ritual pot is also reported from here. Object: mustrated panel
Plate: 1: 2
Stone Objects Material: Greyish-black schist
Provenance: Khan Mahi
During the survey only a limited number of
Length: 23 cm.
stone objects were noted, because sculptures
Width: 17.3 cm
and other stone artifacts bear good market
value. Moreover, the owners, if had any stone
This fragmentary panel has two standing figures
sculpture or other worked stone piece, were
wearing the typical Gandharan monastic dress.
hesitant to show it, because of the fear of
Their heads are broken while the lower bodies
confiscation. Stone sculptures recovered during
up to the feet are preserved. The figure to the
various excavations in the Charsadda area have
left may be that of Buddha, because it is not
been documented in the relevant excavation
only taller than the other one, but its right
reports and mostly housed in the . Pes?awar
broken arm may have been raised in Abhaya
Museum. Excavation at the Buddhist site of
mudra. Furthermore the lower garment and
Khan Mahi in 1992-93 revealed a limited
folds of his dress also resemble with the
number of fragmentary stone statues, which
Buddha's dress in other Gandhara Art panels.
have been housed in Sir Sahabzada Abdul
Qayum Khan Museum of Archaeology and
No: 3
Ethnology, University of Peshawar. As report of
Object: Decorative architectural piece
that excavation is still to be published, therefore
Plate: 1: 3
preliminary description of its stone sculptures is
Material: Black schist
presented here for the first time, for the interest
Provenance: Khan Mahi
of scholars and benefit of the students of
Length: 34cm.
Width: 16cm
The following Gandhara Art schist stone pieces
were recovered during the excavation.
The upper portion of this rect~gul~
architectural piece, consists of a floral design m
No: 1
the shape of a laurel leaf, while the lower one
Object: mustrated Panel
has several square designs in the shape of
Plate: 1: 1
chessboard motif. A series of Greek style
Material: Greenish black schist
crosses is also formed of these squares, which
Provenance: Khan Mahi
has a hole in the middle.
Length: 23.5 cm.
Width: 16cm
No: 4
Object: Buddha sculpture
Stone panel though considerably damaged and
Plate: 1: 4
its right portion broken, yet two standing figures
Material: Grey schist
are seen wearing Gandharan monastic dress,
Provenance: Khan Mahi
reaching up to the feet, covering their entire
Length: 22.5 cm.
body. Though their faces are much damaged,
Width: 21cm
yet their style of standing indicate that they may
be devotees as are normally seen in Gandhara
Description: Sanding figure probably of
Art panels in which Buddha is also depected
Buddha in Abhaya mudra. Here too the figure
standing or seated, accompanied by other
wears Gandharan monastic dress with lower
figures. The figure to the right side standing
garment. The typical long wavy folds as seen in
near the pilaster, has folded hands in namaskara
other Buddha figure are also present here. The
mudra, the like figures are usually found round
head and right shoulder is missing.
that of Buddha.
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 40

No: 5 A human head probably of a lady. The figure

Object: Sculptural piece has beautifully combed hair and is also wearing
Plate: 1: 5 an ear ornament. It has fleshy lips while the
Material: Black schist nose is slightly broken. To the left of the head is
Provenance: Khan Mahi an inverted lotus flower.
Length: 28.8 cm.
Width: 12cm Apart from the above mentioned stone pieces
from Khan Mahi the following stone objects
Description: A detached fragmentary piece of were observed during the recent survey.
a statue, in which only the bare legs of a human
figure are preserved. The figure is shown in No: 9
seated position with the left leg bent while the (Marshall 1951: 703, plate No. 213- No. 18,
right leg may be in vertical position. Marshall 1960: 21, plate 21, fig. 25)
Object: Figural bracket
No: 6 Plate: 2:9
Object: IDustrated Panel Material: Black schist
Plate: 1: 6 Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
Material: Greenish black schist Length: 22.4 cm.
Provenance: Khan Mahi Width: 9.2 cm
Length: 21.5 cm.
Width: 18cm Schist stone bracket in the form of a winged
female figure was noted at Shaikhan Dheri. In
Detached stone piece from a panel shows a India and Central Asia the practice of adding
kneeling human figure with folded hands in brackets called nagadanta, to the Buddhist stupas
Anjali mudra. Its entire body is covered with was prevalent during second and first centuries
dress and is shown looking to his left. The head BC. These were set at regular intervals round the
is damaged. dome of the stupa and garlands were hung to it as
offerings. In Gandhara these were particularly
No: 7 added with the figures of winged devas and devis,
Object: Buddha head supposed to bring offering to the stupa.
Plate: 1: 7 The figure wears a necklace, a bracelet and is
Material: Light-black schist holding offering in the shape of flowers in both of
Provenance: Khan Mahi her hands close to the chest This seems to be the
Length: 10.5 cm. only reported piece from the Charsadda area. A
Width: 8 cm similar piece has been reported from Taxila as
A skillfully carved stone head of Buddha with well.
portion of the neck. The hair are beautifully set,
while on top of the head is a well-formed No: 10
Ushnisha. The eyes are half closed. The Urna Object: Pendent
on the forehead is also well indicated. Nose as Plate: 2:10
well as the right side of the face is damaged. Material: Greenish black schist
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
No: 8 Length: 5.1 cm.
Object: Head Width: 3.4cm
Plate: 1: 8
Material: Black schist Description: Black stone pendent of heart
Provenance: Khan Mahi shape; both of its sides are highly polished. It has
Length: 7.5 cm. three incised rings with a dot in the middle. The
Width: 11.2 cm upper portion is decorated with two horizontal
lines. A horizontal hole for suspension has been
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 41

made in its upper portion. No such specimen has A blue-green soapstone plate, though broken at the
so far been reported earlier from the area. edges, but still well preserved. It is highly incised
on the inner side. A well-formed lotus flower is
No: 11 incised in the center, while the edges are decorated
(Marshall & Vogel: plate XXV; Dani: 1965-66: with net design. This may be the only specimen so
38-46, plates XVII, XX) far reported from the area.
Object: Head
Plate: 2 11 No: 14
Material: Black schist (Dani 1965-66: 117, figure 9, No. 13)
Provenance: Khkari Baba Object: Lid of relic casket
Length: 2.4 cm. Plate: 2:14
Width: 2 cm Material: Grey-black schist
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Small head of schist stone in fragmentary shape, Length: 9.5 cm.
only the nose, one eye and part of the hair or Width: 16 cm
headdress is preserved. The head seems to be that
of Buddha or Bodhisattva, with half opened eyes Lid of a container, tumed on lithe is decorated with
Buddha and Bodhisattva statues in stone are two double incised lines. It also has a flat round
widely reported from the Charsadda area. catch in the middle At Shaikhan Dheri one such lid
(No. 1189) has been reported from trench B2.
No: 12
(Marshall 1951: 506-7, plate 142, Nos. 148- No: 15
149) Object: Relic casket container
Object: Jewelry mould Plate: 2:15
Plate: 2:12 Material: Greenish black schist
Material: Greenish soap-stone Provenance: Pkhana Dherai
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri Length:9.3 cm.
Length: 23.5 cm. Width: 1.5 cm
Width: 16cm Round schist stone container
tumed on lithe.
Square tablet of soapstone, which has two circular
depressions carved on its surface, with two outlet No: 16
passages. The upper circle is carved in emboss (Marshall & Vogel 1902-3: 157, figure No. 21)
with the figure of a standing lady, wearing a long Object: Relic casket container
gown and probably holding a lotus flower stalk in Plate: 2:16
her right lap. The piece may have served as a Material: Greenish black schist
mould for casting of metal ornaments. This piece Provenance: Shahr-e-Napursan
looks to be the only reported one from the Length: 3 cm.
Charsadda area, however a number of such Width: 3.5 cm
jewelry casting stones have been found at Taxila.
Description: Schist stone round relic casket, its
No: 13 outer surface is highly decorated with floral
Object: Decorated toilet plate designs. It has been tumed on lithe; its lid portion
Plate: 2:13 is missing. Almost identical relic casket was found
Material: Light-green schist at the stupa in Ghaz Dheri during 1902-3
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri excavation.
Length: Un-Known No: 17
Width: 6.8cm (Dani 1965-66: 118, figure 9- No. 14)
Object: Oil lamp
Plate: 2:17
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 42

Material: Grey schist Material: Black schist

Provenance: Bala Hisar Provenance: Baretai Dherai
Length: 8.2cm. Length: 11.5 cm
Width: 6.7cm
Stone shaft, carved with six small beaded
objects, it originally might have been part of
This well-preserved stone lamp is heart shaped; its another stone object of considerable size. One
outer surface is decorated with incised floral
such stone rod with three umbrellas (No. 251)
motifs. It has three lugs or catches, two smaller
has been found at Shaikhan Dheri.
ones at the pointed end and the other a little bigger
in semi-circular shape at the broader end. Its rim is Inscribed Sherds
also decorated with dental designs. Similar stone Charsadda area is the find spot of a number of
lamp (No. 1845) at Shaikhan Dheri was recovered inscriptions, incised mainly on the pedestals of
from trench CS (1). stone statues and relic caskets. These reported
inscriptions are almost written in Kharoshthi
No: 18 characters and the language was Gandhari.
Object: Relic casket lid Shakoor has recorded a number of inscriptions
Plate: 2:18 from the Charsadda area, which include Umanai
Material: Greenish black schist slab inscription, Kula Dher relic casket
Provenance: Mya Kali Dherai inscriptions, and Mamane Dheri Inscription
Length: Un-known (Shakur: 1946, 34). Marshall & Vogel have also
Width: 5.2cm recovered a number of Inscriptions during 1902-3
excavations at Charsadda (Marshall & Vogel
Lid of a relic casket having catch, that is round in 1902-3: 176). Likewise at Bala Hisar, inscribed
shape. The outer surface has been made extra potsherds have been recorded (Wheeler 1962: 125,
smooth and is decorated with incised and floral plate XLV; Coningham et al 2007: 114, plates
designs. The upper half is incised with lotus flower 1.2h & 8.12). Dani also recorded thirty-seven
leaves. Kharoshthi inscriptions on ceramics and stones at
Shaikhan Dheri (Dani 1965-66: 109).
No: 19 During the survey were found only a few
(Marshall & Vogel 1902-03: 153. figure 24, No. potsherds that have single or a few letters
2·, Dani 1965-66: 116-119, figure 9, V; scratched on its outer surface, which could be the
Coningham et al 2007: 169, plate 11.1, Nos. name or initial of the owner. The following
112, 189) potsherds with inscriptions are found at various
Object: Cup
Plate: 2:19 No: 1
Material: Grey schist Plate: 13:13
Provenance: Pkhana Dherai Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 9cm. Length: 4.4cm
Width: 6.5 cm Width: 3.2cm
Cup turned on lithe, has out curved rim and disc Upper broken portion of a supposed closed pot in
base. Its outer surface has been made smooth by red ware has a single inscribed Kharoshthi letter
burnishing. Fragmentary stone vessels have been ha. Its style is that of the Kushan period.
recovered from various localities of Charsadda
No: 2
No: 20 Plate: 13:14
(Dani 1965-66: 117, figure 9-No. 5) Provenance: Pkhana Dherai
Plate: 2:20 Length: 7.5 cm
Object: Worked stone shaft Width: 5cm
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 43

Open mouthed jar in red ware having flat base. On No: 7

its surface is probably inscribed a single Plate: 13: 19
Kharoshthi letter mi. Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 5x3 cm
No: 3 Width: 5x3 cm
Plate: 13:15
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri Rim piece of a grey ware vessel in fine thin fabric
Length: 6.2cm has partly preserved Kharoshthi inscription, in
Width: 4.5cm which only the two letters, may be [sa-sa] are
preserved. Its style resembles that of the Kushan
Rim sherd of a red ware pot has double incised period.
lines below the rim. Below the lines is part of a
Kharoshthi inscription in fragmentary shape. No: 8
Lower part of the letters are missing, preliminary Plate: 13:20
reading could be cigi [ta]+. Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 7.2cm
No: 4 Width: 6cm
Plate: 13: 16
Provenance: Majuki Dherai Description: Shoulder piece of potsherd in
Length: 7.6cm. grey ware has only portion of a Kharoshthi
Width: 6 inscription, in which the middle portion may be
read as [dhutadasaa].
Rim piece of a red ware pot has thin sections and
shiny surface. It has a fragmentary Kharoshthi Coins
inscription which could probably be read as
The earliest punched mark coins are
dukharahi. Its style seems to be that of the Kushan
occasionally being found, however the first
reported coins from the Charsadda area were
No: 5
those obtained during Marshall & Vogel's
Plate: 13:17
excavations. They have reported a copper coin
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
of Kanishka (Moon-god type) and two Indo-
Length: 5.5 cm
Scythian copper coins from the Bala Hisar
Width: 5 cm
mound. Also obtained from here were fourteen
Red ware body sherd having medium fabric has
Indo-Scythian, fourteen Muslim period copper
fragmentary Kharoshthi inscription in which only
coins, including those of Muhammad Ghori and
two letters are preserved. That could be [pada]. Its
Allauddin ibn Takash ofKhwarizm (Marshall &
style probably belongs to that of the Kushan
Vogel 1902-3: 152). From the mound of Mir
Ziyarat, were excavated coins of Hermaeus,
Azes, Wima Kadphises, Kanishka and those of
No: 6
Indo-Scythian kings (Marshall & Vogel 1902-3:
Plate: 13: 18
158). Also found at this site was a hoard of 87
Provenance: Shahr-e-Napursan
coins, these according to the excavator were of
Length: 5cm
the Ghaznavid period (Marshall & Vogel 1902-
Width: 3.8cm
3: 157). Similarly, from excavation at Palatu
Dheri was obtained a hoard of 57 copper coins
Rim sherd of red ware has fragmentary Kharoshthi
of late Kushans including those of Wima
inscription. The first letters is incomplete, the
Kadphises, Kanishka and Indo-Scythian kings
following could be [zo- zo].
(Marshall & Vogel 1902-3: 172). From the site
of Ghaz Dheri were retrieved coins of Indo-
Scythian, Muslim and Sikh period. From the
debris of its Buddhist stupa was recovered a
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 44

relic casket which besides other relics, also unidentified and a square copper coin of
contained a copper coin of the lion and bull type Kanishka are reported (Ali 1994: 92).
of Azes (Marshall & Vogel 1902-3: 152). Besides these we also found a limited number
Although the excavators intended to publish a of coins during the survey, while others were
list of coins from the Charsadda area, but the noted with people who obtained it from the
scheme did not materialize (Marshall & Vogel mounds. Among these are two silver punch
1902-3: 152). marked coins while the rest are either of silver
Afterwards, Wheeler, while excavating at Bala or copper. No gold coin was noted, on the other
Hisar recovered a single silver coin of hand there are authentic reports of such coins in
Menander from the well of an excavated house large number from Shaikhan Dheri. The area of
(Wheeler 1962: 30). He also reported about the Charsadda has been under cultivation since the
discovery of two coin-hoards from the near-by proto-historic times because of the presence of
site of Shaikhan Dheri found earlier, which Kabul and Swat rivers and their numerous
contained mostly coins of the Indo-Greeks tributaries, therefore the ratio of salinity in the
(Wheeler 1962: 17). soil is all times high. In majority of the cases
Shaikhan Dheri is the only site in Charsadda, these coins are highly rusted. However, a few of
from where well-stratified coins have been them were in good condition, detail of which is
recovered, starting from the punched mark to presented in the following list.
the late Kushan period. Thus, it helped great
deal in dating all its cultural material as well as Punch Marked Coins
its building phases on the basis of numismatic Silver Rectangular Type
evidence. All the three periods of the city have No.1
yielded a total number of 475 coins, in which
(Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: Nos.
291 coins, after treatment were clearly
identifiable. Besides, two Punch-Marked coins 80-89, Dani 1965-66: 38)
Plate: 3, No. 1
of debase silver from the lower Indo-Greek
Obverse: Various punched symbols
levels, 16 other coins of the same dynasty were
recovered. Those include coins of Agathocles, Reverse: Un-identified mark
Menander, Apollodotus, Antialkidas, Heliocles, AR, 14.3 x 14mm
Lysias, Telephos and Philoxenus. Apollodotus Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
was represented with the largest number of
coins of five (Dani 1965-66: 35). A total At Shaikhan Dheri two punch-marked coins of
debase silver were found at the Greek levels.
number of 54 coins were obtained from the
No detail of these coins is available. Coins of
combined Scytho-Parthian levels. These were
this type have been assigned to the Mauryan
mostly of the lion and bull type coins of Azes
(Dani 1965-66: 35). However, the bulk of coins period.
were obtained from the Kushan levels, reaching
to a total number of 219. It included the gold Ditto
coin ofWima Kadphises of the king and Shiva- No.2
bull type. All the main kings of the greater (Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: Nos.
Kushans, like Kujula, Wima Takto (Soter 80-89)
Megas), Wima Kadphises, Kanishka, Huvishka Plate: 3, No. 2
and Vasudeva are well represented by their Obverse: As on the preceeding coin
coins. Kanishka is represented with the largest Reverse: As on the preceeding coin
number of 77 coins (Dani 1965-66: Chart No. AR, 14x9mm
2). This time also the excavator had intended to Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
publish the full catalogue of Shaikhan Dheri
coins, but this scheme, like the earlier one of Punch-marked coins are said to have been
Marshall & Vogel too, unfortunately did not issued during the period the 8th__ -4th century BC
materialize. During the survey of 1993 two (Bopearachchi 1995: 24).
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 45

Indo-Greek Period Menander, Round Type

Copper Rectangular Autonomous Type No. 6
(Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: Nos.
(Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: Nos. 363-369, Dani 1991: pl. III. No. 5)
134-140) Plate: Plate: 3, No. 6
Plate: 3, No. 3 Obverse: Obverse: Diademed bust
Obverse: Walking elephant to the right of king to right, wearing a crested helmet.
Reverse: Walking lion to the left Greek letters all around.
JE, 20x 17mm Reverse: Reverse: Athena standing
Provenance: Bala Hisar to left hurling thunderbolt with her right hand
There is a dimly visible monogram in front of and holding aegis in the left. Kharoshthi letters
the lion. This coin type is attributed to the time all around.
of Agathocles. AR, 26.6mm
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
Apollodotus I, Square Type
No. 4 Remarks Though Menander coins have
been reported earlier from Bala Hisar and
(Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: Nos.
Shaikhan Dheri, but this piece has been
80-89, Dani 1965-66: 36, LI-4, Dani 1991: 147.
observed for the first time in the area.
pl. V. No. 1)
Plate: 3, No. 4
Ditto: Square Type
Obverse: Apollo standing to front,
No. 7
holding arrow in his right hand and bow in the
left, which rests on the ground. Greek legend to (Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: Nos.
three sides 266-281)
Reverse: Tripod and a monogram in the Plate: 3, No. 7
lower right field. Obverse: Diademed bust of king to right,
JE, 23 x 2mm, 8.80g wearing a crested helmet and Greek legend to
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri three sides.
Reverse: Heavily rusted
Coins of this type have also been excavated at JE, 20x20mm
Shaikhan Dheri. Provenance: Bala Hisar

Antimachus II, Round Type Ditto: Small Square Type

No. 5 No. 8
(Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: Nos. (Dani 1965-66: 36; Bopearachchi &
218-30, Dani 1991: pl. IV. No. 4) Amanurrahman 1995: Nos. 294-7, Nasim Khan
Plate: 3, No. 5 2008: 45, No. 3)
Obverse: Nike standing to left holding a Plate: 3, No. 8
palm branch and a fillet. Greek letters around. Obverse: Elephant head to the right
Reverse: King on horseback to right. wearing a bell. Monogram is in the lower field,
Kharoshthi characters around. and Greek legend to the three sides.
AR, 16.8mm Reverse: Club of Heracles. Monogram is
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri in the lower field, Kharoshthi legend to the
three sides.
This is the only reported coin of Antimachus II JE, 15x 15mm
from the area of Charsadda Provenance: Pkhana Dherai
This type of Menander coins have been reported
earlier from Shaikhan Dheri.
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 46

Antialcidas Square Type lndo-Scythian Period

No. 9 Azes II, Round Type
(Dani 1965-66: 36, Bopearachchi &
Amanurrahman 1995: Nos. 460-62) (Whitehead 1914: 106, PL XI, 56; Dani 1965-
Plate: 3, No. 9 66:37; Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995:
Obverse: Bust of Zeus to the right. Greek Nos. 950-956)
legend to the three sides. Plate: 3, No. 12
Reverse: Palms and pilei of the Dioscuri. Obverse: Mounted king to right, long
Kharoshthi legend to the three sides and diadem floating behind, holding a whip in his
monogram in the lower left field. right hand.
JE, 18x 18mm Reverse: Zeus standing to left with long
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri scepter in left hand and Nike on his outstretched
right hand. Monogram is in the left field.
Two coins of this type are reported from AR, 15.8mm
Shaikhan Dheri earlier, this is the third one Provenance: Baretai Dherai
from the same spot.
Two coins of this type have been found in a
Philoxenus Square Type hoard of nine coins of Azes in Shaikhan Dheri.
No.10 The other coins were those of the bull and lion
(Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: Nos. type.
481-83, Dani 1965-66: 37. No. 10)
Azes II, Round Type
Plate: 3, No. 10
Obverse: Goddess standing to the left
holding a cornucopiae in her left hand. She is (Whitehead 1914: 125, PL XII, 263; Dani 1965-
making gesture with her right hand. Monogram 66: 37, PL LI, 11, 12, 13 15,16; Bopearachchi &
in the lower left field. Greek legend on three Amanurrahman 1995: Nos. 965-72)
sides. Plae: 3, No. 13
Reverse: Humped bull standing to the Obverse: Humped bull standing to right
right. Kharoshthi legend is on the three sides. on a line. Greek legend all around and
There is also a monogram in the lower field monogram above.
JE, 19x 19mm Reverse: Walking lion to right with
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri Kharoshthi letters all around and monogram
above the lion
Three coins of this king are found during JE, 10.SOmm
Shaikhan Dheri excavation, but their exact Provenance: Spera Dherai
types are not known.
Coins of this type are widely found m the
Apollodotus II, Square Type Charsadda area.
Azelises, Square Type
(Bopearachchi & Amanurrahman 1995: No.
659, but in round shape)
Plate: 3, No. 11 (Dani, 1965-66: Chart No. 2; Whitehead 1914:
Obverse: Apollo is standing to right. 139, PL XIV, 358)
Greek legend on three sides. Monogram to the Plate: 3, No. 14
right. Obverse: King on horseback to the right
Reverse: Tripod lebes with Kharoshthi with Greek letters to all the four sides.
letters to the three sides and two monograms to Reverse: Humped bull to the right and
its right and left. Kharoshthi letters to all the four sides.
JE, 22x2lmm JE, 25x22mm
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 47

Only three coins of this king have been found Kanishka

during Shaikhan Dheri excavation. No.18
(Whitehead 1914: 186, Pl. XVII, 53)
Early Kushan Period
Plate: 3, No. 18
Kujula Kadphises: Round Type
Obverse: Standing king to left wearing
long coat and heavy boots, sacrificing over a
(Whitehead 1914: 178, 179, Pl. XVII, 1, 8, Dani small altar. He is also holding a long spear in
1965-66: chart No. 2, Rosenfield 1993: 12, pl. I, his left hand.
1-3) reverse: Sun god to left with right hand
Plate: 3, No. 15 advanced and left one akimbo. Monogram in
Obverse: Diademed bust of king to right the left field.
with Greek legend all around. Al, 26.28mm
Reverse: Herakles standing in frontal Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
position. He is holding a club in his right hand
which rests on the ground, while there is also Ditto
lion's skin over his left arm. No. 4.3.19
Al, 23.10 mm
(Whitehead 1914: 189, Pl. XVII, 83, Rosenfield
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
1993: pl. VIII, 150)
Plate: 3, No. 19
Wima Takto: Soter Megas
Obverse: Standing king to left wearing
peaked helmet, long heavy coat and trousers.
(Whitehead 1914: 160, Pl. XVI, 94, Rosenfield Reverse: Wind-god running to left.
1993: 25, pl. II, 29) Al, 26mm
Plate: 3, No.16 Provenance: Chalagram
Obverse: Diademed bust of king to right,
holding a long scepter. Ditto
Reverse: King on horseback to right. He No. 20
is holding ankus in his right hand, ends of
(Whitehead 1914: 192, Pl. XVIII, 106,
diadem floating in the air and Greek legend
Rosenfield 1993: pl. VIII, 15 8)
Plate: 3, No. 20
Al, 21mm
Obverse: Standing king to left, wearing
Provenance: Pkhana Dherai
peaked helmet, long heavy coat and trousers,
sacrificing over a small altar with right hand.
Wima Kadphises: Round Type
He is holding a long spear in the left hand.
Reverse: Four-armed standing Shiva to
(Whitehead 1914: 160, Pl. XVI, 94, Rosenfield the left. He is holding various objects in his four
1993: 18, pl. I, 14-15, Nasim Khan 2008: 52, hands. Monogram is to the lower left
No. 36) Al, 26.80 mm
Plate: 3, No. 17 Provenance: Sartor Baba
Obverse: Standing king to front, head
turned to left, wearing log heavy coat. He is Ditto
making an offering with his right hand over a No. 21
small altar.
(Whitehead 1914: 189, Pl. XVIII, 76)
Reverse: Shiva standing front with his
Plate: 3, No. 21
bull behind.
Obverse: Standing king to left wearing
Al, 27.17mm
peaked helmet, long heavy coat and trouser. He
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
is sacrificing over a small fire altar with right
hand, and holding a scepter in his left. Greek
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 48

legend Mao in the right margin, while a Kushano-Sassanian Period

monogram is in the left. Sbapur II (?): Small round Type
Reverse: Moon-god standing to left No. 25
which is seen radiate. His right hand is extended
(Cribb 1985: fig. 41 (Hoard 450) 4.26, 4.05,
and also holding a long scepter in the left.
3.49; fig. 42 (hoard 451) 3.53, 3.52, 4.16,
JE, 21.50mm
Nasim Khan 2008: 72, No. 134)
Provenance: Chalagram
Plate: 3, No. 25
Obverse: Bearded bust of king to right.
Huvishka, Round Type
Reverse: Unclear
No. 22
JE, 1.2 x lcm, 2.32g
(Whitehead 1914: 204, Pl. XIX, 194, Rosenfield Provenance: Majuki Dherai
1993: 66, pl. III, 45)
Plate: 3, No. 22 The first ever reported coin of the Kushano-
Obverse: King seated cross-legged facing, Sassanian in the area.
like in Buddha's meditation pose. Greek legend
all around. Ditto
Reverse: Moon-god standing to left with No. 26
right arm extended while the left one is akimbo.
(Cribb 1985: fig. 41 (Hoard 450) 4.05; fig. 43
JE, 25mm
(hoard 451) 3.43, 3.42, 3.39, Nasim Khan 2008:
Provenance: Mra Dherai
72, No. 134)
Plate: 3, No. 26
Obverse: Fire altar with floating ribbon.
No. 23
Reverse: Defaced
(Whitehead 1914: 198, Pl. XVIII, 137) JE, 1.3 x 1.2 cm, 3.20g
Plate: 3, No. 23 Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Obverse: King riding on elephant to right.
Greek legend all around. He is diademed and The second reported coin of the Kushano-
holds spear in his left hand while an elephant Sassanian in the area.
goad in the right.
Reverse: Sun god standing to left. Hindu Shahi Period
JE, 25mm Spalapati Deva (?): Copper
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri No. 27
Plate: 3, No. 27,28
Obverse: Reclining bull to the left.
No. 24
Reverse: Horseman to the right.
(Whitehead 1914: 199) JE, l.9cm
Plate: 3, No. 24 Provenance: Mya Kali Dherai
Obverse: King riding on elephant to right.
Reverse: Goddess Ardoksho standing to Sbri Samanta Deva: Silver
left holding a cornucopia. Monogram in the left No. 28
(Nasim Khan 2008: 210, No. 705)
JE, 25.23 mm
Plate: 3, No. 29
Provenance: Girawar Dherai
Obverse: Bull to left with Brahmi letters
Horseman to right holding a lance in his right
AR, l.9cm
Provenance: Sartor Baba
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 49

Vaka Deva: Round Type Earlier, these were excavated from Bala Hisar
No.29 and Shaikhan Dheri in a few number and
reported from the other sites as well (Wheeler
(Nasim Khan 2008: 210, No. 704)
1962: 21, plate XL A, Dani 1965-66: 120, plate
Plate: 4, 30-53
XLVII, Nasim Khan 2005: 13-23, figs. 10-45).
Obverse: Elephant waking to the left
At Bala Hisar the two specimens of terracotta
Reverse: Lion standing to the right with
token or seal impressions have been estimated
up curved tail
to be of the 3'd-2nd century BC that belong to the
JE, 1.8 cm (average)
Greek period. Likewise at Shaikhan Dheri these
Provenance: Bala Hisar, Pkhana Dherai,
have been excavated from the Kushan and
Majuki Dherai, Shahr-e-Napursan
Scytho-Parthian levels. From Mir Ziyarat
(Shahr-e-Napursan) a single chalcedony intaglio
Islamic Period
was found during 1902-03 excavation (Marshall
Small Round Type
& Vogel 1902-03: 160). However, no ring-seal
No.JO has so far been reported earlier from any site in
Plate: 4, No. 54 Charsadda.
Obverse: Bull standing to right, uncertain
Nagri letters above Ceramics of the area
Reverse: Kalma, Abu Alfatah, Sultan,
Earlier excavations that were carried out at
written in Arabic script
various localities of Charsadda have brought to
JE, 1.2 cm
hand some knowledge about the ceramic
Provenance: Shahr-e-Napursan
tradition of the area (Marshall & Vogel 1902-3,
Wheeler 1962, Dani 1966, Coningham et al
Seals and Sealings
2007). Marshall & Vogel have attempted to
The most interesting finds during the survey are describe the pottery of Charsadda for the first
the one hundred and thirty one seals, sealings time with reasonable detail. They have reported
and tokens, made in semi-precious stones, burnt the pre-Islamic period pottery of the area as
clay and metal, mostly bronze. Six intagios entirely wheel made, with the exception of
carved in stones were noted, while sixty-four some larger storage jars and a few grey ware
metallic seals were noted which include forty- vases that were made by hand. The delicate
one ring seals and twenty-three knobbed seals vessels are also applied with smooth reddish-
of various shapes. The rest are made of brown slip (Marshall & Vogel 1902-3: 181 ).
terracotta, which include seals as well as They have classified the pottery on the basis of
sealings and tokens. Majority of these are in red functional types as cups, bowls, dishes, goblets,
ware except the four, which are in grey ware. A saucers, water pots, storage jars etc. (Marshall
good number of it came from the sites of & Vogel 1902-3: 183). The two wares they
Shaikhan Dheri, Majuki Dherai, Bala Hisar and illustrated were the red and the grey-black ware.
Shahr-e-Napursan. Some of the seals and The former ware was used for larger and
sealings contain inscriptions as well in medium fabric vessels, while the latter or
Kharoshthi script, which usually bear name or smaller ones are also usually ornamented. This
initial of the owner. The general them of these later ware, they compared with the Bucchero-
are the depiction of human figures in seated or nero of ancient Etruria (Marshall & Vogel
standing potion, figures of deities, animals 1902-3: 180).
including the bull, lion, elephant and birds. The Charsadda vessels are decorated in incised,
Floral and geometrical patterns are also relief, applique and stamped designs. The
portrayed besides religious symbols like stupa, applique designs are known in early Greek
swastika, trident, wheel and lotus flower. period vessels in the shape of eyes, flowers,
Sometimes mythical animals are also the foliage, birds and small lamps, set on the rim of
favourite theme of the ancient artists (plate 5). pots. Such decoration was also found on early
Khotanese pottery (Marshall & Vogel 1902-3:
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 50

182). The stamped designs include circles, ware and C.Red or reddish-buff ware.
concentric circles, spoked wheels, triskels, The group A pots consisted only a few
flowers, leaves, ornamental lozenges and fragments of highly polished bowls, both inside
swastikas. Usually water pots, locally called and outside. The ware according to the
Mangai are attractively decorated with these excavator seemed to be a local imitation of
stamped designs on the shoulder below the neck Northern Black Polish Ware (Dani 1966: 135).
(Marshall & Vogel 1902-3: 181). Though This ware was witnessed at all the three periods.
specimens of black painted pottery also were The group B ware of grey colour was found in
encountered during these excavations, yet its large number in Greek and Scytho-Parthian
proportion was to a great deal lesser in amount period, while the Kushan levels had a few
as compared to the other types of decoration. fragments only. In the Scytho-Parthian period
The general tendency was to the applique, the coarse variety of this ware was found in
moulded and particularly to the stamped great number. They consisted of Thali, bowls
decoration. and incense burner (Dani 1966: 138, 144). The
Some fifty-six years latter, Wheeler in his group C or the red ware was present in all the
excavation at Bala Hisar, arranged the pottery three periods of the city, it is further classified
on the basis of form and fabric. He divided his in to A. fine fabric and B. medium fabric. The
pottery assemblage into eight types (Wheeler fme fabric is similar to Wheeler's soapy red
1962: 37). In its earliest levels he found the ware. The medium fabric consisted of thalis,
rippled rim type followed by soapy red ware. bowls, goblets, torches, lids, jars, basins, stands
Wavy-lined, incurved sided and carinated and water bottles. The fine fabric class also
bowls, tulip and lotus bowls as well as Northern included the stamped and painted ware. Four
Black Polished wares were noted in the lotus bowls in complete shape were noted
succeeding layers (Wheeler 1962: 41). The during the excavation, which fall in the fine
lotus bowl sherds, he adds, are exceptionally fabric red ware group (Dani 1966: 184, 189,
associated with Pushkalavati, not traced 218). Kushan tamghas are also found stamped
anywhere else. He is also of the view that the on some of the coarse fabric sherds belonging to
association of lotus bowls with the lotus city is some vessels.
a present from Pushkalavati (Wheeler 1962: 35, The Pak-UK project excavation at Bala Hisar
also see our plate No. 13). also recovered a large number of potsherds in
Wheeler also discusses pottery of the so-called different wares, potter's marks, inscriptions and
Muslim period which he terms though not decorated body sherds (Coningham et al 2007:
associated with coinage, however some of the 99). (We have also collected potsherds from the
pots from layer 6-4 may belong to a date as surface of Majuki Dherai bearing potter's mark
early as eighth century AD. The pottery from see plate 12-A). The pottery assemblage was
this category is from buff to reddish buff. It grouped in to fine wares, coarse wares, potter's
includes bowls, jars, cooking pots, handled cups marks, inscriptions and decorated body sherds.
etc. These pots have typical examples of In the fine wares, beakers, cups, pedestal
stamped decoration in palmettes, rosettes, vessels, dishes and bowls were recovered. Some
lozenges, triangles and broken oblique lines body sherds of black grey-burnished ware, a
(Wheeler 1962: 84). Stamped patterns of this sherd of NBP, lotus bowl and black slipped
and allied kinds are characteristic of the early body sherds were also noted in the fme ware
centuries AD (Wheeler 1962: 84, 89). category. In the coarse ware were found rims,
At the site of Shaikhan Dheri, Dani found a sherds of bowls, troughs, jars as well as bases of
good number of pots in complete form and a lot various forms, lids, lugs, handles, spouts and
of potsherds at all the three main periods of votive tanks (Coningham et al 2007: 104-114).
Indo-Greek, Scytho-Parthian and Kushan. The A limited number of glazed ceramics are also
pottery was classified on the basis of form and noted at Bala Hisar, where Wheeler records the
ware at each period, that was grouped under discovery of seven of these sherds, which he
three heads; A. Black polished ware, B. Grey presumed belong to the Islamic period (Wheeler
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 51

1962: 84, plate xviii). Coningham with his evidence of links to the pottery of Gandhara
team, however recovered a total number of 87 Grave Culture (Vogelsang 1988; 1992,
sherds of glazed ceramics from mix contexts. Coningham 2007: 116). Latter on the Indian
They have been divided in to 12 groups, mostly element became dominant in the shape of
based on colour and decoration. The fabric as a carinated bowls and flat tray or Thali forms.
whole appears to be a localized production of Still latter the Western or Aegaeic elements got
the post medieval period, probably between the prominence in the forms of red burnished and
161h and the 191h/201h century, although some of rippled rim ware (Vogelsang 192: 246).
the sherds have stylistic similarities with those The most natable and interesting pot observed
found at Iran. According to the excavator there during the survey is the five cup ritual pot,
is no local stratified excavations with a reliable originating from the cemetery of Katozai Qasim
chronology, that can be used to date such Jan 2001 ). This is the third vessel of its kind so
material. Sherds of glazed ceramics have been far noted. The second one was excavated at
found on a number of excavated sites in Butkara II in Swat while the third one was
Pakistan, UAE and East Africa. In the same found at Marlik in Iran. These vessels seem not
way the Williamson collection of glazed to be intended for ordinary use, as their
potsherds from Southern Iran and the Gulf coast infrequent occurrence could be taken as a strong
as well as Stein Collection of his surveys of clue of their exceptional utility. Furthermore it
Southern and Western Iran also contain glazed also strengthens the idea that the early period
potsherds (Coningham et al 2007: 231, 227). pottery of Charsadda was influenced by the
Likewise in our recent survey, apart from the Swat pottery, associated with Gandhara Grave
site of Bala Hisar, from where glazed sherds in Culture (Stacul 1970: 99, Vogelsang 1992 :
sizable number were picked up from its surface, 246).
other mounds were also identified where similar Nearly all type of decoration is applied to the
glazed sherds are to be found. These include the vessels of Charsadda. The stratified pottery
mounds of Shahr-e-Napursan, Majuki Dherai, from Bala Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri indicates
Arbapano Dherai, Pkhana Dherai, Khkari Baba that some of the vessels were highly burnished,
Dherai, Bibi Saida Dherai, Sre Makhe Dherai, furthermore red or reddish-brown slip was
Rai Dherai and Mughal Kas. usually provided on the outer as well as on the
During our survey a good number of selected inner surface of the pot. Some of the vessels
sherds were encountered, both in red as well as were also decorated with moulded and applique
in grey ware, but it is to be noted that red ware designs. However the most widely used
sherds are more in number as compared to the medium was that of stamp decoration which
grey ware. Grey ware sherds were found in first appeared in the lndo-Greek period and
equal proportion at the sites of Majuki Dherai, continued without break up to the Islamic
Pkhana Dherai, Mandezai mounds, Mra Dherai period. Our survey has yielded more than a
and Mughal Kas. At Mandezai mounds were thousand stamp decorated potsherds from
also picked up sherds of Northern Black different mounds of the area. From Majuki
Polished Ware, that are highly polished on both Dherai alone were collected more than six
sides. Another notable feature in the pottery of hundred stamped sherds which comprise over
Charsadda is the scarcity of spouted vessels. three hundred different designs in floral
But it does not mean that spouted vessels were patterns, leaves, circles, concentric circles,
not in much use at this area as only the pottery wheel designs, solar symbols, stars, crescents,
of Bala Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri has so far tridents, swastikas as well as numerous
been systematically documented, while very geometrical designs (plate 14). (The stamped
little is known about the hundreds of other sites decorated pottery of Charsadda will be
that are yet to be properly examined and its discussed in a subsequent paper).
pottery documented. A good number of thin-sectioned sherds were
It is generally believed that the initial ceramic collected from various mounds during the
tradition in Charsadda started locally with survey. From the mound of Majuki Dherai in
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 52

particular were found sherds of this type that Charsadda that they portrayed this flower
belong to bowls of various types, shallow dishes widely on their ceramics. Apart from the lotus
and basins (Figure 1, No. 1-21). These are well bowls, pitchers were also decorated on the
burnished on the exterior, specially the bowls. shoulder with lotus flower stamps, which are
Red slip is also applied to these vessels. Bowls comparatively smaller in size as compared to
in particular were noted in large number at the bowl stamps. These have already been
Majuki Dherai, which are of various sizes and attested from Shaikban Dheri along with the
generally decorated with incised lines on the other body sherds of pitchers with stamped
exterior (Figure 3, No. 1-9). The medium fabric lotus flowers that were collected from the
vessels with various rim shapes were also noted, mound of Majuki Dherai. Following are few of
they include jars of various sizes, pitchers and the pots noted during the survey.
bowls in varied shapes and sizes (figure 4, No.
1-21 ). The coarse ware pottery observed, 1. Pedestal cup
include deep bowls, long and narrow-necked
Plate: 12: 1
vessels, storage jars with open as well as narrow
(Dani: 1965-66: 200-202, 211-12, Figures
mouths, flat-based saucers and pitchers with
40,41,45, 57)
broad sided rims (Figure 6, No. 1-17). Grey
Provenance: Shaikban Dheri
ware pots were also observed at various mounds
Length: 8.5cm.
specially, at Majuki Dherai and Mra Dherai.
Width: 6.2cm
These are of the thin sectioned and medium
Description: Red ware pedestal cup in
sectioned variety, including open and narrow
fragmentary shape, which seems to be the
mouthed jars, bowls of various sizes and small
product of a mould with embossed geometric
cup on stand (Figure 2, No. 1-10 and Figure 5,
decoration in the shape of lines, circles and
No. 1-12). Painted decoration was observed at
dots. Potsherds decorated with moulded designs
Majuki Dherai on a pitcher and open-mouthed
have earlier been noted at Bala Hisar and
bowl (Figure 4, No. 2, 11). Potter marks were
Shaikhan Dheri. From the later site was also
also observed on some vessels including storage
found a water bottle or Wine flagon, decorated
jars from Majuki Dherai (Figure 2, No. 4 and
with animal and floral designs, associated with
Figure 4, No. 20).
the Scytho-Parthian period. However other
Presence of the lotus bowls is also exclusively
sherds having the same decoration were found
associated with the Charsadda area. Seven body
from the Kushan levels as well.
sherds of thin sectioned bowls were collected
during the survey from Shaikban Dheri, Bala
2. Pedestal cup
Hisar and Majuki Dherai (plate 13). These are
as usual stamped on the interior with a lotus Plate: 12: 2
flower design. These are red in ware with Provenance: Shaikban Dheri
highly burnished surfaces on the inner and outer Length: 5.6cm.
sides. All these seven lotus stamp designs are Width: 5cm
different in style from the ones already
published and excavated from Bala Hisar and Description: Small terracotta pedestal cup in
Shaikhan Dheri. From Shaikhan Dheri were fragmentary shape. Like the previous one it too
obtained thirteen, while from Bala Hisar was has embossed decoration in the shape of zigzag
got one lotus bowl sherd. Coupled with our lines and dots.
survey's seven sherds of the lotus bowls, it 3. Water vessel
makes twenty-one lotus stamps of varied
Plate: 12: 3
designs, which means that the possibility of
(Dani 1965-66: 197, figure 34, No. 1)
other lotus flower designs is always there and
Provenance: Girawar Dherai
more varieties of it could be found in the future.
Length: 35 cm.
The lotus flowers have so much fascinated the
Width: 25 cm
imagination of the ancient dwellers of
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 53

Terracotta large size water vessel with flat base Narrow necked bottle with straight base in red
and short spout, while rest of the body is closed. ware, red slip is also applied to its exterior.
This type of vessel is widely reported from other There are three grooved lines on its body. The
sites of Charsadda, specially from Shaikhan Dheri, bottle is thin-sectioned. Its nearest parallel have
where it is present in all the three periods. On been found at Shaikhan Dheri, where two
some fragments ofthis type, a Kushan Tamgha is fragmentary jars, called by the excavator
also stamped below the spout (for Kushan inkpots, were recovered from the Scytho-
Tamghas see plate 12). Parthian levels. The only difference is that the
Shaikhan Dheri jars have longer and straight-
4. Polychrome spouted vessel sided necks.
Plate: 12: 4
7. Toilet tray
Provenance: Bala Hisar
Length: 12.7 cm. Plate: 12:7
Width: 4cm Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Width: 2.4cm
Small red ware spouted vessel with out curved
rim, round bottom and a short spout Its surface is Terracotta toilet tray in broken state was seen at
decorated with two incised lines round the body. Majuki Dherai. It has the bust of a lady in high
White colour is also used for its decoration. The relief The lady has round fleshy smiling face,
broad white colour lines run below the neck while who wears a decorated headdress and has well-
two other white lines run round the body just combed hair. She is also wearing a beaded
below the incised lines. Above this are series of necklace round her neck and long earrings hang
double seroi-circles in white paint, covering the from the ears. No such piece has earlier been
entire body of the vessel. This is the only specimen recorded from the area earlier.
found from the Charsadda area.
8. Five-cup ritual pot
5. Lugged vessel
Plate: 12: 8
Plate: 12: 5 (Antonini 1963: 21, Stacul 1970: 99)
(Dani 1965-66: 188, 200, figure 20, No. 2, 3 & Length:26 cm.
3a, figures 40, Nos. 15, 16, 17, figure 41, Nos.
la, lb) Description: Multiple cup pot of un-usual
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri shape was observed at the cemetery of Katozai,
Length: 6.5 cm. which has five round connected cups at the top.
Width: 5.8cm So far two other such pots with multiple cups
on a pedestal have been found at the cemetery
Disc shaped lugged water vessel in red ware with site of Butkara II in Swat and a mound at
broken neck and round base. The lugs with holes Marlik in Iran.
may have been used for suspension. The entire
body is decorated with floral designs in applique 9. Globular vessel
fashion. At Shaikhan Dheri such vessels termed as
Plate: 12: 9
water bottles or wine flagons are reported from the
(Stacul 1966: 54, fig.74.b)
Greek as well as the Scytho-Parthian levels.
Provenance: Protohistoric cemetery of Lande
6. Narrow necked bottle
Length: 10.5 cm.
Plate: 12: 6 Width: 11 cm
(Dani 1965-66: 196, figure 31, No. 1&2) Globular vessel with broken handle and spout
Provenance: Pkhana Dherai has thin sections, which is made of well-
Length: 7.3 cm. levigated clay. Red slip is also applied on the
Width: 5.3 cm highly patenated exterior. A comparable type
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 54

from the Swat proto-historic cemeteries is No. The Terracotta Art

Cd/XII, a high vertical necked jug with flat
Terracotta animal and human figurines have
base. It too is made of red ware with thin sides
been noted at the sites of the Pre-Indus and
and highly refined clay.
Indus Valley Civilization earlier. These are also
recovered from the protohistoric graves of
10. Spouted and handled vessel
Swat, Dir, Zareef Koroona and other localities.
Plate: 12: 10 In the early historic period in the Peshawar
Provenance: Khan Mahi valley, these are noted at the sites of Bala Hisar
Length: 12.3 cm. and Shaikhan Dheri in Charsadda (Wheeler
Width: 16cm 1962: 104,Dani 1965-66: 48). The earliest
terracotta figurines of animals and humans in
Globular pot of red ware is relatively shorter Pakistan have been noted at Mehrgarh dated
than the former. It has a broad but short spout, between 6th-5th millennia BC (Hinkley 2001:
handle and flat base, while the portion above its 23). These are also noted at the sites of Indus
neck is missing. It too is made of well-levigated Valley Civilization as well as at the cemeteries
clay in medium texture with red slip applied to ofGandhara Grave Culture (Khan 1973: 60).
the patinated exterior.
Human Figurines
11. Beaker on pedestal Human terracotta figurines have been found
Plate: 12: 11 extensively from the mounds of Charsadda and
(Antonini 1972: 26, fig. 10. j) studied by Coomaraswamy, Gordon, Corbiau
Provenance: Katozai protohistoric cemetery and Wheeler (Hinkley 2001: 23). Gordon's
Length: 13.2 cm. 'archaic figurines' or 'Sari-Dheri type' which
Width: 9cm later became Wheeler's 'Baroque Ladies' are
the well-known terracotta figurines widely
Small beaker in red ware, its body is thin found from the mounds of Charsadda (Wheeler
textured with concave sides. The beaker is 1962: 104-108, Dani 1965-66: 48-56,
provided with low stem and low pedestal. Red Coningham 2007: 188). This type of figurines
slip is also applied to the exterior. The outer are found at Shaikhan Dheri as late as Kushan
surface has been made smooth by burnishing. times, but their concentration is mainly in the
Similar specimen has been found at the Greek period. It is believed that these figurines
cemetery ofLoebanr. are representative of the mother goddess cult,
associated with fertility and creativeness
12. Pedestal drinking glass (Hinkley 2001: 23).
We have also found and observed a number of
Plate: 65: 12 terracotta human and animal figurines during
(Antonini 1972: 26, fig. 10. k) our survey, their detail is as follow;
Provenance: Katozai protohistoric cemetery
Length: 13 cm. No. 1 Female figurine
Width: 7.4 cm Plate: 6: I
(Khan 1973: 59)
Small hour-glass shaped beaker has thin textured Provenance: Deo Dherai protohistoric
body. The pot is provided with low stem and low cemetery
conical pedestal. The pedestal is hollow from the Length: 12.2cm
inside. Like the previous one, this pot too is applied Width: 5.2cm
with red slip on the exterior, and its outer body has
been made well burnished. A similar beaker has been Female terracotta figurines are reported from
fomd at Butkara II.Terracotta Figi.nines. other protohistoric cemeteries as well. Its nearly
identical parallel has been noted at the cemetery
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 55

of Zareef Koroona period III, dated 9th-6th This Baroque Lady head has well-set hair; the
century BC. typical rosette is set to the right side. The lady is
also shown with a well-executed pair of
No. 2 Baroque Lady figurine earrings. The two applied eyes and lips are well
Plate: 6: 2 intact. The nearest parallels are found at Bala
(Corbiau 1937: 3; Wheeler 1962: 104, plates Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri
XX, XXI, XXII, XXIII-XXV; Dani 1965-66: No. 5. Baroque Lady bust
48, plates XXIV-XXVII)
Provenance: Majuki Dherai Plate: 6: 5
Length: 9.5 cm (Dani 1965-66: plate XXVI, No. 1)
Width: 6.2 cm Provenance: Baretai Dherai
Length: 5.8 cm
The figurine has the typical headdress with a Width: 2.2 cm
broken rosette to the right, while the neckband Description: Both arms and the headdress are
consists of two sets. Two small pellets are missing, while portion below the neck is
applied as breasts. The typical hip girdle is mutilated. The lady is wearing a neckband with
indicated as a horizontal line across the body. vertical as well as horizontal incisions. At
The name Baroque Lady was first applied to Shaikhan Dheri a similar lady wears the same
this special type of figurine by Wheeler, when type of neckband.
he found these widely at Bala Hisar and also
reported from other parts of the Peshawar No. 6. Painted Head ofa Lady
Valley. Earlier Carbiau had also found the same Plate: 6: 6
type of figurines at Sar Dheri and Sulai Kamar, Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
which she called then archaic figurines. Later Length: 4.7 cm
the same type of figurines were obtained from Width: 4cm
Shaikhan Dheri in large number.
Head of a Hellenistic lady made in double
No. 3. Bust of a Baroque Lady mould (hollow from within). The head is
crowned with a wreath. Its execution is very
Plate: 6: 3 naturalistic. The head is unusually painted with
(Wheeler 1962: plate XXV, No. 1; Dani 1965- appropriate colours. The wreath is painted
66: plate XXV, No. 2) green, the hair and eyebrows light brown, the
Provenance: Majuki Dherai face pink, the lips red and the eyes light green.
Length: 7.9 cm This is the only piece from Charsadda, which
Width: 7.2 cm has been applied with paint. It is on display at
Lahore Museum.
Its right arm is missing and has well set hair
No. 8. Baroque Lady bust
covering both the ears. The neckband consists
of two strips incised vertically. The third strip is Plate: 6: 7
hanging between the breasts, of which the right Provenance: Majuki Dherai
one is missing. Its nearest parallel could be Length:5.2 cm
found at Bala Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri. Width: 4.5 cm

No. 4. Baroque Lady bead Its right extending arm is intact while the left
one is completely missing. The hair is decorated
Plate: 6:4
with two sets of applied rosettes. The neckband
(Wheeler 1962: plate XXIII, Nos. 3,8; Dani
is also worn having stamped circles. There is
1965-66: plate XXV, Nos. 1,4,6,11, plate
also an applied garland having incised oblique
XXVI, Nos. 1--4, 11)
lines and stamped circles.
Provenance: Mra Dherai
Length: 4.5 cm
Width: 4.2 cm
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 56

No. 10. Baroque Lady bust No. 15. Baroque Lady: Head
Plate: 6:8 Plate: 6: 12
Provenance: Spera Dherai (Wheeler 1962: 104,; Dani 1965-66: 48)
Length: 4.5 cm Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Width: 4cm Length: 5.2 cm
Width: 4.5 cm
It has the typical neckband, with three rows.
The lady has thin elongated braids indicated at This well preserved head has neatly combed hair,
the back with thin vertical incised lines. decorated with the application of small rosettes all
round the head. Another special feature of this
No. 12. Baroque Lady bust
figurine is the presence of a round depression on
Plate: 6:9 its forehead, which may have been intended for
Provenance: Durmarjan Dherai placing a jewel in it, like the third eye of Buddha.
Length: 6.7cm This is another characteristic feature of the
Width: 4cm Baroque Lady figurine, not reported earlier.
The head of this well-preserved Baroque lady bust
is highly bejeweled and decorated with two No. 16. Baroque Lady: Torso
rosettes. It has also two earrings, while the Plate: 6: 13
neckband is decorated with incised vertical and Provenance: Shahr-e-Napursan
horizontal lines, and a garland with applied pellet Length: 4.5 cm.
is also seen. There are round pellets attached to its Width: 4cm
lower portion, these are five in number, which are
decorated with incised horizontal lines. Another The head-less torso has a neckband, decorated
round pellet is placed below the chest with a single with incised dots and round pellets.
vertical line.
No. 17. Baroque Lady: Lower body
No. 13. Baroque Lady bust
Plate: 6: 14
Plate: 6: 10
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 9.5 cm
Length: 7.5 cm
Width: 3.5 cm
Width: 6.5 cm
A well-preserved lower broken body of a Baroque
The lady has two thick braids touching her ears
Lady figurine. The incised hip line and legs
and reaching up to the shoulders, decorated with
separating line are well indicated. There are also
incised dots and short lines. A muffler is rounded
eight horizontal incised lines at the end of the legs
twice round her neck; its one end hangs between
on the face side.
her breasts.
No. 14. Baroque Lady head No. 18. Female figurines
Plate: 6: 11 Plate: 7: 15
Provenance: MughalKas Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 9.4cm. Length: 75-6 cm
Width: 8cm
The three un-backed female figurines have highly
The head has well-decorated headdress, topped by decorated headdress and joined legs. Their arms
two prominent rosettes. There are also two round are broken and have thin waists, prominent breast
pellets indicating ears. The broad necklace is and hips. Heads and other body pieces of such un-
decorated with horiz.ontal incised lines. backed female figurines were also found with the
same figurines. Probably these were making ready
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 57

for backing. These seem to be the product of a Such moulded terracotta figurines are reported
single mould as their backs are flat. from Greek levels of Shaikhan Dheri.

No. 19. Female Torso No. 23. Female head

Plate: 7: 16 Plate: 7:20
Provenance: Majuki Dherai Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 4.5cm Length: 4.3 cm
Width: 3.6cm Width: 3.5cm

The torso is light red in ware, with prominent The lady has rowid face with prominent cheeks
and broad chin. There are signs of two braids
breasts. Its front is smooth while the back is flat.
hanging from either side of the fuce, while two
The figurine was produced through moulding rosettes also decorate the hair.
No. 24. Head of human figurine
No. 20. Female Torso
Plate: 7: 21
Plate: 7: 17 Provenance: MraDherai
(Dani 1965-66: 62-64, type V, plate XXX, No. 8) Length: 4.3 cm
Provenance: Mra Dherai Width: 3.5cm
Length: 5 cm
Width: 7.18 cm The figurine has applied eyes like those of
Baroque ladies and wearing a kind of headdress
Both the arms, head and half of the body of this with horizontal folds. The nose is flat and chin
torso is missing. Its nearest parallel has been fowid rowid, its execution is rough.
at Shaikhan Dheri.
No. 25. Head of female figurine
No. 22. Female Torso
Plate: 7: 22
Plate: 7: 18 (Dani 965-66: 57-64, plates XXVIII, XXIX,
Provenance: MalkaDher XXX)
Length: 6.5cm Provenance: MalkaDher
Width: 5.5cm Length: 23.5 cm
Width: 16cm
Torso of this lady has busty body and thin waist.
Two thick braids of hair hang up to her shoulders. The figure has rowid head with tightly set hair.
It too is the product of a mould with flat back. The like moulded terracotta figurines are found
at Shaikhan Dheri.
No. 22. Torso ofa male figurine
No. 26. Human figurine
Plate: 7: 19
(Dani 1965-66: 57, type III, plates I, XXIII- No. Plate: 7: 23
2) Provenance: RaiDherai
Provenance: Jura graveyard Length: 23.5 cm.
Length: 5cm Width: 16cm
Width: 2.8cm
The figure has fan-shaped head dress with right
The right arm of this torso is wi-covered while the leg and arm missing. It has wide-open leg, as if
left one is draped with a piece of cloth. This made to be placed on some terracotta toy
fragmentary figurine is the product of a mould. animal, from which it has detached.
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 58

No. 27. Violen shaped human figurine nose and neckbands, like these of the Baroque
Ladies. It has well-<lecorated headdress and two
Plate: 7: 24
round earrings.
(Wheeler 1962: 109, plate XXIII- No. 13; Dani
1965-66: plate XXX- No. 9)
No. 31. Figurine
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 7 cm. Plate: 8:28
Width: 3.5 cm Provenance: Khkari Baba Dherai
Length: 6.2cm
This flat-backed figurine is also called fiddle Width: 5.4cm
shaped figurine. It has disc shaped lower body
with a round depression in the middle. The Its left arm and leg is missing. The figure may
fragmentary arms join at the waist level. Its have been detached from an animal figurine, on
head is flat and round from which the nose is which it was riding.
made with a pinch. The figurine is decorated
with a garland of three sets having incised No. 32. Figurine with joined hands
oblique lines. The like figurines are reported
Plate: 8: 29
from Bala Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri.
Provenance: Ghani Dherai
Length: 7 cm
No. 28. Human figurine
Width: 5.3 cm
Plate: 7: 25
(Wheeler 1962: 111, plate XXVII, No. 6; The figurine has round pinched head and frontally
Coningham 2007: figure 12.6 No. 685) extended hands joined together. Its lower part is
Provenance: Shah Darga broken and is very crudely made.
Length: 7.6 cm
Width: 6.3 cm No. 33. Human feet
Plate: 8: 30
Broken body of a human figurine with spreading
(Dani 1965-66: plate XXIX, No. 5)
arms and wide-open legs. Its head and right leg is
Provenance: Hameed Mya Dherai
broken. There is also a hole in the tip of its left
Length: 3.5 cm
arm. Its nearest parallel has been noted at Bala
Width: 3 cm
No. 29. Bust of female figurine
Broken terracotta feet, seems to be made in a
Plate: 7:26 mould. Its nearest parallel has been found at
Provenance: Sra Makha Dherai Shaikhan Dheri.
Length: 5.2cm
Width: 5cm No. 34. Human legs
Plate: 8:31
Bust of a female figurine having concave back. It
Provenance: Khan Mahi
has round head and fleshy body.
Length: 5cm
No. 30. Figurine with extended arms Width: 1.5 cm
Plate: 7: 27 Broken legs of a terracotta figurine in pink
Provenance: Pkhana Dherai ware.
Length: 8.6 cm
Width: 7 cm Animal
Description: Fragmentary figurine, probably of
a lady has open arms with broken ends. Part of the Animal terracotta figurines are widely found
right leg is preserved while the left one is from all the mounds of Charsadda. These have
completely missing. It has partly preserved eyes, been found during various excavations, carried
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 59

out earlier in the area. Moreover, occasional Length: 9.2cm

digs at the mounds for earth also reveal animal Width: 16cm
figures. During the survey we have found a
number of terracotta animal figurines in broken A small hand made styliz.ed bull. It has a short
form as well as seen and observed with the neck and also short legs, while its forelegs are
locals. Following are a selected number of bent
animal figurines from the area of Charsadda.
No. 5 Bull
No.1 Bull
Plate: 8:36
Plate: 8: 32 Provenance: Majuki Dherai
(Wheeler 1962: 113, plate XXXI, Nos. I, 2; Length: 5cm
Dani 1965-66: 71-84, plate XXXVI, a; Width: 3cm
Coningham et al 2007: 190, plate 12.5, figure
12.8) A terracotta bull figurine having broken legs. It has
Provenance: Majuki Dherai a large hump, larger even than its head.
Length: 9.5 cm
Width: 7cm No. 6 Head of a long necked animal
Plate: 8:37
Fragmentary body of a terracotta bull with
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
intact hump, its legs, horns and part of the head
Length: 7.4cm
are broken. There is also a hole in the hump.
Width: 4.6cm
Terracotta bull figurines are quite common in
all the ancient sites of Charsadda.
Head of a long necked animal with two applied
eyes and inverted V shaped ears. The long neck
No.2 Bull
indicates prohably a giraffe. If its producer had
Plate: 8:33 really a giraffe in his mind, he must have seen the
Provenance: Pkhana Dherai animal. But the animal is not found in this part of
Length: 13.5 cm the world
Width: 8.6cm
No. 7 Horse
Head and front legs of this bull are missing. The
Plate: 8: 38
rear legs have a hole for attaching it with a
(Wheeler 1962: 111,112, plates XXIX, XXX;
terracotta wheel.
Dani 1965-66: plate XXVl, BC)
Provenance: Khkari Baba Dherai
No. 3 Bull
Length: 9.4 cm
Plate: 8: 34 Width: 8.9 cm
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 8cm Its rear legs and tail are broken but is well saddled
Width: 6.2cm and harnessed. Terracotta horses are found at Bala
Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri too.
Description: Body of a bull with missing legs
and head has a prominent hump. Above the No.8 Horse
forelegs is a broad portion, decorated with series of
Plate: 8:39
Provenance: Kanewar
Length: 10.2cm
No. 4 Small bull
Width: 8cm
Plate: 8: 35
Provenance: Khan Mahi
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 60

A terracotta horse with broken legs, arched neck

and a hole in the snout This well-built ram has outwardcurved horns and
incised eyes. The horns first curve inwards then
No. 9 Head of a horse curve round to the front.
Plate: 8:40
Proven ance: MajukiDherai No.15 Camel's head
Length: 5.4cm Plate: 8:45
Width: 2cm Provenance: MalkaDher
Head of this terracotta horse figurine is decorated Length: 4.9cm
with incised dots in a vertical lin e. Another dotted Width: 3.8cm
incised line nms over the forehead. A hole is
passed through the snout Thiscamel figurine with only its head intact, has a
hole in the snout. It has also two impressedcircles
No.10 Owl's head (?) on its forehead and an incised dotted line over the
Plate: 8:41 sn out.
Provenance: Hameed MyaDherai
Length: 5.3cm No.16 Camel's body
Width: 3.6cm Plate: 8:46
Proven ance: Pkhan aDherai
Head of an owl or probably a monkey figurin e, Length: 8cm
with large applied eyes. Width: 7.3cm
No.12 Elephant's head
Entirebody of this head-less terracotta camel is
Plate: 8:41 decorated with incised marks.
Proven ance: Chalagram
Length: 11 cm No.17 Monkey's head
Width: 9cm
Plate: 8:47
Broken head of a terracotta elep hant with signs Provenance: BaretaiDherai
of broken tusks. Length: 8cm
Width: 7.3cm
No.13 Tiger's head
Head of a terracotta monkey having pinched nose,
Plate: 8:43 applied eyes and round ears.
Marshall 1951: plate 131, Nos. 252, 53, 54;
Dani 1965-66: 102, plate xxxix, No. 8 No.18 Seated monkey
Provenance: MajukiDherai
Length: 5 cm Plate: 8:48
Width: 4.5cm (Wheeler 1962:111, plate XXVIII;Dani 1965-55:
94-99, plate XXXVIII; Coningham et al
Description: This tiger head has round applied 2007:192, plate 12.7, figure 12.11)
eyes and incised horizontal lin es, indicating its Provenance: MajukiDherai
mouth as well as its moustaches. The head seems Length: 6.7 cm.
to have been attached to some pot. Width: 3.8cm

No.14 Ram Body of a seated monkey with missing head, arms

and legs. Such sitting terracotta monkeys are found
Plate: 8:44 at Bala Hisar and ShaikhanDheri as well.
Provenance: Sartor Baba
Length: 10.2cm
Width: 8.3cm
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 61

No.19 Monkey's head No.23 Toy bird

Plate: 9:49 Plate: 9:53
Provenance: Khan Mahi Provenance: Girawar Dherai
Length: 4.5 cm Length: 15 cm
Width: 3.4cm Width: 1.3 cm

Head of a monkey with round incised eyes. Terracotta bird with pointed tail, it has a hole
pierced through its body for attaching terracotta
No.20 Bull wheels through an Axle. The tail has horizontal
incised lines. There is also a hole passing
Plate: 9:50
through its beak. Similar bird figurines have
Provenance: ShahDargah
been found at Shaikhan Dheri.
Length: 7cm
Width: 6.5 cm
No.24 Bird
Broken figurine of an animal, probably of a bull, Plate: 9:54
as a hump is also indicated behind the neck. The Provenance: HinduKamar
horns as well as the body below the neck is Length: 5.3 cm
missing. There are series of incisions all around Width: 16 cm
the neck.
Body of a terracotta bird with missing head.
No.21 Animal The body as well as the tail is decorated with
incised lines, representing feathers.
Plate: 9:51
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
No.25 Toy hen
Length: 14cm
Width: 9 cm Plate: 9:55
Provenance: Sartor Baba
Broken terracotta animal, round the neck, it has an Length: 5 cm
applied strip with a bell hanging. There is also sign Width: 3.6 cm
of a rider.
Terracotta red ware hen figurine, with broken
No.22 Bird beak has an upward spreading tail and a very
smooth body. A hole is made across the head
Plate: 9: 52
for attaching a string. Another hole has been
(Wheeler 1962: 114, plate XXXV, Nos. 1-4, 8;
passed through its body for attaching wheels.
Dani 1 965-66: 103-106, plate XL; Coningham
et al 2007: plate 12.8, sf894)
No.26 Flying Falcon (?)
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 9.2 cm Plate: 9:56
Width: 2.8cm Provenance: Pkhana Dherai
Length: 5.7cm
A schematic bird in complete shape has a tri-cone Width: 3.3 cm
tail and head resembling an animal. It has a hole
across its sides, probably for attaching wheels. Broken piece of probably a flying falcon in red
Another hole is also made across its mouth, which ware. This flat piece has a smooth surface on both
seems to have been used for attaching a string. sides. Only the spreading tail and open wings are
Terracotta birds are reported from Bala Hisar and preserved, but the upper body is missing. Its
Shaikhan Dheri as well. Similar birds are found at parallel has not been recorded previously from the
Bhir Mound-Taxila, dated to the Mauryan times, Charsadda area
approximately third century BC.
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 62

No.27 Animal's head Shaikhan Dheri such terracotta toy cart frames
have been noted.
Plate: 9:57
Provenance: Nisatta graveyard
No. 3 Toy cart wheels
Length: 8cm
Width: 6.5 cm Plate: 9: 61
(Wheeler 1962: 114, plate :XXXV, Nos. 5,6,7;
Head of an un-identified terracotta animal with Dani 1965-66; 106, plate XLI-b, 3,7,9;
long snout and broad ears. A vertical incised line Coningham et al: 2007: 195, figure 12.15, 646,
pass from the neck up to the head It has oblique 1013)
incisions on its either sides, representing hair. Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 23.5 cm
No.28 Animal's head Width: 16cm
Plate: 9:58
Two terracotta toy-cart wheels, having curved
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
ends and a hole in the middle. These were also
Length: 2.9cm
supposed to be used with terracotta animals having
Width: 2.4cm
a hole in their sides. Such terracotta wheels are
widely found from the mounds ofCharsadda.
Head of an un-identified animal. It has a hole
running through its snout while the forehead is
No. 4 Pyramidal weight
decorated with incised dots.
Plate: 9: 62
Miscellaneous Artifacts (Marshall & Vogel 1902-03: 153; Wheeler 1962:
No. 1 Tile brick 114, plate XXXVI, A-2, 3, 4; Dani 1965-66: 116,
plate XLII, B, 1-8)
Plate: 9: 59
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
(Marshall 1951: plate 119)
Length: 4.7 cm
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Width: 2.5 cm
Length: 13 cm
Width: 11.5 cm
This pyramidal weight also has a whole in the top
portion. On its flat bottom is incised a swastika
Broken piece of a terracotta patterned tile with
sign. Pyramidal weights are widely found at the
front showing floral design, while the back is flat.
Charsadda area, these have been reported from
No other specimen of its kind has so far been
Bala Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri.
reported from any site in the vicinity. In the
Bhamala stupa at Taxila, such patterned tiles are
No. 5 Pyramidal weight
found in large number at the pavement in front of
the western steps of main stupa. Plate: 9:63
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
No. 2 Cart frame Length: 7.8cm
Width: 3.2cm
Plate: 9: 60
(Wheeler 1962: 114, plate XXXVI, A; Dani
Terracotta pyramidal weight with a hole at the top.
1965-66: 108-9, plate XLI, a)
Its exterior has been made smooth by burnishing.
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 10 cm
No.6 Pyramidal weight
Width: 6.8 cm
Plate: 9:64
Animal cart frame of terracotta having several Provenance: Khan Mahi
holes, intended for the attachment of wheels. At Length: 23.5 cm
Width: 16cm
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 63

It too has a hole in the upper part and has smooth Metal Objects
Discovery of metal objects made for ordinanry use
is a routine occurrence in the settlement sites.
No. 7 Rosette
Metal objects that are mainly made of bronz.e and
Plate: 9:65 iron were also collected or seen during the survey.
Provenance: Pkhana Dherai It includes jewelry items, household objects,
Width: 3.4cm weapons etc.

Such rosettes were attached to the head of Baroque No.1 Finger ring
Ladies. As these rosettes were separately made and
Plate: 10: 1
then attached to the figurines, so were more its
Material: Gold
chances of detachment
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
Diameter: lcm
No. 8 Rosette
Plate: 9:66 Small finger-ring made of gold; its top is decorated
Provenance: Majuki Dherai with geometrical designs.
Width: 2cm
No. 2. Jewelry piece
The rosette seems to have been detached from the
Plate: 10:2
head of a Baroque Lady figurine.
Material: Gold
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
No. 9 Sherd stamped with lotus
Length: 01 cm
flower Weight: 01 gr
Plate: 9:67
A tiny piece of gold jewelry, which has a holed
Provenance: Chalagram
catch and zigzag end where a gem seems to have
Width: 5cm
been fixed in it
Worked terracotta sherd, decorated with
No. 3. Antimony rod
Pushkalavati stamp.
Plate: 10: 3
No.10 Stamped flower (Marshall & Vogel 1902-03: 153; Dani 1965-
66: 133)
Plate: 9:68
Material: Copper
Provenance: Adamghar Baba
Provenance: Sandasar Dherai
Width: 6cm
Length: 7.5 cm
A rowid terracotta stamped flower, detached from
Copper antimony rod, tip of its pointed end is
some other vessel.
broken. On the top is a disc, which is decorated on
both sides with a stylized swi design. Copper
No.11 Beads
antimony rods are fowid at Bala Hisar and
Plate: 9:69 Shaikhan Dheri as well. At the later site fourteen
Provenance: Majuki Dherai copper antimony rods were recovered.

Five terracotta beads of different shapes and sizes. No.4 Antimony rod
Plate: 10:4
Material: Copper
Provenance: Kotak Dherai
Length: 6.2cm
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 64

Copper antimony rod, its top portion is decorated Small bull made of bronze has prominent hump
with incised horizental lines. and horns. This is probably the only reported
bronze bull from the Charsadda area
No. S Antimony rod
No.10 Key
Plate: 10: 5
(Marshall 1945: 586, plate 173, No. 224) Plate: 10: 10
Material: Copper (Marshall 1951: 599, plate 164-Nos. 48, 49, 50,
Provenance: Gandaghar Dherai plate 176-Nos. 353-55)
Length: 6.7 cm Material: Bronze
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
Both ends of this copper antimony rod are Length: 3 cm
clubbed. Its nearest parallel is reported from Width: 2 cm
Bronze key, having three teeth and a handle with
No. 6. Antimony rod hole. It seems that this is perhaps the only
Plate: 10:6 specimen so far reported from the area At Taxila
Material: Copper such keys are reported in sufficient number.
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Length: 4.2cm No.11 Arrowhead

Copper antimony rod with broken tip, its top Plate: 10: 11
shows a female standing figure with joined hands Material: Iron
at the waist. The back also indicates a long braid. Provenance: Bala Hisar
Length: 5.3 cm
No. 7. Antimony rod
A three-pronged iron arrowhead, it has short end.
Plate: 10: 7
Material: Copper No.12 Disc
Provenance: Mra Dherai
Length: 4.5 cm Plate: 10: 12
Material: Bronze
Top of a copper antimony rod, having a rooster Provenance: Majuki Dherai
with broad curved tail and a crown on the head. Diameter: 1.9 cm
Only a small part of its rod portion is intact.
A round disc incised with a walking stag to the
No. 8 Antimony rod right. It seems to have served as the top of a finger
ring from which it has detached.
Plate: 10: 8
Material: Copper No.13 Bell
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri
Length: 6.4 cm Plate: 10: 13
Copper antimony rod having a short pin, top of Material: Bronze
which is decorated with floral design. It seems that Provenance: Pkhana Dherai
no such specimen has so far been reported from Length: 5 cm
the Charsadda area
Bronze bell with a holed catch on the top.
No. 9 Bull
No.14 Leaf
Plate: 10: 9
Material: Bronze Plate: 10: 14
Provenance: Majuki Dherai (Marshall 1951: 603, plate No. 185,j)
Length: 3.6cm Material: Bronze
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 65
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri Dagger made of iron with long built in handle.
Length: 6.2cm
Width: 4cm No.18 Arrowheads
A well-preserved copper leaf with a small ring for Plate: 10: 18
suspension. Both of its sides are representing the (Wheeler 962: 19; Antonini 1972: 38, Stacul
same scene. It seems to be the product of a double 1969: 95)
mould, in which the supposed veins are clearly Material: Iron
visible. Probably no specimen of its kind is so far Provenance: Deo Dherai protohistoric
reported from Charsadda, however at Taxila a cemetery
bronze sheet of copper, embossed with vine-leaf Length: 6.5-9.6 cm
design was found.
Five arrowheads of iron with tangs.
1. Length 6.5 cm Three sided blade
No.15 Dragon's head ring
Plate: 10: 15 2. Length 7 cm Four sided blade
Material: Bronze 3. Length 8.9 cm Four sided blade
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri 4. Length 9.6 cm Three sided blade
Length: 6.5 cm 5. Length 8.4 cm Three sided blade
Width: 5cm
Iron arrowheads have been found at the Swat and
A ring with dragon head made of bronze, which Chitral proto-historic cemeteries. Tanged iron
could be seen from both sides. It looks that no such arrowheads have been found at Bala Hisar as well.
specimen is reported from the area earlier. No. 19 Modern Bullets
Plate: 10: 19
No.16 Spearhead Material: Lead
Plate: 10: 16 Provenance: Various ancient mounds
(Antonini 1972: 38, figure. 22 a, c, e; Dani
1963: 84; Wheeler 1962: 119) Twenty-Four modem bullets of lead collected
Material: Iron from the surface of various mounds.
Provenance: Lande Rud protohistoric
cemetery Minor Objects
Length: 12.3 cm In the minor group the following objects were
Width: 16cm noted.
A three-sided spearhead of iron, was seen at the
protohistoric cemetery of Lande Rud. It has three No.1 Shells
blades and a short-socketed tang. Spearheads have Plate: 11: 1
been noted at the protohistoric cemeteries of (Marshall 1951: 667, plate 202, No. 7)
Katelai and Loebanr in Swat. At the cemetery of Provenance: Pkhana Dherai
Timargara too a spearhead has been excavated,
associated with fraction burial. At Bala Hisar was Three small shells with a hole at the shorter end
also excavated an iron spearhead from layer 29 of which may have been used in ornaments. Such
Ch. I dated to 4111-3rc1 century BC. shells (Parreysia favidens) are found at Taxila
as well.
No.17 Dagger
Plate: 10: 17 No. 2 Shell
Material: Iron Plate: 11: 2
Provenance: Lande Rud protohistoric (Marshall 1951: 667, plate 202, No. 7)
cemetery Provenance: Gandaghar
Length: 8.4cm Length: 6.5 cm
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 66
Spoon shaped shell is off-white in colour and has No. 7 Beads
parallel lines on its outer face. Such shells
Plate: 11: 7cm
(Pinctada margaritifera) are also reported from
Material: Semi precious stones
Provenance: Girawar Dherai
No. 3 Shell
Beads and gems of glass and semi-precious stones
Plate: 11: 3 observed at Girawar Dherai. To the right is a
(Marshall 1951: 667, plate 202, No. 5) carnelian decorated tablet bead measuring 1.5 cm.
Provenance: Hameed Mya Dherai It is perhaps the only reported piece from the
Length: 5.2 cm Charsadda area.
Width: 16 cm
No. 8 Beads
Shell with round shape has red-brown patches on
Plate: 11: 8cm
its white surface. At Taxila such shells (Xancus
Material: Semi precious stones
pyrum) are reported.
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Semi-precious stone beads in various shapes and
No. 4 Shell
Plate: 11: 4
Provenance: Majuki Dherai No. 9 Beads
Length: 2.5 cm
Plate: 11: 9cm
Description: Cream colour shell of the Xancus
Material: Semi precious stones
Provenance: MalkaDher
No. 5 Bangle
Nine beads of semi-precious stones in barrel and
Plate: 11: 5 cylindrical shape.
(Coningham et al 2007: 236)
Material: Shell bone No.10 Bangle pieces
Provenance: Spera Dherai
Plate: 11: 11
Length: 5.8cm
(Coningham 2007: 162)
Material: Glass
Piece of a shell bangle has a very smooth surface.
Provenance: Majuki Dherai
Pieces of shell bangles are reported from Bala
Diameter: 5.5, 5.4cm
Hisar and numerous other sites at Charsadda.
Broken pieces of two glass bangles. The upper one
No. 6 Playing ball
measures 5.5cm and is blue in colour. The lower
Plate: 11: 6 one measures 5.4 cm. It is of black glass and
(Marshall 1951: 506, plate 147-h,ij,k,1,m,o,p) painted white. At Bala Hisar pieces of 97 glass
Material: Glass bangles were recovered mostly from mixed
Provenance: Shahr-e-Napursan contexts of periods V and Vl.
Diameter: 2 cm
No.11 Pieces of glass plates
Glass ball of blue colour with white patches.
Plate: 11: 12
Probably no such parallel is previously reported
(Coningham 2007: 161)
from the Charsadda area, however such stones
Material: Greenish glass
with inlay, incrustation are found at Taxila,
Provenance: Pkhana Dherai
belonging to 1" century AD.
Glass pieces of vessels in green colour that seem to
be rim pieces belonging to different dishes. From
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 67

1he excavation at Bala Hisar numerous pieces of cemeteries of Swat, Timargara and Zareef
glass vessels came to light. B ut Wheeler and Koroona. Other beads of semi precious stones in
Dani have not reported glass vessels from Bala different shapes and have been reported from
Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri. Bala Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri.

No.12 Tiger's bead No.16 Decorated beads

Plate: 611: 13 Plate: 11: 18
Material: Carnelian Material: Carnelian
Provenance: Shahr-e-Napursan Provenance: Deo Dherai protohistoric
Leng1h: l.2cm cemetery

Head piece of a small broken tiger figurine made Carnelian beads decorated wi1h white alkaline
of red agate. It has minute details of 1he animal's substance were noted at 1he cemetery of Deo
facial features. Dherai.

No.13 Frog Conclusion

Plate: 11: 14 The ancient mounds of Charsadda are being
Material: Pale glass plundered of its archaeological asset since long.
Provenance: Shaikhan Dheri Treasure seekers and dealers not only purchase
Leng1h: 2.2 cm chance finds but also arrange for digging
A small frog of glass in yellow colour having full operations on prospective mounds. State of 1he
details. art metal detectors are used in 1hese operations.
Gold objects and stone statues are of course
No.14 Human finger 1heir sole aim. Ceramics, terracottas, stucco as
well as o1her delicate cultural objects are often
Plate: 11: 15
crushed in 1he operation. The found objects
Material: Stucco
rapidly vanish in to private collections, only 1he
Provenance: Chalagrarn
less valuable objects are kept for some time and
Leng1h: 10cm
that too are eventually sold away.
Wid1h: 6cm
We are of 1he view that 1he rich cultural heritage
Stucco broken human finger wi1h nail was noted at
of the area has not been properly highlighted
1he Buddhist stupa site of Chalagram.
and projected in 1he past. Wi1h 1his aim in view,
archaeological sites of Charsadda district were
No.15 Beads
explored to find out more clues of ancient past.
Plate: 11: 16 During surface exploration 1he following new
(Dani 1965-66: 122-128, Coningharn 2007: information was collected, related to 1he
170, Antonini 1972: 43, Stacul 1969: 99, Dani cultural history of 1he area.
1967: 192, plate XLIX, Khan 1973. 56)
Material: Carnelian 1. Previous excavators, who pushed back
Provenance: Lande Rud protohistoric 1he history of Pushkalavati to 14th century BC
cemetery have assigned 1he earlier level pottery of Bala
Leng1h: 23.5 cm Hisar to people who had cultural contacts wi1h
Wid1h: 16cm 1he people of Swat and Dir (Coningharn & Ali.
2007: 97). The said pottery has close similarity
Carnelian beads, mostly in red colour include wi1h 1hose of 1he Gandhara Grave Culture.
barrel, cylindrical, spherical and disc shaped. Though cultural material of 1he oldest time was
Some have white colour incised decoration as available in 1he early layers of Bala Hisar but its
well. Such beads have been reported from 1he au1hor was un-known in Charsadda. Historical
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 68

canvas related to that specific period was misty coins are clear enough to be identified with
and we were unable to guess which specific some ease. These were found at the sites of Bala
group of people were the early inhabitants of Hisar, Shaikhan Dheri, Majuki Dherai, Shahr-e-
Pushkalavati. During the survey we observed a Napursan, Pkhana Dherai and Spera Dherai.
number of graveyards that had graves, similar to
the ones found earlier in Swat and Dir, assigned The most notable feature of the coins
to the Indo-Aryans, who are said to have lived encountered during the survey is the discovery
here around 15th- 14th century BC. These of two Kushano-Sassanian and observation of
graveyards are encountered at three different twenty-seven Hindu Shahi coins. Coin currency
localities of Charsadda. Pottery and related of these two dynasties was not reported from
grave assemblage reported from these graves, the area of Charsadda earlier. It is difficult to
have striking resemblance with those of the tell at the moment which specific ruler of the
Swat, Timargara and Zareef Koroona Aryan Kushano-Sassanian dynasty, these coins belong
period graves. Earlier excavations at some to. One coin shows the bust of king, but the
selected sites in Charsadda and the later crown portion is broken, while the reverse side
archaeological surveys did not stumble on any is un-clear. The other coin shows only the fire
sign of the presence of peoples of particular altar, its obverse is un-recognizable. Of the
origin before the Achaemenian period in this Hindu Shahi coins, twenty-four were examined
area. Our survey showed up clear signs of the during the survey. These include one silver coin
proto-historic period graves and the of Shri Samanta deva at Bala Hisar, four
accompanying grave material, that have coppers of the bull and horseman type, also at
resemblance with the so-called Aryan period Bala Hisar, fifteen coppers of Vaka Deva of
graves and their material excavated in the hill elephant and lion type at Majuki Dherai and
zone around Charsadda. With the availability of four at Shahr-e-Napursan. The other three coins
graves at three different localities of Charsadda found of this dynasty were from Majuki Dherai,
and resemblance of its cultural material, placed Pkhana Dherai and Shahr-e-Napursan
with the dead body, like those of the Gandhara respectively. These are of the elephant and lion
Grave Culture, indicates the presence of lndo- type coins of Shri Vaka deva.
Aryans in this area. Earlier cultural material was
available, but its user was un-known. At the These are the first ever Kushano-Sassanian
present, availability of the same type of material coins noted in the Charsadda area. Coins in
in the same type of graves, it could safely be between the later Kushans up to the early
hinted, that the same people, like those of Swat, Muslim period were nussmg from the
Timargara and Zareef Koroona also lived here chronological profile of Charsadda. Presence of
in the Charsadda area. Thus on the basis of the the Kushano-Sassanian rule in the Charsadda
presence of these ancient cemeteries and other area could be proved for the first time through
associated cultural material, we can presume the discovery of their coins. If the search is
that the earlier levels of Bala Hisar could be further carried on in future, other coins of this
assigned to the Indo-Aryans. dynasty will perhaps come to light that may
help extend the historical profile of the region,
2. During the survey a limited number of which will be indeed a significant contribution.
coins were encountered. Some were collected
from the surface of the mounds, but in majority Presence of the Hindu Shahi rule in the area of
of the cases these were noted with the people Charsadda was tallied earlier with the presence
residing near the sites. We found a total of of some potsherds at a few sites that were
twenty-one coins all made of copper; almost believed to be similar to the Hindu Shahi period
half of these were highly rusted. As the area of pottery earlier excavated at Damkot and Hund
Charsadda is under intensive agricultural ((Rahman 1968-68: 144, Ali 2003: 93). Other
activities since long, therefore ratio of salinity than potsherds our survey has for the first time
in the soil is all time high. Only eleven of the proved existence of the Hindu Shahi coins in
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 69

Pushkalavati as well. Though coins of the decorated pottery could be found. It is depended
Hindu Shahi period were noted at some selected on future research on this topic to take this
points in the Peshawar valley. Thus we are now question to its logical conclusion. Future
in a saffer position to presume that Charsadda explorations if carried out at Majuki Dherai will
too was under the Hindu Shahi rule. unquestionably unveil the factual picture.

3. Potsherds with stamp decoration have 4. New cultural material was also noted for
been noted at the site of Majuki Dherai along the first time during our survey, such artifacts
with the Hindu Shahi coins. Pottery of this were not previously found at any of the
dynasty is noted for its stamped decoration excavated site in Charsadda. In the terracotta
excavated earlier at Damkot and Hund (Rahman group these include a flying falcon, a terracotta
1968-68: 144). Our variety of stamped designs toilet tray with a female figurine, piece of a
found on Majuki Dherai potsherds outnumber decorated tile and a pyramidal weight with
those found on the Hindu Shahi pottery incised swastika sign. Several pottery stamps in
excavated at Hund, which was itself their negative together with a lotus bowl seal were
capital in the Peshawar Valley. Presence of the also noted for the first time. Among other minor
stamped decorated pottery in Majuki Dherai objects, a blue glass ball, a carnelian tablet
along with the presence of Hindu Shahi coins decorated with white colour paste and a key, a
could lead to the idea that Majuki Dherai too decorated leaf and a dragon's head, all made of
may have been another major centre second to bronze were also noted. In addition to the stone
Hund during the Hindu Shahi rule in the objects a bracket with a winged goddess
Peshawar plain. figurine, a decorated pendent and a jewelry
mould were also seen for the first time.
In the presence of Hund as a Hindu Shahi
capital of Gandhara some fifty kilometers east Another noteworthy object seen was a broken
and Kashmir Smast, another Shivite religious piece of human finger with nail, made of stucco.
center, also about fifty kilometers north east of It was found at the Buddhist religious
Charsadda, how could the Hindu Shahi rulers establishment of Chalagram. This finger piece
overlook importance of the area in between the is 10.6 cm long, which indicates that the statue
Kabul and Swat rivers. Its strategic location, it originally belonged to, might not be of less
from where access to the passes, situated in the than human size. Larger than life size stone
west and north of Charsadda, as well as its statues are also reported from the same site. We
thriving agriculture, due to its fertility of soil, could presume that in the Charsadda area too,
could have been the reasons the Hindu Shahis there were Buddhist religious centres like the
wanted to have firm control over Charsadda. site of Chalagram, where full-size statues of
stone and stucco were there.
As we know the only site in Pakistan where
stamped decorated pottery in such a large 5. The bronze square seal from Shahr-e-
quantity is excavated is Tulamba (Mughal 1967: Napursan has a flying eagle, such seals have
56). Its period III dated to 8-12 century AD has been found also at Bactria and Margiana. The
produced up to 200 different varieties of sites from where these seals were found are
stamped designs on potsherds (Mughal 1967: associated with the movement of the Aryans
27, 27). We have collected more than 300 (Parpola 1988: 284, Fig. 8). Thus it seems to be
different varieties of stamped sherds from another indication of the presence of Indo-
Majuki Dherai. If surface collection can Aryan people in the Charsadda area. If the area
produce stamped sherds in such a large number, is properly excavated, other items of the Aryan
how much more could be procured if the site is age might also come to light, that will certainly
subjected to proper scientific excavation. The help in understanding the movement of the
said site could certainly become the only site in Indo-Aryans in this part of Pakistan.
Pakistan where the largest variety of stamped
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 70

6. Beads from the newly explored indicates that Shiva sect was most probably
cemeteries of Lande Rud and Deo Dherai are of existing and Shiva veneration was practiced in
special interest. These are of various shapes the area. He also informs that this temple had a
ranging from spherical, disc and barrel to miracle making icon of the Deva = Shiva
cylindrical. Majority is made of the semi- (Watters 1975: 24).
precious stone of carnelian, having various Moreover Mukherjee is of the view that the
decorations made with a white paste. goddess, shown on the gold coin earlier found
Cylindrical beads of the type have mostly round from the Pushkalavati area, is the consort of
white bands, while some of them have zigzag Shiva. He further adds that the inscription on
lines of the same white substance. This is itthat reads Ampa could be Amva or Amba,
believed to be a very strong, probably alkaline which means a mother goddess as well as
white colour material, still intact after the lapse Durga, the wife of Shiva. He gives further food
of more than thousand years. Presence of this to this thought by saying that on the other side
type of decorated beads, known as etched beads of the coin is depicted a bull, and also the bull
has been attested from the time of the Indus in written form, in Greek and Kharoshthi letters.
Valley Civilization down to the historic period. As bull is the mount of Shiva, so is the goddess
Such beads are also collected from levels of his consort (Mukherjee 1969: 13). We are of the
Bhir mound, Taxila. Decorated cylindrical view that if bull, the mount of Shiva and ampa-
beads from Deo Dherai and Lande Rud Amva-Uma or Durga, the wife of Shiva are
cemeteries have lines and zigzag lines, such placed in such a position of esteem, then it
beads have been found at sites in southern India might be possible that it was actually Shiva,
that date from the I s1_2nd century AD (Stacul who was meant to be given that much honour. It
1969: 99). Similarly from our recently explored seems probable that at the time of the issue of
cemeteries, we have the same etched type disc this particular coin, Shiva cult was thriving at
or tablet shaped beads that have cross or square Charsadda.
designs filled with the same white substance. It
also hints at the presence of a well-developed A bronze seal from Majuki Dherai (plate 21,
art of bead making in the area of Charsadda. No. 46) shows a human figure with a staff in his
During the proto-historic times the lapidary art right hand. We know that staff is also the
was possibly passing through its developed attribute of Shiva; therefore it might be possible
phase. Moreover the occurrence of these that the figure on seal could be that of Shiva
carnelian beads in the area, also indicate the itself. Moreover a bronze ring seal from
existence of long-distance trade during the Shaikhan Dheri (plate 22, No. 47) shows a
proto-historic times, because the raw material human standing figure holding a long rod or
was of course imported from the areas outside scepter in his hand. If scepter is also the
Pushkalavati. attribute of Shiva, consequently the figure in
question may also be that of Shiva.
7. During the survey, signs of the presence
of Shiva Cult in Charsadda were also noted for Terracotta tokens found from Bala Hisar and
the first time. The special sign found on the Shaikhan Dheri also show well-executed bulls,
stamped pottery at Majuki Dherai is the trident, the mount of Shiva. Similarly on a bronze seal
attribute of lord Shiva. From this mound we from Shahr-e-Napursan we see a standing bull
have found five different varieties of this to right with prominent hump (plate 5).
symbol on potsherds. Two are the simple Presence of the bull on seal and tokens hints at
tridents, with wide space between each blade, the presence of Shiva cult in the area. Another
while three others, have a horizontal bar also in terracotta token depicting a stylized trident was
the middle. Its connection with the Shiva found at Shaikhan Dheri (Mohammadzai 2008:
worship as well as the statement of Xuanzang, 67). Trident is another attribute of Shiva;
that a Deva (Shiva) temple existed out side the therefore the Charsadda area seems to have
western gate of the city (Pushkalavati), been associated with the cult since long.
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 71

Presence of the Shiva temple in Charsadda, as Acknowledgements

Xuanzang has noted in the seventh century,
It is the scholarly direction of a teacher in every
association of lotus goddess coin with Shiva
academic project that keeps the labours of a
and presence of trident symbols on stamped
researcher on the right tract. The highly
pottery at Majuki Dherai as well as presence of
valuable and scholarly direction of Professor
bull and Shiva on seals and tokens points to the
Dr. Nasim Khan, Director Institute of
presence of Shiva cult in Charsadda for a
Archaeology and Social Anthropology, was
considerable longer period of time. It was
always my persistent source of suggestion and
believed before that only Buddhism was the
encouragement. Regardless of his numerous
practical religious conviction of the people of
administrative engagements and other research
Gandhara, but clear signs of Shiva veneration at
activities, he helpd me out at every moment of
Kashmir Smast (Nasim Khan 2008) and now in
my research. He was always ready to rectify my
the Charsadda area hints that Shiva worship was
raw approach about various aspects of this
also practiced side by side with Buddhism in the
study. This project would never have seen light
Peshawar valley.
without his tireless supervision. I thank him
On the basis of information collected through from the core of my heart.
this work, a fresh chronological table for
Charsadda is thus developed. I am also greatly indebted to Professors, Farid
Khan and Dr. Abdurrahman, my teachers, who
I. lndo-Aryan Period 15th_ 14th century had several seasons of excavation experience at
BC (3 New Grave sites) Bala Hisar and Shaikhan Dheri. Both of them
2. Achaemenian rule very kindly allowed me to get their field reports
6th_4th century BC consulted and were always prompt in satisfying
(Ceramics) my querries. Let me acknowledge the mature
3. Alexander's Attack intellectual guidance of Professor Fidaullah
c327 BC (Defensive ditch) Sihrai, who was kind enough to share with me
4. Mauryan Rule 4th_2•d century BC his views about Shaikhan Dheri pottery; which I
(NBP sherds & backed bricks) found very helpful for my background
5. Indo-Greek Rule information. He also was kind enough to inform
2nd -1 '' century AD (Coins) me about various decorative features on the
6. lndo-Scythian Rule ceramics of the area.
I st century BC (Ditto)
7. Indo-Parthian Rule My profound thanks are also due to my other
I st century AD (Ditto) kind teachers, Professors Dr. Ihsan Ali, Dr.
8. Early Kushan Rule Farooq Swati and Dr. Taj Ali, for their valuable
50-230 AD (Ditto) advice and motivation at various stages of the
9. Later Kushan Rule project. Similarly, I would offer my thanks to
3r<1-4thcentury AD (Ditto) the teaching staff of this institute; particularly
10. Kushano-Sassanian Rule Dr. Mukhtar Ali Durrani, Dr. Gui Rahim Khan,
4th century AD (Ditto) Dr. Zakir Ullah Jan, Professor Muhammad
11. Hindu Shahi Rule Naeem Qazi and Mr. Nidaullah Sihrai, for their
750-1026 AD (Ditto) help at various stages of this research. My
12. Early Muslim Rule gratitude is also due to Messrs Asad Ali, the
11th century AD (Ditto) photographer; Asim Amin, the computer
13. Late Muslim period operator and Muhammad Naeem, the
1747-1818 AD (Monuments in draughtsman, of the Institute, for providing me
Charsadda graveyard) professional and technical assistance and
14. Sikh Rule support in their respective fields.
1826-1848 AD (Coins)
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 72

I am also obliged to Dr. Huhammad Ashraf useful for me while I was in the field for survey
Khan, director Archaeology and Museums, in the Tangi area. Mr. Mohammad Irfan of
Government of Pakistan, for his sincere Utmanzai, who served me as a guide in the far­
response to all my queries. He was indeed of flung areas of the tehsil, deserves my heartfelt
great help and discussed with me in detail, gratitude. Similarly, in Shabqadar tehsil Mr.
about the terracotta art in ancient Pushkalavati. Misbahullah, Principal Government High
Dr. Sardar Badshah, professor Allama Iqbal School Matta Mughal Khel, was of great help,
Open University Islamabad, was kind enough who very kindly arranged guides for me to visit
for arranging several rare references, which I to the areas lying on the border with Mohmand
consulted during my research. Similarly I am Agency. I also extend my sincere thanks to
also thankful to Mrs Humaira Alam of the Messers Shabeer Raza, Midrarullah, Mukhtar
Lahore Museum for arranging for me to Ali and Mr. Tahir Jan, for providing every
photograph the only painted terracotta figurine facility, while collecting data at the historic
from Shaikhan Dheri. At the same time Mr. cemetery of Charsadda and the mound of
Zafar Hayat Khan, lecturer Institute of Majuki Dherai.
Archaeology and Anthropology, University of
Peshawar, was also of great help for consulting I had to go on exhausting visits to the field for
the relevant data through the internet. exploration during my survey and was helped
by many individual in their respective
I am especially indebted to Mr. Shakil Ahmad, capacities. I shall be failing in my duty if do not
Tahsildar Charsadda, for helping me to consult mention their names. I am highly thankful to
the lands records of the respective tehsils. His Messrs Mohammad Nasir, Mushtaq Zargar,
assistance proved extremely useful for Tufail Ahmad, Shaharyar and Mohammad
determining the exact location of sites, Fayaz Khan of Rajar, for their help during the
especially those that fall on the boundary survey around Majuki Dherai, Mra Dherai,
between Charsadda district and Mohmand Baretai Dherai and Shaikhan Dheri. Lastly I
Agency. I take this opportunity to express my would thank all those numerous individuals
thankfulnes to Professor Dr. Himayatullah, who very kindly allowed me to photograph the
Principal Government Collage Tangi, whose cultural asset of the area in their ownership.
active support and guidance proved greatly
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 73


Ali, I. (1993). Settlement History of Charsadda Husain, J. (1988). Shaikhan Dheri Pottery: New
District, Ancient Paldstan, Vol. IX, 2. insights on the question of pottery as an
Peshawar indicator of cultural change, in A.N. Khan
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Charsadda District, PUTAJ, Vol. I, 17. Archaeological Congress. 207-15, Karachi
Peshawar Husain, J. 1992 Pottery Classification System- A
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trade-routes in Peshawar Plain, Pakistan, Paldstan Archaeology, No. 25, Karachi
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Baden-Powell, B.H. (1872). Handbook of the Karachi
Manufactures and Arts of the Punjab. Khan, M.A. (1973). Excavations at ZarifKoroona,
Handbook of the Economic Products of the Pakistan, Paldstan Archaeology No. 9, 1-94,
Punjab. Vol. II, Lahore Karachi
Bopearachchi, 0 & Amanurrahman (1975). Pre- Marshall, J. & Vogel, J.P. (1902-3). Excavations at
Kushana Coins in Paldstan, Karachi Charsada in the Frontier Province.
Buck, W. (1978). Ramayana, translated by Ramesh C Archaeological Survey ofIndia Annual report,
Duth, Mentor Book, New York 141-184
Coningham, R & Ali I. (2007). Charsadda, The British- Marshall, J. (1951). Taxi/a, (3 vols.) Cambridge
Pakistan Excavations at the Bala Hisar, BAR McCrindle, J.W.(1992). The Invasion ofIndia by
International Series 1709, 1-286. Alexander the Great, New Edition, New Delhi
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Iraq, Vol. N, Part.I, London Shaikhan Dheri: Fresh evidence for the
Cribb, J. (1985). Some Further Hoards ofKushano- context of Jihonika, South Asian Archaeology,
Sasanian and Late Kushan Coppers, Coin 215-230, Naples
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London West Pakistan. Pakistan Archaeology Vol. 4,
Dani, A.H. (1966). Shaikhan Dheri Excavations, 1963- Karachi
64Ancient Pakistan, Vol. II, 17-214. Muhamadzai, Q.J. (2003). Majuki Dherai: Charsadda,
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Charsadda Islamabad
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Gazetteer (1897-98). Gazetteer ofthe Peshawar Ancient Gandhara. Gandharan Studies, Vol.
District (1887-98) Sang-e-Meel Publications 2, 61-70, Peshawar
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Shakur, M.A. (1954). A Hand Book to the Inscription Waters, T. (1975). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India
Gallery in the Peshawar Museum, Peshawar 629-645 AD. Reprinted by Chinese Materials
Stacul, G. (1966). Preliminary Report on the Pre- Center, INC. San Francisco
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Stacul, G. (1969). Discovery of Protohistoric Whitehead, RB. (1914).Catalogue of Coins in the
Cemeteries in the Chitral Valley Panjab Museum, Lahore, Vol. 1, lndo-Greek
West Pakistan) East & West, Vol. XIV Coins, Oxford
� P41iltan, Vol. XXII 7S

"' ..
.. ... ..

...•..• '" '"• "
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10$ ••

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11, 1Jjltl

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Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XX:11 76

Plate 1

1 3

4 5 6

Buddha head and other fragmentary statues from Khan Mahi

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 77

Plate 2

9 10 & , 11

11li:11l1111l111ii1111l <::::} 13

14 15 16 17

18 19 20
Stone objects
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 78

Plate 3

1 2 4

5 6 7 8


12 13 14

15 16 17

18 19


25 26


Coins of different dynasties

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 79

Plate 4

30 32

34 35

36 37

39 40 41

42 44

46 47

48 49

51 52 53


Hindu Shahi and Muslin period coins

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XX:11 80

o ·,
Plate 5


1111111111 i•'lljllll
,CM l 1 ¢:::} ,Cl,1 l l

Seals and tokens

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 81

Plate 6

1 2 3

1''''1'"'1''''1 1 '''11 1 1111 1 1•111 1 11 9

10 11 12 13

Baroque lady figurines

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 82

Plate 7




20 21 22
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 83

26 27

Moulded terracotta figurines

Plate 8

28 30

.,,,...., 31 32 33 34

36 37

38 39 42
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 84


47 48

Terracotta animal figurines

Plate 9

,,,,,,,,,,1 49

54 55
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 85

56 57 58


Terracotta objects and animal figurines

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 86

Plate 10

111 rrrrrr ¢:::} 1 2 3 4 5 6

8 9 10 12

13 14 15 16 17

ICM'. ff "'1" 2j""l'':3/""l"~j"''ll1~11111111~I
18 19

Various metal objects

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 87

Plate 11

1 3

1····1·········,··,6 7 8

1 12

15 16

Shells, beads and other minor objects

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 88

Plate 12

1 2 3 4 5

6 8

9 10 11 12


,M ,,,+



/;\ "'
II~ -=--- Cm A B
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 89

Terracotta pots, potter's marks and Kushan tamghas

Plate 13

1111111111 1111111111 1
CM I 2 1 3

) , 2 3 4

5 6

10 11 12
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 90

13 14

17 18 19

Decorated and inscribed sherds

Plate 14

Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 91

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Symbols on the stamped pottery of Majuki Dherai

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Ancient Pakistan, Vol. XXII 97

l =j J- 1 -\

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f= 1 =i2 I

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Pottery from Pkhana Dherai