0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

3 visualizzazioni186 pagineDec 11, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

3 visualizzazioni186 pagine© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 186

by

Ashkan Bassandeh

Master of Engineering

Sydney, Australia

August 2012

COPYRIGHT STATEMENT

‘I hereby grant the University of New South Wales or its agents the right to

archive and to make available my thesis or dissertation in whole or part in the

University libraries in all forms of media, now or here after known, subject to the

provisions of the Copyright Act 1968. I retain all proprietary rights, such as patent

rights. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all

or part of this thesis or dissertation.

I also authorise University Microfilms to use the 350 word abstract of my thesis in

Dissertation Abstract International (this is applicable to doctoral theses only).

I have either used no substantial portions of copyright material in my thesis or I

have obtained permission to use copyright material; where permission has not

been granted I have applied/will apply for a partial restriction of the digital copy of

my thesis or dissertation.'

Signed …………………………………………….......................

Date ……………………………………………...........................

AUTHENTICITY STATEMENT

‘I certify that the Library deposit digital copy is a direct equivalent of the final

officially approved version of my thesis. No emendation of content has occurred

and if there are any minor variations in formatting, they are the result of the

conversion to digital format.’

Signed …………………………………………….......................

Date ……………………………………………...........................

Page | ii

ORIGINALITY STATEMENT

‘I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and to the best of my

knowledge it contains no materials previously published or written by another

person, or substantial proportions of material which have been accepted for

the award of any other degree or diploma at UNSW or any other educational

institution, except where due acknowledgement is made in the thesis. Any

contribution made to the research by others, with whom I have worked at

UNSW or elsewhere, is explicitly acknowledged in the thesis. I also declare

that the intellectual content of this thesis is the product of my own work,

except to the extent that assistance from others in the project's design and

conception or in style, presentation and linguistic expression is

acknowledged.’

Signed ……………………………………………..............

Date ……………………………………………..............

Page | iii

ABSTRACT

Load paths can define how a structure performs its intended load carrying

recent years, a novel method to compute these paths has emerged in the

literature using finite element analysis yet common FEA packages do not have

MATLAB or FORTRAN).

been achieved by overlaying of link and shell elements in the commercial finite

Page | iv

The work is then extended to membrane structures. Static structural analysis

using finite element geometric nonlinear analysis due to the large deflection is

conducted for a rectangle membrane under uniform pressure. Shell and link

elements in the model represent the main cloth and possible carbon fibre paths

link elements bridging the corners remained in the corner fixed structure. The

final application of this research is cruising boat sails which are analyzed with

the proposed nonlinear programming formulation. The results from this work are

Finally, this work concludes that defining load paths using overlaid link and shell

for reinforcing carbon fibre paths. This thesis has focused on developing the

Page | v

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

There are a number of people without whom this thesis might not have been

supervisor, Dr Garth Pearce for his inspiration, and his great efforts to explain

good ideas.

My heartful thanks go to my co. supervisor Emeritus Professor Don Kelly for the

provided tireless support and advice across all aspect of the project and has

personally.

My sincere thanks also go to Ravi Shankar for his help and supports and for the

many discussions we have had over a year on static analysis and also to Ehsan

Chavoshi from IRANSYS who has provided me many insights on the modelling

of membrane structures.

My final and most sincere thanks go to my family, Sedighe and Baraatali who

Page | vi

school and have shared their love and advice with me in all the time constantly.

To my sister, Mojgan and her lovely husband, Mehrab, I thank them for their

wonderful support not only during this research but also over my entire life

being far from home country. To my sister, Mandana, who has always widened

Page | vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract ............................................................................................................................ iv

Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................ vi

Table of Contents ...........................................................................................................viii

list of Figures ................................................................................................................... xi

list of tables ..................................................................................................................... xv

Abbreviations and Acronyms ......................................................................................... xvi

Nomenclature ................................................................................................................ xvii

CHAPTER 1. .................................................................................................................... 1

1.1. Thesis background ........................................................................................................ 1

1.2. Thesis objective ............................................................................................................ 4

1.3. Thesis outline ................................................................................................................ 4

1.4. Research papers ............................................................................................................ 6

CHAPTER 2. .................................................................................................................... 7

2.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 7

2.2. Load path ...................................................................................................................... 8

2.3. Implementation of load paths ...................................................................................... 16

2.4. Structural Optimization:.............................................................................................. 20

2.4.1. Structural Optimization method .......................................................................... 21

2.4.2. History of structural optimization ....................................................................... 24

2.4.3. Techniques of topological optimization .............................................................. 25

2.5. Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 33

CHAPTER 3. .................................................................................................................. 35

3.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 35

3.2. Using load path to determine force transfer within the solution boundaries............... 37

3.2.1. Load path method clarification: .......................................................................... 41

3.2.2. Load path vector: ................................................................................................ 41

3.2.3. Load path integration: ......................................................................................... 47

3.2.4. Cantilever plate example:.................................................................................... 50

Page | viii

3.2.5. Example of an L-Shape structure: ....................................................................... 53

3.2.6. Properties of the paths ......................................................................................... 56

3.2.7. Structural configuration ...................................................................................... 62

3.2.8. Discussion ........................................................................................................... 63

3.3. Exploration of load paths in trusses ............................................................................ 63

3.3.1. Gradual reduction based on force level ............................................................... 64

3.3.2. Example of a one bay truss ................................................................................. 69

3.3.3. Example of a two bay truss: ................................................................................ 71

3.3.4. Example of a multi-bay truss .............................................................................. 76

3.3.5. Discussion ........................................................................................................... 78

3.4. Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 79

CHAPTER 4. .................................................................................................................. 81

4.1. Introduction: ................................................................................................................ 81

4.2. Theory of shells and plates: ........................................................................................ 84

4.2.1. General concept................................................................................................... 84

4.3. Modelling of a clamped circular plate: ....................................................................... 86

4.3.1. Material characteristics ....................................................................................... 87

4.3.2. Element ............................................................................................................... 87

4.3.3. Boundary conditions, and loading ...................................................................... 89

4.3.4. The solution ........................................................................................................ 91

4.3.5. Post processing.................................................................................................... 92

4.4. Overlaying meshing method ....................................................................................... 94

4.5. Modelling of a clamped rectangle model:................................................................... 95

4.5.1. Material characteristics ....................................................................................... 96

4.5.2. Element ............................................................................................................... 96

4.5.3. Boundary conditions and loading ....................................................................... 98

4.5.4. The solution ........................................................................................................ 99

4.5.5. Post processing without overlaying link elements ............................................ 100

4.5.6. Post processing with overlaying link elements ................................................. 101

4.5.7. Determining the load paths ............................................................................... 103

4.6. Modelling of a corner fixed rectangle model: ........................................................... 105

4.6.1. Material characteristics ..................................................................................... 106

4.6.2. Element ............................................................................................................. 106

4.6.3. Boundary conditions, and loading .................................................................... 107

4.6.4. Determining the load paths ............................................................................... 108

Page | ix

4.7. Conclusion: ............................................................................................................... 109

CHAPTER 5. ................................................................................................................ 111

5.1. Introduction: .............................................................................................................. 111

5.2. Sail as a membrane structure .................................................................................... 112

5.3. Finite element model of the sail ................................................................................ 113

5.3.1. Definition of the geometry ................................................................................ 113

5.3.2. Material characteristics ..................................................................................... 115

5.3.3. Element ............................................................................................................. 116

5.3.4. Boundary conditions, and loading .................................................................... 118

5.3.5. Results and Post processing .............................................................................. 122

5.4. Load path determination ........................................................................................... 123

5.4.1. Overlaid elements ............................................................................................. 123

5.4.2. Effect of boundary conditions on load paths determination ............................. 127

5.5. Conclusion: ............................................................................................................... 139

CHAPTER 6. ................................................................................................................ 140

6.1. Summary of findings................................................................................................. 140

6.2. Recommendations for Future Work .......................................................................... 143

References ..................................................................................................................... 145

APPENDIX.A……………….…………………...………………………………….….......…151

APPENDIX.B……………….…………………...………………………………….……....…160

Page | x

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1: Load path in a pinned connection (Kelly and Tosh, 2000) ............................ 9

Figure 2-2: Principal stress directions (Kelly and Tosh, 2000) ...................................... 11

Figure 2-3: Zero force components in the 𝑥 direction on a load path wall (Kelly and

Tosh, 2000) ..................................................................................................................... 12

Figure 2-4: Load path in a plate with a hole under tension in 𝑥 direction (a) and 𝑦

direction (b) (Kelly and Tosh, 2000)............................................................................... 13

Figure 2-7: Test for straightening of load path (Kelly et al., 2010) ................................ 18

Figure 2-8: Transferred force to a node for 3D truss (Harasaki and Arora, 2001) ......... 19

Figure 2-9 Typical size optimized structure in initial given structure (a) and final

optimized design (b)(Christensen and Klarbring, 2008) ................................................. 22

Figure 2-10: Typical shape optimized structure (Christensen and Klarbring, 2008) ...... 22

Figure 2-11: Two dimensional optimization (Christensen and Klarbring, 2008) ........... 23

Figure 2-12: Topology optimization of a two bay truss (Harasaki, 2000) ...................... 24

Figure 2-13: Design domain (Querin et al., 1998; Huang and Xie, 2011) ...................... 28

Figure 2-14: Topology optimized design with BESO (Huang and Xie, 2011) ............... 29

Figure 3-1: Load transfer in a pinned joint(Kelly and Tosh, 2000) ................................ 38

Page | xi

Figure 3-6: Stress transformation to an arbitrary coordinate system .............................. 43

Figure 3-7: sample pointing vector at the solid element centre ...................................... 49

Figure 3-30: Reduction process for the one bay truss ..................................................... 71

Figure 3-32: The reduction process of the two bay truss ................................................ 73

Page | xii

Figure 3-33: Clarification of force equilibrium in node 4............................................... 75

Figure 3-36: Final design for the multiple bay structure ................................................ 78

Figure 4-4: Point load in the centre and enforced displacement in the edge .................. 90

Figure 4-9: Shell element size convergence for the rectangle plate................................ 97

Figure 4-18: load path for a masonry dome (O’Dwyer, 1999) ..................................... 105

Figure 4-21: Possible load path in the corner fixed rectangle ....................................... 108

Figure 4-22: Alternative load paths for a groined vault (O’Dwyer, 1999) ................... 109

Page | xiii

Figure 5-1: Components of a boat sail, adopted from (Jazzmanian, 2006) .................. 114

Figure 5-11: Link elements remaining after the 50 iterations ....................................... 125

Figure 5-16: (a) Mesh generation and boundary conditions (b) Load paths defined by

the link removal algorithm. ........................................................................................... 130

Figure 5-18: load path with force in the head ............................................................... 132

Figure 5-19: load path with force in the head and clew ................................................ 133

Page | xiv

LIST OF TABLES

Table 5-1: Some common materials used for sails ....................................................... 115

Page | xv

ABBREVIATIONS AND

ACRONYMS

Term Definition

Dimensional

APDL ANSYS Parametric Design Language

BESO Bi-direction Evolutionary Structural optimization

CAD Computer Aided Design

CAE Computer Aided Engineering

CPU Central processing unit

DOF Degree of freedom

EM Evolutionary method

ESO Evolutionary Structural Optimization

FEA Finite Element Analysis

FEM Finite Element Method

FEM Finite Element Modeller

RAM Random access memory

SIMP Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization

TF Transferred force

WP Woven Polyester

Page | xvi

NOMENCLATURE

Term Definition

Celsius

𝑎 Radius

𝐸 Young’s modulus

𝐸𝑅 Evolutionary rate

𝐸 Scalar field

𝑒 Element

𝐹 Force

𝐹 Transferred force criterion

Internal Force

h Thickness

𝐼 Load flow

Unit vector

𝑗 Unit vector

𝐿 Length

𝑁 Node

𝑃 Arbitrary point

𝑞 Pressure

𝑅𝑅 Rejection Ratio

Page | xvii

𝑠 Increment value

Load path contribution scalar

Developed Load path contribution scalar

𝑉 Pointing vector

Velocity

𝑤 Deflection

𝑥 X direction

𝑦 Y direction

𝑧 Z direction

Normal stress

𝑒 Local stress

Shear stress

Change

Removal ratio

Boundary condition

Solution Domain

Poisson’s ratio

Air density

Velocity

, , , Angle

Page | xviii

CHAPTER 1.

INTRODUCTION

often used in conjunction with structural analysis and design since the

load, the identification of the load flow from the structure to the support aids to

Investigation of the load path in a structural design also broadens the vision of

the designers to anticipate how a load flow will be altered if the structure is

damaged.

A review of the literature however reveals that historically there has been no

Chapter1Introduction

components such as a joint subject to a single axial load, the force results can

be followed from one component to the next. In texts such as (Flabel, 1997) the

insight gained is used to warn of bending introduced by offset of the loads from

al., 1969) is to use the stress flow directly to predict and interpret the load

paths. Principal stress vectors can give some qualitative information but plots of

the principal stress in a structure do not identify the path for transfer of a shear

assemblies. Simplified beam and frame finite element models allow force

sections cut across the structure and the load transfer can be followed manually

by the designer reviewing the results. However, all these methods are labour

intensive and rely on the designer’s skill to create the models and interpret the

stress fields. As a result, it is hard to find two methods that give similar

defining load paths (Ullman, 1992; Kelly et al., 2001; Waldman et al., 2002).

segment of the path between the components of shear stress and normal

stress. This theory is able to calculate the local orientation using finite element

Page | 2

Chapter1Introduction

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the application of load paths to identify

trajectories for reinforcement in tension structures such as the shade sails and

wind sails. These structures are typically made from cloth that creates a large

surface to shade an area from the sun or harness pressure from the wind. Both

applications have local supports to which forces must be drawn from the global

structure. This means the fabric of the surface needs to be locally thickened to

carbon fibre is the preferred reinforcing material due to its high stiffness and

strength. Part of this thesis will therefore focus on fibre reinforcement of these

structures.

The first step in this research is to develop method to utilise the results of a

finite element analysis to define the fibre trajectories. In the early stages of this

continuum solids and plates to allow load paths to be followed through truss

membrane and the fibres represented by axial force elements. The aim of the

The application to shade and wind sail structures is set as the goal to define the

structures are dependent on the topology of the truss, the algorithm to find the

evolutionary design procedure (Xie and Steven, 1997) is set up. Relative nodal

Page | 3

Chapter1Introduction

structure. The aim of the algorithm is to provide a topology that follows the

This work therefore aims to determine the load path in tension structures under

method into the finite element package ANSYS.

numerical algorithm through overlaying link and shell elements in

ANSYS.

and wind sail structures by the proposed method.

The outline of the remaining chapters of the thesis is given in this section.

and describes how these methods have been developed and implemented in

the available literature in the area of the current study on this topic and

Page | 4

Chapter1Introduction

and integrated into ANSYS. ANSYS is selected because it is the main FEA

package utilized for teaching and research at the University of New South

Once the analysis is performed stress resultants of the elements are exported

to the user defined codes and the load path vectors are generated for plotting.

Link elements are created and imported back into ANSYS. The links enable the

vectors to be visualized by plotting the finite element mesh without requiring the

algorithm to provide a contour plot capability. This chapter then extends the

membranes.

element and four node shell element is developed to define the load paths in

uniform static pressure for the wind sail. Shell and link elements in the model

represent the main cloth and possible carbon fibre paths respectively.

reinforce cruising boat sails using the overlaying method and structural

conditions using over population of the link elements and then the algorithm of

work.

Page | 5

Chapter1Introduction

Kelly, D., Reidsema, C., Bassandeh, A., Pearce, G. and Lee, M. (2011).

"On interpreting load paths and identifying a load bearing topology from

finite element analysis." Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 47(8):

867-876.

Kelly, D., Pearce, G., Ip, M. and Bassandeh, A. (2011). Plotting load

paths from vectors of finite element stress results. NAFEMS, Boston

The following paper being prepared for the ICCM2012 conference summarises

from finite element analysis with application to reinforcement of

membrane structures. 4th International Conference on Computational

Methods Gold Coast, Australia.

Page | 6

CHAPTER 2.

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1. Introduction

This literature survey aims to review how load paths and the application of load

the history and the evolution of the load path theory. An attempt is also made to

review techniques that have been developed for the visualisation of load paths

survey that cites all references relating to the concept of load path. However, it

does aim to identify the current status of the load path method as a useful

Chapter2Background Theory

Load paths are used to identify the flow of a force from the application point to

the reaction point in the solution domain. Engineers have been able to visualize

how a load is transferred from its application point to the support and have

have been derived and various visualizations and interpretations have been

defined. However, in spite of all these attempts and conducted studies, there

the load paths in the structure. In addition, none of these methodologies have

thorough insight into how a structure is performing its intended load carrying

functions.

Load paths in structural design have been studied over the last five decades. In

and Osgood (Kermode, 1964; Osgood, 1970; Osgood, 1982) however, a clear

method for visualization was not defined by these engineers. The concept of

force flows was further introduced by French (French, 1992) as “A very helpful

emphasized that making the paths as straight lines can minimize bending. This

explain the problem. Later Juvinall in 1991 reviewed force flows or “load paths”

for “line of forces” in a pin loaded structure under tension (Juvinall and Marshek,

Page | 8

Chapter2Background Theory

1991) however, the finding did not have mathematical basis. Figure 2-1 depicts

the load path in a pinned connection structure (Kelly and Tosh, 2000):

Figure 2-1: Load path in a pinned connection (Kelly and Tosh, 2000)

Here Fxa and Fxb represent the tension force in x axis. A similar approach was

conducted study, forces were treated as fluids and it was concluded that

through shear (Ullman, 1992). This method was employed in another work to

minimize the stress concentration (Budynas, 1977) and later, the concept of

load flow was discussed by (Singh, 1996) where the force transfer through a

structure occurs as “flux”. The “load path” of a force that flows through a

respectively

cover the whole structure

Page | 9

Chapter2Background Theory

discontinuities such as holes

Any curvature of the load lines represents shear and the creation of

bending moments in structures

use load paths as an essential criteria in the design of a structure and its

identify load paths. The first successful study of how to plot load path

Kelly and Tosh (Kelly and Tosh, 2000) and it was later implemented and further

discussed in a typical aircraft structure by Kelly 2001 (Kelly et al., 2001). Some

insight for a load path through a continuum structure can be obtained from

stress vectors are the vectors aligned with the maximum stress contours and

can be found from the post processing from the available commercial finite

element packages in the market. However principal stress vectors do not align

with the direction of transfer of shear loads and a more general technique has

to be developed.

From the theory of elasticity, in plane normal stress and the shearing

with 𝑥 axis, can be derived from Equation 2-1 & Equation 2-2 (Boresi et al.,

2010):

𝑠 𝑠 𝑠 𝑠 Equation 2-1

Page | 10

Chapter2Background Theory

𝑠 𝑠 𝑠 𝑠 Equation 2-2

Equating the shear stress to zero delivers the principal direction which is

𝑎 Equation 2-3

From this definition, the stress paths or stress trajectories are defined as the

lines parallel to the maximum normal stress vectors with the angle of ,

Figure 2-2, and can reflect reasonable paths if either the shear stress

Tosh, 2000). The load path is correct to the left and beside the hole but does

not visualize the transfer of the force to a bearing load behind the hole.

Figure 2

The idea of visualization of load flow in the structures which was introduced

initially by Kelly and Tosh (Kelly and Tosh, 2000) and was comprehensively

reviewed later (Kelly et al., 2010) indicate that the flows of loads can define

paths along which, loads remain constant as they traverse the solution domain.

Although stress analysis does not obey the continuity law in the sense of fluid

flow, continuity can be applied to the components of the force in an arbitrary set

Page | 11

Chapter2Background Theory

𝐹

𝐹

-3: Zero force components in the 𝑥 direction on a load path wall (Kelly and Tosh, 2000)

Figure 2

Load paths define boundaries in such that no load contribution in the specified

𝐹 𝐹 Equation 2-4

Accordingly, the equilibrium in any segment (along load path wall) is achieved

𝑠 𝑠 Equation 2-5

When the equation is resolved for 𝑦 direction, the equilibrium can be modified

as (Equation 2-6):

𝑠 𝑠 Equation 2-6

The theory of load paths to calculate load flow orientations using finite element

solutions was implemented by Kelly and Elsley (Kelly and Elsley, 1993) and

Page | 12

Chapter2Background Theory

plates. This method was linked to elastic energy flow. Where the orientation

𝑎 Equation 2-7

In finite element analysis (FEA), the vectors field can be evaluated at the centre

the constraints required to suppress rigid body motion but it could not explain

From the definition of load path, the load trajectories can be mapped in two

path can be determined in the direction that designer desires. Figure 2-4

depicts the load paths in and 𝑦 directions in a plate with a hole under tension in

the 𝑥 direction.

(a) (b)

Figure 2-4: Load path in a plate with a hole under tension in 𝑥 direction (a) and 𝑦 direction (b) (Kelly

and Tosh, 2000)

Page | 13

Chapter2Background Theory

and displacement tensors were visualized based on elastic energy flow which is

Equation 2-8

where represents load flow in the structure and is the displacement tensor.

Load paths have been also focussed for structural optimization purposes. The

stiffness and transferred load inside structures, was refined by (Harasaki and

Arora, 2001; Arora and Harasaki, 2004). The authors introduced new concepts

these key concepts. The concepts were also studied and implemented for

topology optimization in the work by (Harasaki and Arora, 2001; Harasaki and

Arora, 2002). This work was also continued by Wang (Wang et al., 2010)

measuring the transferred force in rivets and gussets on joints of truck frames.

Page | 14

Chapter2Background Theory

actual vehicle, the distribution of 𝐸 was measured by obtaining the load transfer

from the rear suspension to the front. It was concluded that the load transfer

initiated from rear did not coincide with the load transfer initiated from the front

under torsional loading. This concept was developed to tailor stiffness to reduce

method can only provide qualitative directions of the load flow and with no

ablility to trace any trajectories from the application point to the reaction point.

force. However, this does not show critical stress regions under loading of

tension or compression.

load path determination based on a scalar . This term could measure the

calculate , the solution domain is initially loaded under an external force and

be obtained at any point in the structural domain by the following method. The

displacement degree of freedom at that point is fixed and then the problem is

solved for the other displacements at other points. The gradient of this scalar

field is defined as the stiffness lines and the steepest lines are considered as

Page | 15

Chapter2Background Theory

Load paths can be incorporated into most design processes to aid the designer

to determine the transfer of load through a structure. Load path contours may

indicate the optimal fibre orientation in a fibre reinforced composite layup and

geometric defects. In the early twentieth century, Michell developed a theory for

designers. Figure 2-5 illustrates the Michell structure for a tip loaded

cantilevered beam.

(Richards and Chan, 1966) and was applied to composite materials. The

feasibility of using this theory was investigated later through numerical studies

can reduce these stress concentrations by 25% in the pin-loaded hole cases

(Lackman and Ault, 1967), they have been employed this technique for fibre

Page | 16

Chapter2Background Theory

1972; Jones and Platts, 1998). The fibre steering was achieved by placing dry

fibre onto prepared fabric or resin film in a highly optimized laminate along the

stress trajectories obtained from FEA. At the most efficient joints (up to 25 % of

fibres are placed in load paths patterns) the fibres were placed in these

in carbon fibre or fibreglass laminates were also examined by (Li et al., 2006)

Figure 2-6 shows a fibre steering pattern by this method. The authors could

fibre along the load paths based on FEA analysis. It was found that the load

reducing the ratio of the joint width to the bolt hole diameter.

Figure 2

combine the pointing vectors in order to define a topology to carry the loads.

Based on the definition of load path considered by the authors, a vector plot of

Page | 17

Chapter2Background Theory

stress components determined the load flow across the domain and a contour

plot tangent to these pointing vectors identified paths along which a component

of the load remained constant. Since stress is a second order tensor and is

defined on an orthogonal set of axes, the vector plots could define separate

paths for load transfer in each direction. The algorithm modified the modulus of

the material based on the magnitude of the load path pointing vector on each

element. The algorithm was able to straighten the path indicated in the left hand

image in Figure 2-7, reducing bending moments and giving the straight path in

the second image. The form of the path during the iteration is indicated in the

third image. The significance of the plots and feasibility of the algorithm were

examples such as bolted joint, racing car and yacht hull (Kelly et al., 2010).

Figure 2-7: Test for straightening of load path (Kelly et al., 2010)

An algorithm was also developed into sketching the topology of a structure from

plots of the load paths. Sketching topological optimization for the given structure

from load paths was a helpful achievement based on the definition of load flow

in the structures.

structures was established by Harasaki and Arora (Harasaki and Arora, 2001).

Page | 18

Chapter2Background Theory

and also rectangle frames. The force transfer through the structure was

structure. Figure 2-8 shows the transferred force to node 5 for 3D truss in the

𝑧

𝑦

-8: Transferred force to a node for 3D truss (Harasaki and Arora, 2001)

Figure 2

This work revealed that the transferred force magnitude was different from the

force applied to the structures, though the models engaged were quite simple.

Some suggestions about re-designing of the structures were given that could be

method in order to obtain size and topology optimization. Indirect methods were

also found to deliver similar solutions for different starting designs and

Arora, 2001).

Wang and others (Wang et al., 2010) presented load paths in a truck cab under

Page | 19

Chapter2Background Theory

load paths along the floor member. To perform linear analysis using , the

stage of collision using LS-DYNA and NASTRAN as the finite element package.

The new term allowed the authors to estimate the effect of newly designed

stiffeners in the cab which could convey the load from the wall surface of the

tunnel into the rear part of the cab leading to better performance of the structure

under frontal collision. The load paths presented in the study were quite

different to path reported by other methods from what was previously reported.

the design problems across all the fields. In the current competitive international

market, the companies can only survive if they can present cost optimized

methods that can fulfil and improve the quality and reliability (such as light

weight and high performance) below the certain cost limit should be used

Page | 20

Chapter2Background Theory

constraints (Yang and Chuang, 1994). As this structural optimisation can offer

The general trend in vehicle and aerospace design has been towards more

the designer to supply designs with sufficient strength, weight and safety

distribution) within the design domain such that it minimizes the cost and meets

Page | 21

Chapter2Background Theory

find the optimal design by changing the size variables such as the cross-

sectional dimensions of truss and frames or the thickness of plates. This is the

structure and final size optimized design have been shown in Figure 2-9(a) and

(a) (b)

Figure 2-9 Typical size optimized structure in initial given structure (a) and final optimized design

(b)(Christensen and Klarbring, 2008)

conceptual designs of structures, and has been investigated for many years. It

has been enhanced extensively to a viable level and has been implemented in

CAE (Bendsøe and Kikuchi, 1988). Figure 2-10 indicates a typical shape

Figure 2

Page | 22

Chapter2Background Theory

and can be more cost effective than shape optimization. Figure 2-11

search for the optimal spatial order and connectivity of the bars compare to

location and geometries of cavities and holes in the design domains (Huang

and Xie, 2010). Figure 2-12 shows an example of topology optimization of a two

bay truss. Figure 2-12(a) and Figure 2-12(b) present the original domain and

Page | 23

Chapter2Background Theory

(a) (b)

Figure 2-12: Topology optimization of a two bay truss (Harasaki, 2000)

1996).

Structural optimization has been pointed out for more than 100 years; however

there was no significant progress for more than five decades since the initial

introduction of the idea. In fact the improvement started with investigating the

were used to gain a weight optimum design for a rail road car with stress and

attention must be paid for buckling effects if non uniform design is considered

(Haftka and Prasad, 1980). In 1981, the procedures were extended to solid

plastic plates and several methods to optimize axisymmetric plates with design

1981).

Page | 24

Chapter2Background Theory

use of load path methods have been most common techniques in this area.

Homogenization method:

One of the main approaches for structural design that considers variable

with micro- scale voids is introduced and the topology optimization problem is

defined. Then by seeking the optimal porosity using the optimal and satisfactory

criteria, the final design would be achieved (Wang et al., 2003). This method

technique was introduced which did not need re-meshing in the topology

material having microscopic voids (Bendsøe and Kikuchi, 1988). This approach

the design was verified by Suzuki (Suzuki, 1991). This method was extended

later for multiple material layout problems (Bruggi, 2008). This area was also

studied on bicycle and floor beam problem (Haber et al., 1996) and was

1994). An algorithm called Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) for

Page | 25

Chapter2Background Theory

suggested in 1988 which was the starting point of the outstanding work by

limited since this theory uses the asymptotic expansion and the assumption of

may vary slowly when the solution is close to the initial equation. Although this

method is valuable for composite materials, it may not yield the intended results

design with pores in the material that make the structure not manufacturable

and numerical instabilities may also introduce ‘ non- Physical ‘ artefacts in the

results and thus make the design sensitive to variation under loading (Wang et

al., 2003).

A new era of optimization called Evolutionary Method (EM) was opened in 1993

(Xie and Steven, 1993). This method was simple for shape and layout

optimal design. The method has been developed for various problems of the

structure and subsequently to remove some elements with the least contribution

(Huang and Xie, 2010). Additionally, this study was based on Von Mises stress

in which elements with the magnitude lower than a certain level (rejection ratio),

Page | 26

Chapter2Background Theory

were removed. The ESO method was expanded later to more complicated and

multiple loaded cases employing different rejection ratio( RR ) for each iteration

trusses with stress and local constraints was investigated by (Ohsaki and

recent research, the algorithms proposed previously by (Xie and Steven, 1993)

minimize the weight of structures with stress constraints (París et al., 2010).

FEA. Low value of stress or strain in the structure would be reliable indicators

for inefficient material use. Ideally the stress in the entire structure should have

even margin of safety. This concept leads to a rejection criterion based on the

local stress level where the low stressed material is assumed to be under-

(Equation 2-9):

Equation 2-9

𝑅𝑅

Where, RRi is the current rejection ratio and and are the local and

Page | 27

Chapter2Background Theory

The same process with the increased rejection ratio takes place until a new

any element should be in such that the discarded element can be added further

at any stage of the process if needed (Querin et al., 1998). This method is

that it can deliver a more reliable and suitable final optimum design. Figure 2-13

and Figure 2-14 illustrate the initial design domain and optimal topology of the

5m

20m

-13: Design domain (Querin et al., 1998; Huang and Xie, 2011)

Figure 2

Page | 28

Chapter2Background Theory

-14: Topology optimized design with BESO (Huang and Xie, 2011)

Figure 2

define load transfer within bars and solids. These methods were called

Transferred Force (𝑇𝐹) method. Since these methods do not use any formal

and reaction points by defining an index for two and three dimensional models.

The methods were based on the concept of transferred forces, the part of the

Page | 29

Chapter2Background Theory

transferred force and another one which goes through the remaining region

called potential transferred force which is the indication of the stiffness of the

region.

The displacements are calculated by applying the forces on the load region.

This analysis is followed by eliminating 3 region from the solution domain and

force on the support region can then be recorded. The difference between initial

force and defines the transferred traction through the region 3 to the

_

Equation 2-11

Fi fi f f ij n j ij n j

where 𝐹 is the difference between initial and final force and ̅ is the new and

Page | 30

Chapter2Background Theory

The elements with low transferred force can be removed from the design.

method only provides qualitative information about the direction of load transfer

In the last decade, load path based algorithm methodology has drawn attention

of the researchers. This is due to the reason that load path not only can lead to

statically determinant design but also may provide a tool for new technologies

structures. A novel fibre placement pattern was defined for highly loaded joints

by (Li et al., 2006) earlier. Optimal design of machine tool bed by load bearing

this novel method to identify optimal layout of the stiffener plates conducted

Boat sail design has evolved over the years along many development paths in

1996; Shankaran, 2005). The design of sails is a very old activity principally

based on the practice and the experience of sail makers and users, prototype

building and testing on the water, in constant search of performance and safety.

The use of a computer aided design and simulation package can significantly

Page | 31

Chapter2Background Theory

reduce the time and cost associated with design and testing by optimizing the

Unlike the aircraft industry where the development has been essentially driven

by commercial consideration, boat sail design needs to comply with the sailing

rules. These rules may impose some limitation in regard to the weight or size of

the components; they have to be as light and stiff as possible (Gilliam, 2006). It

was this issue which led to the development of a number of alternate sailcloth

regarding the deformation and bending issues (Trimarchi et al., 2011). Carbon

fibre can be used to reinforce a structure with highest lightness and relatively

high stiffness. Since bending is the prevalent stress in a cursing yacht hull, they

Carbon has excellent fatigue life and is extremely strong and rigid

When combined with a core material Carbon Fibre will deliver substantial

weight reduction

Curing at 90⁰C (200⁰F) delivers a very stable part with a very low

coefficient of expansion

Results in a 25% lighter hull, deck, and structure that is 10-15% stiffer

then wet-preg

Page | 32

Chapter2Background Theory

In sail structures the primary stress is membrane tension but many of the

advantages of using carbon fibre remain. Clearly the industry is used to using

commercially viable since users want high performance and look to new and

The aim of this thesis will be to show that the possible carbon fibre paths in the

shade and wind sail cloth can be determined iteratively using ANSYS APDL as

2.5. Conclusion

This literature review studied the history and development of load transfer in the

the load paths in structures. It also underscored the concept of the structural

methods that can quantitatively characterize load paths in a structure. All these

methods provide different results and insights into the load transfer. However,

efficiency of load transfer along load paths. This study also highlighted the

problem that, in spite of the existence of all the available methods, no single

Page | 33

Chapter2Background Theory

quantify, visualize and tailor load paths. Thus the question of exactly what the

best possible approach is for defining “true” load directions in the structures still

remains unanswered.

Page | 34

CHAPTER 3.

BACKGROUND THEORY

3.1. Introduction

The literature review has identified the need to develop tools to aid the designers

to define load transfer in structures. Although it is clear why load paths are

approach to determine the paths and display them to the design engineers. Load

transfer based on the stress trajectories, load path based on the concept of load

flow and finally potential transferred force are the main contributors in this area.

Ideally, a load path method should be able to reflect some specific behaviour of the

Visualize the overall path of forces from the application points to the

reaction points

Chapter3Background Theory

Chapter 2 concluded that load paths that define a region in which a load

stress vectors. Therefore tracing contours following these stress trajectories would

not define the load paths that this research aims to identify.

Load paths derived from the load flow analogy are able to show the direction of the

force within the solution domain and highlight the zones with high stress magnitude

such as stress concentration regions. This method has been used for the

placement of the fibres in composite material and has proved its ability to be used

in industry (Li et al., 2006). On the other hand, this method has not been applied to

truss structures and the application to truss structures therefore became the aim of

this research.

The third possibility for determination of load paths is the potential transferred force

method (Harasaki and Arora, 2001). Although this technique can be used to

qualitative information about where the loads flow. No trajectories can be traced

from the point of loading to the reaction points and it has not been used for shell

structures and defines procedures to use the paths in the design of truss

structures. It also describes procedures to integrate the new methods into the

Page | 36

Chapter3Background Theory

load paths in FEA packages, an algorithm where stress results are determined

using ANSYS and FORTRAN codes has been developed to read the results and

define the paths. ANSYS is then used to plot these paths for three-dimensional

applications. The load paths provide better understanding of the required layout of

the structure in the initial stage of design. For some simple beam configurations

the general pattern of paths for different loading conditions will be described

regardless of the detailed geometry of the structure. The last part of the chapter

applies the idea of transferred force to trusses and describes how they can

solution boundaries

Load path originally was proposed as a method to design Strut and Tie models in

reinforced concrete structures (Schlaich et al., 1987). The load path method has

also become a simple and effective instrument to understand the behaviour of the

structures under different loading conditions. Figure 3-1 provides the information

about how a simple load can flows through a bolted joint from the point of origin to

its end.

Page | 37

Chapter3Background Theory

Figure 3

As it can be seen from Figure 3-1, a tension load is applied to the upper plate and

passes through the hole to become a bearing load on the pin. It then transfers in

shear form to reach the lower plate and finally ends in compression form in the

opposite end.

membrane loads. Such structures include shade cloth erected to provide shade

over large areas and sails used on boats (Figure 3-2). Besides, these structures

deform to carry load as membrane forces. The literature survey does not identify

any analytical procedures based on load paths for placing reinforcing fibres in the

membrane structures. Tension structural designers have used trial and error

strategy to find the “Fibre-path” sails and shades for many years. The ’fibre path’

technology would allow the designers to align the fibres along the primary loads in

a sail and build in multiple fibre patterns to address secondary loads. Sails with

reinforcing fibres have a better wind range than traditional radial sails and also

Page | 38

Chapter3Background Theory

technology handles secondary loads, the sail holds its design shape throughout

Figure 3

The use of major principal stress trajectories for engineering applications has been

are aligned in directions for which the shear stress is zero. A tensile principal

stress will be carried out by reinforcing fibres and the membrane connecting the

fibres will be lightly loaded. Figure 3-3 and Figure 3-4; however, indicate the main

drawback using the principal stress directions to define the direction of the

direction for the minimum principal stress are two sets of principal stresses that

can be observed in Figure 3-3 and Figure 3-4 respectively. According to these

identified directions, two sets of fibres would therefore be required; one set needs

tension. It is noteworthy; the load parallel to the fibres varies along the path.

Page | 39

Chapter3Background Theory

Figure 3

For that reason similar to other methods, principal stress trajectories experience

some limitations. The placement of fibres along the tensile principal stress

trajectories alone may result in strength improvement but may not represent the

investigation of load paths, when the loads create a stress field dominated by

tension (such as the stresses around a hole under uniaxial tension such as

Figure 3-3 and Figure 3-4) the resultant dominant paths from the stress trajectories

are very similar plot to the paths obtained from load path method. However, tracing

load trajectories based on these orientations would not result in trajectories where

the loads being transferred are constant in the sense of streamlines in a fluid flow.

Load paths determined by the concept of load flow results trajectories similar to

streamlines in a fluid flow. As the patterns obtained from this method can be

compared to the benchmarks from the paths originated from stress trajectories,

Page | 40

Chapter3Background Theory

Load paths have been generally accepted by many researchers (Karkauskas and

Norkus; Chan, 1963; Waldman et al., 1999; Kelly and Tosh, 2000; Arora and

Harasaki, 2004; Sakurai et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2009) as a useful tool for

how remote loads are equilibrated through a structure and can also provide insight

into how well a structure is performed its intended load carrying functions. There

was no significant research to define load paths until late 90s when all the

mathematical form to determine load transfer was found until Kelly and Elsley

proposed a method for computing load flow orientation (Kelly and Elsley, 1993).

This method was based on the stress resultants obtained from finite element

As previously described, load paths are the regions carrying an applied load in a

prescribed direction within the structure. This concept of load flow comes from fluid

flow analogy, so it needs to originate from one prescribed location and end in

the 𝑥, 𝑦 or 𝑧 axes. For some simple cases such as the tensile loads (Figure 3-5),

there is one direction as the dominant direction while in other cases, such as

Page | 41

Chapter3Background Theory

bending from a shear force, there is more than one main way that the load flows,

this will be addressed later in the current chapter. For load flow in a single

dominant direction, the concept is illustrated with a hypothetical force “stream tube”

θ

x

The load path defined is bounded by contours in such that there is no contribution

simplified to:

There are two stress components that are normal and tangent to the side wall of

the force tube, namely n and nt . n is the local stress acting normal to the plane

and nt is the shear stress acting along the plane. nt acts on the face whose

normal is in the n direction and is positive in the positive t direction. Equation 3-1

will be satisfied if the orientation of n with respect to 𝑥 axis at each point along the

Page | 42

Chapter3Background Theory

(Equation 3-2):

n nt

or

sin cos

n nt

The solution to Equation 3-2 can be achieved by expanding the terms in the

Figure 3-6:

y

t

xy n

nt n

xy

x x

xy

xy

y

Page | 43

Chapter3Background Theory

is the shear stress component on the same plane. Similarly, is the normal

and

According to Figure 3-6, can be calculated from dividing shear stress by normal

stress (Equation 3-5). Having n and nt from the equations above, allows updating

the Equation 3-5 to the new form as Equation 3-6 and Equation 3-7:

nt Equation 3-5

tan

n

tan

x sin 2 y cos 2 2 xy sin cos

giving:

Page | 44

Chapter3Background Theory

x Equation 3-7

tan 3 tan 2 x tan 1 0

xy xy

x

tan (tan 2 1) (tan 2 1) 0

xy

Solving Equation 3-7 shows that with only value of for tan the equation will be

satisfied. Since the value of tan 2 is always equal greater than zero, tan 2 1 1 .

In addition there are two solutions for in the range of 0 360 , in which each

one will differ 180 from the other. This noticeably reveals that load path is

directionless and can travel from left to right or right to left in an identical direction

regardless of the origination of the paths. A pointing vector (𝑉 tangent to the wall

Vx xi xy j Equation 3-8

A load path in 𝑦 direction (𝑉 can be derived similarly. If the axes are transformed

in such that 𝑥 axis is in the direction of the dominant applied load, these load paths

Vy y i yx j Equation 3-9

One of the significant aspects of load path is that singularity has no effect on

Page | 45

Chapter3Background Theory

Equation 3-10

tan xy

1

x

xy

lim (tan 1 ) tan 1

x 0 x

90

In Equation 3-10 if x tends to zero (the case where singularity happens) then

tends to 90 with respect to 𝑥 axis, so singularity cannot effect the load path

direction. Knowing the direction and the extent of the load is a high priority in the

design discipline. The extent of the load being carried between adjacent contours

in Figure 3-5 is given by Pxa as the external applied force. This force can be

The stresses n and nt can be extracted from the finite element analysis packages

such as ANSYS. In the standard version of these packages, load paths cannot be

plotted in the post processing section directly from the solution and thus an

number of codes written by Kelly (Kelly, 2005) could define these paths, additional

improvement was made since this research has begun. These improvements were

Page | 46

Chapter3Background Theory

to find a unique attribute of load path within different types of structures regardless

The main platform for the finite element package was ANSYS APDL 12.1 due to its

wide use and proved acceptance in the simulation world. FORTRAN was also

selected as the programming code due to its compatibility with the FEA package.

CAD modelling

contours

Importing back the contours to ANSYS in order to plot the load paths

define the load paths contours. These contours illustrate continuous load paths

through a structure and are traced by placing this contours tangent to the load path

based on the visualization of the pointing vectors and alternatively, load path

Page | 47

Chapter3Background Theory

sections until Equation 3-1 is satisfied. This approach however requires user

interaction and does not lend itself to a global plot for all points on the domain.

The initial stage to achieve the pointing vector approach is to obtain the elemental

information such as nodal stresses from the solution mainstream. The element

used for this purpose has 8 nodes and translational movement at each node.

Solid185 elements in ANSYS are used to interface with the codes. In this chapter it

In every element, the solution of the model can produce 8 nodal stress vectors and

stress can be reported. These stresses are averaged only internally between the

nodes within the same element. This process must be repeated for all the

elements within the boundaries and once this collection has been made, as

starting element of the path can be selected. By selecting an arbitrary element and

recording the element number, the starting point for the path the general pattern of

the paths can be plotted. The stresses and initiation points for the load paths are

sent to the FORTRAN codes to calculate the pointing vectors at the centroid of

each element. The pointing vector is then defined using a non-structural link

(Figure 3-7). Each link is drawn in such that angular orientation of the link is

tangent to the load path direction. The length of the link can be scaled up to

indicate the qualitative magnitude of axial stress or can be given a unit value to

Page | 48

Chapter3Background Theory

8 7

4 3

5

6

1 2

Applying this method to each element produces the required links that can be

plotted in ANSYS to define the pointing vectors and once these links are

generated, they exported back as an input file to ANSYS. The links are then

plotted with the required ANSYS format in the CAD section over the initial

geometry.

A fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used predict the contours through the

vector field by repeatedly projecting forward from one location on the contour to the

next in a similar fashion to plotting streamlines in fluid flow. Runge- Kutta method

The use of Runge – Kutta method is defined based on the increment of s as the

increment along the load path. Using this step length can ensure that all the spatial

increments are fixed to a unit magnitude during the generation of the path through

Page | 49

Chapter3Background Theory

As an evidence, for a normalized vector field, V is defined over the mesh domain

dp1 V pi

s

dp2 V 1

pi dp1

s

2

dp3 V 1

pi dp2

s

2

Equation 3-12

dp4 V 1

pi dp3

s

2

1

pi 1 pi ( dp1 dp2 dp3 dp4 )

6

is the value of the vector V evaluated at point

𝑃.The vector can be defined at any arbitrary point by first associating the point with

As an example of the application of load path visualization using the vector plots

approach, a cantilever plate with a tip shear load is examined (Figure 3-8). The

model is a three-dimensional plate under a tip shear load of 100 N in its right wall.

This load is applied to a node in 𝑦 direction downward and is constant and non-

changeable during the simulation. The left surface of the plate is fully fixed. The

length to width ratio of the plate is 3, and the length, height and depth are 0.6, 0.2

and 0.1 , correspondingly. The plate is meshed with 693 nodes in 400 elements.

The size of the elements is completely subjective and depends on the complexity

Page | 50

Chapter3Background Theory

of the structure and accuracy of the results. A finer mesh can generate more

contours hence, resulting more accurate paths. This is a simple shear loaded

example and thus 400 nodes would be enough in terms of the visualization of the

load transferred within the boundaries. All elements are quadratic Solid185 with 8

nodes with isotropic behaviour. Young’s modulus of 210GPa and Poisson’s ratio of

Figure 3

Regarding selection of the element for initiation of the load path, 20 random

elements are considered. The recorded element numbers accompanying the nodal

stresses in each element are then defined in the FORTRAN code. The FORTRAN

codes produce 3200 links with individual length of 0.01 and at the final stage the

links are imported back to ANSYS in the post processing environment to visualize

the load paths. The load path contours for loads parallel to the 𝑥 axis, are shown in

Figure 3-9.

Page | 51

Chapter3Background Theory

Figure 3

It can be clearly observed that some of the regions are not traversed by the load

paths since they are not traversed by paths selected in the random selection. The

FORTRAN codes are written in a way to be able to show high stress zones in the

structures. In Figure 3-9, the paths are given a spectrum of 10 colours. The colour

presentation can reflect the stress level of each zone in the domain and therefore,

structure in their further study. Red colour represents the highest stress level while

blue shows the lowest and the rest of colours in the spectrum indicate the stress

with the extent between the maximum and minimum level. The looping of the paths

shows existence of bending in the structure which will be discussed further in the

next section.

The contours plotted in the Figure 3-9 have the dominant load transformation

within the structure. Due to the boundary condition top half bear tension and

bottom half bear compression and transfer the shear load from left to right.

Figure 3-10 gives the y direction load paths and 𝑦-Path load paths show shear

transfer from right to left. Although load paths can be generalised to three

Page | 52

Chapter3Background Theory

dimensions, examples in this section are restricted to cases with non-trivial paths

in only 2 dimensions for clarity. However, only the front view of the model can be

An L-shaped domain with vertical shear load is the employed example to test

requirement of the code, this model is a three-dimensional block with height and

width of 0.2 m and depth of 0.1 m . The applied load as shear applied to the middle

Figure 3-11 and is constant during the analysis. Boundary conditions constrain the

top wall of the model. All other nodes are free to move in 3 degree of freedom.

Finer meshing has been chosen for this model as it has more complicated

geometry compare to the previous model. 1936 nodes in 1470 elements have

Page | 53

Chapter3Background Theory

been created. All of the elements are 8 node Solid185 elements in ANSYS. The

Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio is 210 GPa and 0.3 respectively.

Figure 3

Similar procedure is applied to transfer data between the FORTRAN codes and

ANSYS and the outcome for 𝑦 direction load has been plotted in Figure 3-12. The

red colour identifies zones in which the magnitude of the pointing vector is high.

Similarly blue colour contours present lower value of pointing vector. As expected,

the corner in the geometry is stressed more than the other zones because of the

Page | 54

Chapter3Background Theory

existence of loop in the paths reflects the existence of bending. This bending is

In three dimensional applications with an element with free face, the paths are

projected parallel to the free surface when the angle of vector to the surface is

small and this implies on order to prevent the path leaving the solution domain due

to numerical errors. The amount can be set in the program and is totally

Page | 55

Chapter3Background Theory

projection.

geometry of the model and it is impossible to have a general idea how the force

can flow in every structure from the application of the load to the support.

Nevertheless, some patterns can be pre-defined for some simple cases. Following

Pure tension

Pure compression

Pure bending

Cantilever bending

Torsion

For the purpose of generalization of load flow, the pure tension case is considered

first and without any discontinuities in the structure, the load can trace straight from

left to right. Since the load is only in x direction, no paths can be expected in the

normal direction, 𝑦 direction. Since the path carries the same load, they are equally

Page | 56

Chapter3Background Theory

Pure compression has a similar pattern to pure tension but the difference is that

the load is transferred from left to right and as the geometry is totally symmetric,

load paths are straight and equally spaced. As the load transfer is directionless

Pure bending in Figure 3-16 provides a linear stress distribution from top to bottom.

Therefore if the paths bound regions transferring the same load, the contours will

be closer together at the top and bottom of the beam in Figure 3-17 where the

Page | 57

Chapter3Background Theory

y xx

z x

Mz

A more complex case occurs when a shear load is applied to a beam. Shear load

creates a bending moment in the beam and make the load paths lose their uniform

linearity and form loops or eddies in the solution domain. Since shear stress

straight.

Figure 3-18 (b) shows 𝑉 contours in a cantilever bending. In more details; a sub-

domain that is bounded by two load paths including the mid-plane of the beam and

the loaded right hand wall (Figure 3-19) can be created. 𝑥-force equilibrium is

yx

maintained by a shear stress at the mid-plane, , and a direct stress at the right

hand wall,

xx .

Page | 58

Chapter3Background Theory

𝑥-Path

(a) (b)

𝑦-Path

(c)

The two edges defined by the curved contours are free from any 𝑥-force. This case

demonstrates that the stress that ensures the subdomains, are in equilibrium can

vary between direct stress and shear stress as the load bearing surfaces are re-

Px

Px

The loops in simply supported beam are similar in cantilevered beam; the loops

form oval/circular shape depends on the ratio of the block. In this loading condition,

Page | 59

Chapter3Background Theory

𝑥-Path

𝑦-Path

The most efficient load path is a straight path of constant cross-sectional area

parallel to the load (such as a cable in tension) carrying load from the point of load

application to the point of reaction. However, load paths are forced to follow curved

moments. The force is constant along the path identified in Figure 3-21, a stress

concentration narrows the path so that the ratio of the force to the cross-sectional

area gives the higher stress experienced at the stress concentration. This can

Page | 60

Chapter3Background Theory

Figure 3

If the path is not straight, the bending moments are introduced that are equilibrated

by tractions in the orthogonal direction acting on the boundaries. For the path

segment, for example, Figure 3-22, the tractions on the top and bottom boundaries

direction. The bending moment due to the offset in the loads pxa can be

Px

Px

Py

Py

Page | 61

Chapter3Background Theory

Typical structural configurations to transfer the load for each case identified in the

The geometries proposed are suggested by the contour patterns of the load paths.

bending moments and shear. For axial load, the relevant property is the cross-

the case of compression. For bending, the second moment of area is essential and

only requires a path for the shear and bending but also includes connecting

Page | 62

Chapter3Background Theory

Once a clear interpretation of the types of load and the load paths are defined,

3.2.8. Discussion

To determine the load paths, the three-dimensional structures with solid elements

were studied in this chapter. A formulation to define the load path from the theory

defined by Kelly was covered and further refined to plot the load paths in the

mentioned earlier they are completely subjective and totally depend on the

In this section of the study, determination of load paths in trusses will be covered.

In trusses the load path is determined by the member that carries majority of the

load (Kelly and Elsley, 1993). These members are crucial to the structure since

any damage or failure to them would collapse the entire design. However, the

other members only play a complementary role in the transformation of the load in

the structure and can be removed from the domain. The internal force can be set

Page | 63

Chapter3Background Theory

to a criterion to determine the load paths from the FEA analysis. The criteria then

will deduce the elements based on an iterative procedure through the solution.

The reduction of the members can follow the method introduced by Xie and Steven

(Xie and Steven, 1997) called Evolutionary Structural Optimization Method (ESO).

defined as the force must follow the members in the truss. It is then possible to

determine which parts of the structures carry the most applied load. This technique

can provide a useful tool for engineers and architects in their design processes.

The internal force in members can be used to represent force transfer from the

load point to the support. The force magnitude in any part of the structure can be

significant load, it can be removed from the structure in such that its removal does

not allow a mechanism to form and lead to failure in the structure. The element

removal from the structure can be based on a rejection scalar parameter that is

The internal force value of each single element can be determined by comparing;

e

for example, an element with f i as the local internal force with the maximum

Page | 64

Chapter3Background Theory

max

force value of fi as the maximum global force value. After each finite element

analysis, element which satisfies the following condition can have their modulus

reduced:

fi e Equation 3-13

max <r

fi

In ANSYS all elements for trusses have chosen to be “Link 180”. Link180 is a bar

that can be used in a variety of engineering applications. This element can be used

to model trusses, sagging cables, links, springs, etc. This 3-D bar element is a

deflection, and large strain capabilities are considered in order to model these

The algorithm implemented for determination of the load path in truss structures

consists of eight iterative stages. These stages can be repeated for a number of

times depending on the set up removal ratio. For more clarification, the load path in

Figure 3-24 which is a part of multi bay truss can be obtained from the following six

stages:

Page | 65

Chapter3Background Theory

II. If entering force is tension one side of section – exiting force must be

5. Select member with largest force component (𝑥 or 𝑦) and obeying sign rule

N5 2T N4

2

1.414C 1.414T

2

N1 1C N2 1C N3

1 1

In Figure 3-24 Ni i 1...4 are the nodes which are connected to each other with

Page | 66

Chapter3Background Theory

Table 3

12 1C 1 0

23 1C 1 0

14 1.414C 1 1

24 0 0 0

34 1.414T 1 1

45 2T 2 0

Start at node with external x-force (ie. N1 and member 𝑁 𝑁 ). Consider vertical

N5 2T N4

2

(1)

1.414C

(1)

2

N1 N2 N3

Page | 67

Chapter3Background Theory

Now follow load in member 𝑁 𝑁 . Applying rules above gives the second 𝑥-paths,

Figure 3-26.

N5 2T N4

2

(1)

(1) (1)

2

N1 N2 N3

Figure 3

For the 𝑦-path start at N1 or N3 . Here start at N1 and apply rules, (Figure 3-27)

N5 N4

1.414T

(1) (1)

N1 N2 N3

1 1

Figure 3

Once the algorithm of the determination of load path is set up, it can be

then can be compared with the benchmarks in the literature on truss optimization

Page | 68

Chapter3Background Theory

To find a possible load path for the loading and support conditions shown in

Figure 3-28, a one bay truss with unit width and height producing a square is

employed. A vertical load of 100 N is applied to the bottom right side of the truss.

The value of force has been taken from the force applied by Xie and Steven (Xie

and Steven, 1993) in their paper. This load has to be constant during the analysis

at all time. Young’s modulus of the elements has been chosen to 210 GPa .

The truss is analysed by ANSYS APDL in the static structural environment. The

means that stress distribution is uniform along the length of the element. Two full

supports at left side do not allow any movements to the node N1 and N 4 . However,

the other joints ( N 2 and N3 ) are free to move in any translational directions.

𝑁 𝑁

𝑁

𝑁

Page | 69

Chapter3Background Theory

The axial forces obtained from each element are tabulated and stored as a

parameter in ANSYS temporary memory. Then the lowest value from the table is

extracted and the member number associated with the called value is written as a

new parameter. Once this parameter is generated, the reduction procedure starts.

The reduction can be performed in two ways; the ratio method or the cutting

method. In the ratio method as explained earlier in this chapter, Young’s modulus

is reduced by to certain extent. In this example the removal is set to just one single

element reduction in one iteration and the designer can interact with the design

process to approve which element is removed from the structure in every step. The

contribute nothing to the overall mass (or capacitance, etc.) of the matrix.

The reduction is performed for four iterations and then a statically determinant

Page | 70

Chapter3Background Theory

(1) (2)

(3)

In this reduction the elements shown with lighter colours are more desired to be

eliminated from the domain. These colours depict the lower internal force value

method can be obtained via either the reduction ratio or constraining the number of

statically determinate design criterion to fix the ending time. In this thesis the

Similar approach was taken for a two bay truss with cross section area of 1 cm2 and

unit length for each bay. A load of 100 N was applied to the bottom right corner.

Page | 71

Chapter3Background Theory

And then FEA and other procedure were applied in ANSYS APDL program,

Figure 3-31:

Figure 3

The reduction of the element was set to be the member with the lowest axial force.

So it was expected to have only one element removed at every step unless

multiple elements with identical values of axial forces were observed. The

Page | 72

Chapter3Background Theory

(1) (2)

(3) (4)

(5) (6)

(7) (8)

In Figure 3-32 elements are coloured in spectrum of 10 colours where red depicts

the highest value and Blue the lowest extent of internal force.

Page | 73

Chapter3Background Theory

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

1

-1302.5 -766.95 443.71 639.53 1291 0 406.85 -39.804 488.81 -350.56 -432.52 471.04 -437.87

1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

2

-1302.5 -766.95 443.71 639.53 1291 406.85 -39.804 488.81 -350.56 -432.52 471.04 -437.87

1 2 3 4 5 7 9 10 11 12 13

3

-1290.7 -757.04 458.14 649.43 1302.8 377.38 461.99 -377.38 -461.99 481.16 -427.75

1 2 3 4 5 9 10 11 12 13

Iterations

4

-1014.4 -1014.4 276.57 553.15 1418 611.55 3.22E-13 -611.55 650.68 -618.44

1 2 3 4 5 9 11 12 13

5

-1014.4 -1014.4 276.57 553.15 1418 611.55 -611.55 650.68 -618.44

1 2 4 5 9 11 12 13

6

-1335.3 -1335.3 0 1329.4 940.06 -940.06 749.71 0

1 2 5 9 11 12

7

-1335.3 -1335.3 1329.4 940.06 -940.06 749.71

1 2 5 9 11

8

-1000 -1000 2000 1414.2 -1414.2

Page | 74

Chapter3Background Theory

It is noteworthy; the final truss has two members connected at node N 2 . This would

give a singular stiffness matrix if the killed members are actually removed. Instead,

the killed members are remained with reduced stiffness and prevent singularity in

the stiffness matrix. In iteration 6 of the reduction, two members indicate no carried

load since their recorded axial force is zero. Removal of two members at the same

time occasionally is possible if two members meet each other in a node and lack

Figure 3-33:

In the node N 4 , three elements 𝑒 𝑒 and 𝑒 meet each other. Element e3 is vertical

and thus carries the force only in 𝑦 direction. Element e4 is angled and theoretically

carries the load in both 𝑥 and 𝑦 directions. Similar interpretation would be true for

element e13 as well. It means that it can carry the load in 𝑥 direction. During the

reduction process, e3 was removed from the solution domain while the other two

Page | 75

Chapter3Background Theory

members are still active. Removing element e3 causes the equilibrium of the node

to fail since there is no more elements to cancel out the load caused by e4 in 𝑦

direction and hence e4 will be automatically removed from the domain. Similar

The procedure obtained from both one and two bay truss can be compared and

Harasaki, 2000; Harasaki and Arora, 2001; Arora and Harasaki, 2004). This

bays with the ratio of three and different loading conditions is considered. This

example validates the results by comparison with benchmarks in the literature. The

width with the unit value and the height of the truss with the half times to the length

is examined. Two full supports are placed at the very bottom of the structure.

These supports forced zero displacement on the associated nodes in any direction.

A tip vertical load of 100N is located in the middle of the structure in the bottom

flange. The material property of 210 GPa as Young’s modulus is considered for this

model.

Page | 76

Chapter3Background Theory

This model consists of 10 nodes and 21 elements. The nodes are connected to

each other via two ways; regular and overpopulation meshing method. In the

regular method the nodes are connected to each other with horizontal, vertical and

(Figure 3-35).

Figure 3

Figure 3

After FEA analysis and the reduction procedure are conducted, the total number of

Figure 3-36.

Page | 77

Chapter3Background Theory

As it is observed, the result from both meshing methods is identical with no effect

on the final plot of the remaining members. The achieved result can be also

validated from the result from the benchmarks in the literature (Karnovsky and

Lebed, 2009). Figure 3-37 reveals illustrates the weight reduction in every step of

the elimination:

200

150

Weight (kg)

100

50

0

1 2 3 4 5 6

Iteraion Number

3.3.5. Discussion

Optimized design can be generated from the initial structure by different methods

design can interpret the load path in the discrete structures as they comprise a

finite number of clearly defined members which carry only axial load. The above

Page | 78

Chapter3Background Theory

numerical approach.

proposed by Xie and Steven. The Evolutionary Method acts via a reduction

criterion which was explained and utilized in a number of examples. The achieved

results were similar to the optimized structures defined in the literature using shape

path in the boat sails and shade structures which will be investigated in the next

chapter.

3.4. Conclusion

Chapter three discussed two formulations to find load paths in order to illustrate the

concept of load path in both continuum and discrete structures and then some idea

of generating load path for sail structures were explained. Formulation by Kelly et

al. (Kelly et al., 2010) earlier to this research could determine the load paths in the

continuum structures while it was not applicable through ANSYS as the FEA

package. The development of the algorithm and the process of obtaining load

paths and the integration into ANSYS were therefore explained. The formulation

was applied to a cantilever beam and L-Shape structure. Regardless of the type of

the structure in a rectangle solution domain, the idea which was examined through

Page | 79

Chapter3Background Theory

path that can be generalized into the other applications. This idea was classified

Pure tension

Pure compression

Pure bending

Cantilever bending

The extension of load paths to trusses was also explained later in this chapter and

the idea of considering the axial force as the parameter was proposed. This was

the structure. The combination of the axial force method and EM provided

criterion, 𝐸𝑀 method and membrane analysis may be a great step for this

covered later in the next chapter and the application of the formulation and the

Page | 80

CHAPTER 4.

NUMERICAL STUDY OF LOAD

PATHS IN SHELL AND PLATE

STRUCTURES

4.1. Introduction:

missiles and ships. It is essential to understand how the load travels in the tension

structures under boundary conditions. This additional information would open the

designers’ vision to have deeper insight through the design. The wide application

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

structural component efficiency: the larger this ratio, the more optimal is a

structure

High stiffness

Containment of space

In the area of tension structures, the sail and yacht construction industry has

become the front runner when it comes to implementation of fibre reinforced resin

building and testing on the water. The use of computer aided design and

simulation packages can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with

design and testing the design before a prototype is built. The optimum use of

carbon fibre in the sails can reduce the total cost of the product. Yet, there is no

establishing a finite element method not only can provide the designer stress

distribution and other stress resultants but also can deliver information of how

fibres distribute through the domain. To avoid any possible error in determination

of the carbon fibre through finite element analysis, the tension structure with their

pressure load in ANSYS. The analysis must be carried out in the static condition,

Page | 82

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

nonlinearity to tolerate the condition of large deflection imposed by wind load in the

real situation. In order to obtain the possible load paths in the yacht and cruising

boat sails, the first step is to simulate a shell as the main cloth and then validate

the results with the theory of shells and plates and then overlay the suggested

method to find the load paths. A shell element for the analysis of thin and moderate

plate and shell structures is formulated along with the compatible link element. The

overlaid elements are created for the analysis of laminated fibre reinforced boat

sails.

assumptions. Then the numerical results obtained from finite element analysis

(ANSYS APDL) can be compared with the theories. This chapter mainly highlights:

Page | 83

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

Firstly, it is worth introducing some general terms used in the plate analysis

compared to the overall dimensions of the sail, so large deflection theory of the

3. The deflection of the mid-plane is fairly large compared with the thickness of

the plate. So the slope of the deflected surface is therefore very large in

4. The normal lines initially normal to the middle plane before deflection remain

straight and normal to the middle surface during the deformation and the

thicknesses:

a

1. THICK PLATES, when the ratio of 8:

h

Where a in this inequality is the area of the plate and h is the thickness of the

plate. The analysis of such bodies includes all the components of stresses, strains,

Page | 84

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

and displacements as for solid bodies using the general equations of three-

dimensional elasticity.

a

2. MEMBRANES, when the ratio of 80 :

h

Membranes carry the lateral loads by in-plane axial tensile forces 𝑁 (and shear

forces). These forces are called membrane forces; they produce a projection on a

vertical axis and thus balance a lateral load applied to the plate-membrane.

a

3. THIN PLATES with 8 80 :

h

This group represents an intermediate type of the plates. Depending on the value

w

of the ratio the part of flexural and membrane forces may vary.

h

Generally, sail and shade sails can be considered as membranes, therefore the

section. The plate in Figure 4-1 illustrates the terms to be used later in this chapter.

𝑞 𝑎

𝑓𝑦𝐵 𝑓𝑦𝐴

𝑓𝐵 𝑓𝐴

𝑓𝑥𝐵 𝑓𝑥𝐴

w

𝐵 h A

Page | 85

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

this part of the study validates finite element analysis approach by comparing with

shell theory. ANSYS classic is chosen as the platform for the analysis due to its

wide use and compatibility with third party applications. Thin and moderate thin

shell structures such as shades and sails are analysed usually by Shell elements

bending stiffness often leads to singular solutions of the stiffness matrix under

satisfy the enforced conditions in the membrane, distributing the pressure through

membrane and advance feature of ANSYS using Stabilizer and Line search are

circular model clamped in the radius edge. The radius of the plate is 8.70 and the

thickness is 4 . The model is used to explain the validation of the analysis steps

and capability of the modelling for the layered elemental creation which will be

Page | 86

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

Materials characteristics used in the current analysis are adapted from the values

used in the sail construction industry (CyTec, 2011), woven polyester (WP)

sailcloth with and Young’s modulus of 873 MPa and a Poisson’s ratio of 0.3.

4.3.2. Element

The element used for this model is Shell181. This element is suitable to analyse

about the x , y and z axes. Shell181 can be used for linear, large rotation,

deflection and large strain nonlinear applications .This element is well suited for

sail modelling since it will give the designer the chance of stiffening the model as it

According to Zienkiewicz and Taylor (Zienkiewicz and Taylor, 2005), the elements

with reduced integration scheme can improve responses for thin plates and shells.

Since the predicted transverse shear stresses are found to be incorrect in shell

points, while more points may not increase the accuracy of the computed FE

the shell elements in this research. The shell elements used in this analysis do not

resist any bending and thus the feature of the “membrane only” is chosen for the

Page | 87

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

element creation. This enforced limitation to the elements, assures the designer

that the structure deflects easily under the wind load and has only translational

Figure 4

The size of the element is selected based on final 𝑧 deflection compare to the

Table 4-1. The selected size is 51 cm which is the closest value to the theory. In

implemented like in this research, the deflection w may become very large in

neglected, hence the maximum deflection can be calculated from Equation 4-1

qa Equation 4-1

w 0.662a 3

Eh

Page | 88

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

Table 4

To confirm the analysis steps and the implemented parameters with Timoshenko

theory of plate and shells (Timoshenko et al., 1959), a clamped circle is used. The

clamped circle has no DOF (degree of freedom) in all directions in the edge

(Figure 4-3). This is simulated by applying the fully support in the edge nodes

within ANSYS. However, the other elements are free to move in x , y and z

directions.

Figure 4

Page | 89

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

Modelling of the pre-tension in the plate is carried out with the radially stiffening of

the membrane in the first step of the loading step with 8 enforced

be acting in the normal direction to the plate at the centroid of the circle in the 2nd

loading step while it is removed from the boundary conditions later during the

analysis. This is due to the fact that one step load application would lead to a non-

convergent solution therefore; the membrane must be stiff enough to react with the

-4: Point load in the centre and enforced displacement in the edge

Figure 4

2008). The pressure is static and remains constant during the analysis. Due to the

distortion discussed earlier, the load is applied in 9 load steps of the increments for

Page | 90

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Loading step Number

As Figure 4-5 shows, the pressure must be slightly increased up to loading step 8,

means after a certain point the membrane is stiff enough and let the platform to

To begin the analysis, a total number of 2352 Shell181 elements and 2409 nodes

geometrical nonlinear. Stress stiffening is also used to make the material stiffer

once stress is applied. Newton-Rophson iteration is chosen and the stepping time

may vary in each different steps. The reason of analysing plate through geometric

nonlinearity and different loading steps is due to the fact that the model does not

resist bending and thus the elemental formulation can easily be distorted if the

Page | 91

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

It is evident that maximum 𝑧 deflection occurs in the centre of the plate. The

edge as it is fully constrained in all DOF. This is the result which was expected and

Figure 4-6 provides information of 𝑧 deflection contours over the entire model:

From Figure 4-6, the symmetrical behavior of the model can be understood since

Page | 92

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

The stress distribution is also graphed in Figure 4-7. which illustrates that Von

Mises stress in the centroid is in maximum extent and the clamed edge is

experiencing the lowest extent. This is is expected from the distribution of load into

Above results indicate that the procedure of the loading steps and pretentioning of

the model do not affect the result and model remains symmetrical in 𝑧 direction

and maximum 𝑧 deflection agrees with shell theory, Table 4-1. From this promising

rectangle shade and cruising boat sail simulated by overlaying meshing method in

Page | 93

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

are distinct at one length scale but together form a single structural entity at a

longer length scale. One example is long continuous fibres imbedded in a matrix

material. The fibres, either unidirectional or interwoven, are usually layered to form

a laminate.

to find the possible load paths in the tension structures. By combining these two

elements a finite element model for reinforced shells is formulated. The reinforced

finite element model employs elastic constitutive relationship for the main cloth,

discrete link elements for modelling of reinforcement and bonded joints for bonding

the slippage between the main cloth and reinforcement. The numerical results

show that the model can predict the behaviour of the laminated tension structures

The four and eight node isotropic plate elements for thin plates and shells are

generally used for thin and moderate thin shells and two node beam elements are

al., 1989; Ranjbaran, 1992). Due to the fact that beam elements can resist

Link181 is used as the replacement due to its similar characteristics but bending

resisting behaviour. Figure 4-8 illustrates overlaying of link and shell elements

clearly. As shown, a four node shell element consists of four nodes which is

Page | 94

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

combined with six Link181 elements on top. The members are common in corner

nodes and since both elements do not resist bending and have three degree of

freedom, essentially they are bonded in the corner joints hence they move together

as the structure deflects. It means that Link181 and Shell181 can only move

Link180

Node2

Node1 Shell181

Node3

y

x Node4

and without over laying link elements in ANSYS. Rectangle model is chosen since

it has a regular shape and all the nodes and elements creation can be modelled

highlighted when the load path determination process is added to the analysis

Page | 95

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

number of loops which depends on the element size. Essentially the shell model is

modelled without overlaid link element first due to the possibility of convergent

issue then overlaid shell and link element is analysed together. The thickness of

the plate is the same as circular model with 4 mm and the width and height of the

shade is 2.4 m . The cross section area of the link elements is considered to be

1 .

model and are adapted from the values used in the sail construction industry

(CyTec, 2011), woven polyester (WP) sailcloth with and Young’s Modulus of 873

4.5.2. Element

The elements for modelling of shell are chosen to be Shell181 due to its ability

which was explored earlier in this chapter. The membrane model in this research

does not resist any bending hence membrane only attribute is picked through the

convergence which is depicts in the Figure 4-9. The model consists of 1600 nodes

and 6 cm of length in each element and 4641 shell elements all together.

Page | 96

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

1.80

1.75

1.70

1.65

Z deflection (m) 1.60

1.55

1.50

1.45

1.40

1.35

1.30

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Element size (𝑚)

Figure 4-9: Shell element size convergence for the rectangle plate

membrane attribute of the shell elements. The nodes in the Link181 have DOF to

move translationally in 𝑥 and 𝑦 and 𝑧 directions. The size of the links is identical to

the size of one side of a Shell181 element. The meshing pattern is in such a way

that between every pair of nodes in shell element a link member is overlaid. This

Page | 97

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

means that there are 6 link members in a shell element in vertical, horizontal and

diagonal directions. This meshing type can let the load flows over the shell layers

as well as in the edges of the elements. Generating the link elements as explained

earlier creates 3120 Link181 elements in the model. Figure 4-11 shows the

meshing pattern.

This model is a clamped rectangle which is fixed in all DOF in the nodes in the

edges (Figure 4-12). All other inner nodes are free to move in all x , y and z

directions.

Page | 98

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

Figure 4

membrane in 𝑥 and 𝑦 directions in the 1st step of the loading step with 5

acting in the normal direction to the plate at the centroid of the circle after the pre

tensioning process while it is removed from the boundary conditions later during

the analysis. And finally 10𝑃𝑎 is ramping on the membrane through the rest of the

analysis.

ANSYS. The simulation is performed twice, with and without overlaid link elements.

Starting with shell element only, and then with shell and link elements. Similarly,

Page | 99

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

circular plate, large displacement and stress stiffening are also used to resist large

deformation in the structures. The analysis is performed though 12 load steps and

11 sub steps with Newton-Raphson iteration method. This model due to its

boundary condition is easily solved very quickly. However, for more unstable

As Figure 4-13 displays, the maximum 𝑧 deflection occurs in the centre and it is

Figure 4

rectangle which results in the typical shape of clamped shades. Along the edges of

the model there are some negative deflections; this indicates that wrinkling or

Page | 100

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

rippling of the membrane is occurring at these points. This is generally due to the

translation of the material towards these edges and the inability of the nylon to

resist bending and wrinkling. Also the stress distribution can be found in

Figure 4-14. Similarly to the circular membrane stress in the 𝑧 direction can be

found significant compare to the other directions and hence Von Mises stress also

gets affected.

Compare to the model without overlaid link element, it is expected that deflection

from 1.7 m to 0.16 m and also Von Mises stress in the membrane is lowered from

1039 Pa to 11.63 Pa . (Figure 4-15, Figure 4-16). This can highlight the effect of

carbon fibre into the sail and tension structures performance. In this specific model,

Page | 101

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

the plate with link element can bear 1000𝑃𝑎 while the plate without link element

Page | 102

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

procedure. This technique involves modelling of the internal force in the link

lie within the shell elements. The time for elimination is dependent on the

complexity of the structure and the meshing pattern. The elimination procedure of

the rectangle plate with diagonal overlaid link element took seven hours and thirty

minutes over 700 iterations to reach the final pattern. The computational time is

based on the regular desktop with 3.00 𝐺𝐻𝑧 CPU and 4.00 𝐺𝐵 RAM and hard drive

of 150𝐺𝐵.

It must be highlighted that the elimination method as explained earlier does not

delete or simply removes the selected element from the solution domain while the

Young’s modulus is reduced to half of the magnitude of its initial value. The benefit

of this method is that stress singularity never occurs in the solution procedure due

to elimination of one element from the solution system. However, the reduced

Figure 4-17 provides information about how the links elements are remained in the

model after the elimination process. The starting point of modulus is from the

elements in the boundaries as they carry the load since all their nodes are fixed in

all DOF. Then the process kills the horizontal elements in the top and bottom sides

Page | 103

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

as well as vertical elements in the right and left sides. As the process continues,

two strips of link elements connecting the top to bottom and left side to right side

remain in the structure. These two strips of link elements are joints in the centre of

the shade. The connections are where all the forces that act on and within the

It can be observed from Figure 4-17, that the force has the higher magnitude along

the edges and is reduced towards the centre. This means that if the elimination

process continues, the elements in the areas coloured in yellow are the latest

members to be eliminated from the solution domain. The line of links elements

represents the state of stress in a linear pattern in the shade. If the loads upon the

Page | 104

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

shade are discretised into a set of point loads then the line of links can construct a

cross polygon. The remaining result can be compared with the load path for a

Figure 4

as the second numerical example. Under this circumstance, the rectangle is only

fixed in the corners while the other nodes are free to move in translational degree

tensioned from the corners and usually are perfect solution for shading any

outdoor area including pools, patios, playgrounds and schools. The dimensions are

similarity to the previous model with 2.4 m lengths in each side, 4 as thickness

Page | 105

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

The material of the sail is woven polyester with 873 MPa Young’s modulus and 0.3

Poisson’s ratio. The carbon fibre resins are modelled with Young’s modulus of 150

4.6.2. Element

Due to the fact that increasing the number of elements may increase the solution

time, the Shell181 element length of 12 cm (the element size is two times of the

clamped circular model) is considered to minimise the modelling time. Figure 4-9

can verifies that increasing the element length would not lead into major difference

in the 𝑧 deflection. However it can decrease the solution time by approximate half

of the initial. So this model consists of 400 nodes and 380 Shell181 elements and

Figure 4

Page | 106

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

The model is pre-tensioned in 𝑥 and 𝑦 directions in the 1st step of the loading step

direction to the plate at the centroid of the circle after the pre tensioning process

while it is removed from the boundary conditions later during the analysis. And

finally 10𝑃𝑎 is ramping on the membrane through the rest of the analysis.

Due to the complexity of the structure under the defined loading condition

convergence problem still appeared. Avoiding this issue, line search is activated in

the model due to the fact that 1- Structure is force-loaded and 2- oscillatory

due to an unstable problem is usually results from a large displacement for small

Page | 107

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

nodes in the system. Any degree of freedom that tends to be unstable has a large

the degree of freedom so that stabilization can be achieved and these techniques

may support gaining convergent solution despite of large deflection in the model.

Possible load paths in the corner fixed rectangle are achieved by implementing the

two straps bridge the corners oppositely and double symmetrical in the pattern

Figure 4

Page | 108

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

The lighter colours indicate the elements with more possibility of remaining in the

domain through the iterations. The pattern can be compared with groined vault

(O’Dwyer, 1999).

cylindrical shells and arranged in a cross form in such that it forms arches on each

sides (Figure 4-22). This is one of the most ancient of masonry arch structures and

still is used for underground water reservoirs of concrete without any reinforcing.

Figure 4

4.7. Conclusion:

This chapter was a concise part of the application chapter in the final thesis and

aimed the variation of deflection and load path in shades, using woven polyester

as the main cloth and carbon fibre as the reinforcement resin. FE Analysis program

Page | 109

Chapter4Numerical Study of load paths in Shell and Plate Structures

was used to complete the modelling through geometric nonlinear static analysis. In

order to verify the accuracy of the analysis, the final Z deflection was compared to

Timoshenko’s Theory of Shells and Plates. The possible load paths were obtained

Link181 and Shell181 elements. The load paths obtained in the rectangle model

revealed that there are two possible strips in the shade, which can hold the

majority of the load caused by normal pressure. In the clamped rectangle model

two strips bridged the opposite sides while in the corner fixed model they

connected the corners and jointed in the centre of the shell. The procedure

contained within a tension structure. Identifying the possible load paths leads to

understand how a structure is likely to support its load and let the designer to

Page | 110

CHAPTER 5.

APPLICATION TO CRUISING

YACHT SAIL DESIGN

5.1. Introduction:

The development of modern sailing boats has been based almost entirely on the

slight contribution from scientists and technologists and using just basic scientific

principles (Beck et al., 2009). In recent years, urgent and strong requests for

improved performance, mostly for racing yachts, have guided the interest and the

light weight and high strength which are rarely studied in the literature. This

chapter focuses on the importance of the quantitative evaluation of the sail loads

and studies how these loads contribute to the improvement of the performance of a

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

sailboat through the development of an algorithm for aiding sail design. The

supplies load path design features in a sail configuration. The major achievement

load paths under distributed load and the consequent deformed sail-shape. Hence,

the outcome of the research improves sail performance and design of new sails.

The scope of the current study is to apply a load path determination approach to

sail design, to define the possible carbon fibre reinforcement directions for

laminated sails for any given shape using a numerical algorithm, this will lead to an

A shell structure is usually defined as a surface structure that supports only tensile

curvature and membrane stress. In an ideal case where the thickness tends to

zero, the material can only resist tension a shell is termed a membrane. Textile

and laminate structures such as boat sails are good examples of membranes. Boat

and constraints. However, in most cases deformation occurs such that the solution

Page | 112

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Shape deformation of the sail system should be considered in order to predict the

correct load path determination in sail. However, the shape deformation in general,

depends on seaming and rig tension. Currently, effect of elastic deformation is not

and Kim, 2006). This work, however, has made an attempt to predict the deformed

shape of the sail in the static structural analysis with some simplified assumption

Initially, it is necessary to introduce some terms that will be used later in this

chapter to describe components of the sails. Figure 5-1 illustrates the components

of a mainsail. Prior to simulating the boat sail, following assumption and condition

is made:

The incident angle of apparent wind is set to 90º with respect to the mast.

Page | 113

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Figure 5

cruising boat sail is presented. Static analysis will be performed in ANSYS APDL

as the finite element package. Due to the fact that sails behave similar to very thin

Page | 114

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

provide the most degree of freedom of common element types. The sail cloth is

discretised into finite elements with a set of quadrilateral membrane elements with

four nodes. These elements withstand all external forces through tension but they

cannot withstand bending moments. However, these elements are not easy to use

particularly in static analysis since they can distort easily. In this case the bending

due to the large deflection in the plate. In order to satisfy the enforced conditions in

the membrane, distributing the pressure through number of load steps, pre-

Stabilizer and Line search are implemented. An FEA static structural analysis is

conducted on a three dimensional rectangle model with 5.61 m mast length and

Table 5-1 depicts some common materials for most boat sails. The materials used

Blicblau et al., 2008). Woven polyesters can be used for sail cloth and carbon fibre

Table 5

Page | 115

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

5.3.3. Element

FE mesh generation is carried out by using FEM modeller. This strategy is used to

quadrilateral elements with a side particularly coincident with mast and foot. The

quadrilateral elements are the proper choice to model yacht sails built by

composite materials with stiffeners since the elements in the side has been

assumed to be origin of the a local reference. They can define the composite

elements used earlier in Chapter 4 is implemented for sail modelling due to the

reasons were explained earlier. It is worth mentioning that the elements do not

resist any bending moment since “membrane only” is activated. The element

formulation is based on Midlin’s theory where ANSYS codes reduce “locking” effect

(Zienkiewicz and Taylor, 2005). It should be noted that sails are modelled without

considering their effective shape, but simply like shells to which loads are applied,

stressing the structure by means of foot, mast and shrouds. Particular care is spent

in finding a suitable mesh which could to achieve reliable results with spending

reasonable duration of computational time. The final mesh shown in Figure 5-2 is

Page | 116

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Figure 5

50

45

40

Z displacement(mm)

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Number of division

Page | 117

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

size of the element is reduced. Mesh loads should be refined carefully but this

increases the time of analysis (Figure 5-4). Therefore, time of analysis and

essential since in cases such as when the load paths algorithm is implemented;

560

510

460

410

360

Time(S)

310

260

210

160

110

60

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Number of division

Figure 5

desktop computer with 3.00 GHz CPU and 4.00 GB RAM and hard drive of 150 GB .

Generally sails are modelled in such that the translational and rotational degrees of

freedoms along the foot of the main sail where the sail is connected to the boom

will be suppressed. This suppression fixes all the displacement in these regions.

Page | 118

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Along the mast, the translational degrees of freedom must be inhibited. For the

head sail, the point of attachment of the foot to the rig must be constrained. The

leech of the main and head sail must be allowed to move freely to induce a

geometric twist due to the aerodynamic loading and the mast is assumed to be

rigid during the structural calculations. Due to the complexity of the simulation

through static structural analysis, some simplification is carried out in the boundary

Boundary conditions

Figure 5

Prior to applying any pressure to the sail, the cloth must be stiff enough to resist

membrane bending under the wind load. Thus, two scenarios are considered

the sail in installation stage and 2- stiffening of the membrane in normal direction

Page | 119

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

foot, mast and leech. The edge of the sail at the foot is pre-strained by 1 in the

downward 𝑦 direction, the edge of the sail at the mast is displaced 2.82 in

positive 𝑥 direction and the leech is displaced with -1.3 in 𝑥 direction and -

the sail elements to overcome the divergence issue in the solution (Figure 5-6).

It is followed by a ramp uniform pressure to the entire sail cloth uniformly. The

constant during the procedures. Essentially, the wind load is applied gradually

Page | 120

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

through the analysis to the model since ramp increment of pressure helps the

steps and 38 sub steps. The pressure is obtained from Equation 5-1 indicates

𝑞 Equation 5-1

where 𝑞 is the maximum dynamic pressure, is the air density in the temperature

of +25 and is the summation of boat and wind velocities (25 knots). The

60

50

Pressure(Pa)

40

30

20

10

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Loading step number

Figure 5

of the analysis but also for better understanding of the behaviour of boat sail in

different boundary conditions along with their effects on load path determination.

As the initial trial, the presence of battens and shrouds and other structural

Page | 121

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

elements of the sail rig are neglected from the analysis and the exterior edges are

fully fixed and then the membrane is stretched. This implies that there would be no

degree of freedoms in the nodes coincides with these sides. However, there is free

movement for all other interiors nodes in all allowable DOF. Due to the necessity

for large deformation in the sail simulation, analysis must be performed with

step process that incrementally adds the wind load while obtaining a converged

displacement field for each step. Wrinkling of the structure, which is an important

consideration especially around the leading edge (luff) and at the sail tip, is not

Figure 5-8 illustrates the final result for the 𝑧 displacement normal to the plane of

the sail. It is obvious that the maximum displacement occurs in the centre of gravity

of the sail. The displacement in z direction decreases towards the edges of the sail

where the nodes are fully constrained. In some regions the displacement is

Page | 122

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

-8: 𝑧 deflection

Figure 5

Due to the fact that load path algorithm is mainly based on the boundary

conditions; variety of load path would be expected through different analysis. In the

To determine the possible load paths, Link180 elements are overlaid on the

Shell181 elements. Mesh generation needs to follow the previously defined pattern

Page | 123

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

(explained in Chapter 4). Link members are linked to the shell elements in the

outer edges and in the diagonal orientation. Figure 5-9 and Figure 5-10 show how

Figure 5-10 which is a zoom-in section from the entire sail model, visualizes how

Shell181 element

Link180 element

After setting up the link elements in the model, the evolutionary algorithm is

allowed to iterate for 50 times. The resulting pattern of links can be found in

Figure 5-11.

Page | 124

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

(a) (b)

Figure 5

Studying the generated paths reveals that they mainly connect the mast to the

leech and the foot similar to the expected pattern for shade cloths restrained at the

boundaries. The paths expected in sails are indicated by the black lines showing

the carbon fibre tapes (Figure 5-12). The final sail design should derive its stability

from the carbon fibre paths. The number of these paths must be adequate and

accurate enough to make the design far from instability failure. As Figure 5-12

depicts the population of the carbon fibres are much higher than found in

Figure 5-11. The paths obtained by the numerical algorithm do not reflect paths

Boundary condition in the real sail structures differ from the boundary

Page | 125

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

by link element in only diagonal and boundaries of the shell elements. There

would be some paths in the sail which do not conform to this limitation thus

trusses in Chapter 3

Figure 5

In a real sail as depicted in Figure 5-12, the leech is free to move and there is no

constraints limiting the movement of the membrane in this side. Since there is no

Page | 126

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Many parameters can affect the final link distribution. For better understanding of

these parameters they should be included in the modelling separately. One of the

significant parameters is existence of battens which can support the main sail cloth

in the normal direction. Usually four to five battens are included in the sail,

horizontally normal to the mast, depending on the size of the main sail. In the

Besides, adding battens to the model affects both the mesh in the main cloth, and

the generation of link elements. Since the main cloth is divided into five different

sections more regular patterns of mesh with quadrangular shell elements can be

Page | 127

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Battens physically presents larger cross-sectional area than the carbon fibre

reinforcing tape in boat sails. In this model the cross section area of 100 mm2 is

chosen for the batten while the links representing the carbon fibre tape are given a

cross-sectional area of 49 mm2 . Battens are modelled with beam elements which

withstand bending moment. They can remain until the end of the analysis and

should not be removed from the solution domain. Figure 5-14 shows the relative

Batten

Due to the great number of analysis with different structural factors, a summary of

boundary conditions for better understanding is provided in Table 5-2 which will be

Table 5

generation

method

Leech Foot Mast Corners Head Clew Tack Leech Mast

1 Free Free X, Y ,Z Full Normal

2 Free Free Free Full Overpopulation 98

3 Free Free Free Full Overpopulation 98 98

4 Free Free Free Full Overpopulation 98 98 1.5 1.5

5 Free Free Free Full Overpopulation 98 98 1.5 59

6 Free X, Y , Z X and Y Full Overpopulation 98 98 1.5 59

Page | 128

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Attempt 1

The new boundary conditions free the nodes in leech and foot to move in any

allowed direction, while, they are fixed to move only rotationally on the edge at the

mast. The sail is fixed at the head and clew as well as at the tack in all DOF. It is

(along the pressure application) from the centre of gravity in earlier model move to

the middle of the leech since no constraints limited the nodes in the related zones

and the nodes are free to move in all DOF. While it still has the minimum

magnitude in the corners and at the mast since nodes are fixed in all translational

Figure 5

Page | 129

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Implementing the load path determination algorithm produce the paths plotted in

Figure 5-16. Figure 5-16 (a) depicts how boundary conditions are applied to nodes

in the model and Figure 5-16 (b) shows how load path directions are affected by

the imposed boundary condition and how are the load path patterns.

Figure 5-16 explains how the load travels between the head and clew/ foot. It is

expected that in real sail most of the forward thrust of the sail is applied to the clew

and push on the mast through the boom. The patterns in the links reflect this path

for the load from the sail (Figure 5-16). Nevertheless, the directions of the paths

are restricted to be parallel to the edges and diagonals of shell elements in the

mesh. Hence more paths would be observed if this restriction is eliminated .So an

(a) (b)

Figure 5-16: (a) Mesh generation and boundary conditions (b) Load paths defined by the link removal

algorithm.

Page | 130

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Attempt 2

The link elements included in this initial model are shown in Figure 5-17. In the set

up stage, the sail in the head is tensioned with additional cable force representing

pre-tensioning that can be applied when the sail is raised. Similar forces can be

applied to the clew and the tack. These forces are added gradually in different

added to the head corner from the tension shrouds cables for this purpose.

Figure 5

The result of the model in Figure 5-18 indicates that adding tensioning cable effect

in the sail head introduces a force that flows downward from the head to the foot

and generating more paths compare to the previous analysis. In this design the

wind load travels from head to clew as it transfer shear stress in the sail. The loads

Page | 131

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

need to cause failure of the model depends on the boundary conditions and shape

of the sail and the point where load applied. This dependency of sail strength upon

boundary conditions and carbon fibre paths is an advantage since if a scale model

of a sail is stable, the full scale structure would also be stable and as a result the

(a) (b)

Attempt 3

In third attempt, only the effect of different combination of the tensioning cables in

the head and in the clew is investigated. The result arising from these changes is

Page | 132

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

(a) (b)

Figure 5-19: load path with force in the head and clew

In spite of adding the tension cable in the clew, the improvement is insignificant

although there are some concentration of remaining links in the head and transfer

of load to the clew. From these results, it is realized that the ideal pattern for

carbon fibre is needed to consist some straight patterns from head to foot to

transfer the load on the sail. Yet, effect of the shrouds in the battens has not been

studied. These tension cables loads are introduced to the sail at the ends of the

battens to control the shape of the sail which possibly affect the load path

Page | 133

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Figure 5

Attempt 4

to determine the tension force caused by ropes, the reaction forces in the clew and

tack is calculated from the model. Then wards 10% of these magnitudes would be

added to leech and mast to model the shrouds effects. The reaction forces in the

Tank 302.48 -510.79 -13.273

Shrouds in leech 1.2269 0.8645 0.0051

Shrouds in mast 30.248 -51.079 -1.3273

Application of the load on the battens can be found by cable forces in the locations

Page | 134

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Figure 5

Since there is no certainty about the magnitude of the cable force in the sail, two

Different value for mast and leech according to the table above

From the first scenario, magnitude of cable is identical in both sides, Figure 5-22.

These cable forces need to be distributed into the membrane representing the sail.

Some links can be seen at the corners where the forces are applied.

Page | 135

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

(1) (2)

In the second scenario, shrouds with different reaction forces value is applied to

the sail (Figure 5-23). As it was expected more link elements remain in the model

when the leech and mast cable forces are increased. The links present a similar

therefore expected that the boundary conditions are very close to the real

are those who will not fail under loading. Therefore the sail stability under the wind

load with combination of different boundary condition depends on the new lines of

Page | 136

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

(1) (2)

Attempt 5

The final boundary conditions are in such that all the nodes in the foot are fixed to

move in, x , y and z directions while those in the mast are fixed in x and y only and

all nodes in the leech are free to move in all allowable DOF (Shankaran, 2005).

The effect of shrouds differs from leech to mast where they experience higher

reaction forces (Figure 5-24) and the membrane bears 98 N from the tensioning

cable in the head and tack. The final boundary condition and result and from the

Page | 137

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

Figure 5-24: Boundary conditions Figure 5-25: Final possible load paths

In the final model a new pattern of links reveals more details of cruising yacht sails

carbon fibres. The lines of resins are obtained as a series of mainly straight lines.

This network of lines represents the network of force in the sail under loading

conditions and identify of how the structure is likely to support its load. The

accuracy with which model can model the forces in the structure in upon an ideal

meshing patterns and meshing density, the denser the mesh, the more accurate

the results. Nevertheless, due to the some limitations such as their manufacturing

cost and complexity (neither of them have been considered in this study) these

types of patterns might not be practical. However the validation of the method is

examined by finding pointing vectors which was discussed in Chapter 3 in the truss

structures. These pointing vectors then are numerically found in the sail for number

Page | 138

Chapter5Application To Cruising Yacht Sail Design

5.5. Conclusion:

In this chapter, load path theory was extended to the application of cruising boat

sail. Uniform distributed pressure representing wind load with speed of 20 knots

perpendicular to the mast was applied to the sail and the 𝑧 deflection was

calculated through the static structural analysis. Due to the large deflection, the

advance features in the FEA package ANSYS such as stabilizer and line search

for force convergence. The results were validated against the results in the

experimental use of carbon fibre resin in the industry via six different attempts. It

was found out that boundary conditions affect the final load path directions

Page | 139

CHAPTER 6.

CONCLUSION

element. It provides the designer with insight into how the structure is performing

its primary function of transferring load from the point of application to the supports.

structures.

The first objective was to integrate existing load path plotting algorithms into the

FEA package ANSYS though the development of new FORTRAN codes. Some

domain. It concluded that typical patterns observed for the paths can be classified

into five distinct categories: 1-pure tension, 2-pure compression, 3-pure bending,

Chapter6Conclusion

4-cantilever bending and 5-simply supported bending. Load paths were then

the elements. It was observed that this method tended to result in a statically

determinant design and terminated when the removal of the next member created

a mechanism.

ANSYS. The analysis was extended to geometric nonlinear analysis due to the

large deflection experienced by shade sail and wind sail structures under uniform

static pressure. The main load bearing members in the structure were identified by

removing elements from the domain using an evolutionary method. The design

language. The integrity of this design technique was verified by the development of

promising patterns for clamped and corner fixed rectangles. In the clamped model,

two straps connected the opposite sides and met each other in the centroid to

essentially create a cross pattern. In the corner fixed model, the opposite corners

The final objective was to apply the algorithms to cruising yacht sails. The results

presented have similarities between the paths defined by this method and the

Additionally, it was concluded that boundary condition can affect the final result

Page | 141

Chapter6Conclusion

considerably. Finally pointing vectors were calculated at the element centroid for a

number of elements in the main cloth and plotted on the boat sail. These pointing

vectors revealed connections between the fibre paths created by the proposed

This research program for a Master by Research Thesis has focussed on the

These included FORTRAN programs that interfaced with ANSYS by the export of

results from ANSYS and the return of new link elements to plot vectors and

The application to defining reinforcement patterns in shade sail and wind sail

structures was limited by the time allowed for this thesis. The results from these

One interesting outcome of the research has been the development of procedures

to plot load paths in simple trusses. The truss in Figure 6.1 has the minimum

number of axial force members before the truss becomes a mechanism. However

not all members are participating in the transfer of the Y-force from Node 3 to the

support. For structures supporting multiple load cases the identification of the path

for one of the applied loads is not achieved by simply optimizing the structure. A

Page | 142

Chapter6Conclusion

subset of the members will in general be associated with the load transfer. Here

the remaining members are required to provide a path for the bending loads -

except member 24 which carries no load. This member is required to prevent the

N4

1.414T

1.414C

(1) (1)

N1 N2 N3

1 1

-1: 𝑦-Force load path in a simple truss.

Figure 6

The recommendations arising from this work relate mainly to more in-depth

investigations of the applications that have been used to check the performance of

The design load cases for the shade sails will require a detailed study of

wind loads and will depend on the geometry of the sail. Probably the major

the shade sails and the wind sails and the use of more representative

design loads.

Page | 143

Chapter6Conclusion

The work completed showed that the load paths are also sensitive to the

manufacturing and cost constraints. A design requirement for the wind sails

would be the final aerodynamic shape of the sail. While the reinforcement

ensures the load enhancement near the supports does not cause failure,

away from the supports the fibres could help to control the shape of the sail.

project.

Page | 144

REFERENCES

Arora, J. and Harasaki, H. (2004). Conceptual Design of Structural Systems Using

Transferred Force Principles, ASCE.

Bakhtiary, N., Allinger, P., Friedrich, M., Mulfinger, F., Sauter, J., Müller, O. and

Puchinger, M. (1996). "A new approach for sizing, shape and topology

optimization." SAE transactions 105: 745-761.

Beck, R., Boote, D., Davies, P., Hage, A., Hudson, D., Kageyama, K., Keuning, J. and

Miller, P. (2009). Sailing yacht design. 17th International Ship And Offshore

Structures congress, Seoul, Korea.

Bendsoe, M. (1995). "Optimization of structural topology, shape and material." Recherche

67: 02-10.

Bendsøe, M. and Sigmund, O. (2003). Topology optimization: theory, methods, and

applications, Springer Verlag.

Bendsøe, M. P. and Kikuchi, N. (1988). "Generating optimal topologies in structural design

using a homogenization method." Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and

Engineering 71(2): 197-224.

Bendsøe, M. P. and Soares, C. A. M. (1993). Topology design of structures, Kluwer

Academic Pub.

Blicblau, A. S., Singh, M., McConnell, E. and Pleaner, M. (2008). "Stress analysis of a

novice windsurfer sail by finite element analysis." Mathematical and Computer

Modelling 47(11-12): 1108-1116.

Boresi, A. P., Chong, K. P. and Lee, J. D. (2010). Elasticity in engineering mechanics,

Wiley.

Brandmaier, H. E. (1970). "Optimum filament orientation criteria." Journal of Composite

Materials 4(3): 422-425.

References

Brezzi, F., Bathe, K. J. and Fortin, M. (1989). "Mixed‐interpolated elements for Reissner–

Mindlin plates." International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 28(8):

1787-1801.

Bruggi, M. (2008). "On the solution of the checkerboard problem in mixed-FEM topology

optimization." Computers & Structures 86(19–20): 1819-1829.

Budynas, R. G. (1977). Advanced strength and applied stress analysis, McGraw-Hill.

Cappello, F. and Mancuso, A. (2001). "Lay-up optimization for the hull of a racing sailing

yacht." Advances in Engineering Software 32(2): 133-139.

Chan, H. (1963). Optimum Mitchell Frameworks for Three Parallel Forces, The colledge of

aeronautics cranfield: 26.

Chaperon, P., Heller, M., Jones, R., Pitt, S. and Rose, F. (1998). Load flow visualisation in

structural optimisation. Australasian Conference on Structural Optimisation,

Sydney; Australia.

Cheng, K. and Olhoff, N. (1981). "An investigation concerning optimal design of solid

elastic plates." International Journal of Solids and Structures 17(3): 305-323.

Christensen, P. and Klarbring, A. (2008). An introduction to structural optimization,

Springer Verlag.

Cook, R. D. (2001). Concepts and applications of finite element analysis, Wiley.

Cooper, A. (1972). "Trajectorial fiber reinforcement of composite structures(feasibility

analysis)[Ph. D. Thesis]."

Crosky, A., Kelly, D., Li, R., Legrand, X., Huong, N. and Ujjin, R. (2006). "Improvement

of bearing strength of laminated composites." Composite Structures 76(3): 260-271.

CyTec. (2011). "CyTec Engineered Materials." Retrieved July, 2011, from

http://www.cytec.com/business/EngineeredMaterials/marinemarket.html.

Duysinx, P. and Bendsøe, M. (1998). "Topology optimization of continuum structures with

local stress constraints." International Journal for Numerical Methods in

Engineering 43(8): 1453-1478.

Fallow, J. B. (1996). "America's Cup sail design." Journal of Wind Engineering and

Industrial Aerodynamics 63(1–3): 183-192.

Flabel, J. C. (1997). Practical Stress Analysis for Design Engineers: Design and Analysis of

Aerospace Vehicle Structures, Lake City Publishing Company.

French, M. (1992). "Form, Structure and Mechanism." Macmillan Education Ltd, Hong

Kong

Gilliam, j. (2006). History of Sailing Yacht Masts, Rigging and Sails 1900-Present day.

Haber, R., Jog, C. and Bendsøe, M. (1996). "A new approach to variable-topology shape

design using a constraint on perimeter." Structural and Multidisciplinary

Optimization 11(1): 1-12.

Haftka, R. and Prasad, B. (1980). "Optimum design of the sides of a railroad car."

Engineering Structures 2(4): 230-236.

Harasaki, H. (2000). Concept of Transferred Force and Its Use in Topology Design of

Structures, University of Iowa.

Harasaki, H. and Arora, J. (2002). "Topology design based on transferred and potential

transferred forces." Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 23(5): 372-381.

Harasaki, H. and Arora, J. S. (2001). "A new class of evolutionary methods based on the

concept of transferred force for structural design." Structural and Multidisciplinary

Optimization 22(1): 35-56.

Page | 146

References

Harasaki, H. and Arora, J. S. (2001). "New concepts of transferred and potential transferred

forces in structures." Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering

191(3-5): 385-406.

Harasaki, H. and Arora, J. S. (2001). "Optimal structural design with indirect use of

Transferred Forces." Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 22(5): 384-393.

Heppel, P. (2002). Accuracy in sail simulation: Wrinkling and growing fast sails.

Hoshino, H., Sakurai, T. and Takahashi, K. (2003). "Vibration reduction in the cabins of

heavy-duty trucks using the theory of load transfer paths." JSAE Review 24(2):

165-171.

Huang, X. and Xie, Y. (2011). "Evolutionary topology optimization of continuum

structures including design-dependent self-weight loads." Finite Elements in

Analysis and Design 47(8): 942–948.

Huang, X. and Xie, Y. M. (2010). Evolutionary topology optimization of continuum

structures method and applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Jazzmanian. (2006). " Illustration showing various parts of a small sailboat." Retrieved

20/5/2012, 2012, from

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bd/Parts_of_sailboat.jpg.

Jones, S. and Platts, M. (1998). "Practical matching of principal stress field geometries in

composite components." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing

29(7): 821-828.

Juvinall, R. C. and Marshek, K. M. (1991). Fundamentals of machine component design,

John Wiley & Sons.

Karkauskas, R. and Norkus, A. "Truss optimization under stiffness, stability constraints and

random loading." Mechanics Research Communications 33(2): 177-189.

Karnovsky, I. A. and Lebed, O. (2009). Advanced methods of structural analysis, Springer

Verlag.

Kelly, D. and Elsley, M. (1993). "A procedure for determining load paths in elastic

continua." Engineering Computations 12(5): 415-424.

Kelly, D., Hsu, P. and Asudullah, M. (2001). "Load paths and load flow in finite element

analysis." Engineering Computations 18(1/2): 304-313.

Kelly, D., Hsu, P. and Asudullah, M. (2001). "Load paths and load flow in finite element

analysis." Engineering Computations 18(1-2): 304-313.

Kelly, D., Reidsema, C., Bassandeh, A., Pearce, G. and Lee, M. (2010). "Algorithms to

Define Load Paths and Load Bearing Topology from Finite Element Analysis."

Finite Elements in Analysis and Design.

Kelly, D., Reidsema, C. and Lee, M. (2010). On load paths and load bearing topology from

finite element analysis, IOP Publishing.

Kelly, D. and Tosh, M. (2000). "Interpreting load paths and stress trajectories in elasticity."

Engineering Computations 17(2): 117-135.

Kelly, G. (2005). "Load transfer in hybrid (bonded/bolted) composite single-lap joints."

Composite Structures 69(1): 35-43.

Kermode, A. C. (1964). The Aeroplane Structure (Second Edition ) Pitman

Lackman, L. and Ault, R. (1967). "Mollifying Stress Fields by Using Filamentary

Composite Materials." Advances in Structural Composite, Society of Aerospace

Materials and Process Engineers 12.

Page | 147

References

Li, B., Hong, J., Wang, Z., Wu, W. and Chen, Y. (2012). "Optimal Design of Machine Tool

Bed by Load Bearing Topology Identification with Weight Distribution Criterion."

Procedia CIRP 3: 626-631.

Li, R., Kelly, D., Crosky, A., Schoen, H. and Smollich, L. (2006). "Improving the

efficiency of fiber steered composite joints using load path trajectories." Journal of

Composite Materials 40(18): 1645.

McDoon, A. (2004). "Yachting and Boating World Forums " Retrieved 14/02/2012, 2012,

from http://www.ybw.com/forums/member.php?u=9824.

Michell, A. G. M. (1904). "The limits of economy of material in frame structures." Phil.

Mag 8(47): 589-597.

Nha, C. D., Xie, Y. and Steven, G. (1998). "An evolutionary structural optimization

method for sizing problems with discrete design variables." Computers & structures

68(4): 419-431.

O’Dwyer, D. (1999). "Funicular analysis of masonry vaults." Computers & Structures

73(1–5): 187-197.

Ohsaki, M. and Katoh, N. (2005). "Topology optimization of trusses with stress and local

constraints on nodal stability and member intersection." Structural and

Multidisciplinary Optimization 29(3): 190-197.

Osgood, C. C. (1970). Fatigue Design.

Osgood, C. C. (1982). Fatigue design. Oxford, England, Pergamon Press.

París, J., Martínez, S., Navarrina, F., Colominas, I. and Casteleiro, M. (2010). Topology

optimization of structures with stress constraints: Aeronautical applications, IOP

Publishing.

Payne, R. M., Mechanical (2008). A knowledge-based engineering tool for aiding in the

conceptual design of composite yachts.

Prager, W. (1977). "Optimal layout of cantilever trusses." Journal of Optimization Theory

and Applications 23(1): 111-117.

Querin, O., Steven, G. and Xie, Y. (1998). "Evolutionary structural optimisation (ESO)

using a bidirectional algorithm." Engineering Computations 15(8): 1031-1048.

Ranjbaran, A. (1992). A computer program for the stress analysis of reinforced concrete

structures, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology.

Richards, D. and Chan, H. (1966). Developments in the theory of Michell optimum

structures, Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development.

Sakurai, T., Takahashi, K., Kawakami, H. and Abe, M. (2007). "Reduction of Calculation

Time for Load Path U* Analysis of Structures." Journal of Solid Mechanics and

Materials Engineering 1(11): 1322-1330.

Schlaich, J., Schäfer, K. and Jennewein, M. (1987). "Toward a consistent design of

structural concrete." PCI journal 32(3): 74-150.

Shankaran, S. (2005). Numerical analysis and design of upwind sails, Citeseer.

Shinobu, M., Okamoto, D., Ito, S., Kawakami, H. and Takahashi, K. (1995). "Transferred

load and its course in passenger car bodies." JSAE Review 16(2): 145-150.

Sigmund, O. and Petersson, J. (1998). "Numerical instabilities in topology optimization: a

survey on procedures dealing with checkerboards, mesh-dependencies and local

minima." Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 16(1): 68-75.

Page | 148

References

Signorini, G. F., Barrat, J. L. and Klein, M. L. (1990). "Structural relaxation and dynamical

correlations in a molten state near the liquid–glass transition: A molecular dynamics

study." The Journal of chemical physics 92: 1294.

Singh, K. (1996). Mechanical design principles, Nantel Publications.

Suzuki, K. (1991). "Shape and layout optimization using homogenization method(Ph. D.

Thesis)."

Svanberg, K. and Werme, M. (2007). "Sequential integer programming methods for stress

constrained topology optimization." Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

34(4): 277-299.

Takahashi, K. (1986). "Relative Rigidity of Structures and Saint Venant's Principle."

Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series A 52(484):

2615-2621.

Timoshenko, S., Woinowsky-Krieger, S. and Woinowsky, S. (1959). Theory of plates and

shells, McGraw-hill New York.

Trimarchi, D., Vidrascu, M., Taunton, D. J., Turnock, S. and Chapelle, D. (2011). Fluid

structure interactions applied to downwind yacht sails. 10e Colloque National en

Calcul des Structures. Gien: 6.

Ullman, D. G. (1992). The mechanical design process, McGraw-Hill New York.

Viola, I. M. and Flay, R. G. J. (2011). "Sail pressures from full-scale, wind-tunnel and

numerical investigations." Ocean Engineering 38(16): 1733-1743.

Waldman, W., Heller, M., Kaye, R. and Rose, F. (2002). "Advances in two-dimensional

structural loadflow visualisation." Engineering Computations 19(3): 305-326.

Waldman, W., Heller, M., Kaye, R. and Rose, L. (1999). "Advances in structural loadflow

visualisation and applications to optimal shapes."

Wang, E., Yoshikuni, Y., Guo, Q., Nohara, T., Ishii, H., Hoshino, H. and Takahashi, K.

(2010). "Load Transfer in Truck Cab Structures under Initial Phase of Frontal

Collision." International Journal of Vehicle Structures & Systems 2(2).

Wang, M., Wang, X. and Guo, D. (2003). "A level set method for structural topology

optimization." Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 192(1-2):

227-246.

Wightsails. (2012, August 2012). "Cradle to Grave." Retrieved, August, 2012 from

(http://www.wightsails.com/recycling-sails/sailcloth-cradle-to-grave/)

Wu, H., Ying, X., Jin-gang, J. and Yang, L. (2009). "Dynamic Model of Alternative Load

Path for Structural Progressive Collapse." Earthquake Resistant Engineering and

Retrofitting.

Xie, Y. and Steven, G. (1993). "Optimal design of multiple load case structures using an

evolutionary procedure." Engineering Computations 11(4): 295-302.

Xie, Y. and Steven, G. (1993). "A simple evolutionary procedure for structural

optimization." Computers & structures 49(5): 885-896.

Xie, Y. and Steven, G. P. (1993). "A simple evolutionary procedure for structural

optimization." Computers & Structures 49(5): 885-896.

Xie, Y. M. and Steven, G. P. (1997). "Evolutionary structural optimization."

Xie, Y. M. and Steven, G. P. (1997). Evolutionary structural optimization, Springer.

Yang, R. and Chuang, C. (1994). "Optimal topology design using linear programming."

Computers & structures 52(2): 265-275.

Page | 149

References

sails of a yacht." Ocean Engineering 33(10): 1322-1342.

Zhou, M., Shyy, Y. and Thomas, H. (2001). "Checkerboard and minimum member size

control in topology optimization." Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization

21(2): 152-158.

Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Taylor, R. L. (2005). The finite element method for solid and

structural mechanics, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Zienkiewicz, O. C., Valliappan, S. and King, I. P. (1969). "Elasto-plastic solutions of

engineering problems ‘initial stress’, finite element approach." International Journal

for Numerical Methods in Engineering 1(1): 75-100.

Page | 150

APPEDNDIX.A

and load path determination in a corner

fixed rectangle membrane

fini

/clear

/eshape, 1

Pascal...

Geometry set up

y1 = 150E3 ! Young modulus of link 180

h2 = 0.3 ! Thickness of membrane

y2 = 873 ! Young modulus of Shell 181

v2 = 0.30 ! Poisson ratio of membrane

Appendix.A

v3 = 0.3 ! New Poisson ratio of membrane

L = 25 ! Length of the element

n=1000 ! Width length

m=1000 ! Height length

n_max = n/L

m_max = m/L

Pressure = 65E-03 ! Total pressure

! Nodes creation

/Prep7

*do,i,1,n_max

*do,j,1,m_max

n,,L*i,L*j,L*i*(L*i-1000)*L*j*(L*j-1000)/1E10

*enddo

*enddo

et,1,180

et,2,181

r,1,h1

r,2,h2

keyopt,2,1,1 ! 1 = membrane stiffness only

keyopt,2,3,0 ! 2 = Full integration

mp,ex,1,y1

mp,prxy,1,v1

mp,ex,2,y2

mp,prxy,2,v2

mp,ex,3,y3

mp,prxy,3,v3

mp,ex,4,y4

mp,prxy,3,v3

*do,i,1,n_max-1

*do,j,1,m_max-1

e,(i-1)*m_max+j,(i-1)*m_max+j+1

e,(i-1)*m_max+j,i*m_max+j

e,(i-1)*m_max+j,i*m_max+j+1

e,(i-1)*m_max+j+1,i*m_max+j

*enddo

e,i*m_max,(i+1)*m_max

*enddo

*do,j,1,m_max-1

e,(n_max-1)*m_max+j,(n_max-1)*m_max+j+1

*enddo

Page | 152

Appendix.A

TYPE, 2

MAT, 2

REAL, 2

ESYS, 0

SECNUM,

*do,i,1,n_max-1

*do,j,1,m_max-1

e,(i-1)*m_max+j,(i-1)*m_max+j+1,(i)*m_max+j+1,(i)*m_max+j

*enddo

*enddo

Boundary conditions

nsel,s,loc,x,L

nsel,a,loc,x,n_max*L

nsel,a,loc,y,L

nsel,a,loc,y,m_max*L

cm,nextr,node

nsel,s,loc,x,L

cm,nextr_x_L,node

nsel,s,loc,x,n_max*L

cm,nextr_x_r,node

nsel,s,loc,y,L

cm,nextr_y_B,node

nsel,s,loc,y,m_max*L

cm,nextr_y_T,node

center

LOCAL,15,1,n/2+L/2,m/2+L/2,0, , , ,1,1,

csys,15

nsel,s,loc,x,0,1.5*L

cm,ncent,node

LOCAL,11,1,L,L,0, , , ,1,1,

LOCAL,12,1,m,m,0, , , ,1,1,

LOCAL,13,1,m,L,0, , , ,1,1,

LOCAL,14,1,L,n,0, , , ,1,1,

Csys,11

Page | 153

Appendix.A

nsel,s,loc,x,0,4*L

csys,12

nsel,a,loc,x,0,4*L

csys,13

nsel,a,loc,x,0,4*L

csys,14

nsel,a,loc,x,0,4*L

cm,ncorn,node

Csys,11

nsel,s,loc,x,0,L

csys,12

nsel,a,loc,x,0,L

csys,13

nsel,a,loc,x,0,L

csys,14

nsel,a,loc,x,0,L

cm,ncorn1,node

cmsel,,ncent

!Defining center element

ESLN,S,1

esel,r,type,,2

cm,ecent,elem

allsel

nplot

eplot

/user

fini

Save,modell,db ! Saving the geometry

Solution

/solu

antype,static

nlgeom,on ! (Non Linear geometric

solution)...

sstif,on ! Stress stiffening...

outres,all,all

! Constraining all DOFs and then redefine and stiffening the shell

time,1.0

nsubst,10,100,2

d,nextr,all

d,nextr_x_L,ux,-m_max*L/2000.0

d,nextr_x_r,ux,m_max*L/2000.0

d,nextr_y_B,uy,-n_max*L/2000.0

Page | 154

Appendix.A

d,nextr_y_T,uy,n_max*L/2000.0

allsel

solve

time,2.0

nsubst,10000,100000,10

sfe,ecent,,pres,,pressure

allsel

solve

time,3.0

nsubst,100,1000,1

d,nextr_x_L,ux,0

d,nextr_x_r,ux,0

d,nextr_y_B,uy,0

d,nextr_y_T,uy,0

allsel

solve

exterior borders and fixing the

corners

time,4.0

nsubst,1000,10000,1

ddele,nextr_x_L,all

ddele,nextr_x_r,all

ddele,nextr_y_T,all

ddele,nextr_y_B,all

d,nextr,uz,0

d,ncorn,all

allsel

solve

time,5.0

nsubst,10000,100000,10

sfe,ecent,,pres,,pressure*1E-6

allsel

solve

elements

Page | 155

Appendix.A

time,6.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-10

allsel

solve

time,7.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-6

allsel

solve

time,8.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-4

allsel

solve

time,9.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-2

allsel

solve

time,10.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-1

allsel

solve

time,11.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure

allsel

solve

Post Processing

dir

/post1

set,last

/edge,,1

/dscale,,1

Page | 156

Appendix.A

plnsol,u,z

! Preparing etable for determining

of the internal force

etable,eras

esel,s,type,,1

etable,mforx,smisc,1

SMIN,Min,MFORX,MFORX,1,1,

SABS,1

ESORT,ETAB,Min,1,1, ,

*GET,MForVal,SORT,,Min

esel,s,etab,min,0,MForVal+0.01*Mforval,,1

cm,emin,elem

allsel

CMWRITE,emin,cm

Finish

*Do,ii,1,10

resume,modell,db

/input,emin,cm

/prep7

allsel

cmsel,s,emin

emodif,all,mat,3

allsel

Finish

/solu

antype,static

nlgeom,on ! (Non Linear geometric

solution)...

sstif,on ! Stress stiffening...

outres,all,all

! Constraining all DOFs and then

redefine and stiffening the shell

time,1.0

nsubst,10,100,2

d,nextr,all

d,nextr_x_L,ux,-m_max*L/2000.0

d,nextr_x_r,ux,m_max*L/2000.0

d,nextr_y_B,uy,-n_max*L/2000.0

d,nextr_y_T,uy,n_max*L/2000.0

allsel

solve

time,2.0

nsubst,10000,100000,10

sfe,ecent,,pres,,pressure

allsel

Page | 157

Appendix.A

solve

time,3.0

nsubst,100,1000,1

d,nextr_x_L,ux,0

d,nextr_x_r,ux,0

d,nextr_y_B,uy,0

d,nextr_y_T,uy,0

allsel

solve

exterior borders and fixing the

corners

time,4.0

nsubst,1000,10000,1

ddele,nextr_x_L,all

ddele,nextr_x_r,all

ddele,nextr_y_T,all

ddele,nextr_y_B,all

d,nextr,uz,0

d,ncorn,all

allsel

solve

time,5.0

nsubst,10000,100000,10

sfe,ecent,,pres,,pressure*1E-6

allsel

solve

elements

time,6.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-10

allsel

solve

time,7.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-6

allsel

solve

Page | 158

Appendix.A

time,8.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-4

allsel

solve

time,9.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-2

allsel

solve

time,10.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure*1E-1

allsel

solve

time,11.0

nsubst,1000000,100000000,10

esel,s,type,,2

sfe,all,,pres,,pressure

allsel

solve

set,last

etable,eras

etable,mforx,smisc,1

SMIN,Min,MFORX,MFORX,1,1,

set,last

etable,eras

esel,s,type,,1

cmsel,r,emin

esel,inve

esel,r,type,,1

etable,mforx,smisc,1

SMIN,Min,MFORX,MFORX,1,1,

SABS,1

ESORT,ETAB,Min,1,1, ,

*GET,MForVal,SORT,,Min

esel,s,etab,mforx,-

ABS(3*MForVal+0.01*Mforval),ABS(3*MForVal+0.01*Mforval),,1

cmsel,a,emin

cm,emin,elem

allsel

CMWRITE,emin,cm

Finish

*Enddo

Page | 159

APPEDNDIX.B

at nodes using sections to define an

average stress on the section at the

node.

In the last section of the thesis, plotting vectors and paths defined previously in

Chapter 3 is developed for truss structures. Procedure for plotting pointing vectors

at nodes using sections in regular grids to define an average stress on the section

at the node is explained. From the forces in the members average stresses

representing the load transfer is also calculated. The pointing vectors by internal

force in the member then iterated for numbers of nodes in the sail and it is found

out that it can be validated against the experimental carbon fibre path in industry.

Appendix.B

The aim of this method is to focus on a node and use the forces in the members

and the dimensions of the grid to define average stresses representing the load

transfer. A four bay truss in a regular grid pattern with 2 Lx width and 2 Ly height

Lx

Ly

2 1 Ni

3 7

6

4 5

𝑉 𝑗 Equation B- 1

where yx is the shear on a plane whose normal is in the 𝑦 direction, positive in the

positive 𝑥 direction and links carry only axial load. Then a cutting plane normal in 𝑥

Page | 161

Appendix.B

F2

2

2 Ly Ly

α1

3 F3 Px

6

2

α2

4

6

𝐹 F4

2

B- 2:

∑𝐹 𝑃 𝐹 𝐹𝐶 𝑠 𝐹𝐶 𝑠 Equation B- 2

Hence, is the summation of force in 𝑥 direction over the length of the member

as formulated in Equation B- 3:

𝑃 𝐹 𝐹𝐶 𝑠 𝐹𝐶 𝑠

Equation B- 3

𝐿 𝐿

Figure B. 3 :

Page | 162

Appendix.B

3 6 7

𝐹4 𝐹

2

5 𝐹

𝐹

2

2

6

2

𝐹 6

6

Lx

Px

F3/2 F7/2

β2 β1

F4 F6

𝐹 𝐹

𝑃 𝐹𝐶 𝑠 𝐹𝐶 𝑠 Equation B- 4

𝐿 𝐿

Similarly, 𝑦-path pointing vectors can be determined from load path theory as

Equation B- 5:

𝑉 𝑗 Equation B- 5

axis in Figure B. 4:

Page | 163

Appendix.B

4 6

𝐹 5 𝐹

2

2

𝐹

6

2

6

Lx

Py

γ1 γ2

F4 F6

F5

𝑃 𝐹 𝐹𝐶 𝑠 𝐹𝐶 𝑠

Equation B- 6

𝐿 𝐿

F1/2

1 F2 θ1

2

𝐹

Ly 3 𝐹 2 Py

2

4𝐹

6

θ2

2

6𝐹5 F4

2

𝐹 6 F6/2

𝐹

6 2

6

2

𝐹 𝐹

𝑃 𝐹𝐶 𝑠 𝐹𝐶 𝑠 Equation B- 7

𝐿 𝐿

Page | 164

Appendix.B

Procedure for obtaining 𝑥-path and y-path vectors in a regular grid is explained.

These procedures have been implemented in the finite element package to define

Y-Path and X-Path pointing vectors for yacht sails without battens (Figure B. 6 and

Figure B. 7)

(a) (b)

Figure B. 6: y-path pointing vectors in yacht boat sail (a), Zoom in section (b)

Page | 165

Appendix.B

The pointing vectors in 𝑦-path direction tend to form paths between the clew and

the head and the pointing vectors in the 𝑥-path direction form an arch between the

clew and the mast. These images show that in the vicinity of the clew the pointing

vectors for both the 𝑥-path and the y-path are directed radially away from the

support point. This indicates that radial direction of fibre reinforcement near the

clew and near other load introduction points on the sail can reinforce the cloth for

If the grid is skewed as in Figure B. 8, the procedure of finding pointing vectors can

Page | 166

Appendix.B

Stresses in the global axes can then be defined using transformation of the stress.

(Figure B. 9)

Ni

σyx

σx’y’

ϕ

σx’x’

𝐶 𝑠 𝐶 𝑠

𝐶 𝑠 𝐶 𝑠 Equation B- 8

𝐶 𝑠 𝐶 𝑠 𝐶 𝑠

Then from the first equation above, , the second equation, and the final

equation value of can be checked. Once all of the parameter calculated the

Page | 167

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.