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Classification of Rocks

Monday, 28 January 2019 8:37 AM

3 Major Types

1. Igneous Rocks:
Formed when magma comes out of the volcano and solidifies
Chemical Composition and cooling rate determines the final igneous rock
type.
+ Volcanic Rocks
i. Extrusive Cooling
ii. Tiny and Large
iii. Exposed to cooler temperature
iv. Cools faster
v. Fine grained
vi. One colour
+ Plutonic Rocks (Underworld: Hades: Pluto)
i. Intrusive Cooling
ii. Formed from magma that cools and solidifies beneath the Earth’s
Surface
iii. Bigger rocks
iv. Cools slower

2. Sedimentary Rocks:
Formed by the accumulation of sediments
+ Minerals and other organic components
+ Usually found in the ocean
i. CLASTIC Sedimentary Rocks
1) Formed from mechanical weathering debris
2) Loosened by weathering and transported to some basin of
depression where sediments are trapped
3) Born out of organic and in-organic materials

i. CHEMICAL Sedimentary Rocks


1) Formed by chemical precipitation
2) When water travels through rock, it solves some minerals
3) These minerals are redeposited when the water evaporates
away

i. ORGANIC Sedimentary Rocks


1) Aka. Biologic, came from once-living organisms
2) Formed from the accumulation of carbon-rich plant and
from deposits of animal shells/debris
3) Fossil

3. Metamorphic Rocks:
Formed from subjection to high heat, high pressure, hot mineral-rich
fluids or combination.
+ Rocks that have substantially changed from their earlier form
a. Metamorphism: The process where rocks are pressed together.
b. Through high pressure and temperature, metamorphic rocks are formed.

2 Types of Rocks
a. Foliated Rocks
i. Layered/banded appearance due to excessive heat and directed
pressure
ii. Formed when pressure squeezes the flat or elongated materials
within a rock so they can become aligned.
iii. Developed platy or sheet-like structure
iv. Example: phyllite, schist, and slate
b. Non-Foliated Rocks
i. No layers and banded appearance.
ii. Does not have platy or sheet-like structure
iii. Pressure is relatively low and equal across all directions
iv. Examples: hornfels, quartzite, and novaculte.