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The Aurora University
A Subgroup of the Rubik’s Cube Role
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Mathematics Secondary Education Mathematics Secondary Education Mathematics Secondary Education

Aurora University Brand Standards Identity 5 Aurora University Brand Standards Identity 5

What is a Group? Our Group The Group Structure


A group is a set of elements that hold true under the following four Ax- Our group is abelian. When a group is abelian it means that applying the
ioms: Closure, Associative, Identity, and Inverse. An Abelian group is a
group in which all elements are commutative, meaning one element under
Our subgroup is generated by the elements
*
UU D and
+
. operation to two elements does not depend on the sequence of the elements.
e.g., ab = ba. Our group is not cyclic. A group is cyclic when there is an
modulo of another element will result in the same thing from the second G= element in the group that generates the whole group. Since none of the
element under modulo of the first element. In example ab=ba. For an ex- orders of the elements are equal to the order of the group, it is not cyclic.
ample of a group, let’s take D4 for example. All of the elements in D4 are The elements of G are: The order of the an element a is the smallest positive integer such that
{R0, R90, R180, R270, V, H, D, D0}, so if we were to take these elements and E U2 D D2 D3 U 2D U 2D 2 U 2D 3 an = e. It is denoted as |a| = n. As we have stated, the identity is a
create a cayley table, we would end up with the cayley table containing all of solved cube. The order of each element is the smallest positive integer that
the same elements that are contained in the set. So by definition of closure, an elements gets multiplied by to get that solved cube. |E| = 1, |U 2| =
D4 is closed. Then, to prove the associative axiom, we can notice that if we 2, |D| = 4, |D2| = 2, |D3| = 4, |U 2D| = 4, |U 2D2| = 2, |U 2D3| = 4. There
were to take some elements such as {R0, R90, R180} and we were to set up are 7 subgroups. Subgroups are made up of subsets H of the group G that
an equation such as ({R0} + {R90}) + {R180} = {R0} + ({R90 + R180}), Our Cayley Table form a group under the same operation as G.
the end results would be the same. So, by definition of associative axiom,
the set is Associative. Next, to solve for the identity axiom, we can note
that by looking at the cayley table the only element in which doesn’t affect Subgroup Diagram
the other elements is R0. This element when under modulo of the cayley
table will not affect the other elements, meaning that this is our ”do-nothing”
transformation. Thus, R0 is the identity element for D4. To solve for the
inverse for the group we look to see that if a · b = e then b is the inverse of
a for a, b ∈ G.

* +
Subgroups
,
To define what the definition of subgroup is first let G be a group, and let
H be a subset of G. Then H is called a subgroup of G if H is itself a group, * + * +
under the operation of G. ,

The Rubik’s Cube Group * +

Talk about how to view the Rubik’s cube as a group.


Bonus points: Include a picture of the six standard moves: * + * + * +
Mess with the vertical spacing as needed, but you probably won’t need to.
The Six Standard Moves:

* +

F B L R U D