Sei sulla pagina 1di 11

MAKALAH ACADEMIC ENGLISH

Diajukan untuk Memenuhi dan Melengkapi Persyaratan Akademik


Mata Kuliah Academic English Program Studi Teknik Industri Fakultas Teknik
Universitas Widyatama

Oleh:

Diar Nugraha (0516104050)


Neisya Rahmah Hasanah (0516104050)

PROGRAM STUDI TEKNIK INDUSTRI


FAKULTAS TEKNIK
UNIVERSITAS WIDYATAMA
SK. Ketua Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi (BAN-PT)
Nomor: 112/SK/BAN-PT/Akred/S/III/2015
BANDUNG
2018
Table Of Content

Reduced Adjective and Adverb Clauses ....................................................................... 3


1. Adjective Clause Definition ............................................................................... 3
2. Adjective Clause Example at Complex Sentence: ............................................. 4
3. Reduced Adjective Clause ................................................................................. 4
4. Reduced Adjective Clause Example: ................................................................. 5
5. Adverbial Clause ................................................................................................ 6
6. Reduced Adverbial Clause ................................................................................. 8
A. Adverbial Clause of Time .............................................................................. 8
B. Adverbial Clause of Cause and Effect............................................................ 9
C. Reduced Adverbial Clause of Contrast .......................................................... 9
Reduced Adjective and Adverb Clauses

Reduced
Adjective and
Adverb Clauses

Adjective Adverb clauses


clauses

1. Adjective Clause Definition


Adjective clause or relative clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adjective
and explains noun or pronoun in main clause of a complex sentence (a sentence
consisting of independent clause and one or more dependent clause).

The adjective clause position always follows the noun or pronoun explained. In
sentences, nouns or pronouns it functions as a subject or object. Adjective clause begins
with a word called relative pronoun (who, whom, that, which, whose, etc) which
functions to bridge the relationship with the noun or pronoun he describes.
2. Adjective Clause Example at Complex Sentence:

Simple Sentence Complex Sentence

The book is interesting. The book that he has read is interesting.


(Buku tersebut menarik.) (Buku yang telah dia baca itu menarik.)

Information

• the book: noun

• that: relative pronoun

• that he has read: adjective clause which explains the book. It is a clause because it
consists of subject (he) and verb (has read) and is an adjective clause because it explains
noun

Adjective Clause Formula


Complex Sentence:

Independent Clause + Adjective Clause

Adjective Clause:

Relative Pronoun +/- S*+V

Information:

*Relative pronoun (who, which, that) can function as a subject if there is no subject.

3. Reduced Adjective Clause


Reduced Adjective Clause can be done with conditions in complex sentence there is
only one subject. In the reduction of active voice (active sentence), relative pronoun
and verb to be (if any) are deleted and added -ing to active verb its simple present form
(verb-1) so that it forms the present participle. On passive voice, relative pronoun and
verb to be (if any) are removed and added being before past participle (if it is
progressive tense).

1. If there is an auxiliary verb the step is Remove conjunction and discard auxiliary
verb (be)

4. Reduced Adjective Clause Example:


The man who is teaching us is very kind.

(Pria yang mengajari kita sangat baik.)

If we want to reduce (clause), according to the above rules, then: remove conjunction
(who) and auxiliary verb (is). So the sentence will be:

The man teaching us is very kind.

Other example:

Complex Sentence Complex Sentence (Reduced


Condtion
(Adjective Clause) Adjective Clause)

The student who always studies in The student always studying


the library is my friend. in the library is my friend.

The athlete who is carrying the The athlete carrying the ball is
Active Voice
ball is Miroslav Klose. Miroslav Klose.

She is the woman who supported She is the woman supporting


me day and night. me day and night.

The girl who was advised is my The girl advised is my


Passive Voice
neighbour. neighbour.
The car which is being parked The car being parked there is
there is Ferarri. Ferarri.

The project which has been being


The project being worked for
worked for 3 months is very
3 months is very difficult.
difficult.

Subject + The building which is in front of The building in front of you


preposition you was built in 1928. was built in 1928.

2. If there is no auxiliary verb the step is remove conjuction and change main verb to
form (verb -ing)

Example:

I love the image that appears in this magazine.


(Saya suka gambar yang ada di majalah ini)
Will be:
I love the image appearing in this magazine.

5. Adverbial Clause
Adverbial clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb (adverb) and
provides information about verb, adjective, or adverb that are in independent clause
with the capacity to answer questions: how, when, where, why, or to what degree.
Adverbial clause starts with a word called subordinate conjunction (when, after,
because, though, etc). This word is useful for bridging the relationship with the
independent clause described. This combination of clauses with independent clause is
called complex sentence, which is a sentence consisting of independent and one or
more dependent clause.
Various adverbial clause include: adverbial clause of time (time), place, cause & effect
(cause & effect), purpose & result (goal & result), condition (presupposition), contrast
/ consession (contradiction) , manner (way), and reason (reason).

The rules for reducing adverb clause are remove Subject and auxiliary verb (be).
Example:

Although he is smart, he is not able to answer the question. => Although smart, he is
not able to answer the question. (Meskipun pandai, dia tidak bisa menjawab pertanyaan
itu)

Complex Sentence Information

 when = subordinate
When he cleaned the kitchen, he found a conjunction
lot of expired food.  when he cleaned the
(Dia membersihkan dapur ketika dia kitchen = adverbial clause
menemukan banyak makanan kadaluarsa.)  he found a lot of expired
food = independent clause

Adverbial Clause Formula

The formula for complex sentence and adverbial clause is as follows.

Complex Sentence:

Independent Clause (S + V +/- …)* + Adverbial Clause

Adverbial Clause:
Subordinate Conjunction + S + V +/- …

6. Reduced Adverbial Clause

Reduced adverbial clause is an adverbial clause that is shortened to an adverbial phrase.


Not all adverbial clauses can be reduced. Only adverbial clause of time, cause and
effect, and contrast which can be reduced. The adverbial clause may be reduced if the
subject is the same as the subject in the main clause. Adverbial phrases are then
obtained describing the subject in the main clause section.

A. Adverbial Clause of Time

Reduced adverbial clause of time with subordinate conjunction before, after, and since
is obtained by removing the subject and changing verb (verb) by verb-ing. Whereas
with as, the subject is removed with the conjunction. Adverbial clause that uses as soon
as can be shortened by removing the subject, replacing the verb with verb-ing, and
changing the conjunction with preposition (preposition) upon or on.

Rumus Contoh Kalimat

before / after / since /


They had met twice before they got married.
while+ S + V
(Mereka telah bertemu dua kali sebelum menikah.)
reduced:
reduced:
before / after / since /
They had met twice before getting married.
while + V-ing
As I was driving home, I saw him crossing the street.
as + S + V (Saat saya sedang mengemudi pulang ke rumah, saya
melihatnya menyeberangi jalan.))
reduced:
reduced:
V-ing
Driving home, I saw him crossing the street.
As soon as he arrived home, he collapsed onto sofa.
(Segera setelah tiba di rumah, dia roboh ke sofa.)
as soon as + S + V
reduced:
reduced:
 Upon arriving home, he collaped onto sofa.
upon/on + V-ing
 On arriving hime, he collaped onto sofa.

B. Adverbial Clause of Cause and Effect

As, because, and since conjunctions on adverbial clause of cause and effect are omitted
along with the subject in the version of the reduction.

Rumus Contoh Kalimat

Since you have read it, you should already know that cell-phone
radiation may cause health problems.(Karena kamu sudah membaca
itu, kamu seharusnya sudah tahu kalau radiasi ponsel mungkin
menyebabkan masalah-masalah kesehatan.)
as / because
/ since + S + reduced:
V
Having read it, you should already know that cell-phone radiation
reduced: may cause health problems.
Because he didn’t feel well, he went to bed early.
V-ing (Karena tidak merasa sehat, dia pergi tidur lebih awal.)
reduced:

Not feeling well, he went to bed early.

C. Reduced Adverbial Clause of Contrast

Adverbial clause of contrast with although, though, and while using verbs other than
to be (is, am, are, was, were) reduced by removing the subject and replacing the verb
with verb-ing; while using verb to be is reduced by eliminating the following subject
to be but maintaining the subject complement (noun / adjective) after that to be.
Conjunction on reduced adverbial clause of opposition is maintained.

Rumus Contoh Kalimat

She didn’t get the job though she has 5


years of experience.
although / though / while + S + V (Dia tidak mendapatkan pekerjaan tersebut
(selain be) meskipun dia memiliki pengalaman 5
tahun.)
reduced:
reduced:
although / though / while + V-ing
She didn’t get the job though having 5
years of experience.
Although they are cheap, the
although / though / while + S + V (be) + smartphones have good performance.
subject complement (noun/adjective) (Meskipun murah, telepon-telepon pintar
itu memiliki kinerja yang baik.)
reduced:
reduced:
although / though / while + subject
complement Although cheap, the smartphones have
good perfomance.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://kosakatabahasainggrislengkap.blogspot.com/2017/07/contoh-kalimat-reduced-
clause-sentences.html

https://www.wordsmile.com/pengertian-rumus-contoh-reduced-adverbial-clause

https://www.wordsmile.com/pengertian-rumus-contoh-kalimat-adverbial-clauses

https://www.wordsmile.com/reduced-adjective-clause

https://www.wordsmile.com/pengertian-rumus-contoh-kalimat-adjective-clause

https://www.wordsmile.com/pengertian-contoh-kalimat-non-defining-relative-clause