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Choice Based Credit System (CBCS)

UNIVERSITY OF DELHI

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME
(Courses effective from Academic Year 2015-16)

SYLLABUS OF COURSES TO BE OFFERED


(Mathematics papers for students of B.Sc. (H)/ B.A. (H) and other than B.Sc. (H)
Mathematics)

Disclaimer: The CBCS syllabus is uploaded as given by the Faculty concerned to the Academic
Council. The same has been approved as it is by the Academic Council on 13.7.2015 and
Executive Council on 14.7.2015. Any query may kindly be addressed to the concerned Faculty.

Undergraduate Programme Secretariat


Preamble

The University Grants Commission (UGC) has initiated several measures to bring equity,
efficiency and excellence in the Higher Education System of country. The important
measures taken to enhance academic standards and quality in higher education include
innovation and improvements in curriculum, teaching-learning process, examination and
evaluation systems, besides governance and other matters.

The UGC has formulated various regulations and guidelines from time to time to improve
the higher education system and maintain minimum standards and quality across the
Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in India. The academic reforms recommended by
the UGC in the recent past have led to overall improvement in the higher education system.
However, due to lot of diversity in the system of higher education, there are multiple
approaches followed by universities towards examination, evaluation and grading system.
While the HEIs must have the flexibility and freedom in designing the examination and
evaluation methods that best fits the curriculum, syllabi and teaching–learning methods,
there is a need to devise a sensible system for awarding the grades based on the
performance of students. Presently the performance of the students is reported using the
conventional system of marks secured in the examinations or grades or both. The
conversion from marks to letter grades and the letter grades used vary widely across the
HEIs in the country. This creates difficulty for the academia and the employers to
understand and infer the performance of the students graduating from different
universities and colleges based on grades.

The grading system is considered to be better than the conventional marks system and
hence it has been followed in the top institutions in India and abroad. So it is desirable to
introduce uniform grading system. This will facilitate student mobility across institutions
within and across countries and also enable potential employers to assess the performance
of students. To bring in the desired uniformity, in grading system and method for
computing the cumulative grade point average (CGPA) based on the performance of
students in the examinations, the UGC has formulated these guidelines.
CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS):
The CBCS provides an opportunity for the students to choose courses from the prescribed courses
comprising core, elective/minor or skill based courses. The courses can be evaluated following the
grading system, which is considered to be better than the conventional marks system. Therefore, it is
necessary to introduce uniform grading system in the entire higher education in India. This will benefit
the students to move across institutions within India to begin with and across countries. The uniform
grading system will also enable potential employers in assessing the performance of the candidates. In
order to bring uniformity in evaluation system and computation of the Cumulative Grade Point
Average (CGPA) based on student’s performance in examinations, the UGC has formulated the
guidelines to be followed.
Outline of Choice Based Credit System:

1. Core Course: A course, which should compulsorily be studied by a candidate as a core requirement
is termed as a Core course.
2. Elective Course: Generally a course which can be chosen from a pool of courses and which may
be very specific or specialized or advanced or supportive to the discipline/ subject of study or which
provides an extended scope or which enables an exposure to some other discipline/subject/domain
or nurtures the candidate’s proficiency/skill is called an Elective Course.
2.1 Discipline Specific Elective (DSE) Course: Elective courses may be offered by the main
discipline/subject of study is referred to as Discipline Specific Elective. The University/Institute
may also offer discipline related Elective courses of interdisciplinary nature (to be offered by
main discipline/subject of study).
2.2 Dissertation/Project: An elective course designed to acquire special/advanced knowledge,
such as supplement study/support study to a project work, and a candidate studies such a course
on his own with an advisory support by a teacher/faculty member is called dissertation/project.
2.3 Generic Elective (GE) Course: An elective course chosen generally from an unrelated
discipline/subject, with an intention to seek exposure is called a Generic Elective.
P.S.: A core course offered in a discipline/subject may be treated as an elective by other
discipline/subject and vice versa and such electives may also be referred to as Generic Elective.
3. Ability Enhancement Courses (AEC)/Competency Improvement Courses/Skill Development
Courses/Foundation Course: The Ability Enhancement (AE) Courses may be of two kinds: AE
Compulsory Course (AECC) and AE Elective Course (AEEC). “AECC” courses are the courses
based upon the content that leads to Knowledge enhancement. They ((i) Environmental Science, (ii)
English/MIL Communication) are mandatory for all disciplines. AEEC courses are value-based
and/or skill-based and are aimed at providing hands-on-training, competencies, skills, etc.
3.1 AE Compulsory Course (AECC): Environmental Science, English Communication/MIL
Communication.
3.2 AE Elective Course (AEEC): These courses may be chosen from a pool of courses designed to
provide value-based and/or skill-based instruction.

Project work/Dissertation is considered as a special course involving application of knowledge in


solving / analyzing /exploring a real life situation / difficult problem. A Project/Dissertation work would
be of 6 credits. A Project/Dissertation work may be given in lieu of a discipline specific elective paper.
Details of courses under B.A (Honors), B.Com (Honors) & B.Sc. (Honors)
Course *Credits
Theory+ Practical Theory + Tutorial
=================================================================
I. Core Course
(14 Papers) 14X4= 56 14X5=70
Core Course Practical / Tutorial*
(14 Papers) 14X2=28 14X1=14

II. Elective Course


(8 Papers)
A.1. Discipline Specific Elective 4X4=16 4X5=20
(4 Papers)
A.2. Discipline Specific Elective
Practical/ Tutorial* 4 X 2=8 4X1=4
(4 Papers)
B.1. Generic Elective/
Interdisciplinary 4X4=16 4X5=20
(4 Papers)
B.2. Generic Elective
Practical/ Tutorial* 4 X 2=8 4X1=4
(4 Papers)
 Optional Dissertation or project work in place of one Discipline Specific Elective paper (6
credits) in 6th Semester

III. Ability Enhancement Courses


1. Ability Enhancement Compulsory
(2 Papers of 2 credit each) 2 X 2=4 2 X 2=4
Environmental Science
English/MIL Communication
2. Ability Enhancement Elective (Skill Based)
(Minimum 2) 2 X 2=4 2 X 2=4
(2 Papers of 2 credit each)
_________________ _________________
Total credit 140 140
Institute should evolve a system/policy about ECA/ General
Interest/Hobby/Sports/NCC/NSS/related courses on its own.
* wherever there is a practical there will be no tutorial and vice-versa
Sl. No. CORE Ability Skill GE
COURSE Enhancement Enhancement
(12) Compulsory Course (SEC) (2)
Course
I GE 1- Calculus

II GE 2- Linear Algebra

III GE 3- Differential
Equations
IV GE 4- Numerical Methods
Or
GE 4- Elements of
Analysis

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2
Semester I

GE- I CALCULUS
Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules
Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)
Examination 3 hrs.

UNIT-I
ε-δ Definition of limit of a function, One sided limit, Limits at infinity, Horizontal
asymptotes, Infinite limits, Vertical asymptotes, Linearization, Differential of a
function, Concavity, Points of inflection, Curve sketching, Indeterminate
forms,L’Hopital’s rule, Volumes by slicing, Volumes of solids of revolution by the
disk method.

UNIT-II
Volumes of solids of revolution by the washer method, Volume by cylindrical
shells, Length of plane curves, Area of surface of revolution, Improper
integration: Type I and II, Tests of convergence and divergence, Polar
coordinates, Graphing in polar coordinates, Vector valued functions: Limit,
Continuity, Derivatives, Integrals, Arc length, Unit tangent vector.

UNIT-III
Curvature, Unit normal vector, Torsion, Unit binormal vector, Functions of several
Variables, Graph, Level curves, Limit, Continuity, Partial derivatives,
Differentiability Chain Rule, Directional derivatives, Gradient, Tangent plane and
normal line, Extreme values, Saddle points

REFERENCES:
[1] G. B. Thomas and R. L. Finney, Calculus, Pearson Education, 11/e (2012)
[2] H. Anton, I. Bivens and S. Davis, Calculus, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 7/e
(2011)

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Semester II

GE- 2 LINEAR ALGEBRA


Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules
Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)
Examination 3 hrs.

UNIT-I
Fundamental operation with vectors in Euclidean space Rn, Linear combination of
vectors, Dot product and their properties, CauchySchwarz inequality, Triangle
inequality, Projection vectors, Some elementary results on vector in Rn, Matrices,
Gauss–Jordan row reduction, Reduced row echelon form, Row equivalence,
Rank, Linear combination of vectors, Row space, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors,
Eigenspace, Characteristic polynomials, Diagonalization of matrices, Definition
and examples of vector space, Some elementary properties of vector spaces,
Subspace.

UNIT-II
Span of a set, A spanning set for an eigenspace, Linear independence and linear
dependence of vectors, Basis and dimension of a vector space, Maximal linearly
independent sets, Minimal spanning sets, Application of rank, Homogenous and
nonhomogenous systems of equations, Coordinates of a vector in ordered basis,
Transition matrix, Linear transformations: Definition and examples, Elementary
properties, The matrix of a linear transformation, Linear operator and Similarity.

UNIT-III
Application: Computer graphics- Fundamental movements in a plane,
Homogenous coordinates, Composition of movements, Kernel and range of a
linear transformation, Dimension theorem, One to one and onto linear
transformations, Invertible linear transformations, Isomorphism: Isomorphic
vector spaces (to Rn), Orthogonal and orthonormal vectors, Orthogonal and
orthonormal bases, Orthogonal complement, Projection theorem (Statement
only), Orthogonal projection onto a subspace, Application: Least square solutions
for inconsistent systems.

REFERENCES:
[1] S. Andrilli and D. Hecker, Elementary Linear Algebra, Academic
Press, 4/e (2012)
[2] B. Kolman and D.R. Hill, Introductory Linear Algebra with
Applications, Pearson Education, 7/e (2003)

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Semester III

GE- 3 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS


Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules
Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)
Examination 3 hrs.

UNIT-I
First order ordinary differential equations: Basic concepts and ideas, Exact
differential equations, Integrating factors, Bernoulli equations, Orthogonal
trajectories of curves, Existence and uniqueness of solutions, Second order
differential equations: Homogenous linear equations of second order, Second
order homogenous equations with constant coefficients, Differential operator,
Euler-Cauchy equation.

UNIT-II
Existence and uniqueness theory, Wronskian, Nonhomogenous ordinary
differential equations, Solution by undetermined coefficients, Solution by variation
of parameters, Higher order homogenous equations with constant coefficients,
System of differential equations, System of differential equations, Conversion of
nth order ODEs to a system, Basic concepts and ideas, Homogenous system with
constant coefficients.

UNIT-III
Power series method: Theory of power series methods, Legendre’s equation,
Legendre polynomial, Partial differential equations: Basic Concepts and
definitions, Mathematical problems, First order equations: Classification,
Construction, Geometrical interpretation, Method of characteristics, General
solutions of first order partial differential equations, Canonical forms and method
of separation of variables for first order partial differential equations,
Classification of second order partial differential equations, Reduction to
canonical forms, Second order partial differential equationswith constant
coefficients, General solutions.

REFERENCES:
[1] Erwin Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
9/e, (2006)
[2] TynMyint–U and LokenathDebnath; Linear Partial Differential Equations for
Scientists and Engineers, Springer, Indian Reprint (2009)

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Semester IV

GE- 4 Numerical Methods


Or
GE- 4 Elements of Analysis

GE- 4 Numerical Methods


Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules
Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)
Examination 3 hrs.

Unit-I
Floating point representation and computer arithmetic, Significant digits, Errors:
Roundoff error, Local truncation error, Global truncation error, Order of a method,
Convergence and terminal conditions, Efficient computations Bisection method,
Secant method, RegulaFalsi method, Newton Raphson method, Newton’s
method for solving nonlinear systems

Unit-II

Gauss elimination method (with row pivoting) and GaussJordan method, Gauss
Thomas method for tridiagonal systems Iterative methods: Jacobi and Gauss-
Seidel iterative methods Interpolation: Lagrange’s form and Newton’s form Finite
difference operators, Gregory Newton forward and backward differences
Interpolation.

Unit-III
Piecewise polynomial interpolation: Linear interpolation, Cubic spline
interpolation (only method), Numerical differentiation: First derivatives and
second order derivatives, Richardson extrapolation Numerical integration:
Trapezoid rule, Simpson’s rule (only method), NewtonCotes open formulas
Extrapolation methods: Romberg integration, Gaussian quadrature, Ordinary
differential equation: Euler’s method Modified Euler’s methods: Heun method and
Mid-point method, Runge-Kutta second methods: Heun method without iteration,
Mid-point method and Ralston’s method Classical 4 th order Runge-Kutta method,
Finite difference method for linear ODE

REFERNCES:
[1] Laurence V. Fausett, Applied Numerical Analysis, Using MATLAB, Pearson,
2/e (2012)
[2] M.K. Jain, S.R.K. Iyengar and R.K. Jain, Numerical Methods for Scientific and

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Engineering Computation, New Age International Publisher, 6/e (2012)
[3] Steven C Chapra, Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB for Engineers
and Scientists, Tata McGraw Hill, 2/e (2010)

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OR

GE- 4 Elements of Analysis


Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules
Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)
Examination 3 hrs.

Unit I
Finite and infinite sets examples of countable and uncountable sets. Real
line; absolute value bounded sets suprema and infima, statement of order
Completeness property of R, Archimedean property of R, intervals. Real
sequences, Convergence, sum and product of convergent sequences, proof of
convergence of some simple sequences such as (-1)n/n, 1/n2, (1+1/n)n, xn
with |x|<1,an /n, where an is a bounded sequence. Concept of cluster points
and statement of Bolzano Weierstrass’ theorem. Statement and illustration of
Cauchy convergence criterion for sequences. Cauchy’s theorem on limits,
order preservation and squeeze theorem, monotone sequences and their
convergence.
Unit II

Definition and a necessary condition for convergence of an infinite series.


Cauchy convergence criterion for series, positive term series, geometric
series, comparison test, limit comparison test, convergence of p-series, Root
test, Ratio test, alternating series, Leibnitz’s test. Definition and examples of
absolute and conditional convergemce.
Unit III
Definition of power series: radius of convergence, Cauchy-Hadamard
theorem, statement and illustration of term-by-term differentiation and
integration of power series. Power series expansions for exp(x), sin(x),
cos(x), log(1+x) and their properties.

REFERNCES:
[1] R.G. Bartle and D.R. Sherbert: Introduction to Real Analysis, John
Wiley and Sons (Asia)
Pte. Ltd., 2000.
[2] C. P. Simon and L. Blume: Mathematics for Economists, W W Norton
and Company,1994.

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[3] K. Sydsaeter and P.J. Hammod, Mathematics for Economics Analysis,
Pearson
Education, 2002