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UNIVERSITY OF DELHI

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMME

(Courses effective from Academic Year 2015-16)

(Mathematics papers for students of B.Sc. (H)/ B.A. (H) and other than B.Sc. (H)

Mathematics)

Disclaimer: The CBCS syllabus is uploaded as given by the Faculty concerned to the Academic

Council. The same has been approved as it is by the Academic Council on 13.7.2015 and

Executive Council on 14.7.2015. Any query may kindly be addressed to the concerned Faculty.

Preamble

The University Grants Commission (UGC) has initiated several measures to bring equity,

efficiency and excellence in the Higher Education System of country. The important

measures taken to enhance academic standards and quality in higher education include

innovation and improvements in curriculum, teaching-learning process, examination and

evaluation systems, besides governance and other matters.

The UGC has formulated various regulations and guidelines from time to time to improve

the higher education system and maintain minimum standards and quality across the

Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in India. The academic reforms recommended by

the UGC in the recent past have led to overall improvement in the higher education system.

However, due to lot of diversity in the system of higher education, there are multiple

approaches followed by universities towards examination, evaluation and grading system.

While the HEIs must have the flexibility and freedom in designing the examination and

evaluation methods that best fits the curriculum, syllabi and teaching–learning methods,

there is a need to devise a sensible system for awarding the grades based on the

performance of students. Presently the performance of the students is reported using the

conventional system of marks secured in the examinations or grades or both. The

conversion from marks to letter grades and the letter grades used vary widely across the

HEIs in the country. This creates difficulty for the academia and the employers to

understand and infer the performance of the students graduating from different

universities and colleges based on grades.

The grading system is considered to be better than the conventional marks system and

hence it has been followed in the top institutions in India and abroad. So it is desirable to

introduce uniform grading system. This will facilitate student mobility across institutions

within and across countries and also enable potential employers to assess the performance

of students. To bring in the desired uniformity, in grading system and method for

computing the cumulative grade point average (CGPA) based on the performance of

students in the examinations, the UGC has formulated these guidelines.

CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM (CBCS):

The CBCS provides an opportunity for the students to choose courses from the prescribed courses

comprising core, elective/minor or skill based courses. The courses can be evaluated following the

grading system, which is considered to be better than the conventional marks system. Therefore, it is

necessary to introduce uniform grading system in the entire higher education in India. This will benefit

the students to move across institutions within India to begin with and across countries. The uniform

grading system will also enable potential employers in assessing the performance of the candidates. In

order to bring uniformity in evaluation system and computation of the Cumulative Grade Point

Average (CGPA) based on student’s performance in examinations, the UGC has formulated the

guidelines to be followed.

Outline of Choice Based Credit System:

1. Core Course: A course, which should compulsorily be studied by a candidate as a core requirement

is termed as a Core course.

2. Elective Course: Generally a course which can be chosen from a pool of courses and which may

be very specific or specialized or advanced or supportive to the discipline/ subject of study or which

provides an extended scope or which enables an exposure to some other discipline/subject/domain

or nurtures the candidate’s proficiency/skill is called an Elective Course.

2.1 Discipline Specific Elective (DSE) Course: Elective courses may be offered by the main

discipline/subject of study is referred to as Discipline Specific Elective. The University/Institute

may also offer discipline related Elective courses of interdisciplinary nature (to be offered by

main discipline/subject of study).

2.2 Dissertation/Project: An elective course designed to acquire special/advanced knowledge,

such as supplement study/support study to a project work, and a candidate studies such a course

on his own with an advisory support by a teacher/faculty member is called dissertation/project.

2.3 Generic Elective (GE) Course: An elective course chosen generally from an unrelated

discipline/subject, with an intention to seek exposure is called a Generic Elective.

P.S.: A core course offered in a discipline/subject may be treated as an elective by other

discipline/subject and vice versa and such electives may also be referred to as Generic Elective.

3. Ability Enhancement Courses (AEC)/Competency Improvement Courses/Skill Development

Courses/Foundation Course: The Ability Enhancement (AE) Courses may be of two kinds: AE

Compulsory Course (AECC) and AE Elective Course (AEEC). “AECC” courses are the courses

based upon the content that leads to Knowledge enhancement. They ((i) Environmental Science, (ii)

English/MIL Communication) are mandatory for all disciplines. AEEC courses are value-based

and/or skill-based and are aimed at providing hands-on-training, competencies, skills, etc.

3.1 AE Compulsory Course (AECC): Environmental Science, English Communication/MIL

Communication.

3.2 AE Elective Course (AEEC): These courses may be chosen from a pool of courses designed to

provide value-based and/or skill-based instruction.

solving / analyzing /exploring a real life situation / difficult problem. A Project/Dissertation work would

be of 6 credits. A Project/Dissertation work may be given in lieu of a discipline specific elective paper.

Details of courses under B.A (Honors), B.Com (Honors) & B.Sc. (Honors)

Course *Credits

Theory+ Practical Theory + Tutorial

=================================================================

I. Core Course

(14 Papers) 14X4= 56 14X5=70

Core Course Practical / Tutorial*

(14 Papers) 14X2=28 14X1=14

(8 Papers)

A.1. Discipline Specific Elective 4X4=16 4X5=20

(4 Papers)

A.2. Discipline Specific Elective

Practical/ Tutorial* 4 X 2=8 4X1=4

(4 Papers)

B.1. Generic Elective/

Interdisciplinary 4X4=16 4X5=20

(4 Papers)

B.2. Generic Elective

Practical/ Tutorial* 4 X 2=8 4X1=4

(4 Papers)

Optional Dissertation or project work in place of one Discipline Specific Elective paper (6

credits) in 6th Semester

1. Ability Enhancement Compulsory

(2 Papers of 2 credit each) 2 X 2=4 2 X 2=4

Environmental Science

English/MIL Communication

2. Ability Enhancement Elective (Skill Based)

(Minimum 2) 2 X 2=4 2 X 2=4

(2 Papers of 2 credit each)

_________________ _________________

Total credit 140 140

Institute should evolve a system/policy about ECA/ General

Interest/Hobby/Sports/NCC/NSS/related courses on its own.

* wherever there is a practical there will be no tutorial and vice-versa

Sl. No. CORE Ability Skill GE

COURSE Enhancement Enhancement

(12) Compulsory Course (SEC) (2)

Course

I GE 1- Calculus

II GE 2- Linear Algebra

III GE 3- Differential

Equations

IV GE 4- Numerical Methods

Or

GE 4- Elements of

Analysis

VI

2

Semester I

GE- I CALCULUS

Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules

Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

UNIT-I

ε-δ Definition of limit of a function, One sided limit, Limits at infinity, Horizontal

asymptotes, Infinite limits, Vertical asymptotes, Linearization, Differential of a

function, Concavity, Points of inflection, Curve sketching, Indeterminate

forms,L’Hopital’s rule, Volumes by slicing, Volumes of solids of revolution by the

disk method.

UNIT-II

Volumes of solids of revolution by the washer method, Volume by cylindrical

shells, Length of plane curves, Area of surface of revolution, Improper

integration: Type I and II, Tests of convergence and divergence, Polar

coordinates, Graphing in polar coordinates, Vector valued functions: Limit,

Continuity, Derivatives, Integrals, Arc length, Unit tangent vector.

UNIT-III

Curvature, Unit normal vector, Torsion, Unit binormal vector, Functions of several

Variables, Graph, Level curves, Limit, Continuity, Partial derivatives,

Differentiability Chain Rule, Directional derivatives, Gradient, Tangent plane and

normal line, Extreme values, Saddle points

REFERENCES:

[1] G. B. Thomas and R. L. Finney, Calculus, Pearson Education, 11/e (2012)

[2] H. Anton, I. Bivens and S. Davis, Calculus, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 7/e

(2011)

3

Semester II

Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules

Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

UNIT-I

Fundamental operation with vectors in Euclidean space Rn, Linear combination of

vectors, Dot product and their properties, CauchySchwarz inequality, Triangle

inequality, Projection vectors, Some elementary results on vector in Rn, Matrices,

Gauss–Jordan row reduction, Reduced row echelon form, Row equivalence,

Rank, Linear combination of vectors, Row space, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors,

Eigenspace, Characteristic polynomials, Diagonalization of matrices, Definition

and examples of vector space, Some elementary properties of vector spaces,

Subspace.

UNIT-II

Span of a set, A spanning set for an eigenspace, Linear independence and linear

dependence of vectors, Basis and dimension of a vector space, Maximal linearly

independent sets, Minimal spanning sets, Application of rank, Homogenous and

nonhomogenous systems of equations, Coordinates of a vector in ordered basis,

Transition matrix, Linear transformations: Definition and examples, Elementary

properties, The matrix of a linear transformation, Linear operator and Similarity.

UNIT-III

Application: Computer graphics- Fundamental movements in a plane,

Homogenous coordinates, Composition of movements, Kernel and range of a

linear transformation, Dimension theorem, One to one and onto linear

transformations, Invertible linear transformations, Isomorphism: Isomorphic

vector spaces (to Rn), Orthogonal and orthonormal vectors, Orthogonal and

orthonormal bases, Orthogonal complement, Projection theorem (Statement

only), Orthogonal projection onto a subspace, Application: Least square solutions

for inconsistent systems.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. Andrilli and D. Hecker, Elementary Linear Algebra, Academic

Press, 4/e (2012)

[2] B. Kolman and D.R. Hill, Introductory Linear Algebra with

Applications, Pearson Education, 7/e (2003)

4

Semester III

Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules

Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

UNIT-I

First order ordinary differential equations: Basic concepts and ideas, Exact

differential equations, Integrating factors, Bernoulli equations, Orthogonal

trajectories of curves, Existence and uniqueness of solutions, Second order

differential equations: Homogenous linear equations of second order, Second

order homogenous equations with constant coefficients, Differential operator,

Euler-Cauchy equation.

UNIT-II

Existence and uniqueness theory, Wronskian, Nonhomogenous ordinary

differential equations, Solution by undetermined coefficients, Solution by variation

of parameters, Higher order homogenous equations with constant coefficients,

System of differential equations, System of differential equations, Conversion of

nth order ODEs to a system, Basic concepts and ideas, Homogenous system with

constant coefficients.

UNIT-III

Power series method: Theory of power series methods, Legendre’s equation,

Legendre polynomial, Partial differential equations: Basic Concepts and

definitions, Mathematical problems, First order equations: Classification,

Construction, Geometrical interpretation, Method of characteristics, General

solutions of first order partial differential equations, Canonical forms and method

of separation of variables for first order partial differential equations,

Classification of second order partial differential equations, Reduction to

canonical forms, Second order partial differential equationswith constant

coefficients, General solutions.

REFERENCES:

[1] Erwin Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

9/e, (2006)

[2] TynMyint–U and LokenathDebnath; Linear Partial Differential Equations for

Scientists and Engineers, Springer, Indian Reprint (2009)

5

Semester IV

Or

GE- 4 Elements of Analysis

Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules

Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

Unit-I

Floating point representation and computer arithmetic, Significant digits, Errors:

Roundoff error, Local truncation error, Global truncation error, Order of a method,

Convergence and terminal conditions, Efficient computations Bisection method,

Secant method, RegulaFalsi method, Newton Raphson method, Newton’s

method for solving nonlinear systems

Unit-II

Gauss elimination method (with row pivoting) and GaussJordan method, Gauss

Thomas method for tridiagonal systems Iterative methods: Jacobi and Gauss-

Seidel iterative methods Interpolation: Lagrange’s form and Newton’s form Finite

difference operators, Gregory Newton forward and backward differences

Interpolation.

Unit-III

Piecewise polynomial interpolation: Linear interpolation, Cubic spline

interpolation (only method), Numerical differentiation: First derivatives and

second order derivatives, Richardson extrapolation Numerical integration:

Trapezoid rule, Simpson’s rule (only method), NewtonCotes open formulas

Extrapolation methods: Romberg integration, Gaussian quadrature, Ordinary

differential equation: Euler’s method Modified Euler’s methods: Heun method and

Mid-point method, Runge-Kutta second methods: Heun method without iteration,

Mid-point method and Ralston’s method Classical 4 th order Runge-Kutta method,

Finite difference method for linear ODE

REFERNCES:

[1] Laurence V. Fausett, Applied Numerical Analysis, Using MATLAB, Pearson,

2/e (2012)

[2] M.K. Jain, S.R.K. Iyengar and R.K. Jain, Numerical Methods for Scientific and

6

Engineering Computation, New Age International Publisher, 6/e (2012)

[3] Steven C Chapra, Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB for Engineers

and Scientists, Tata McGraw Hill, 2/e (2010)

7

OR

Five Lectures per week + Tutorial as per University rules

Max. Marks 100 (including internal assessment)

Examination 3 hrs.

Unit I

Finite and infinite sets examples of countable and uncountable sets. Real

line; absolute value bounded sets suprema and infima, statement of order

Completeness property of R, Archimedean property of R, intervals. Real

sequences, Convergence, sum and product of convergent sequences, proof of

convergence of some simple sequences such as (-1)n/n, 1/n2, (1+1/n)n, xn

with |x|<1,an /n, where an is a bounded sequence. Concept of cluster points

and statement of Bolzano Weierstrass’ theorem. Statement and illustration of

Cauchy convergence criterion for sequences. Cauchy’s theorem on limits,

order preservation and squeeze theorem, monotone sequences and their

convergence.

Unit II

Cauchy convergence criterion for series, positive term series, geometric

series, comparison test, limit comparison test, convergence of p-series, Root

test, Ratio test, alternating series, Leibnitz’s test. Definition and examples of

absolute and conditional convergemce.

Unit III

Definition of power series: radius of convergence, Cauchy-Hadamard

theorem, statement and illustration of term-by-term differentiation and

integration of power series. Power series expansions for exp(x), sin(x),

cos(x), log(1+x) and their properties.

REFERNCES:

[1] R.G. Bartle and D.R. Sherbert: Introduction to Real Analysis, John

Wiley and Sons (Asia)

Pte. Ltd., 2000.

[2] C. P. Simon and L. Blume: Mathematics for Economists, W W Norton

and Company,1994.

8

[3] K. Sydsaeter and P.J. Hammod, Mathematics for Economics Analysis,

Pearson

Education, 2002