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Prelim

Chapter 1
Meaning and Relevance of History
History – “past of mandkind” came from the Ancient Greek word “ Historia” meaning inquiry.

Subjectivity and Objectivity in History


Subjective – refers to personal perspectives , feelings or opinion.
Objective – refers to the facts and truths.

Artifacts in History
Artifact – is something made or given shape by human , such as tool or a work of art especially
of archaeological interest.
Incompleteness of the Records in History
There are some records that has been gone and cannot be found so the truth is never been told.
Recreating History
Historians does everything that they can in order to restore the past of the mankind.
Historical Method
Is the process of critically examining and analyzing the records and survivals of the past.

Historiography
History of history , it is the writing of History
Ancient Historiographies
 Chinese Historiography – rich and persistent annalistic tradition and a growing
emphasis in history
 Greek Historiography – originated in the activities of a group of writers whom the
Greek called “lographers”
 Roman Historiography – Romans inherited Greek historiography as they inherited other
elements of Greek culture.
 Islamic Historiography – The Quran , sacred text of Islam , contains allusions that
constitute the basis of a providential history.
Famous Early Historians
- Herodotus – Father of History
- Thucydidesv- The most famous and critic and emulator of Herodotus
- Livy- One of the greatest Roman historians
- Tacitus – Was a self – conscious stylist
- Al – Tabari - Known as the greatest early Islamic historian

Filipino Historians
- Teodoro Agoncillo – One of the first Filipino historians renowned for promoting poetic
point of view.
- Renato Constantino – Filipino historian , also engaged in foreign service
- Gregorio F. Zaide – Multi – awarded author , he wrote 67 books and more than 500
articles
- Trinidad Pardo de Tavera – Was a Filipino physician , historian and politician
- Carmen Guerrero Nakpil - a Filipino journalist , author , historian and public servant.

Historical Associations
- Royal Historical Society – founded in 1868 is the foremost society in the United
Kingdom
- American Historical Association – The AHA has been at the forefront of movements to
develop high standards in history education
- Association of Chinese Historians – Founded in Beijing , Chjna in 1950 an academic
group of Chinese historians
- Philippine Historical Association – a professional association of historians in the
Philippines.
- Philippine National Historical Society – the oldest voluntary professional organization
devoted to the study and research in history.
-

National Historical Commission of the Philippines


Is responsible for the conversation and preservation of the historical legacies.
Conclusion
In conclusion , the study of the past is essential for “rooting” people in time.
Chapter 2
Primary and Secondary Sources
Relics and Testimonies
Relics - were typically objects of practical use in daily life and only later.
Testimony - a formal written or spoken statement especially one given in a court of law.

Sources of History
Primary Sources - These are sources created by eyewitnesses to or participate in an event who
record the event or their reactions to it.
Secondary Source - These are sources created second – hand by people who were either not at
the event or recorded information long after.
Accessibility of Primary Sources
- Dusty or Traditional Access – Access to primary sources can be as straight forward.
- Digital or Electric Access – Access to materials , through both indexing and through
representations of the documents and artifacts.

Analysis of Primary Sources


- Credibility – capability of being believed or trusted
- Accuracy - is this source factual , detailed , exact , comprehensive?
- Reasonableness – fairness , ohjectivity , moderateness and consistency
- Support – Where did the information come from?

Chapter 3
External and Internal Criticism in History

External Criticism - It is called the lower criticism and deals with the authorship of documents,
sourdce , writing , dates etc.
Internal Criticism - It is called the higher criticism and deals with the process by which the
trustworthiness of the document is studied.
Anachronatic – means a document or relic belonging to a specific period.
Isographies – dictionaries of biography giving examples of handwriting.
Paleography – study of ancient handwriting.
Diplomatics – study of documents .
Historical Fact – is a fact about the past. Credible evidence.

Chapter 4
Content and Contextual Analysis with the Historical Importance of the text and the
Author’s main Argument of Selected Primary Sources

 First Voyage around the World


o On 10 August 1519, five ships departed from Seville for what was to become the
first circumnavigation of the globe. Linked by fame to the name of its captain,
Magellan, much of the expedition is known through the travelogue of one of the
few crew members who returned to Spain, Antonio Pigafetta. A narrative and
cartographic record of the journey (including 23 hand-drawn watercolour charts)
from Patagonia to Indonesia, from the Philippines to the Cape of Good Hope,
Pigafetta's The First Voyage around the World is a classic of discovery and
exploration literature.
 Customs of the Tagalogs
o When the Spaniards came to the country , they were surprised because of the
great differences of cultural practices from Iberian peninsula to the Philippines.
o Because of the metamorphoses , misconception arise which later on creates a
division.
 Kartilya ng Katipunan

o The order for those who want to join the association shall have the full
understanding and knowledge of its guiding principles and main teachings so that
they may perform their duties wholeheartedly. The Association pursues the most
worthy and momentous object of uniting the hearts and the mind of
the Tagalog by means of inviolable oath in order that the union to be strong
enough to tear aside the thick veil that obscure thoughts and find the true path of
reason and enlightenment. The foremost rules is the true love of native land and
genuine compassion for others, for everyone shall be treated equal and true
brethren
o As soon as anybody enters the association, he shall perforce renounce disorderly
habits and shall submit to the authority of the sacred commands of the Katipunan.
All acts contrary to noble and clean living are repugnant here, and hence the life
of anyone who wants to affiliate with this Association will be submitted to a
searching investigation.

MIDTERM
CHAPTER 5:Controversies and Conflicting views in Philippine History
THE SITE OF FIRST MASS: MASAO OR LIMASAWA
Antonio Pigafetta
- The chronicle of Magellan's expedition.
- Travelled with Ferdinand Magellan and his crew on their first voyage
- One of the 18 men who returned to spain in 1522
Pigafettas’s Chronicle
 Zamal (West of Ladrones)
 Homonhon (North)
 Islands of St. Lazarus
 Watering place of Good signs
 Ceilon
 Mazaua Island
 Zubu

In Favor for Limasawa:


Engr. Jose G. Caburian
- “Earlier Pigafetta wrote that ’24 leagues is equal to to 100 miles or 160.9 kms.’, so one
league is equal to 6.7 kms... From an accurate map, the sea distance from the eastern
side of Homonhon going west to southwest to... Limasawa is 167kms; divided by 6.7 kms.
It is 24.9 leagues and checks well with the Homonhon-Mazaua distance of 25 leagues.”

Francisco Albo
- He was one of the 18 survivors who joined and served as pilot in the expidition of
magellan who kept his own diary (nevertheless a log-book) on their voyage.

Francisco Albo’s Log


 Vunagan (South)
 Gada (West)
 Seilani (West)
 Mazava (South)
 Matan & Suby

In Favor for for Masaoa


Edgardo T. Gumban
- “The most logical course that Magellan followed (because of storm) must have been
toward the south to Masao to seek shelter from strong winds and big waves of the open
sea. The port og Masao has a very good anchorage, while Limasawa is exposed to the
strong winds and tidal currents and could not have provided enough protection for the
seven-day duration of stay at Mazaua.”

A. Latitudes of the Site of the First Mass


“It lies on a latitude of nine and two-thirds degrees towards the Artic Pole... and is called Mazaua”
– Antonio Pigafetta
“Masava lies on a latitude of nine and two-third degrees north” – Francisco Albo
“After Passing many islands, they reached one called Mazaba, which lies on nine degrees” –
Antonio de Brito
“...and came to anchor at another island, which is Macangor, which is nine degrees” –the Roteiro

B. Testimonies Regarding the Route Leaving Homonhon


“The same day we shaped our course toward the west southwest between four islands, namely;
namely Cenalo, Hiunanghan, Ibusson and Albarien.” – Pigafetta
“we departed thence and went west to strike a large island called Seilani which is inhabited and
has gold in it. We coasted along it and took our course to the west southwest in order to strike a
small island with is Masava...” – Albo
“ Our men took water at Acacan, and then sailed towards Seilani, but a storm caught them so that
they could not land there, but they were driven to another island called Massana where the king
of three islands reside” - Transylvanus
Difficulties with NHI (National Historical Institute) on Limasawa by Vicente de Jesus
1. Limasawa has no Anchorage
2. Anchoring in Lee Shore
3. No account speaks of
anchoring east

C. Route taken “Mazaua” to Cebu


“We remained there seven days, after which we lai our course northwest, passing among five
islands,.. but the king of Mazaua could not follow us, and consequently, we waited for him near
three islands Polo, Ticobon, and Pozon. When he caught up with us he was greatly astonished
at the rapidity with which we sailed... Thus we go to Zubu.” -Antonio Pigafetta
“We left Masava and went north toward Seilani, after which we ran along the island and turned
our course west for about 10 leguas where we came upon two islets. We stayed there... at that
point we entered a channel between two islands, one which is called Mattan and the other Subu.”-
Francisco Albo

CAVITE MUTINY
•Cavite Mutiny, (Jan. 20, 1872), brief uprising of 200 Filipino troops and workers at the
Cavite arsenal, which became the excuse for Spanish repression of the embryonic
Philippine nationalist movement. Ironically, the harsh reaction of the Spanish authorities
served ultimately to promote the nationalist cause

1.Spanish version of Cavite Mutiny


By:Jose Montero y Vidal
Main ideas:
a.the cause of the insurrection is the abolition of priviledges
b.1872 authorities received upsrings
C.conspiracy
2.Filipino version of Cavite Mutiny
By:Trinidad H. Pardo De Tavera
a. polo y services or force labor
b.Attempt to overthrow the spanish Government in the philippines.
Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, Jacinto Zamora- are the filipino priests that were against the
spanish government and was sentenced to die. In 17 of february they were executed at
bagumbayan.

RETRACTION OF RIZAL
RETRACTION
- A statement saying that something you said or wrote at an earlier time is not true or correct.
- In Rizal’s retraction, he taking back all of what he said against the church and the
government.
- DR. OTLEY BEYER
- “A single signature, when cleverly imitated, is very hard to prove either as a forgery or its
authenticity, but not in establishing the genuineness of an entire document.”
- DR. JOSE I. DEL ROSARIO
- “He didn’t find anything in Rizal’s retraction which does not proclaim that the retraction is
in fact and in truth of the authentic and genuine handwriting of Dr Jose Rizal.”
- “Found nothing in it to indicate that it may be a forged or spurious document.”
- 1935
- The year was the “ORIGINAL” letter of retraction was discovered.
- DIARIO DE MANILA, DECEMBER 30, 1896
- “He wrote his own handwriting, the full retraction assisted by Fr. Jose Villaclara and
Estanislao during the night repentance.”
- LA VOZ ESPAÑOLA, DECEMBER 30, 1896 “His own handwritten retraction which he sent
to our dear and venerable archbishop.”
-
- EL ESPAÑOL, DECEMBER 30, 1896
- “He requested to be allowed to call on Fr. Saderra of the Society of Jesus, who
accompanied by Fr. Rosell, assisted him spiritually.”
- CAVANNA 1956- “No document, no retraction, therefore no conversion.”
- FR. MANUEL A. GARCIA [Gracia}
- 1935, he discovered the “ORIGINAL” letter of retraction.
- DR. CARLOS P. ROMULO- He presented the document to kalaw, a freemason.
- FR. MCCARTHY- A leading authority on Rizal’s writing.
- TEODORO KALAW- He finally released a statement to the press published in La
Varguardia on December 30, 1935.
- APRIL 25, 1917-Fiscal of the Audencia de Manila at the time of Dr Rizal’s Death.
- FR. VICENTE BALAGUER- He is the eyewitness and the one who present a copy of
Rizal’s retraction

THE CRY OF BALINTAWAK OR PUGAD LAWIN


. The Cry (unang sigaw)

- originally refered as cry of Balintawak was the beginnging of the Philippine Resolution against
the spanish empire.

- The Cry of Pugad Lawin (August 23, 1896).

By: Pio Valenzuela Y Alejandro

- The First “Cry”(August 25, 1896).

By:Gregoria de jesus

-The "Cry of Balintawak" (August 26, 1896).

By: Guillermo Masangkay,Katipunan General


-The uprising began against spanish colonialisation.

Balintawak- a big meeting at the house of Apolonio Samson in Caloocan.

Cedula- tax charged of each Filipino citizen

Memoir- type of documents Valenzuela.

.Authobiology- type of document written by de Jesus.

Teodoro Plata and Pio Valenzuela- Opposing against the discussion of Andres Bonifacio to
starting rebulotion.

Pio Valenzuela Y Alejandro- a Filipino physician and revolutionary leader.

Guillermo Masangkay -He one of the first members of the Katipunan, played a key
role in the Filipino-American War as a revolutionary general.

Gregoria de Jesus- also known as Aling Oriang, was the founder and vice- president of the
womens chapter of Katipunan in the Philippines.
CHAPTER 6 The Philippine Constitution

CONSTITUTION

-The fundamental law from which the government of a state is


organized,and agreebly to which the relations of individuals or moral
person to the community are determined.
1899Malolos Congress
-was the First significant Filipino document ever produced by the
people’s representative. And it served as the fundamental law of the
first Philippine Republic from 1898 – 1901.
- It was adopted by the revolutionary Congress (Malolos Congress)
in November 1898.
- President Emilio Aguinaldo approved it on December 23, 1898 and
promulgated on January 21, 1899.
1935Constitution
- Was forced as the fundamental law of the Philippines from 1935 –
1972. And was written in 1934, established the Commonwealth of
the Philippines (1935 – 1946). Later used by the Third Republic
(1946 – 1972).
- The Constitution had been subjected to two events of
amendments: 1940 and 1947. It was said that the Constitution was
the best-written Philippine charter ever (Kalaw, 1935).
- Kalaw 1935 from the popular sovereignty established by the first
Constitution.

1937 Constitution

-In accordance with President Ferdinand Marcos' Proclamation No.


1102, the 1973 Constitution was ratified on January 17, 1973.

- It was written by the 1971 Constitutional Convention on December


1972 deemed ratified by the citizen’s Assembly held on January 10 to 15,
1972.

1987 Constitution

- According to Teodoro Locsin Jr., Former statesman and


spokesman of President Corazon C. Aquino, the 1973 Constitution
was never ratified believing that the process conducted by the former
President Marcos was met by strong oppositions.
- Pres. Aquino had no other option but to start a new and break
from the vestiges of a disgraced dictatorship.
- The Proclamation No. 9 that created 1986 Constitutional
Commission, this body was tasked the drafting of a replacement for
the 1973 Constitution.
- 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was
presented to President Corazon C. Aquino on October 15, 1986. And
was ratified on February 2, 1987 by a plebiscite. It was proclaimed in
force on February 11, 1987.
Commented [1]:

CHAPTER 7 Agrarian Reform

AGRARIAN POLICIES
 Pre Spanish
Communal- land ownership owned by barangay
 Spanish
Encomienda system- was a labor system instituted by the Spanish crown in the
American colonies
This eventually led to accumulation of the land by local elites in
connivance with the Spanish authorities.

 America
sugar industry
1960’s - Agrarian Reform started
 RA 3844 – the enactment of Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 regarded the
President Diosdado Macapagal
 Pres. Diosdado Macapagal is the “Father of Agrarian Reform”
 Operation Leasehold (OLH) – share tenancy to leasehold with the fixed 25 percent of the
average harvest in the three normal years preceding the Operation.
 Operation Land Transfer (OLT) – which provided for the compulsory acquisition of
private lands.
 Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL) or RA6657 -this is response to mandate
of the 1987 Constitution that regard agrarian reform as the centerpiece program.
 Article II, Sec. 21 –shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform
 Article XII, Sec. 21 –shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound
agricultural development and agrarian reform
 Article XIII, Sec. 4 –state shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded in
the right of farmers and regular farm workers
 CARP - implementation 1988 and supported by 6657/CARL
 Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) – explain the failure to implement its 2011
decision that mandated its actual distribution
 CARL –adopted the UN definition of land reform which considers an integrated program
of measures designed to eliminate obstacles to economic and social development due to
defects in the agrarian structure
 Carl has triple goals of equity
- Social justice
- Improvement of farming efficiency
- Poverty reduction
 Republic Act 6657 is the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform law by Cory Aquino
 Republic Act 3844 was strengthened by Agrarian code of 1972
 Presidential Decree No.27 and Republic Act 3844 are described the same terms of
share tenancy abolition

FINALS
CHAPTER 8: TAXATION IN THE PHILIPPINES
President Duterte thru Leonor Briones “there is no other way the government can raise money
for needs of the Filipino people except through taxes.

TRAIN (Tax Reform for Acceleration or RA 10963)


 Signed on December 18, 2016
 Aimed to reduce personal income tax rates but raise the excess tax on petroleum
products and automobiles and sugar sweetened beverages
 Adverse effect on the recent increase in petroleum prices promoted the more
suspension of train
 Free higher education law (RA 10931)

TAXES
 Life force of government
 Backbone and fundamental tool to attain economic stability
 Taxes primordial purpose is to accumulate funds and resources to promote the welfare
of the general public
 Taxation is one of the inherent power of the taste to demand or enforce contributions
for public purpose

DEVELOPMENT OF TAXATION IN THE PHILIPPINES: PRE-COLONIAL


TO PRESENT.
PRE-COLONIAL TO SPANISH OCCUPATION

 Early Filipino living in the barangay give their max to the Datu, the local chieftrain.
 Contribution are caused handog or alay .
 Local elites actively collaborated and medited with Spaniards which is contributed to the
established of Spanish Colonial Government.
 Basis of revenue system – responsibility of the native citizens.
 1987- no compilation of decres, royal orders relating to taxation.

6 GENERAL HEADINGS OF THE REVENUE IN INSULAR BUDGETS


1. DIRECT TAXES (Contribuciones Directas)- personal and income tax.
2. INDIRECT TAXES (Contribuciones Indirectas)- costum duties
3. MONOPPOLIES (Rentas Estancadas)- stamp taxes and sales of quivksilver, playing
cards, gunpowder, liquors and tobacco
4. LOTTERIES
5. PUBLIC DOMAIN (Bienes De Estado)
6. MISCELLANEOUS AND IN DETERMINE REVENUES (Ingresose Eusotuaces)

TYPES OF TAXES DURING SPANISH PERIOD


1. DIRECT TAXES
-levied on natives including mestizos excemted from paying
1. Alcaldes
2. Governor and Cabeza de Barangay
3. Members of Government
4. Paupers

TRIBUTE SYSTEM REPEALED IN 1884 AND REPLACED BY GRADUATED POLL


TAX OR CEDULA
CEDULA- Certificate of Identification which requires every resident to obtain it.
TRIBUTE- Imposed of households while Cedula is imposed on individuals.
2. INDIRECT TAXES
-tax law was developed during the 2nd half of 19th century
3. MONOPOLIES NAD LOTTERIES
4. LABOR AND SERVICES

 POLO Y SERVICIOS- prestacion personal

AMERICAN PERIOD TO PRESENT


 Bureau of Internal Revenue was organized in 1904 under secretary of
finance by Henry Ide.
 Adopt the implemention of with holding tax system through RA 690
 National Internal Revenue code of 1977 updated the 1934 tax code

PRESIDENT CORY AQUINO – 1986 TAX REFROM PROGRAM OF HER


ADMINISTRATION (VAT)
 TAX RAVER INDENTIFICATION NUMBER (TIN) - adaptation of new payment
control system and simplified net income taxation scheme under tax
administration program
 POLICY OF TAXATION IN THE COUNTRY (1987 PHILIPPINES
CONSTITUTION AND 3 REPUBLICS
1. Rule of taxation shall be inform, equitable and the mic of congress
shall evolve progressive system of taxation (Art VI, Sec 28 of 1987)
2. National Internal Revenue code or RA 8424 (TAX REFORM ACT OR
1997) – amended by RA 10963 or the tax reform for acceleration and
inclusion act.
3. RA 7160 LOCAL GOV’T CODE OF 1991 - major sources of revenue
for LGU’S

BASIC OF TAXATION
1. Taxes- publics mandatory contribution of the gov’t as revenue sources or
nation building.
2. Income Tax- base on the ability to pay principle where in people with higher
income should pay more
3. Consumption- tax-based on the amount of goods and services utilized such
that more one consume, the higher the tax being paid.

TRAIN LAW: A PRIORITY TAS REFORM OF DUTERTE’S


ADMINISTRATION
 Tax reform for acceleration and inclusion/train law
 Comprehensive tax reform program
 Seeks to correct tax system deficiencies by adopting migrating measures that
one simpler, fairer and more efficient
 Lower and simplify personal income taxes estate by donor taxes, explaining the
value added tax, adjusting oil and automobile excise taxes and introducing
excise tax on sugar sweetened beverage.

CHAPTER 9: EVALUATION AND PROMOTION OF LOCAL AND


ORAL HISTORY
 LOCAL HISTORY
- study of history in a geographical local context concentrates on
the community
 LOCAL HISTROTY VS WORLD HISTORY
-BENEFITS OF LOCAL HISTORY-
1. EDUCATION AND HISTORICAL BENEFITS
-Emphasizes that history has a wider significance outside if classroom.
2.PSYCHIOLOGICAL BENEFITS
-To know and understand the community

PRINCIPLES OF CONDUCTING LOCAL HISTORY


1. LOCAL HISTORY IS RESOURCE LED
2. LOCAL HISTORY SHOULD BE STUDENT CENTERED
3. LOCAL HISTORY SHOULD BE INQUIRY LED
4. USE THE WIDEST RANGE OF HISTORICAL SOURCES POSSIBLE
5. FIND ROMANCE
6. EVALUATE EVIDENCE
7. INVOLVE LOCAL EXPERTS
8. INVOLVE LOCAL COMMUNITY
9. AIM FOR AN END-PRODUCT


 ORAL HISTORY
 Is a field of study and method of gathering, preserving and
interpreting the voices and memories of people, communities and
participants in past events.

 THE SIX ELEMENTS OF ORAL HISTORY


1.ORALITY- deals with spoken world
2. NARRATIVE- people make and use stories ti interpret something
“KNOWING INTO TALKING” (e.g reported speech, documentary, refleaction)
3. PERFORMANCE- non-verbacl communication (politician speech, stage
act)
4. SUBJECTIVITY- quality of defining or interpreting through the medium
ones meds (“what happened?” vs “what you feel about it?”)
5. MEMORY- (minutes of the meeting, legal records of diaries and the like)
6. MUTABILITY- describes oral history as “unfinished nature of a work in
progress”.
CHAPTER 10: INTERACTING WITH HISTORY
THROUGH THE PROMOTION OF HISTORICAL
SHRINES AND MUSUEMS

 NATIONAL HISTORICAL COMMISSION OF THE PHILIPPINES (NHCP)


-Primary government agency responsible for history and has the authority to
determine all factual matters relating to Philippine history.

 MUSEO NI RIZAL (CALAMBA)


-6 GALLERIES
1. KALIWANAGAN- Rizal’s family and childhood
2. KAPALIGIRAN- Pertains to the environment of Laguna
3. KARUNUNGAN- Rizal’s formal schooling in UST and Ateneo
4. BAHAY NA BATO- Rizal’s family in the middle
5. UNANG PAGLALAKBAY SA EUROPA- (1882-1887)
6. PANGALAWANG PAGLALAKBAY SA EUROPA- (1888-1892)

 MUSEO NI EMILIO AGUINALDO


-June 12, 1898
Declaration of Philippine Independence
-House built in 1845 and reconstructed in 1849
-September 21,1898
Rotifocation by Malolos Congress
-RA 4039 (1964)
Houseplaced under National Musuem
-EO 370
Transferred the care to NHCP

 MUSEO NI MARCELO H. DEL PILAR (PLARIDEL)


-the most deicedful of the Filipino politicians
-finish law at UST in 1880
-established barong tagalong
-October 1888- left Spain to avoid arrest
-July 4. 1896- death
-Nov 1889- succeed Lopez Jaena (La Solidaridad)

 MUSEO NG KATIPUNAN
-KKK- founded on July 7, 1892
-Filipino revolution
-Emilio Jacinto- Brains of Katipunan
-Andres Bonifacio- Father of the Philippine Revolution

 HISTORICAL SHRINES AND MUSEUMS SERVE AS PORTAL TO THE PAST

NHCP FUNCTIONS STATED BY RA 10086


-has the authority to determine the factual matters relating to history
-conduct and support all kinds of research
-dissiminate informations
-undertakes nad describes the nature of restoration conservation and protection
of the country.