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Mike Bhatnagar Sr. Product Manager Advances in Compact Flotation Units for the Treatment of Produced

Mike Bhatnagar Sr. Product Manager

Advances in Compact Flotation Units for the Treatment of Produced Water

Produced Water & Environmental Conference - Aberdeen

June 5-6, 2013

Cameron is a leading provider of branded flow equipment products, systems and services to worldwide

Cameron is a leading provider of branded flow equipment products, systems and services to worldwide oil, gas and process industries.

2

and services to worldwide oil, gas and process industries. 2 Process & Compression Custom Process Systems

Process & Compression Custom Process Systems Systems

Custom Process Systems - Portfolio OIL GAS WATER SOLIDS • Free Water Knockout • Cynara

Custom Process Systems - Portfolio

Custom Process Systems - Portfolio OIL GAS WATER SOLIDS • Free Water Knockout • Cynara ®
OIL GAS WATER SOLIDS • Free Water Knockout • Cynara ® CO 2 Seawater •
OIL
GAS
WATER
SOLIDS
• Free Water Knockout
• Cynara ® CO 2
Seawater
MOZLEY™ Wellhead
Desander
• TS WKO™ Compact
Free Water Knockout
• PureMEG™ MEG
Reclamation
• METROL ® SeaCell ®
MOZLEY™
• Shell / Paques
• METROL ® BFCC™
Desanding SLC
• NATCO ® Mechanical
Heater Treaters
• THIOPAQ ®
• PORT-TEST
WhirlyScrub I™, V™
• METROL SeaScreen
& SeaScreen Max
MOZLEY™
• Multi Phase
Microspin
Separators
• PORT-TEST
Revolution ®
• Media Filters
MOZLEY™
• PORT-TEST
Hydrotrans™
• CONSEPT DC™
• Vacuum Deaerators
Revolution ®
• CONSEPT IVD™
MOZLEY™
• CONSEPT SI™
• Gas Strip Deaerators
• CONSEPT ICD ®
Fluidizer™
• CONSEPT Spinlet™
• Polymem UF
• NATCO ® Dual
Frequency ®
• CONSEPT ACI™
MOZLEY™
• NATCO ® CHF ® Heater
Deltaclone™
• NATCO ® BTEX Buster ®
• NATCO ® Dual
Polarity ®
• NATCO ® Sulphate
Removal
MOZLEY™
• NATCO ® Desi-Dri ®
• CDX™ Compact
Deaeration
Sandcleaning
• NATCO ® SHV™
• PETRECO ® Bilectric ®
Flare/Combuster

• PETRECO ® MeterCell

• CESCompact Coalescer

• Bilectric HF

• NATCO ® Water Bath Heaters

• NATCO ® Glymine

• Amine Treating

• Glycol Dehydration

• Mechanical Refrigeration

• NATCO ® Jewel T ®

TS Technology acquired by Cameron Custom Process Systems 1990 2000 2 0 0 1 2002

TS Technology acquired by Cameron Custom Process Systems

1990

2000
2000

2001

2002

2010
2010

1997

1998 1999

TEST MPE ConSepT CYNARA Axsia Membranes NATCO Mozley Acquired by Cameron ESI PORTA-TEST BHPS Sequal
TEST
MPE
ConSepT
CYNARA
Axsia
Membranes
NATCO
Mozley
Acquired by
Cameron
ESI
PORTA-TEST
BHPS
Sequal Holdings
acquires
purchases Baker
BFCC
Custom Process
Systems
BHPS
Hughes Process
acquires
Systems from
WEMCO
Baker Hughes
Petreco
Baker Hughes
Oil &
Process
creating Petreco
Gas with
Systems
International
Petreco
(BHPS)
Metrol
Petreco
Petreco
formed from
International
BHPS
BHPS
International
Baker Hughes
International
acquired by
Baker
acquires
Industries &
acquires
acquires
acquires
Cameron
Hughes
WEMCO with
Vortoil
Krebs
Unicel
Cameron
KCC
Industries
Metrol
acquires
Process
TS
Technology

1990

1993
1993

1995

1996
1996

1997

1998
1998

2001

2002

2010

2011

Custom Process Systems

Divider graphic should fill and not exceed the defined gray box. Produced Water Treatment Trends

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Produced Water Treatment Trends Next Generation Compact Flotation - TST CFU Field Trials – North Sea Field Test Results Summary of other Field Test Results and Full Scale Installations Conclusions and Future Work

Produced Water Trends – Onshore Applications • Globally produced water associated with the oil &

Produced Water Trends – Onshore Applications

• Globally produced water associated with the oil & gas production is between three and seven times than the oil production and it continues to increase over the lifespan of the well.

• Onshore produced water is usually treated and re-injected into underground formations, or treated and discharged under permits issued by regional agencies.

• Cameron’s WEMCO Depurator Flotation Systems and the Petreco Hydromation Nut Shell Filters are well established in these applications.

Compression Gas Export Compression Typical Onshore Separation PFD Gas Treatment and Conditioning Knock out Gas
Compression Gas Export Compression Typical Onshore Separation PFD Gas Treatment and Conditioning Knock out Gas
Compression
Gas Export
Compression
Typical Onshore
Separation PFD
Gas Treatment
and Conditioning
Knock
out
Gas
Bulk Phase
Drum
Treatment /
Dehydration
Separation
Electrostatic
HP
Solids Separation
System
Production
LP Production
Electrostatic
Crude
Separator
Separator
Dehydrator
Conditioning
Wellhead
Choke
Crude
Export
Water
Wellhead
Desanders
Pressure
HYDROMATION
Nutshell Filter
Cartridge Filter
reducing
WEMCO
WEMCO
Adsorption
CPI
Flotation
From
Pressure
reducing
Produced Water
SandClean System
Treatment
Produced
Water for re-
injection
Skimmings
Separation
Sand
Disposal

Wellhead

Water SandClean System Treatment Produced Water for re- injection Skimmings Separation Sand Disposal Wellhead
WEMCO ® Depurator ® Conventional Box Design Cylindrical Design 8

WEMCO ® Depurator ®

WEMCO ® Depurator ® Conventional Box Design Cylindrical Design 8

Conventional Box Design

Cylindrical

Design

WEMCO ® Depurator ® Conventional Box Design Cylindrical Design 8

8

Petreco® Hydromation® Nut Shell Filters 9 Custom Process Systems

Petreco® Hydromation® Nut Shell Filters

Petreco® Hydromation® Nut Shell Filters 9 Custom Process Systems
Produced Water Trends – Offshore Applications • Most offshore produced water is treated and discharged

Produced Water Trends – Offshore Applications

• Most offshore produced water is treated and discharged to the ocean as permitted by the regional agencies.

• In the past, many offshore operators have adopted a trend toward the use of de-oiling hydrocyclones followed by conventional flotation, degasser or conventional compact flotation to treat produced water prior to overboard discharge.

Compression Gas Export Compression Typical Offshore Separation PFD Gas Treatment and Conditioning Knock out Gas
Compression Gas Export Compression Typical Offshore Separation PFD Gas Treatment and Conditioning Knock out Gas
Compression
Gas Export
Compression
Typical Offshore
Separation PFD
Gas Treatment
and Conditioning
Knock
out
Gas
Drum
Treatment /
Bulk Phase
Dehydration
Separation
Solids Separation
System
HP Production
LP Production
Electrostatic
Separator
Separator
Dehydrator
Crude
Export
Wellhead
Choke
Electrostatic
Crude
Conditioning
Wellhead
Desanders
Conventional
Flotation /
Produced Water
Treatment
Pressure
Desanding
Degasser/ CFU
reducing
Hydrocyclone
Deoiler
Cartridge Filter
Adsorption
Delta
Clone
Pressure
Deoiler
Reducing
Produced
Water for re-
injection
Oil
Recycle
SandClean System
Skimmings
Separation
Sand
Water
Disposal
Produced
Recycle
Water for
Disposal
Vortoil ® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super

Vortoil ® Deoiling Hydrocyclone

Vortoil ® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super
Vortoil ® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super
Vortoil ® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super
Vortoil ® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super
Vortoil ® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super

Value Engineered over 20+ years

® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super Offset
® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super Offset
® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super Offset
® Deoiling Hydrocyclone Value Engineered over 20+ years Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super Offset
Inserted Sandwiched Original Modified Super Offset Offset Manufactured Offset 12
Inserted
Sandwiched
Original
Modified
Super Offset
Offset
Manufactured
Offset
12
Unicel ® Vertical Flotation 13

Unicel ® Vertical Flotation

Unicel ® Vertical Flotation 13
Unicel ® Vertical Flotation 13
13
13
Offshore Production Trends, continued… • Oilfield operating companies continue moving to ever-increasing water depths

Offshore Production Trends, continued…

• Oilfield operating companies continue moving to ever-increasing water depths to produce oil and gas reserves. The high cost of constructing floating platforms, is driving the need to reduce the size and weight of topsides processing equipment on these platforms.

• The challenges for the operators are increasing and the need for high performance, compact and more cost effective technologies exists that can handle the high water cuts.

• This has lead to the development of the next generation TST-CFU TM , that has multiple stages in a single vessel making it capable of handling higher inlet OIW concentrations.

• The TST-CFU TM offers better performance than that achieved by a combination of multiple technologies like Hydrocyclones, Conventional Flotation or Compact Flotation units, considerably reducing the need for foot print and weight.

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Produced Water Treatment Trends Next Generation Compact Flotation - TST CFU Field Trials – North Sea Field Test Results Summary of other Field Test Results and Full Scale Installations Conclusions and Future Work

Next Generation Compact Flotation – TST CFU T M • The TST-CFU T M uses

Next Generation Compact Flotation – TST CFU TM

Next Generation Compact Flotation – TST CFU T M • The TST-CFU T M uses gas

• The TST-CFU TM uses gas flotation and additional hydraulic forces to separate and remove hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, hydrophobic substances and fine solid particles from produced water.

• The TST-CFU is available as a single stage vessel or as a single vessel with multiple internal stages offering a compact solution specially designed to handle higher inlet oil concentrations, over 1,000mg/l.

• It requires a smaller foot print, has a reduced weight than competitive technologies.

• The technology is world wide patent pending.

TST CFU – Compact Flotation Technology Induced gas flotation Orifice /Valve/Mixer Water Direction of flow

TST CFU – Compact Flotation Technology

Induced gas flotation

Orifice /Valve/Mixer Water Direction of flow Gas
Orifice /Valve/Mixer
Water
Direction of flow
Gas
Dissolved gas flotation Pressure P 1 Pressure P 2 P 1 > P 2 Orifice
Dissolved gas flotation
Pressure P 1
Pressure P 2
P 1 > P 2
Orifice /Valve
Gassaturated water at pressure P 1

Direction of flow

/Valve Gassaturated water at pressure P 1 Direction of flow • The Technology uses both induced,

• The Technology uses both induced, and dissolved gas flotation to remove hydrocarbons.

• Special internals for mixing of gas and oil have been developed to achieve easy separation of this mixture from the water.

• The water can be treated through several stages within one vessel. It s available in configurations up to 4 stages.

• The numbers of stages depend on the inlet fluid conditions.

TST CFU Basic (Single stage vessel) • The TST-CFU T M design consists of special

TST CFU Basic (Single stage vessel)

• The TST-CFU TM design consists of special internals that include a static mixture, a riser pipe, distribution arms and guide vanes.

a riser pipe, distribution arms and guide vanes. • 1 s t stage with overlapping guide

1 st stage with overlapping guide vanes

Improved produced water circulation and re-mixing is crucial to the design of TST- CFU TM system to enhance the oil separation efficiency and reduce the retention time down to 20 seconds per stage.

Key parameters like downward fluid velocity, gas bubble size, fluid circulation, internal flow paths, gas bubble re-mixing as well as cell residence time, gas induction rates, skimming rates, and their effects on process hydrodynamics have been taken into consideration when designing this next generation compact flotation technology.

Inlet

nozzle

Clean

water

without

bubbles

below the

vanes

TST CFU – Gas bubble distributuion and re-mixing 19 CUSTOM PROCESS SYSTEMS

TST CFU – Gas bubble distributuion and re-mixing

19 CUSTOM PROCESS SYSTEMS
19
CUSTOM PROCESS SYSTEMS
TST CFU T M MS3 (Three stage vessel) • CFD analysis was used to improve

TST CFU TM MS3 (Three stage vessel)

TST CFU T M MS3 (Three stage vessel) • CFD analysis was used to improve the

• CFD analysis was used to improve the efficiency of the internal guide vanes by retaining more of the swirling oil water mixture and providing an upward flow pattern to the rising gas bubbles attached to the oil.

• The proper distribution of gas bubbles over the entire cross-sectional area of the vessel, the re-mixing of the gas bubbles, the size of the bubbles induced

Stage 1

Stage 2

into the produced water are all critical to promote good oil separation

Stage 3

• Much shorter retention times of around 20 seconD/S per stage has resulted in a more compact vertical pressure vessel and smaller reject volumes.

• The result is an enhanced CFU design with multiple stages in a single vessel as compared to the single stage design of the conventional vertical IGFs and

PW inlet

Treated water

Outlet

20

Custom Process Systems

conventional Compact Flotation Units.

TST CFU T M MS3 (Gas inlet and oil reject lines) 21 Gas recycle Stage

TST CFU TM MS3 (Gas inlet and oil reject lines)

21
21

Gas recycle

Stage 1

Reject stage 1

and oil reject lines) 21 Gas recycle Stage 1 Reject stage 1 Gas Inlet Stage 2
and oil reject lines) 21 Gas recycle Stage 1 Reject stage 1 Gas Inlet Stage 2

Gas Inlet

Stage 2

21 Gas recycle Stage 1 Reject stage 1 Gas Inlet Stage 2 Reject stage 2 Reject

Reject stage 2

Stage 1 Reject stage 1 Gas Inlet Stage 2 Reject stage 2 Reject stage 3 Treated

Reject stage 3

Treated Water outlet

stage 1 Gas Inlet Stage 2 Reject stage 2 Reject stage 3 Treated Water outlet Produced
stage 1 Gas Inlet Stage 2 Reject stage 2 Reject stage 3 Treated Water outlet Produced

Produced Water Inlet

stage 1 Gas Inlet Stage 2 Reject stage 2 Reject stage 3 Treated Water outlet Produced

Custom Process Systems

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Produced Water Treatment Trends Next Generation Compact Flotation - TST CFU Field Trials – North Sea Field Test Results Summary of other Field Test Results and Full Scale Installations Conclusions and Future Work

Field Trials – North Sea Existing System: • 1st stage separator • 2 n d

Field Trials – North Sea

Field Trials – North Sea Existing System: • 1st stage separator • 2 n d stage

Existing System:

• 1st stage separator

• 2 nd stage separator

• Flocculation tank

• 1st stage hydrocyclones

• 2nd stage hydrocyclones

• Degassing tank

• Single stage existing compact flotation unit

Tie-in points :

• Downstream of the degasser

• Downstream of the 1st stage hydrocyclones

• Downstream of the 2nd stage hydrocyclones

• Downstream of the 1st stage separator

TST-CFU T M Test Skid • The TST-CFU test-skid consisted of two compact flotation units,

TST-CFU TM Test Skid

TST-CFU T M Test Skid • The TST-CFU test-skid consisted of two compact flotation units, the

• The TST-CFU test-skid consisted of two compact flotation units, the CFU A and CFU B with different internal designs.

• The test allowed CFU A and CFU B to be operated individually, in series or in parallel.

Inlet Oil/ water Specifications Oil API 30.0 Oil Density (15 0 C) [kg/l] 0.8759 PW

Inlet Oil/ water Specifications

Oil API

30.0

Oil Density (15 0 C) [kg/l]

0.8759

PW Temperature[°C]

70

PW pH

7.1-7.2

OIW levels in PW from existing treatment system

25 Custom Process Systems
25
Custom Process Systems
Test Procedures • Tests at different tie-in points • Flow rate (Typical 50; 100; 150%

Test Procedures

• Tests at different tie-in points

• Flow rate (Typical 50; 100; 150% of design)

• Gas rate injection variation

• Tests performed with and without flocculants

• Testing with the normal variation of incoming water

• Measure OIW & Oil droplet size

Testing instruments

• OIW field instrument calibrated with the existing plant’s permit monitoring instrument

• Malvern Mastersizer Oil droplet size and particle size monitoring

• Malvern Zeta-sizer used when oil droplet surface charge was problematic (especially for condensate water)

Custom Process Systems

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Produced Water Treatment Trends Next Generation Compact Flotation - TST CFU Field Trials – North Sea Field Test Results Summary of other Field Test Results and Full Scale Installations Conclusions and Future Work

North Sea Test Results - Tie in Points 28 Custom Process Systems

North Sea Test Results - Tie in Points

North Sea Test Results - Tie in Points 28 Custom Process Systems

mg/l OIW

mg/l OIW Single Stage TST-CFU - D/S of the degasser 60 6 5 5 4 4

Single Stage TST-CFU - D/S of the degasser

60

6 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
6
5
5
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2

Inlet

Outlet2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2

• The incoming OIW was around 20 mg/l with a few peaks of up to 50 mg/l.

• Initially no gas was injected into the TST- CFUs, but when gas

50

40

30

was added to the unit, the effluent OIW concentration stabilized at around 2-3 mg/l.

20

10

• No additional flocculants were used during this test.

• The effluent from the existing CFU was around 7.8 mg/l.

0

were used during this test. • The effluent from the existing CFU was around 7.8 mg/l.
Oil droplet size changes over the TST-CFU – D/S of the degasser • The median

Oil droplet size changes over the TST-CFU – D/S of the degasser

size changes over the TST-CFU – D/S of the degasser • The median (d 0 .
size changes over the TST-CFU – D/S of the degasser • The median (d 0 .

• The median (d 0.5 ) oil droplet size changed from 3 to 2 μm from inlet to outlet of the TST-CFU.

• The measured concentration D/S the TST-CFU was very low.

• The size distribution data and the low OIW concentration from this location both indicate excellent treatability.

The TST-CFU removes very small diameter oil droplets.

•
Single Stage TST-CFU - D/S of 1st stage hydrocyclones • The OIW results show that

Single Stage TST-CFU - D/S of 1st stage hydrocyclones

Single Stage TST-CFU - D/S of 1st stage hydrocyclones • The OIW results show that the

• The OIW results show that the OIW was reduced from ~45 mg/l to 5 mg/l over one stage.

• The lowest OIW concentration out of the TST-CFU without flocculants was 3.5 mg/l and with flocculants was 2.5 mg/l.

• The median oil droplet size was reduced from 3.1 to 1.8μm over the TST- CFU.

2.5 mg/l. • The median oil droplet size was reduced from 3.1 to 1.8μm over the
Single Stage TST-CFU –D/S of 2nd stage hydrocyclones • • The test was performed using

Single Stage TST-CFU –D/S of 2nd stage hydrocyclones

• •

The test was performed using a single stage CFU B.

Flocculants improved the OIW performance from ~ 4 mg/l to ~2 mg/l in the effluent.

mg/l OIW

mg/l OIW 3 Stage TST-CFU – D/S of the 1st stage Separator 50 45 40 35

3 Stage TST-CFU – D/S of the 1st stage Separator

50

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Inlet OIW values between 850 and 1,000 mg/l

12

11

11

10

9 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 5
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
7
7
7
5

33

• The inlet oil in water concentrations were between 850 and 1000 mg/l.

• The oil in the water from the 1 st stage separator contained small oil droplet size with 50% of the oil droplets < 5.7 μm.

• The first stage of the TST-CFU removed > 95 % and moved the d0.5 to 2.5 μm.

• The second and third stage of the TST-CFU remove a further 60%

and reduce the d0.5 to

2.3 μm

Custom Process Systems

TST-CFU – North Sea Field test Summary Tie-in Points Inlet OIW (mg/l) Outlet 1 s

TST-CFU – North Sea Field test Summary

Tie-in Points

Inlet

OIW (mg/l) Outlet 1 st stage

OIW (mg/l) Outlet 2 nd stage

OIW Removal % 1 st Stage

OIW Removal % 2 nd Stage

OIW

OIW

Removal %

Total

D/S Degasser

~20

~2

 

90

 

90

D/S 1 st Stage Separator

>1000

50

20

95

60

98

D/S 1 st Stage HC

50

3.5

 

93

 

93

D/S 2 nd Stage HC

20

2

 

90

 

90

D/S of the degassing vessel – Single stage TST-CFU treated the water from an inlet OIW concentration of 20 mg/l down to 2 mg/l, (90 % reduction). The existing CFU had an outlet OIW concentration of ~7.8 mg/l, (61% OIW reduction).

D/S of the 1st stage separator - A two stage TST CFU reduced the OIW to 20 mg/l. With subsequent treatment over a three stage TST-CFU, the effluent OIW concentration was reduced to 8-11 mg/l., the same level as four separate existing produced water technologies- flocculant vessel, hydrocyclones, degasser and existing CFU

D/S of the 1st stage hydrocyclones - A single stage TST-CFU treated the water to an OIW concentration below that achieved by using the existing degasser and the existing CFU. With subsequent treatment over a second stage TST-CFU, the effluent OIW concentration was further reduced by 1-2 mg/l.

D/S of the 2nd stage hydrocyclones - A single stage TST-CFU treated the water to a concentration down to 2 mg/l OIW, and a treatment efficiency of 90% OIW, much better than the level reached by using the existing degasser and the existing CFU.

34

Custom Process Systems

Divider graphic should fill and not exceed the defined gray box. Produced Water Treatment Trends

Divider graphic should fill and not exceed the defined gray box.

Produced Water Treatment Trends Next Generation Compact Flotation - TST CFU Field Trials – North Sea Field Test Results Summary of other Field Test Results and Full Scale Installations Conclusions and Future Work

TST-CFU T M Configurations and Applications TST CFU 3 or 4 stages TST CFU 2

TST-CFU TM Configurations and Applications

TST CFU 3 or 4 stages TST CFU 2 stages TST CFU 1 stage
TST CFU 3 or 4 stages
TST CFU
2 stages
TST CFU
1
stage

Custom Process Systems

Pilot test results – GOM D/S of Separator 340 320 300 280 260 240 220

Pilot test results – GOM D/S of Separator

340

320

300

280

260

240

220

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Inlet Stage 4
Inlet
Stage 4

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20 21

22 23

24 25

26 27

28

29 30

31

32

33 34

3 stage CFU – South Sea China • Outlet from Separator- 100 to 180 ppm

3 stage CFU – South Sea China

• Outlet from Separator- 100 to 180 ppm

• Outlet from existing HC - 80 ppm

• Outlet from existing Degasser vessel - 50 ppm

38
38

Custom Process Systems

3 stage CFU D/S of inlet separator – South Sea China 39 Custom process Systems

3 stage CFU D/S of inlet separator – South Sea China

3 stage CFU D/S of inlet separator – South Sea China 39 Custom process Systems
3 stage CFU D/S of inlet separator – South Sea China 40 Custom process Systems

3 stage CFU D/S of inlet separator – South Sea China

3 stage CFU D/S of inlet separator – South Sea China 40 Custom process Systems
Full Scale Unit Startup 3 stage CFU – South Sea China 550 530 510 490

Full Scale Unit Startup 3 stage CFU – South Sea China

550

530

510

490

470

450

430

410

390

370

350

330

310

290

270

250

230

210

190

170

150

130

110

90

70

50

30

10

-10

Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet
Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3
Inlet Stage 3

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

3 stage CFU – China 42

3 stage CFU – China

3 stage CFU – China 42

42

Pilot test - 4 stage CFU – China 320 Inlet 300 Stage 4 280 260
Pilot test - 4 stage CFU – China 320 Inlet 300 Stage 4 280 260
Pilot test - 4 stage CFU – China
320
Inlet
300
Stage 4
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Full scale unit Startup 4 stage CFU – China 550 500 450 400 350 300

Full scale unit Startup 4 stage CFU – China

550

500

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

   
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B

Inlet CFU B

Inlet CFU B
Inlet CFU B
Inlet CFU B
Inlet CFU B
Inlet CFU B
Inlet CFU B
Inlet CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B
Inlet CFU B Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B

Stage 4 Outlet of CFU B

   
 
       
       
   
       
 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
   
   
   
   
 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

Pilot test TST- WKO Water Knock Out - China • Inlet to WKO – 100,000

Pilot test TST- WKO Water Knock Out - China

• Inlet to WKO – 100,000 mg/l

• Outlet from WKO - 500 mg/l

• Outlet from CFU – <20 mg/l

to WKO – 100,000 mg/l • Outlet from WKO - 500 mg/l • Outlet from CFU
WKO/ CFU Test Units – China 46

WKO/ CFU Test Units – China

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Full Scale Startup of WKO - China

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Inlet OIW values between 80,000 and 100,000 mg/l
Inlet OIW values between 80,000 and 100,000 mg/l

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Divider graphic should fill and not exceed the defined gray box. Produced Water Treatment Trends

Divider graphic should fill and not exceed the defined gray box.

Produced Water Treatment Trends Next Generation Compact Flotation - TST CFU Field Trials – North Sea Field Test Results Summary of other Field Test Results and Full Scale Installations Conclusions and Future Work

Parameters impacting performance Oil droplet size Important parameter for efficiency Oil slugs Minor effect on

Parameters impacting performance

Oil droplet size Important parameter for efficiency Oil slugs Minor effect on performance. Free oil is easy to separate. Gas bubble size Smaller bubbles will give bigger surface and better contact between oil droplets and gas bubbles. Salinity Affects gas bubble size. Temperature No effect on performance, tested from 25 0 C to 95 0 C Pressure No effect, tested from 0.5 to 20 bar

tested from 25 0 C to 95 0 C Pressure No effect, tested from 0.5 to
Other parameters impacting performance Dissolved gas in the feed Positive effect on gas flotation Flocculants

Other parameters impacting performance

Dissolved gas in the feed Positive effect on gas flotation

Flocculants Improved performance with use of flocculants

Shearing across valves Shearing across upstream valves can create small oil droplets and should be avoided

CONCLUSIONS Multiple separation stages within one single vessel Can handle OIW inlet concentrations over 1,000

CONCLUSIONS

Multiple separation stages within one single vessel Can handle OIW inlet concentrations over 1,000 mg/l No need for several vessels in series Less space required and easier adaptation into existing installation More flexible design

Multiple internal feed distribution instead of an external tangential inlet Better fluid distribution and internal re-mixing Higher probability of contact between gas bubbles and oil droplets Not impacted by scaling up of vessels

The technology is world wide patent pending

CONCLUSIONS • Better performance than traditional IGFs and conventional CFU’s 90 to 98% efficiency •

CONCLUSIONS

• Better performance than traditional IGFs and conventional CFU’s 90 to 98% efficiency

• Less equipment as it can replace multiple technologies Lower weight Smaller footprint

• Less dependent on chemicals than the first generation CFUs Lower OPEX

• Simple skid design Compact single vessel option

FUTURE WORK • Thus far the next generation TST-CFU T M compact flotation technology has

FUTURE WORK

FUTURE WORK • Thus far the next generation TST-CFU T M compact flotation technology has been

• Thus far the next generation TST-CFU TM compact flotation technology has been installed at several platforms performing satisfactorily.

• Other operating companies in the GoM and other deepwater locations are also testing the TST-CFU TM .

• As feedbacks from existing and new field installations are received, additional enhancements will be made to the TST- CFU TM design.

Custom Process Systems
Custom Process Systems
Custom Process Systems

Custom Process Systems