Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

Raw Grinding with Vertical Roller Mill Systems

Training Department Indonesia Cement and Concrete Institute

September 2007

Objectives

Knowledge of Raw Grinding System with Vertical Roller Mill

Knowledge of Parts of Vertical Roller Mill

Knowledge of Processes inside Vertical Roller Mill

2

Grinding with vertical roller mill systems 3
Grinding with vertical roller mill systems
3
Vertical Roller Mill 4
Vertical Roller Mill
4
Introduction : Vertical Roller Mill Transport Exhaust gases Raw meal 1. Separation → Drying Separation
Introduction : Vertical Roller Mill
Transport
Exhaust gases
Raw meal
1. Separation →
Drying
Separation
Feed
Material
Grinding
2. Grinding →
Hot
gases
Drive
Energy
3.
Drive
5
Vertical Roller Mill (VRM) mill exhaust feed gate product discharge (air lock) mill outlet duct
Vertical Roller Mill (VRM)
mill exhaust
feed gate
product discharge
(air lock)
mill outlet duct
separator
cage rotor
separator
guide vanes
tailings cone
separator
discharge flap
mill casing
roller with tyre
or segments
water
injection
rocker arm
roller axle
table liner
dam ring
hot gas inlet
nozzle of
louvre ring
grinding table
hydraulic cylinder
clutch
speed reducer with
table bearing
material scraper
and motor
6
VRM - Working principle Vertical roller mill Grinding force = Roller weight + (pressure) Force
VRM - Working principle
Vertical roller mill
Grinding force =
Roller weight + (pressure) Force
Roller rolls freely
with table
Material bed
Feed material
Table moves with drive
Feed size:
Max Particle size in feed: 5-8 % of roller diameter
f (Roller Ø )
7
VRM - Material Flow inside Separator: Gas & Product Material removes fine Feed Material material
VRM - Material Flow inside
Separator:
Gas & Product Material
removes fine
Feed Material
material
rejects coarse
material
Internal gas
Separator Rejects
flow
Internal Circulation
Large Material falls through to
scraper
Material
Material & Gas
Gas
8
VRM - Some Common Mill Configurations G.Pfeiffer Loesche FLS Atox Polysius 9
VRM - Some Common Mill Configurations
G.Pfeiffer
Loesche
FLS Atox
Polysius
9
VRM - Built-in Separator static separator Conventional conventional rotor type Cage Rotor type cage rotor
VRM - Built-in Separator
static separator
Conventional
conventional rotor type
Cage Rotor type
cage rotor type
Static type
with guide vanes
P
P
Rotor type
P
F
T
F
FFT T
F
F
P
T
Separation control:
1. Vane adjustment
F
=
Feed
2. Speed control
P
=
Product
T
=
Tailings
T F
F T
10
VRM - Separator Fotos Angle affects product sizing Rotor speed affects product fineness Rotor seal
VRM - Separator Fotos
Angle affects
product sizing
Rotor speed affects
product fineness
Rotor seal affects
separator efficiency
11
VRM - External Circulation fresh feed bucket elevator louvre ring scraper Used for reducing gas
VRM - External Circulation
fresh feed
bucket elevator
louvre ring
scraper
Used for reducing
gas flow pressure
lost over the mill
(less pneumatic
internal circulation)
collecting conveyor
12
VRM - Example flowsheet Control points 1 gas flow 2 pressure difference 3 return gas
VRM - Example flowsheet
Control points
1 gas flow
2 pressure
difference
3 return gas flow
pressure
4 outlet
temperature
5 external
recirculation
13
VRM - Accessories Rotary valve Pendulum valve Reduces false air entering with feed material. Good
VRM - Accessories
Rotary valve
Pendulum valve
Reduces false
air entering with
feed material.
Good for dry,
small size
material.
Reduces false
air entering.
Better for
lumpy or
humid feed
material.
Weigh belt
Metal extraction
Weighs the passing material
ensuring a continuous grinding
bed in the mill
Metal objects
damage the
roller & table.
The magnet
removes them
14

Grinding with Vertical Roller Mill Systems Detail

15

 
 

Details

1. Main Parts

2. Processes

3. Feed and feed system

4. Drying

5. Grinding

6. Mill ventilation and transport

7. Separating

8. Mill operation and control

9. Product quality

16

 
1. Main parts of a vertical roller mill Feed Mill body separator Motor & reducer
1. Main parts of a vertical roller mill
Feed
Mill body
separator
Motor & reducer
Table and rollers
Hydraulic system
Nozzle and retention ring
17
Vertical roller mill: frame type Polysius: Doroll Gbr. Pfeiffer: MPS 18
Vertical roller mill: frame type
Polysius: Doroll
Gbr. Pfeiffer: MPS
18
Vertical roller mill: rocker arm type Loesche: LM Kobelco: OK 19
Vertical roller mill: rocker arm type
Loesche: LM
Kobelco: OK
19
2.Processes Inside a Vertical Roller Mill Grinding The material is trapped between the rollers and
2.Processes Inside a Vertical Roller Mill
Grinding
The material is trapped
between the rollers and the
table
Drying
When the hot gas trap the
material leaving the table
Transport
From the table to the
separator through the gas
Separating
The fine product from the
coarse one and sending the
last one back to the table
20
2.1.Grinding: material distribution on the table 21
2.1.Grinding: material distribution on the table
21
2.2.Drying 95 85 Hot gas 150 75 T [°C] 350 25 Material 22
2.2.Drying
95
85
Hot gas
150
75
T [°C]
350
25
Material
22
2.3. Transport Pneumatic transport to the separator of the material leaving the table Mechanical transport
2.3.
Transport
Pneumatic transport to
the separator of the
material leaving the
table
Mechanical transport
of the material falling
down through the
nozzle ring
23
2.4. Separating 24
2.4.
Separating
24
3. Feed and Feed System 25
3. Feed and Feed System
25
Feed materials Limited maximum feed size d < 5 – 8 [%] DR d [%]
Feed materials
Limited maximum feed size
d < 5 – 8 [%] DR
d
[%]
Moisture & stickiness
Particle size distribution
Avoid too many fine particles
Particle size [mm]
26
D
R
Feed system arrangement Foreign bodies protection Magnet Metal detector Good handling Short reaction time -
Feed system arrangement
Foreign bodies protection
Magnet
Metal detector
Good handling
Short reaction time
- < 90 [s] oscillating
around set point
- < 10 [s] interruption
Variable speed belts
Rejects & recirculation bin to bucket elevator / scrap bin
27
Feed air lock Rotary feed [%] H2O < 8 Not sticky materials Triple gate [%]
Feed air lock
Rotary feed
[%] H2O < 8
Not sticky materials
Triple gate
[%] H2O > 8
Very sticky materials
Good sealing to avoid false air
Triple gate
28
Feed chute Feed Heating for sticky materials Feed Hot gas Hot gas Mill hot gas
Feed chute
Feed
Heating for sticky materials
Feed
Hot gas
Hot gas
Mill hot gas
29
Feed chute Sufficient inclination > 45 [°] Feed to centre of the table Avoid excessive
Feed chute
Sufficient inclination
> 45 [°]
Feed to centre of the table
Avoid excessive drop heights
30
4. Drying 31
4. Drying
31
4.1. Drying in a vertical roller mill Material, vapour, cold gas, hot air Material &
4.1. Drying in a vertical roller mill
Material,
vapour, cold
gas, hot air
Material &
> 90 - 95 [°C]
moisture
Cold air
Mill motor
power
Hot gas
32
4.2.Where does most of drying happen? Material leaving the Evaporation table Hot gas 33
4.2.Where does most of drying happen?
Material
leaving the
Evaporation
table
Hot gas
33
4.3. Hot Gas Sources - Example Kiln gas 1.5 [Nm3/kg clinker] < 350 [°C] 6
4.3. Hot Gas Sources - Example
Kiln gas
1.5 [Nm3/kg clinker]
< 350 [°C]
6 – 7
[%] H2O
Cooler gas
0.4 [Nm3/kg clinker]
~ 300 [°C]
1 – 1.5 [%] H2O
additional
Hot gas generator
- < 450 [°C] at mill inlet
- Up to 20 [%] H2O
34
4.4.Required hot gas rate and mill feed moisture example Fresh feed moisture Kiln gas at
4.4.Required hot gas rate and mill feed moisture example
Fresh feed moisture
Kiln gas at 350 [°C]
8.5
320 [t/h] dry raw meal
8.0
7.5
1’600 [l/h] mill water injection
163’000 [Nm3/h]
7.0
6.5
90 [°C] at mill outlet
6.0
125’000 [Nm3/h]
5.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
Mai-98
Jun-98
Jul-98
Aug-98 Sep-98
Okt-98
Nov-98 Dez-98 Jan-99
Feb-99
Mrz-99
Apr-99
Mai-99
Jun-99
Jul-99
Aug-99
Date
35
[%] H2O fresh feed
4.5.Mill system false air entries Cost of false air: Reduction in mill production Reduction in
4.5.Mill system false air entries
Cost of false air:
Reduction in mill production
Reduction in kiln production
Mill < 15 [%]
Mill system < 20 [%]
36
4.6.Mill false air entries feed air seal Compensator all sealings of casing openings doors +
4.6.Mill false air entries
feed
air seal
Compensator
all sealings
of casing
openings
doors +
covers
Compensator
Compensator
External reject
37
5.Grinding 38
5.Grinding
38
5.1.On what depends the grinding efficiency? Roller specific operating pressure Roller & table wear profile
5.1.On what depends the grinding efficiency?
Roller specific
operating pressure
Roller & table
wear profile
Nozzle ring
Armour ring
Material on the table:
1. Quantity
2. Distribution
Table speed
Dam ring height
3. Fineness
39
5.2.Material quantity on the table Too much material Too little material Roller tries to jump
5.2.Material quantity on the table
Too much material
Too little material
Roller tries to jump over
Material escapes
Thicker material bed
Finer material bed
40
5.3.Material distribution on the table 41
5.3.Material distribution on the table
41
5.4.Rollers specific operating pressure (k) Production [t/h] Es [kWh/t] optimum k tends to increase with
5.4.Rollers specific operating pressure (k)
Production [t/h]
Es [kWh/t]
optimum k tends to increase
with the material hardness
[kN/m2]
Raw meal & coal
450 – 1100
Pet cokes
~ 850
OPC
< 2000
Slag
< 2000
42
5.5.Roller and table wear profile Worn New Grinding bed thickness increases with wear 43
5.5.Roller and table wear profile
Worn
New
Grinding bed thickness
increases with wear
43
Dam ring roller Controls material flow leaving the grinding zone dam ring Controls material bed
Dam ring
roller
Controls material
flow leaving the
grinding zone
dam ring
Controls material
bed thickness
44
Nozzle and armour ring Airspeed through nozzle ring controls the amount of material in the
Nozzle and armour ring
Airspeed through
nozzle ring controls
the amount of
material in the
external
recirculation
Armour ring
inclination controls
the amount of
material sent back
to the table
45
Water injection onto the table Water injection reduces the Excess of water injection might drying
Water injection onto the table
Water injection
reduces the
Excess of water
injection might
drying capacity
increase power
consumption
Water injection
slows the material
on the table and
increases the mill
stability
Water injection
onto the table and
before the rollers
46
6.Material internal transport 47
6.Material internal transport
47
21 22 20 23 19 24 18 25 17 62 16 72 15 82 14
21
22
20
23
19
24
18
25
17
62
16
72
15
82
14
Nozzle ring
92
The nozzle ring
evens the air
distribution all
around the table
13
03
12
13
11
23
The airspeed
through the nozzle
ring can be
modified by
selective
opening/closing the
free surface
10
48
33
09
43
08
53
07
63
06
73
05
83
04
93
03
04
02
14
10
24
84
34
74
44
64
54
Air amount in the mill for grinding and transport 6 Gas/air at mill outlet to
Air amount in the mill for grinding and transport
6
Gas/air at mill outlet to ensure the grinding
and the transport inside is material dependant:
5
4
Es
[m3/kg]
Raw meal
< 5.5 [kWh/t]
1.6
3
Coal (1)
>
5.5 [kWh/t]
0.15 x Es + 0.75
2
Pozzolana
1
OPC
--
3.2
Slag
MIC
--
Mix dependent (2)
cement
v
v
real
vertical
(1) Also for other traditional solid fuels
(2) Weighted average according to cement mix
49
Airspeed profile inside the mill
6
5
4
Always increasing speeds
3
2
1
[m/s]
[m/s]
1
2
4
Raw meal
> 30
> 6.5
~ 7.5
Coal (1)
> 30
> 5.0
~ 7.0
v
v
real
vertical
OPC
> 25
> 5.0
~ 7.0
Slag
> 25
> 5.0
~ 7.0
50

Material falling through the nozzle ring

Amount controlled by:

the gas flow passing through the nozzle ring Start & stop sequence Feed size

80 60 40 20 Polysius 20 40 60 80 dp- Mill (mbar)
80
60
40
20
Polysius
20
40
60
80
dp- Mill (mbar)

v- Nozzle ring (m/s)

If no external material recirculation:

Handling of rejects required Dust generation False air inlet Higher fan consumption

51

7.Separating 52
7.Separating
52
Steps in the separating process The material that reached and was rejected by the separator
Steps in the separating process
The material that
reached and was
rejected by the
separator
The material lifted
by the air and
falling back to the
table
53
Material that reaches the separator Rotor Dynamic seal Guide vanes Grits cone 54
Material that reaches the separator
Rotor
Dynamic seal
Guide vanes
Grits cone
54

On what depends the separating efficiency?

Separator type

Design and position of the guide vanes

Design of the rotor blades

Air and material distribution on the rotor height and circumference

Dynamic seal state

Amount of separating air

55

Separator type 105 - 110 [%] 100 [%] 115 – 125 [%] 56
Separator type
105 - 110 [%]
100 [%]
115 – 125 [%]
56
Air and material distribution Vrad Mill casing design to get even air distribution on rotor
Air and material distribution
Vrad
Mill casing design
to get even air
distribution on
rotor height
Avoids air bypassing
Evens separator returns
distribution on the table
57
21 22 20 23 19 24 18 25 17 62 16 72 15 82 14
21
22
20
23
19
24
18
25
17
62
16
72
15
82
14
Air and material distribution
92
13
03
13
Selective
closing of the
nozzle ring
opening can
help even
material
distribution on
the rotor
circumference
12
11
23
10
58
33
09
43
08
53
07
63
06
73
05
83
04
93
03
04
02
14
10
24
84
34
74
44
64
54
Dynamic seal A dynamic seal in bad state or with gaps allows finish product contamination
Dynamic seal
A dynamic seal in bad state or with
gaps allows finish product
contamination with coarse material
59
8.Mill control targets
Ensure stable operating conditions for each of the
process in a VRM to reach:
Good quality
Constant quality
Optimal process efficiency
Maximize mill production
60
Drying process Tmo = Constant & > 90 [°C] Direct operation duct damper (raw meal
Drying process
Tmo = Constant & > 90 [°C]
Direct operation duct damper (raw meal grinding)
Hot gas generator fuel consumption (slag, MIC cement and pozzolana
grinding)
Cooling tower water injection rate (raw meal grinding)
Fresh air damper
61
Grinding process Mill load Mill motor absorbed power kept constant through fresh feed (preferred) Mill
Grinding process
Mill load
Mill motor absorbed power kept constant through fresh feed
(preferred)
Mill differential pressure kept constant through fresh feed
Water injection used to keep material bed on the table stable
62
Material transport and separation processes Airflow rate = Constant Pressure at mill inlet constant through
Material transport and separation processes
Airflow rate = Constant
Pressure at mill inlet constant through recirculation damper opening
Pressure at mill outlet constant through fan operation (fix speed fan
damper opening, variable speed fan: fan speed)
63
9.Product quality 64
9.Product quality
64
Dosing of raw meal components Accurate dosing is a must achieving good meal chemical composition
Dosing of raw meal components
Accurate dosing is a must achieving good meal
chemical composition
Feed system
Retention time in the mill very short (few minutes)
65
Sampling
Sampler position
Sampler relative position with
material flow
Dedusting of sampling point
Sample extraction sequence
66
Raw meal typical particle size distribution (PSD) [%]R200 [um] < 0.5 – 1.0 Good (modern)
Raw meal typical particle size distribution (PSD)
[%]R200 [um] < 0.5 – 1.0
Good
(modern)
separator
Bad (old)
separator
10 < [%]R90 [um] < 20
67
Cement Manufacturing Course
Product PSD and mill operation Narrower PSD: Lower roller pressures Lower dam ring height Higher
Product PSD and mill operation
Narrower PSD:
Lower roller pressures
Lower dam ring height
Higher air rate
Lower specific energy
consumption
Higher throughput
Wider PSD:
Higher roller pressures
Higher dam ring height
Lower air rate
Grinding process
Higher specific energy
consumption
Lower throughput
68
Product PSD and separator operation (type) Good separation (raw meal & coal) Good (modern) [%]
Product PSD and separator operation (type)
Good separation (raw meal &
coal)
Good
(modern)
[%] R 200 [um]
separator
0.02
<
< 0.05
[%] R 90 [um]
Bad (old)
separator
Improvable separation (raw meal
& coal)
Separating process
[%] R 200 [um]
0.05
<
[%] R 90 [um]
69
Example of System flow sheet / Design data 2’600 [kW] 500 [kW] 670’000 [m3/h] 600’000
Example of System flow sheet / Design data
2’600 [kW]
500
[kW]
670’000 [m3/h]
600’000 [m3/h]
112 [mbar]
20 [mbar]
350 [t/h] dry
95 [°C]
120
[°C]
7 [%]H2O
0 – 120 [mm]
175 [kW]
Mill: 20 [%] false air
4
System : 30 [%] false air
15 [%]R90[um]
2’700 [kW]
90
[°C]
120 [bar]
0.5 [%] H2O
6’500 [l/h] water
70
Example of System flow sheet / Operating data 7’920 [h/a] operation 2’480 [kW] 670’000 [m3/h]
Example of System flow sheet / Operating data
7’920 [h/a] operation
2’480 [kW]
670’000 [m3/h]
480
[kW]
Quality target: 15 [%]R90 [um]
115 [mbar]
16 [mbar]
305 [t/h] dry
75 [°C]
95 [%]
145
[°C]
5 [%]H2O
0 – 40 [mm]
175 [kW]
85 [%]
Mill: 45 [%] false air
4
System : 60 [%] false air
2’590 [kW]
60 [bar]
17 [%]R90[um]
350 [°C]
6’500 [l/h] water
75 [°C]
High mill vibrations
1.2 [%] H2O
71
Example of Product Quality Target quality: 15.0 [%] on 90 [um] 0.5 [%] on 200
Example of Product Quality
Target quality:
15.0 [%] on 90 [um]
0.5 [%] on 200 [um]
Achieved
product PSD
72
Example of Operational Data 73
Example of Operational Data
73

Thank You for Your Attention