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4 basic steps of Inquiry (CDTA)

a. Collect the facts ( observation/measurement )
- The process begins with observation
b. Develop hypothesis ( one or more )
- Construction of a tentative (untested) explanation for something observed
- Value of multiple working
c. Test hypothesis
- Evaluate explanatory power
- Certainty in science and the nature of science proof
- Science has been described as the orderly accumulation of rejected hypotheses
d. Accept/modify/reject
2. Rock Cycle

The rock cycle is a concept used to explain how the three basic rock types are related and
how Earth processes, over geologic time, change a rock from one type into another. Plate
tectonic activity, along with weathering and erosional processes, are responsible for the
continued recycling of rocks. The existing rocks may change through natural processes
over geologic time, or event melt to form new rocks.

Rocks are classified into three basic types based on how they are formed.
Igneous - A rock formed by the cooling and crystallization of magma (molten rock) at or
below the Earth's surface.
Sedimentary - A rock formed as a result of the weathering process, either by compaction
and cementation of rock mineral fragments, or the precipitation of dissolved minerals.
Metamorphic - These rocks form as existing rocks are subjected to intense heat and/or
pressure, usually over long periods of time.
3. Biosphere Cycle
4. Atmosphere and Hydrosphere Cycle

5. 7 Tectonic Plate (PENIS AA)

Pacific Plate
Eurasian Plate
North American Plate
Indo-Australia Plate
South American Plate

Antarctic Plate
African Plate

6. Explain the three boundaries

Convergent boundary: Where two plates are colliding.
Subduction zones occur when one or both of the tectonic plates are composed of oceanic
crust. The denser plate is subducted underneath the less dense plate. The plate being
forced under is eventually melted and destroyed.
i. Where oceanic crust meets ocean crust Island arcs and oceanic trenches occur when
both of the plates are made of oceanic crust. Zones of active seafloor spreading
can also occur behind the island arc, known as back-arc basins. These are often
associated with submarine volcanoes.
ii. Where oceanic crust meets continental crust The denser oceanic plate is subducted,
often forming a mountain range on the continent. The Andes is an example of this
type of collision.
iii. Where continental crust meets continental crust Both continental crusts are too light
to subduct so a continent-continent collision occurs, creating especially large
mountain ranges. The most spectacular example of this is the Himalayas.

Transform boundary: Where plates slide passed each other. The relative motion of the plates
is horizontal. They can occur underwater or on land, and crust is neither destroyed nor created.
Because of friction, the plates cannot simply glide past each other. Rather, stress builds up in
both plates and when it exceeds the threshold of the rocks, the energy is released – causing

Divergent boundary: Where two plates are moving apart. The space created can also fill with
new crustal material sourced from molten magma that forms below. Divergent boundaries
can form within continents but will eventually open up and become ocean basins.
i. On land Divergent boundaries within continents initially produce rifts, which
produce rift valleys.
ii. Under the sea The most active divergent plate boundaries are between oceanic
plates and are often called mid-oceanic ridges.

7. 7 continents and 5 oceans

7 continents (AASANEA)
South America
North America

5 oceans (AAIPA)
Arctic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Antarctic Ocean