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The IV International Congress of Nanoscience and

Nanotechnology (ICNN’2019)

19 – 22 November 2019 Quito – Ecuador

Lead Guest Editor: Rachid Seqqat, Ph.D.


Guest Editors: Luis Cumbal, Ph.D. & Alexis Debut, Ph.D.
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Editorial Board
Guigen Zhan, USA Brajesh Kumar, India
Noel Elman, USA Luis Cumbal, Ecuador
Alexis Debut, Ecuador Sandeep Kumar, USA
Marcelo Grijalva, Ecuador Javier Carvajal, Ecuador
Fernanda Pilaquinga, Ecuador Amar Dahoumane, Ecuador
Eliza Jara, Ecuador Daniel Whitehead, USA
Ming Ni, Ecuador Yolanda Angulo, Ecuador
Frank Alexis, Ecuador Andrés Izquierdo, Ecuador
Ernesto Medina, Ecuador Marbel Torres, Ecuador
Paola Ayala, Austria Rachid Seqqat, Ecuador
Teresa Andreu, Spain Carlos Arroyo, Ecuador
Joan Morante, Spain Arup SenGupta, USA
Valtencir Zucolotto, Brasil Lorena Meneses, Ecuador













PROGRAM OF
THE IV INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF
NANOSCIENCE
& NANOTECHNOLOGY (ICNN’2019)



The IV International Congress of Nanoscience &


Nanotechnology (ICNN’2019)



PROGRAM OF
THE IV INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF
NANOSCIENCE
& NANOTECHNOLOGY (ICNN’2019)


Lead Guest Editor: Rachid Seqqat, Ph.D.
Guest Editor: Luis Cumbal, Ph.D. & Alexis Debut, Ph.D.

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT)
Av. General Rumiñahui s/n y Paseo Escénico Santa Clara.
PO BOX 171-5-231B. Sangolquí, Ecuador.
+593-23989400 Ext: 2561
rseqqat@espe.edu.ec



The IV International Congress of Nanoscience &
Nanotechnology (ICNN’2019)


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PARTICIPANTS INDEX ............................................................................................................................................ 7
EDITORIAL ............................................................................................................................................................... 10
SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM .......................................................................................................................................... 12
POSTER SESSION .................................................................................................................................................... 17

KEYNOTE LECTURE ........................................................................................................................................... 26


Arup K. SenGupta .......................................................................................................................................... 26
Brajesh Kumar ............................................................................................................................................... 27
Daniel C. Whitehead ....................................................................................................................................... 28
Eduardo Cassel ............................................................................................................................................... 29
Guigen Zhang ................................................................................................................................................. 30
Jean-Luc Brousseau ........................................................................................................................................ 31
Joan Ramon Morante ...................................................................................................................................... 32
Joan Ramon Morante ..................................................................................................................................... 33
Leopoldo Enriquez Moreno ............................................................................................................................ 34
Paola Ayala ..................................................................................................................................................... 35
Rafael Villaurrutia .......................................................................................................................................... 36
Teresa Andreu ................................................................................................................................................. 37
Valtencir Zucolotto ......................................................................................................................................... 38

NATIONAL INVITED SPEAKER ....................................................................................................................... 39


Cristian Santacruz ........................................................................................................................................... 39
David Terán .................................................................................................................................................... 40
Diana Coello Fiallos ....................................................................................................................................... 41
Javier Santamaría Aguirre .............................................................................................................................. 42
María J. Benítez .............................................................................................................................................. 43
Miguel Ángel Méndez .................................................................................................................................... 44
Patricia I. Pontón ............................................................................................................................................ 45
Thomas Cadenbach ......................................................................................................................................... 46
Víctor H. Guerrero .......................................................................................................................................... 47

ACCEPTED SPEAKER ......................................................................................................................................... 48


Carlos Hernández Uribe ................................................................................................................................. 48
David Carchi .................................................................................................................................................. 49
David Lajones ................................................................................................................................................. 50
Diogo Videira Quintela................................................................................................................................... 51
Erika Llumiquinga .......................................................................................................................................... 52
Fernanda Pilaquinga ...................................................................................................................................... 53
Fernando Pantoja Suárez ................................................................................................................................... 54
Francisco Eliseo Jaramillo Torres .................................................................................................................. 55
Henrry M. Osorio............................................................................................................................................ 56
Isaac Bravo ..................................................................................................................................................... 57
Isamar Sarabia ................................................................................................................................................ 58
Jamal Alduaij .................................................................................................................................................. 59


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Jorge Ontaneda ............................................................................................................................................... 60
Joselyn Benalcázar Jaramillo .......................................................................................................................... 61
Leonardo Basile .............................................................................................................................................. 62
Lorena Meneses .............................................................................................................................................. 63
Luis Borrero González .................................................................................................................................... 64
Ana Gabriela Noboa Aguirre ......................................................................................................................... 65
Moisés Bustamante Torres ............................................................................................................................. 66
Natalia Villarroel ........................................................................................................................................... 67
Pedro Silva ...................................................................................................................................................... 68
Reinaldo Atencio ............................................................................................................................................ 69
Sebastián Ponce ............................................................................................................................................. 70
Theofilos Toulkeridis...................................................................................................................................... 71

POSTER PRESENTATION .................................................................................................................................. 72


2-25: Alanis Chicaiza Zambrano, Nelson Santiago Vispo, Camilo Zamora Ledezma, Frank Alexis. ....... 72
1-08: Alejandra Muñoz, Michelle Simaluisa, Sofia Taday, Alexis Debut, Karla Caiza,
Marbel Torres Arias ............................................................................................................................ 73
5-46: Alex Palma Cando, Ibeth Rendón-Enríquez, Ullrich Scherf, Michael Tausch ................................... 74
1-06: Alexandra Robalino & Fernanda Pilaquinga ..................................................................................... 75
4-40: Alison Torres, Steve Morales, Jonathan Escorza, Alexis Debut, Yolanda Angulo ........................... 76
2-32: Andrés Hidalgo & Mayra Peralta ........................................................................................................ 77
3-37: Angélica Navarrete, Marcos Hidalgo, Pablo Cisneros, Poojesh Bertram, Miguel Herrera,
Jan Spengler ........................................................................................................................................ 78
2-21: Camila Gallegos, Vanessa Gaona, Karla Vizuete, Katherine Pazmiño, Brajesh Kumar,
Frank Alexis, Alexis Debut................................................................................................................. 79
4-44: Carlie Barboza, Kevin Moreno, David Carchi, Alexis Debut, Yolanda Angulo ............................... 80
1-07: Carlos Aguirre, Yolanda Angulo, Marbel Torres Arias ...................................................................... 81
1-03: Carolina Panchana, Gissela Tibán, Marbel Torres Arias, Karla Vizuete, Rachid Seqqat,
Alexis Debut ...................................................................................................................................... 82
4-43: Cinthya Daniela Armijo, Lupe Mendoza, Alexis Debut, Si Amar Dahoumane ................................ 83
1-10: Cristina Cajas, David Flores, Alexandra Paredes, Karla Caiza, Ariana Drouet, Alexis Debut,
Marbel Torres Arias ............................................................................................................................ 84
3-38: Daniela Vera, Luis Cumbal, Alexis Debut, Karla Vizuete .................................................................. 85
1-09: David Bolaños, Blanca Naranjo, Alexis Debut, Yolanda Angulo ....................................................... 86
1-12: David Carchi, David Cárdenas, Jonathan Escorza, Ariana Drouet, Alex Gavilanes,
Marbel Torres Arias ........................................................................................................................... 87
1-01: David Cárdenas, Ligia Ayala, Marbel Torres Arias .......................................................................... 88
3-35: David Chávez, Alexis Debut, Blanca Naranjo, Yolanda Angulo ........................................................ 89
3-34: Dayanna Vera Cedeño, Darío Viloria Vera, Marvin Ricaurte Fernández, Jorge Toro Álava,
Alex Palma-Cando ............................................................................................................................. 90
5-45: Doménica Bermeo, Alicja Mikolajczyk, Yadira Ordonez, Mireia Casasampere, Henry P. Pinto ..... 91
1-11: Eskarle Albuja, Jhosep Castillo, Mike Dávila, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias, Karla Caiza ..... 92
1-16: Fernanda Toscano, Nathaly Flores, Michelle Apunte, Karla Vizuete, Theofilos Toulkeridis,
Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias, Rachid Seqqat ........................................................................... 93
2-27: Franklin Guaján Cachipuendo, Robert Alcocer Vallejo, Luis Castillo Cabay, Ana Poveda
Gabaldón, Javier Santamaria-Aguirre ................................................................................................ 94
2-33: Gabriela Borja, Yadira Guasumba, Karla Caiza, María José Acuña, Alexis Debut, Marbel
Torres Arias ........................................................................................................................................ 95
3-36: Johanna Gómez Gómez, Darío Viloria Vera, Alex Palma Cando ...................................................... 96

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4-39: Jonathan Escorza, Blanca Naranjo, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias, Yolanda Angulo ............... 97
5-48: José Andino, Solmar Varela, Ernesto Medina ..................................................................................... 98
2-29: José Andrés Arcos, Esteban Lasso, Kevin Rovalino, Sarah Briceño, Alexis Debut,
Julio Chacón-Torres ............................................................................................................................ 99
1-14: Joselyn Castro, Victor Criollo, Nicole Jarrín, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias ....................... 100
5-47: Juan D. Torres & Denis Chevallier .................................................................................................. 101
1-13: Juan Diego Valenzuela Cobos, René Oscar Rodríguez-Grimón, Ana Grijalva-Endara, Cristian
Vargas-Farías ................................................................................................................................... 102
4-41: Karla Caiza, Ariana Drouet, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias ..................................................... 103
2-20: Katherine Pazmiño, Alexis Debut, Karla Vizuete, Fernanda Pilaquinga ......................................... 104
4-42: Katherine Viera, Brayan Socasi, Jonathan Escorza, Alexis Debut, Yolanda Angulo ...................... 105
1-04: Lizeth Salazar & Marcelo Grijalva ................................................................................................... 106
2-28: María Fernanda Arias Erazo, María Fernanda Pazmiño Flores, Karla Vizuete, Katherine
Pazmiño, Brajesh Kumar, Frank Alexis, Alexis Debut .................................................................... 107
1-15: Marlon Gancino Guevara, Seidy Pedroso-Santana, Noralvis Fleitas-Salazar, Emilio Lamazares
Arcia, Carolina Gómez Gaete, Nelson Santiago Vispo, Jorge R. Toledo Alonso ........................... 108
2-26: Mayra Peralta, Ernesto Medina, Francisco Mireles .......................................................................... 109
2-24: Mercedes Díaz Lagos, Lidia Martínez, Yves Huttel ......................................................................... 110
1-05: Pamela Mosquera, Gabriela Morales, Eliana Lara, Ana Poveda Gabaldón, Javier Santamaría
Aguirre ............................................................................................................................................. 111
2-18: Raul Hidalgo, Juan D. Torres, Ernesto Medina ................................................................................ 112
2-30: Ronny De La Bastida, Andres Hidalgo, Alexandra Vera, Johana Pilicita,
Leonardo Basile ............................................................................................................................... 113
2-19: Sarah Briceño, Alejandra Sánchez Polo, Alex Jamett, Salomé Galeas, Orlando Campaña,
Víctor H. Guerrero, Carlos R. Arroyo, Alexis Debut, Duncan J. Mowbray, Camilo Zamora
Ledezma, Jorge Serrano ................................................................................................................... 114
2-22: Silvana Elizabeth Romo, Andrea Patricia Viteri, Karla Vizuete, Katherine Pazmiño, Brajesh
Kumar, Frank Alexis, Alexis Debut ................................................................................................ 115
2-23: Sophia Araujo, Josué Villota, Vladimir Aguirre, Vicente Delgado, Petronio Gavilanes ................. 116
1-02: Tannya Sandoval, Camila Armas, M. Fernanda Arias, Karla Caiza, Ariana Drouet,
Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias ................................................................................................... 117
2-31: Victor Posligua, Joana Bustamante, Cesar H. Zambrano, Peter J. F. Harris,
Ricardo Grau Crespo ........................................................................................................................ 118
5-49: Jimmy Narváez, Ronny de la Bastida, Cristian Santacruz, Leonardo Basile, Henrry M. Osorio…..119
5-50: Jorge Cardenas, Solmar Varela, García José…………………………………………………….....120
1-17: Fernanda Pilaquinga………………………… ………………………………………………….....121

PARTICIPANTS INDEX

Aa Dd
Alanis Chicaiza Zambrano p.72 Daniel C. Whitehead p.28,57
Alejandra Sánchez Polo p.114 Daniela Vera p.85
Alex Gavilanes p.49,87 Darío Viloria Vera p.90,96
Alex Jamett p.114 David Bolaños p.86
Alex Palma Cando p.74,90,96 David Carchi p.49,80,87
Alejandra Muñoz p.73 David Cárdenas p.49,87,88
Alexandra Paredes p.84 David Chávez p.89
Alexandra Robalino p.75 David Flores p.84
Alexandra Vera p.113 David Lajones p.50
Alexis Debut David Terán p.40
p.10,40,43,46,47,49,57,67,72,73,76, Dayanna Vera Cedeño p.90
79,80,82,83,84,85,86,89,92,93,95,97,99,103, Denis Chevallie p.101
104,105,107,114,115,117 Diana Coello Fiallos p.41
Alicja Mikolajczyk p.91 Diogo Videira Quintela p.51
Alison Torres p.76 Doménica Bermeo p.91
Ana Grijalva Endara p.102 Duncan J. Mowbray p.114
Ana Poveda Gabaldón p.42,94,111 Ee
Andrea Patricia Viteri p.115 Eduardo Cassel p.29
Andres Hidalgo p.113 Eliana Lara p.42,111
Angélica Navarrete p.78 Emilio Lamazares Arcia p.108
Ariana Drouet p.49,84,87,103,117 Erika Llumiquinga p.52
Arup K. SenGupta p.26 Ernesto Medina p.98,109,112
Bb Eskarle Albuja p.92
Blanca Naranjo p.67,86,89,97 Esteban Lasso p.61,99
Brajesh Kumar p.27,79,107,115 Ff
Brayan Socasi p.105 Fernanda Pilaquinga p.53,63,75,104,121
Cc Fernanda Toscano p.93
Camila Armas p.117 Fernando Pantoja Suárez p.54
Camila Gallegos p.79 Francisco Eliseo Jaramillo Torres p.55
Camilo Zamora Ledezma p.72,114 Francisco Mireles p.109
Carlie Barboza p.80 Frank Alexis p.57,72,79,107,115
Carlos Aguirre p.49,81 Franklin Guaján Cachipuendo p.94
Carlos Hernández Uribe p.48 Gg
Carlos R. Arroyo p.71,114 Gabriela Borja p.95
Carolina Gómez Gaete p.108 Gabriela Morales p.42,110
Carolina Panchana p.82 García José p.120
Cesar H. Zambrano p.118 Gissela Tibán p.82
Cinthya Daniela Armijo p.83 Guigen Zhang p.30
Cristian Santacruz p.39,58,62,119 Hh
Cristian Vargas Farías p.102 Henrry M. Osorio p.56,119
Cristina Cajas p.84 Henry P. Pinto p.90

Ii Lupe Mendoza p.83


Ibeth Rendón Enríquez p.74 Mm
Isaac Bravo p.57 Marbel Torres Arias p.49,73,81,82,84,87,88,92,93,
Isamar Sarabia p.58 95,97,100,103,117
Jj Marcelo Grijalva p.106
Jamal Alduaij p.59 Marcos Hidalgo p.78
Jan Spengler p.78 María Fernanda Arias Erazo p.107,117
Javier Santamaria Aguirre p.94 María Fernanda Pazmiño Flores p.107
Jean-Luc Brousseau p.31 María J. Benítez p.43,46
Jhosep Castillo p.92 María José Acuña p.95
Jimmy Narváez p.119 Marlon Gancino Guevara p.108
Joan Ramon Morante p.32,33 Marvin Ricaurte Fernández p.90
Joana Bustamante p.118 Mayra Peralta p.77,109
Johana Pilicita p.113 Mercedes Díaz Lagos p.110
Johanna Gómez Gómez p.95 Michael Tausch p.74
Jonathan Escorza p.49,76,87,97,105 Michelle Apunte p.93
Jorge Cardenas p.120 Michelle Simaluisa p.73
Jorge Ontaneda p.60 Miguel Angel Méndez p.44
Jorge R. Toledo Alonso p.108 Miguel Herrera p.78
Jorge Serrano p.114 Mike Dávila p.92
Jorge Toro Álava p.90 Mireia Casasampere p.91
José Andino p.98 Moisés Bustamante Torres p.66
José Andrés Arcos p.61,99 Nn
Joselyn Benalcázar Jaramillo p.61 Natalia Villarroel p.67
Joselyn Castro p.100 Nathaly Flores p.93
Josué Villota p.116 Nelson Santiago Vispo p.72,108
Juan D. Torres p.101,112 Nicole Jarrín p.100
Juan Diego Valenzuela Cobos p.102 Noralvis Fleitas Salazar p.108
Julio Chacón Torres p.61,99 Oo
Kk Orlando Campaña p.114
Karla Caiza p.73,84,92,95,103,117 Pp
Karla Vizuete p.79,82,85,93,104,107,115 Pablo Cisneros p.78
Katherine Pazmiño p.79,104,107,115 Pamela Mosquera p.42,111
Katherine Viera p.105 Paola Ayala p.35
Katy Hubbman p.61 Patricia I. Pontón p.45,47
Kevin Moreno p.80 Pedro Silva p.68
Kevin Rovalino p.99 Peter J. F. Harris p.118
Ll Petronio Gavilanes p.116
Leonardo Basile p.39,58,62,113,119 Poojesh Bertram p.78
Leopoldo Enriquez Moreno p.34 Rr
Lidia Martínez p.110 Rachid Seqqat p.10,82,93
Ligia Ayala p.88 Rafael Villaurrutia p.36
Lizeth Salazar p.106 Raul Hidalgo p.112
Lorena Meneses p.63 Reinaldo Atencio p.68,69
Luis Borrero González p.64 René Oscar Rodríguez Grimón p.102
Luis Castillo Cabay p.94 Ricardo Grau Crespo p.60,118
Luis Cumbal p.10,49,51,52,65,85 Robert Alcocer Vallejo p.94

Ronny De La Bastida p.62,113,119 Theofilos Toulkeridis p.71,9


Ss Thomas Cadenbach p.43,46
Salomé Galeas p.115 Uu
Sarah Briceño p.61,99,113 Ullrich Scherf p.74
Sebástian Ponce p.70 Vv
Seidy Pedroso Santana p.108 Valtencir Zucolotto p.38
Si Amar Dahoumane p.83 Vanessa Gaona p.79
Silvana Elizabeth Romo p.115 Vicente Delgado p.116
Sofia Taday p.73 Victor Criollo p.100
Solmar Varela p.98,120 Víctor H. Guerrero p.47,114
Sophia Araujo p.116 Victor Posligua p.118
Stephanie Reich p.61 Vladimir Aguirre p.116
Steve Morales p.75 Yy
Svitlana Trotsenko p.61 Yadira Guasumba p.95
Tt Yadira Ordonez p.91
Tannya Sandoval p.117 Yolanda Angulo p.49,67,76,80,81,86,89,97,105
Teresa Andreu p.37 Yves Huttel p.110


10

EDITORIAL

Nanotechnology Application in Medicine, Environment and Engineering

Rachid Seqqat, Luis Cumbal, Alexis Debut

Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la


Agricultura, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Av. Gral. Rumiñahui s/n, P.O. Box 171-5-231B,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Correspondence should be addressed to Rachid Seqqat; rseqqat@espe.edu.ec

The world of nanotechnology offers fields of Nanotechnology offers a completely new technology
application of enormous diversity. This is particularly in drug addressing. Specifically, the combination of a
the case at the medical level. The performance of drug with a nanoparticle (most often a biopolymer
care, the possibilities of reconstruction and drug from synthetic chemistry) allows, thanks to specific
innovations suggest spectacular prospects. The markers, to send the drug to the body that needs it.
application of nanotechnology in the medical field is Another example is the fight against cancer: the use
in the process of revolutionizing the practice of of nanotechnology makes it possible to identify
medical care around the world. The main cause of this tumors more precisely. In this context, the use of
revolution is the size of the tools built, which allows powerful tools, such as transmission electron
to apprehend, to diagnose and also to fight the microscopy (TEM), the atomic force microscope
disease, with new accuracy and efficiency. (AFM), the advent of biochips, biotransistors and
Nanotechnology is involved in multiple fields of molecular electronics, open avenues news for the
medicine like in: research in tissue repair, development of diagnostic tests, and implanted chips
improvement of faculties, are among the tracks intended to modify certain metabolic functions or to
explored with the utmost seriousness and the prospect correct handicaps.
of results is unsuspected. The nanotechnology gives This century has brought to the water industry
researchers extra weapons to fight diseases, and of exciting opportunities associated with
course cancers. Genomic research, bioinformatics nanotechnology. Through control of material size,
and rational drug design assisted by computer help morphology and chemical structure, nanotechnology
create new therapeutic classes. offers novel materials that could provide to water
To date, several types of nanomedicine applications treatment systems with outstanding catalytic,
exist or are envisaged: drugs and active agents, anti- adsorptive, optical, quantum, electrical or
allergenic medical adhesive surfaces, custom-made antimicrobial properties that improve treatment cost-
drugs delivered only to specific organs. But that's not efficiency. Engineered nanomaterials may inspire
all: the applications concern miniaturized diagnostic next generation multifunctional distributed treatment
devices and means, implants with coatings that systems that are relatively small and easy to be
improve biocompatibility and bioactivity. Gene deployed while reducing water contamination, water
therapy also offers a wide range of applications: losses and energy requirements.
nanovectors for gene transfer, microsurgery.
Finally, with regard to restorative medicine, research Engineered nanomaterials could also facilitate the
on nano-implants and prostheses could lead to combination of adsorption, catalytic degradation and
revolutionary applications. disinfection attributes in multifunctional advanced
materials that simultaneously target a wide group of

11

pollutants that require different removal processes materials, magnetic materials and photocatalysts.
due to their different physicochemical properties. One example is the selective adsorption and pre-
Also, engineered nanomaterials can supply to concentration of emerging pollutants on the surface
treatment systems with unique selectivity for of the photocatalysts for more efficient degradation.
removing specific pollutants and help to meet the Besides to oxidizing organic pollutants or
water quality standards. fragmenting them into more biodegradable
Nanotechnology offers new opportunities to improve metabolites, photocatalysts may catalyze the
both basic and advanced water treatment units. For conversion of undesirable forms of oxyanions (for
example, water filtration through sand filters is used example, hexavalent chromium, nitrate, selenate) to
worldwide as a cost-effective approach to remove less toxic forms through photoreduction.
colloids and other suspended solids. Nevertheless, As just mentioned, medicine and the environment are
this process does not remove dissolved toxic metals areas of great impact of nanotechnology for
and metalloids. To overcome this limitation sand is humanity. However, its contribution to other areas
coated with nanoscale magnetite, which enhances the such as electronics or energy is also revolutionizing
adsorption capacity for both arsenate and ad arsenite every day. Nanotechnology continues to have a broad
and facilitates efficient magnetic separation of any and fundamental impact on almost every sector of the
magnetite fines that elute during filtration or global economy. Its global market is expected to
regeneration. Another process that can be enhanced exceed US$125 billion by 2024! So, despite the
by nanotechnology is the photocatalytic oxidation of current human problems on our Earth, let us get down
emerging pollutants, which also accomplishes to work! And continue day by day to work together
disinfection. Current advanced oxidation processes for a future that leaves hope for humanity to
suffer from inefficient use of photocatalytically overcome.
generated reactive oxygen species (ROS: hydroxyl
radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen), which are
rapidly scavenged by non-target water components
Conflicts of Interest
(organic matter). Through electrostatic attraction of
pathogenic microorganisms or sorption of target The editors declare that they have no conflicts of
organic compounds near to photocatalytic sites, interest regarding the publication of this
engineered nano-photocatalysts can enhance proceeding.
treatment selectivity and ROS utilization efficiency.
Selective adsorption of contaminants on
photocatalysts can be achieved by engineering
nanoparticles with high-index crystal facets or using Rachid Seqqat
surface-modification approaches. Luis Cumbal
Nanotechnology also improve membrane separation Alexis Debut
processes for water purification and desalination. One
approach is to embed catalytic materials in the
membrane selective layer to degrade organic foulants
on light irradiation. Nanomaterials can modify the
surface wettability of membranes, altering the surface
energy and allowing new applications as well. For
example coating the surface of hydrophobic
microporous membranes with nanoparticles to form a
nanoscale structure of high air to solid ratio may
generate omniphobic membrane surfaces to resist
wetting of both water and low-surface tension
contaminants. Nanotechnology-based
multifunctional treatments may be accomplished
through combinations of high-capacity absorptive


12

SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM


13

19 November 2019. DAY ONE - Tuesday - Venue: Auditorio Mayor Del Centro Cultural
8:00 - 8:50 Registration Moderator
8:50 - 9:15 Welcoming Remarks
Dr. Fernando Ponce, Rector of PUCE
Dr. Tcrn. Humberto Parra Cárdenas, Rector of Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE
Dr. Hermann Mena, Rector of YACHAY TECH
International Invited Speaker
9:15 - 10:00 Dr. Joan Ramon Morante Nanocatalyst for High Performance EOR
University of Barcelona, Electrodes: Application to Water Splitting and
Barcelona, Spain. CO2 Reduction.
National Invited Speaker
10:05 - 10:35 Dr. María J., Benítez Synthesis of BiFeO3 Nanoparticles with
Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.
Quito, Ecuador.
10:35 - 11:15 Poster Session & Coffee Break Dr. Amar
International Invited Speaker
11:15 - 12:00 Dr. Teresa Andreu Structured Catalysts for Synthetic Natural Gas
Dahoumane
Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Production Through CO⁠2 Methanation.
Barcelona, Spain.
Accepted Speaker
12:00 - 12:20 Dr. Jorge Ontaneda Modelling Enantiomeric Catalysts:
Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Methyl
Loja, Ecuador. Acetoacetate Over Ni Surfaces.
12:20 - 12:40 Dr. Fernando Pantoja-Suárez Hybrid Carbon-Based Materials Supported in 304
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Stainless Steel for Energy Storage Devices.
Quito, Ecuador.
12:40 - 14:00 Poster Session & Lunch
International Invited Speaker
14:00 - 14:45 Dr. Valtencir Zucolotto Advances in Nanomedicine: Cancer
University of Sao Paulo, Hyperthermia Treatment using Theranostic
São Carlos, Brazil. Nanomaterials and Nanotoxicology Studies.
National Invited Speaker
14:45 - 15:15 Dr. Patricia I. Pontón Polymer Composites with Reduced Thermal
Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Expansion by the Incorporation of Titanate
Quito, Ecuador. Nanotube/Y2W3O12 Hybrid Filler.
15:15 - 15:45 Dr. Diana Coello-Fiallos Analysis of Natural Zeolites (Aluminosilicates)
Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Existing in Ecuador as Possible Supplementary
Ambato, Ecuador. Cementitious Material.
Accepted Speaker Dr. Lorena
15:45 - 16:05 Dr. Luis Borrero González Luminescent Nanothermometry in Trivalent Meneses
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Europium Doped Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles.
Quito, Ecuador.
16:05 - 16:45 Poster Session & Coffee Break
International Invited Speaker
16:45 - 17:15 Dr. Rafael Villaurrutia Arenas Recent Technologies In Electron Microscopy for
Field Electron and Ion Nanomaterials Characterization.
Mexico City, Mexico.
Accepted Speaker
17:15 - 17:35 Joselyn Benalcázar Jaramillo Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene
Yachay Tech University, Oxide Decorated with Silver Nanoprisms.
Urcuquí, Ecuador.


14

20 November 2019. DAY TWO - Wednesday - Venue: Auditorio Mayor Del Centro Cultural
Accepted Speaker Moderator
8:30 - 8:50 Erika Llumiquinga Study of Heavy Metals Immobilization from
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Portovelo Sediments by Multicomponent
Sangolquí, Ecuador. Nanoparticles (MCNPs) Application.
8:50 - 9:10 Dr. Pedro Silva Structural Changes in Polyoxometalates
Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral Nanoclusters Evidenced by Electron
Guayaquil, Ecuador. Paramagnetic Resonance.
International Invited Speaker
9:10 - 9:55 Dr. Arup K. SenGupta Developing A Bio-Nano Process to Remove
Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Selenate or Se(VI) from Contaminated Water: A
USA. New Application of HAIX-Nano.
9:55 - 10:40 Dr. Joan Ramon Morante Nanomaterials for Battery Electrodes: Vanadium
University of Barcelona, Redox Flow and Lithium Sulfur Batteries.
Barcelona. Spain.
Dr. Frank
10:40 - 11:20 Poster Session & Coffee Break Alexis
International Invited Speaker
11:20 - 12:05 Dr. Brajesh Kumar Environmentally Benign Biomolecules coated
TATA College, Metallic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Structure, and
Chaibasa, India. Applications in Catalysis, Sensing, and Medicine.
Accepted Speaker
12:05 - 12:25 Ana Gabriela Noboa Aguirre Biosynthesis of MoS2/rGO Nanocomposite and
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Assessment of its Photocatalytic Activity for the
Sangolquí, Ecuador. Removal of Residual Pharmaceuticals.
12:25 - 12:45 Dr. Leonardo Basile Three-Dimensional Graphene Electrodes for
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Water Desalination by Capacitive Deionization.
Quito, Ecuador.
12:45 - 14:00 Poster Session & Lunch
Accepted Speaker
14:00 - 14:25 Dr. Jamal Alduaij Value Analysis as an impact assessment tool
Kuwait University, for sustainable projects Utilizing Sustainability
Kuwait City, Kuwait. Assessments System (SAS)
“Categories & Standards”.
14:25 - 14:45 David Carchi Study of toxicity and death due to nanoparticle
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, exposure at a cellular level.
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
14:45 - 15:05 Moisés Bustamante Torres pH Sensitive Polymer for Potential Biomedical
Yachay Tech University, Application Obtained by Gamma-Ray. Dr. Marcelo
Urcuquí, Ecuador.
National Invited Speaker
Grijalva
15:05 - 15:35 Dr. Miguel Ángel Méndez Detection of Molecules in Blood as if Using
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Antibodies But with DNA Nanobiosensors.
Quito, Ecuador.
15:35 - 16:05 Dr. David Terán Bacterial Cellulose with Nano Particles Used for
Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Fruit Shelf Life Extension.
Ambato, Ecuador.
16:05 - 16:45 Poster Session & Coffee Break
National Invited Speaker
16:45 - 17:15 Dr. Javier Santamaría Aguirre Drug Nanodelivery Systems for Intracellular
Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Infections: Leishmaniasis.
Ecuador.
Accepted Speaker
17:15 - 17:35 Carlos Hernández Uribe Characterization of the Compound
ESM-Instituto Politécnico Nacional. México Hydroxyapatite, Carbon Nanotubes and
City. México. Chlorhexidine Hexametaphosphate for Bone
Regeneration in Oral Cavity.


15

21 November 2019. DAY Three - Thursday - Venue: Auditorio Mayor Del Centro Cultural
National Invited Speaker Moderator
8:30 - 9:00 Dr. Cristian Santacruz Improving the Energy Conversion Efficiency of
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Co-Sensitization
Quito, Ecuador. of Graphene/Natural Dyes.
9:00 - 9:30 Dr. Víctor Guerrero One Step Synthesis of Fe/Ti Oxide
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Nanostructures from Ecuadorian Black Sands.
Quito, Ecuador.
International Invited Speaker
9:30 - 10:15 Dr. Noel Elman Advanced Biomedical Microdevices based on
Gear Jump Technologies, Cambridge, the Integration of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-
Massachusetts. USA. Systems (MEMS) and Nanotechnology.
Accepted Speaker
10:15 - 10:35 Dr. Henrry M. Osorio Molecular Electronic Devices Based on
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Monomolecular Films. MSc. Fernanda
Quito, Ecuador. Pilaquinga
10:35 - 11:15 Poster Session & Coffee Break
Accepted Speaker
11:15 - 11:35 Dr. Lorena Meneses Computational Studies of the Interaction of
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Silver Nanoparticles with Some Biomolecules.
Quito, Ecuador.
11:35 - 11:55 Isaac Bravo Decontamination of VOC Pollutants with
Yachay Tech University, Cellulose from Biodiversity.
Urcuquí, Ecuador.
11:55 - 12:15 Sebastián Ponce Ultra-Fast Kinetic and Stability Studies of
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Silver Nanocolloids Using a Liquid Core
Germany. Waveguide Membrane Microreactor.
12:15 - 14:00 Poster Session & Lunch
International Invited Speaker
14:00 – 14:45 Dr. Paola Ayala Influence of Controlled Functionalization on
University of Vienna the 1D Electronic Properties of Single-Walled
Vienna, Austria. Carbon Nanotubes.
Accepted Speaker
14:45 - 15:05 MSc. Fernanda Pilaquinga Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Aqueous Leaf Extract of Solanum Mammosum:
Quito, Ecuador. Analysis of Polyphenols and their Antioxidant
Activity.
15:05 - 15:25 David Lajones Study of the Porosity of MWCNTs/Clay Dr. Carlos
Yachay Tech University, Nanocomposites Using x-ray Nanotomography. Arroyo
Urcuquí, Ecuador.
15:25 - 16:05 Poster Session & Coffee Break
International Invited Speaker
16:05 - 16:35 Dr. Jean Luc Brousseau Small- and Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering-A
Anton Paar GmbH, Valuable Tool for Analyzing Nanostructured
Ashland, USA. Materials Using a Compact Laboratory System.
16:35 - 17:05 Ing. Leopoldo Enríquez Moreno Technical Advances in Electronic Microscopy.
JEOL de México
Mexico City, Mexico.


16

22 November 2019. DAY Four - Friday - Venue: Auditorio Mayor Del Centro Cultural
Accepted Speaker Moderator
8:30 - 8:50 Dr. Reinaldo Atencio Green Catalytic Oxidation of Cyclohexanol
Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Using Hybrid Nanometric Isopolymolybdates
Científicas (IVIC). [Mo36O112(OH2)16]8- Precursor Agents.
Caracas, Venezuela.
International Invited Speaker
8:50 - 9:35 Dr. Guigen Zhang Direct Molecular Interrogation Facilitated by a
University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, Nanopore Technology.
USA.
9:35 - 10:20 Dr. Daniel C. Whitehead Functional Materials from Renewable Resources
Clemson University, Clemson, for the Remediation of Environmental
South Carolina, USA. Contaminants.
10:20 - 11:00 Poster Session & Coffee Break Dr. Luis Cumbal
Accepted Speaker
11:00 - 11:20 Francisco Eliseo Jaramillo Torres Biosynthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles Using
Yachay Tech University, the Green Microalga Chlamydomonas
Urcuquí, Ecuador. Reinhardtii: Towards an Optimized Process.
11:20 - 11:40 Diogo Videira Quintela Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles Using
University of Alcalá, Guayusa (Ilex Guayusa) Extract for Catalytic
Madrid, Spain. Applications.
11:40 - 12:00 Isamar Sarabia Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetically
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Separable Magnetite-Titanium Dioxide
Quito, Ecuador. Composite for Photodegradation.
12:00 - 12:20 Natalia Villarroel Synthesis and Characterization of Copper
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Nanoparticles from Geranium (P. domesticum)
Sangolquí, Ecuador. for Military Applications.
12:20 - 14:00 Poster Session & Lunch
National Invited Speaker
14:00 - 14:30 Dr. Thomas Cadenbach Design and Application of Low Cost
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Photoreactors in Photodegradation Reactions
Quito, Ecuador. Using Porous MxBi1-xFeO3 (M = Gd, La, Dy, x =
0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) Networks.
Accepted Speaker Dr. Alexis Debut
14:30 – 14:50 Dr. Theofilos Toulkeridis Origin of Color Variations of Thin, Nano-Sized
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Layers of Volcanic Cinder from the Sierra Negra
Sangolquí, Ecuador. Volcano of the Galápagos Islands – Implications
for Planetary Geology.
14:50 - 15:20 Coffee Break
International Invited Speaker
15:20- 16:05 Dr. Eduardo Cassel Nanoparticles/Nanocapsules Synthesis Using
School of Technology, PUCRS, Supercritical Fluid Technology.
Porto Alegre, Brazil.
16:05 - 17:05 Closing Ceremony and Awards


17

POSTER SESSION

Topic 1: Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine

1-01: APTAMER DESIGN IN SILICO FOR NANOVESICLES SURFACE MODIFICATION. David Cárdenas, Ligia
Ayala, Marbel Torres Arias. Centro de Posgrado, Maestría de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Centro
de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-02: CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLES LIKE EXOSOMES ISOLATED FROM BLACKBERRY (RUBUS


GLAUCUS BENTH.) BY TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. Tannya Sandoval, Camila Armas, M.
Fernanda Arias, Karla Caiza, Ariana Drouet, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias. Departamento de
Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Carrera Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Centro de Nanociencia y
Nanotecnologia (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-03: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS OF THE RENAL TISSUE OF MICE INDUCED
BY AMIKACIN USING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (TEM) AND SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY (SEM). Carolina Panchana, Gissela Tibán, Marbel Torres Arias, Karla Vizuete, Rachid
Seqqat, Alexis Debut . Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Centro de Nanociencia
y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-04: CYTOTOXICITYASSESSMENT OF A PHOTOCATALYTIC NANOCOMPOSITE APPLIED FOR REMOVAL OF


DICLOFENAC AND CARBAMAZEPINE. Lizeth Salazar, Marcelo Grijalva. Centro de Nanociencia y
Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Universidad
de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-05: CYTOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF LIPOSOMES IN MACROPHAGES. Pamela Mosquera, Gabriela Morales,


Eliana Lara, Ana Poveda Gabaldón, Javier Santamaría Aguirre. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas,
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Instituto de Investigación en Salud Pública y Zoonosis CIZ.
Universidad UTE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica CENBIO. Universidad Central del Ecuador,
Quito, Ecuador.

1-06: DETERMINATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN AGNPS USING
SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM LEAF EXTRACT. Alexandra Robalino & Fernanda Pilaquinga. Laboratory
of Nanotechnology, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

1-07: DEVELOPMENT OF A LATERAL FLOW TEST FOR THE DETECTION OF LEISHMANIA SPP., USING GOLD
NANOPARTICLES. Carlos Aguirre, Yolanda Angulo, Marbel Torres Arias. Carrera de Biotecnología,
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología y Virología, Centro
de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.


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1-08: EXOSOME-LIKE VESICLES PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION FROM PASSIFLORA EDULIS.


Alejandra Muñoz, Michelle Simaluisa, Sofia Taday, Alexis Debut, Karla Caiza, Marbel Torres
Arias. Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología y
Virología, Carrera Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia
(CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-09: GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THIN FILMS OF HYBRID SAMPLES OBTAINED THROUGH SYNTHESIS
OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES. David Bolaños, Blanca Naranjo, Alexis Debut, Yolanda Angulo.
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Carrera Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Centro
de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-10: GUAYABA (PSSIDIUM CATTLEIANUM) ES CAPAZ DE SECRETAR EXOSOMAS. Cristina Cajas, David
Flores, Alexandra Paredes, Karla Caiza, Ariana Drouet, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias.
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología y Virología, Centro
de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolguí, Ecuador.

1-11: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXOSOMES OF PERSEA AMERICANA. Eskarle Albuja, Jhosep
Castillo, Mike Dávila, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias, Karla Caiza., Departamento de Ciencias
de la Vida y la Agricultura, Carrera Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Sangolquí, Centro de Nanociencia
y Nanotecnologia (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-12: NANOPARTICLES’ IMPACT ON LIVING CELLS. David Carchi, David Cárdenas, Jonathan Escorza,
Ariana Drouet, Alex Gavilanes, Marbel Torres Arias. Centro de Posgrado, Maestría de Nanociencia
y Nanotecnología, Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Laboratorio de
Inmunología y Virología, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-13: PRODUCTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY FUNGI COLLETOTRICHUM SP. AND


RHIZOPUS SP. AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS. Juan Diego Valenzuela Cobos, René Oscar Rodríguez
Grimón, Ana Grijalva Endara, Cristian Vargas Farías. Universidad Espíritu Santo, Ecuador. Facultad
de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Guayaquil, Ecuador. Ecuahidrolizados, Ecuador.

1-14: PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLANUM BETACEUM EXOSOMES. Joselyn Castro, Victor
Criollo, Nicole Jarrín, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias. Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y
Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología y Virología, Universidad de Centro de Nanociencia y
Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-15: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FOR DRUG DELIVERY


APPLICATIONS. Marlon Gancino Guevara, Seidy Pedroso Santana, Noralvis Fleitas Salazar, Emilio
Lamazares Arcia, Carolina Gómez Gaete, Nelson Santiago Vispo, Jorge R. Toledo Alonso. School of
Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador. School of
Biological Sciences, Pathophysiology Department, School of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Department,
University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile.


19

1-16: THREE VOLCANIC ASH PARTICLES FROM ECUADOR AFFECT PULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN MICE.
Fernanda Toscano, Nathaly Flores, Michelle Apunte, Karla Vizuete, Theofilos Toulkeridis, Alexis
Debut, Marbel Torres Arias, Rachid Seqqat. Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y de la Agricultura,
Carrera de Ingenieria en Biotecnologia, Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT),
Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y de Construcción. Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas
ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

1-17: BIBLIOGRAPHIC REPORT OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES: A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD AND
HEALTH. Fernanda Pilaquinga. Faculty of Nursing, School of Nutrition & Dietetics, First-
semester Nutrition & Dietetics students, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito,
Ecuador. School of Chemistry Sciences, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Pontificia Universidad
Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.


20

Topic 2: Nanofabrication, Synthesis, Characterization, and Engineering

2-18: A MODEL FOR SPIN ACTIVITY IN OLIGO-PEPTIDES. Raul Hidalgo, Juan D. Torres, Ernesto Medina.
Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, 100119 Urcuquí,
Ecuador. Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela.

2-19: AN ARCHAEOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED PIGMENTS REVEALED IN ECUADORIAN


POTTERY. Sarah Briceño, Alejandra Sánchez Polo, Alex Jamett, Salomé Galeas, Orlando Campaña,
Víctor H. Guerrero, Carlos R. Arroyo, Alexis Debut, Duncan J. Mowbray, Camilo Zamora Ledezma,
Jorge Serrano. Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Urcuquí,
Ecuador. Museo de Arte Precolombino - Casa del Alabado, Quito, Ecuador. Escuela Politécnica
Nacional, Departamento de Ingeniería de Materiales, Quito, Ecuador. Centro de Nanociencia y
Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.
Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela.

2-20: AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GARLIC PLANT (ALLIUM SATIVUM) LEAVES AS A REDUCING AGENT TO SYNTHESIZE
SILVER NANOPARTICLES. Katherine Pazmiño, Alexis Debut, Karla Vizuete, Fernanda Pilaquinga.
School of Chemical Sciences, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador. Centro de
Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

2-21: DETERMINATION OF THE BEST SOLVENT AT DIFFERENT PH FOR SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF
POLY (LACTIC-CO-GLYCOLIC ACID) (PLGA) NANOPARTICLES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Camila
Gallegos, Vanessa Gaona, Karla Vizuete, Katherine Pazmiño, Brajesh Kumar, Frank Alexis, Alexis
Debut Department of Life Science and Agriculture, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center
(CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador. Department of
Chemistry, TATA College, Jharkhand, India. School of Biological Sciences and Engineering,
University Yachay Tech, Ibarra, Ecuador.

2-22: DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE SYNTHESES OF PLGA-PEG NANOCAPSULES MADE AT DIFFERENT


TEMPERATURES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Silvana Elizabeth Romo, Andrea Patricia Viteri, Karla
Vizuete, Katherine Pazmiño, Brajesh Kumar, Frank Alexis, Alexis Debut. Department of Life
Sciences and Agriculture, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center, University of the Armed Forces
ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador. Department of Chemistry, TATA College, Jharkhand, India. School of
Biological Sciences and Engineering, University Yachay Tech, Ibarra, Ecuador.

2-23: EVALUATION OF THE INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF SULFUR NANOCOMPOSITES WITH ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AND ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS IN FORFICULA AURICULARIA. Sophia Araujo,
Josué Villota, Vladimir Aguirre, Vicente Delgado, Petronio Gavilanes. Departamento de Ciencias de
la Vida y la Agricultura, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas- ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.


21

2-24: MULTIPLE ION CLUSTER SOURCE (MICS) FOR THE GENERATION OF NANOPARTICLES WITH ADJUSTABLE
SIZE AND CONTROLLED STOICHIOMETRY. Mercedes Díaz Lagos, Lidia Martínez, Yves Huttel.
Facultad Seccional Sogamoso, Ingeniería Geológica, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de
Colombia., Sogamoso, Colombia. Materials Science Factory, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de
Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

2-25: PREVENTION OF BACTERIAL ACCUMULATION THROUGH USE OF BIODEGRADABLE AND CONDUCTIVE THIN
FILM BASED ON GRAFENE. Alanis Chicaiza Zambrano, Nelson Santiago Vispo, Camilo Zamora-
Ledezma, Frank Alexis. School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Universidad de
Investigación de Tecnología Experimental Yachay Tech, Ibarra, Ecuador.

2-26: PROXIMITY-INDUCED EXCHANGE AND SPIN-ORBIT EFFECTS IN GRAPHENE ON NI AND CO. Mayra
Peralta, Ernesto Medina, Francisco Mireles. Departamento de Física, Centro de Nanociencias y
Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México. Yachay Tech University,
School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Urcuquí, Ecuador. Centro de Física, Instituto
Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela.

2-27: STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF CATIONIC LIPOSOMES OF ENROFLOXACIN BY ISOTHERMAL AND


ISOCONVERSIONAL METHODS. Franklin Guaján Cachipuendo, Robert Alcocer Vallejo, Luis Castillo
Cabay, Ana Poveda Gabaldón, Javier Santamaria-Aguirre. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad
de Ciencias, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Instituto de Investigación en Salud Pública y Zoonosis
CIZ. Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

2-28: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(LACTIC-CO-GLYCOLIC ACID) (PLGA) NANOPARTICLES BY


THE INSTANTANEOUS NANOPRECIPITATION METHOD. María Fernanda Arias Erazo, María
Fernanda Pazmiño Flores, Karla Vizuete Katherine Pazmiño, Brajesh Kumar, Frank Alexis, Alexis
Debut. Department of Life Science and Agriculture, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center,
Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador. Department of Chemistry, TATA
College, Jharkhand, India. School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, University Yachay Tech,
Ibarra, Ecuador.

2-29: SYNTHESIS AND PHOTOCHEMICAL GROWTH MECHANISM OF AG-TRIANGULAR NANOPLATES. José


Andrés Arcos, Esteban Lasso, Kevin Rovalino, Sarah Briceño, Alexis Debut, Julio Chacón-
Torres.Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

2-30: SYNTHESIS OF HIGH QUALITY GRAPHENE MULTILAYERS BY ELECTROCHEMICAL EXFOLIATION USING


PULSE-WIDTH-MODULATION. Ronny De La Bastida, Andres Hidalgo, Alexandra Vera, Johana
Pilicita, Leonardo Basile. Physic Department, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador. Physic
Department, Yachay Tech, Urcuqui, Ecuador.Nanotechnology Department, Yachay Tech, Urcuqui,
Ecuador.


22

2-31: THE CLOSED-EDGE STRUCTURE OF GRAPHITE AND THE EFFECT OF ELECTROSTATIC CHARGING. Victor
Posligua, Joana Bustamante, Cesar H. Zambrano, Peter J. F. Harris, and Ricardo Grau Crespo.
Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Whiteknights, United Kingdom. Departamento de
Química, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja, Ecuador. Instituto de Simulación
Computacional (ISC-USFQ), Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador. Electron
Microscopy Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6
6AF, United Kingdom.

2-32: TIGHT
BINDING MODEL FOR LITHIUM ADSORBATE ATOMS IN DIFFERENT ADSORPTION PLACES (TOP,
HOLLOW, BRIDGE) ON GRAPHENE. Andrés Hidalgo & Mayra Peralta. School of Physical Sciences and
Nanotechnology, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ibarra.

2-33: VESÍCULES LIKE PARTICLES PRESENT OF CITRUS RETICULATA. Gabriela Borja, Yadira Guasumba,
Karla Caiza, María José Acuña, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias. Departamento de Ciencias de
la Vida y Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología, Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología
(CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.


23

Topic 3: Nanotechnology in Energy and Environment

3-34: FERRUGINOUS AND TITANIFEROUS SANDS FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE CAPTURE. Dayanna Vera Cedeño,
Darío Viloria Vera, Marvin Ricaurte Fernández, Jorge Toro Álava, Alex Palma Cando. School of
Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Earth Sciences, Energy and Environment, Yachay
Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.

3-35: GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AND ITS REACTION
DYNAMICS BY DISCRIMINATION OF LIGHT. David Chávez, Alexis Debut, Blanca Naranjo, Yolanda
Angulo. Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Centro de Nanociencia y
Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.

3-36: PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET DYE USING ECUADORIAN BLACK SANDS.
Johanna Gómez Gómez, Darío Viloria Vera, Alex Palma Cando. School of Chemistry and
Engineering, Yachay Tech, Urcuqui, Imbabura.

3-37: PHOTO-REACTOR FOR THE EVALUATION OF CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF NANOPARTICLES UNDER


IRRADIATION WITH VISIBLE OR UV LIGHT. Angélica Navarrete, Marcos Hidalgo, Pablo Cisneros,
Poojesh Bertram, Miguel Herrera, Jan Spengler. Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Tena,
Ecuador. Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule, Jena, Germany.

3-38: STUDY OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF CADMIUM PRESENT IN COCOA FLOORS, THROUGH THE APPLICATION
OF MULTICOMPONENT NANOPARTICLES PREPARED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS, AT THE LABORATORY LEVEL.
Daniela Vera, Luis Cumbal, Alexis Debut, Karla Vizuete. Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología
(CENCINAT), Laboratorio de Caracterización de Nanomateriales, Universidad de las Fuerzas
Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.


24

Topic 4: Advanced and Smart Nanomaterials

4-39: COMPARISON OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL, ELECTRICAL AND ENERGY TRANSFER PROPERTIES OF SILVER
NANOPARTICLES AND ITS REDUCING AGENT BETWEEN A GREEN SYNTHESIS AND A CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS
PROCESS. Jonathan Escorza, Blanca Naranjo, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Aria, Yolanda Angulo.
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Centro de Posgrado, Maestría de
Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Universidad
de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí-Ecuador.

4-40: DEVELOPMENT OF BIONICS PLANTS FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION. Alison Torres, Steve Morales,
Jonathan Escorza, Alexis Debut, Yolanda Angulo. Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología
(CENCINAT), Departamento de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

4-41: DIFFERENT METHODS FOR ISOLATING EXOSOMES FROM FRUITS WITH THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL LIKE
ANNONA SP. Karla Caiza, Ariana Drouet, Alexis Debut, Marbel Torres Arias. Departamento de
Ciencias de la Vida y Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología y Virología, Centro de Nanociencia
y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.

4-42: EFFECT OF TRIANGULAR SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON PLANTS. Katherine Viera, Brayan Socasi,
Jonathan Escorza, Alexis Debut, Yolanda Angulo. Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología
(CENCINAT), Departamento de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

4-43: GREEN SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER SELENIDE (AG2SE) NANOPARTICLES VIA A LOW-
TEMPERATURE REFLUX ROUTE. Cinthya Daniela Armijo, Lupe Mendoza, Alexis Debut, Si Amar
Dahoumane. School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech, San Miguel de Urcuqui,
Ecuador. Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas
Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.

4-44: STUDY OF THE ABSORPTION OF SPHERICAL SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF PLANTS.
Carlie Barboza, Kevin Moreno, David Carchi, Alexis Debut, Yolanda Angulo. Centro de
Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Departamento de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad
de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.


25

Topic 5: Nanoelectronics and Microsystems

5-45: CYTOTOXICITYPREDICTION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES USING ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE SIMULATIONS


AND QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS MODELING. Doménica Bermeo, Alicja
Mikolajczyk, Yadira Ordonez, Mireia Casasampere, Henry P. Pinto. CompNano Group, School of
Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Yachay Tech University, Urcuqui-Ecuador. Laboratory of
Environmental Chemometrics, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland. BIONAP, Escuela de Ciencias
Agrícolas y Ambientales, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador Sede Ibarra, Ibarra-Ecuador.
CSIC, Institut de Quimica Biomedica, RUBAM, Barcelona, Spain.

5-46: ELECTROCHEMICAL GENERATION OF THIN CONDUCTING POLYMER FILMS. Alex Palma Cando, Ibeth
Rendón Enríquez, Ullrich Scherf, Michael Tausch. School of Chemistry and Engineering, Yachay
Tech, Urcuqui, Ecuador. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Education, Macromolecular
Chemistry Group, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.

5-47: QUANTUM DOT SPECTROSCOPY OF TOPOLOGICAL RASHBA NANOWIRES. Juan D. Torres & Denis
Chevallier. Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Urcuquí,
Ecuador. Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

5-48: STUDY OF THE COUPLING OF ORBITALS AND THE DEPENDENCE OF MECHANICAL DEFORMATION IN A
MODEL OF HELICENE. José Andino, Solmar Varela, Ernesto Medina. YachayTech, School of Chemical
Science & Engineering, School of Physical Science & Nanotechnology, Urcuquí, Ecuador. Escuela
de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela. Centro de
Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela.

5-49: INFLUENCE OF NANOSHEET THICKNESS ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAPHENE FILMS. Jimmy
Narváez, Ronny de la Bastida, Cristian Santacruz, Leonardo Basile, Henrry M. Osorio.
Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador.

5-50: STUDY OF THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT AND SPIN SELECTIVITY IN DNA. Jorge Cardenas, Solmar
Varela, García, José. YachayTech, School of Chemical Science & Engineering, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
Institut Català de Nanociència I Nanotecnología (ICN2), Barcelona, España.


26

KEYNOTE LECTURE

DEVELOPING A BIO-NANO PROCESS TO REMOVE SELENATE OR Se(VI) FROM


CONTAMINATED WATER:
A NEW APPLICATION OF HAIX-NANO

Arup K. SenGupta

P.C. Rossin Professor of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of
Chemical Engineering Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA.

Corresponding author’s email: arup.sengupta@lehigh.edu

ABSTRACT: HAIX-Nano or hybrid anion exchanger nanomaterial is essentially spherical anion exchange
resin beads inside which amorphous Fe(III) oxide or Zr(IV) oxide nanoparticles have been irreversibly
dispersed using a proprietary synthesis protocol. The Donnan membrane effect, resulting from the
positively charged quaternary ammonium functional groups (R4N+) of the anion exchanger, enhances
permeation of target anionic contaminants like fluoride, arsenic, phosphate etc. within the resin phase
leading to very selective sorption on the surface sorption sites of metal oxide nanoparticles. HAIX-
Nanomaterials are also regenerable and reusable for tens of cycles. HAIX-Nanomaterials are now available
commercially and over two million people in Asia now drink arsenic- and fluoride-safe water through use
of HAIX-Nanomaterials.
Maximum contaminant level or MCL in drinking water for selenium is 50 µg/L or 50 ppb or parts per
billion and selenium primarily exists as Se(VI) or selenate (SeO42-). Due to its poor ligand characteristic,
Se(VI) exhibits poor sorption affinity toward HAIX-Nano while strong-base anion exchanger or SBA
cannot remove selenate in the presence of much higher concentration of competing sulfate anion or SO42-.
Thus, no viable process exists to remove Se(VI) from water and wastewater. Unlike Se(VI) or selenate,
selenite or Se(IV) possesses strong ligand characteristic and exhibits high affinity toward HAIX-NanoZr.
We have developed a two-column process where the first column, using a high surface porous media,
reduces selenate to selenite biologically under anoxic conditions. Subsequently, selenite is selectively
removed in the second column using HAIX-Nan0Zr. This bio-nano process is simple to operate and can
consistently remove selenium even when the feed composition is fluctuating. Bio-nano process is also
effective in removing nitrate and fluoride from contaminated groundwater concurrently. Experimental
results will be presented.


Keywords: Selenium, Water Removal.


27

ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN BIOMOLECULES COATED METALLIC


NANOPARTICLES: SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE, AND APPLICATIONS IN CATALYSIS,
SENSING, AND MEDICINE

Brajesh Kumar

Post Graduate Department of Chemistry, TATA College,


Kolhan University, Chaibasa, 833202, INDIA.

Corresponding author’s email: krmbraj@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology is one of the most interesting areas concerned with consumer products
including cosmetics, household appliances, electronics, textiles and food production as well as in medical
products. Recent years, green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using biomolecules /phytochemicals has
drawn a new and exciting area of research in the field of nanotechnology. Environmentally benign,
economical, practical, and efficient processes for nanoparticle synthesis have been increasingly important
goals in the chemical community from economic, safety, and environmental points of view.
Due to their vast range of applications, the synthesis of gold, silver, palladium, copper, iron nanoparticles
of different shapes and sizes is of great interest. The phytochemical approach provides various advantages,
including cost-effective, simple, green, ecofriendly and biocompatibility. A diverse variety of plants grow
as fruits, vegetables, and weeds all over the world and it has a wide range of active constituents, which has
potent medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to the synthesis and morphological
effects of the biomolecule coated metallic nanoparticles and the related antioxidant, antimicrobial,
catalytic, and sensing activity. Our lecture will contribute to understanding the synthetic procedure,
morphological interpretation, chemical characterization, antioxidant, antimicrobial, catalytic, sensing
mechanisms of biomolecule coated metallic nanoparticles.

Keywords: Coated Nanoparticles, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Green Chemistry.


28

FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES FOR THE REMEDIATION


OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

Daniel C. Whitehead

Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, South Carolina, USA.

Corresponding author’s email: dwhiteh@clemson.edu

ABSTRACT: Our group has developed a series of functional nanomaterials for environmental remediation
applications. Our initial efforts focused on developing self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles capable of
capturing volatile organic compounds. Subsequent efforts have focused on the development of functional
materials from renewable, natural material such as mesoporous clay and cellulose nanocrystals. The latter
material has been exploited in a number of scenarios including VOC remediation, removal of
polyfluorinated surfactants from water, and the degradation of pesticides in water. Current efforts are
focused on scale-up of the synthesis of the material and further exploration of relevant applications.

Keywords: Functional Nanomaterials, Cellulose, And Environmental Remediation.


29

NANOPARTICLES/NANOCAPSULES SYNTHESIS USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID


TECHNOLOGY

Eduardo Cassel

Unit Operation Laboratory, School of Technology, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brasil.

Corresponding author’s email: cassel@pucrs.br

ABSTRACT: The nanoparticles/nanocapsules synthesis has been the target of industrial interest because
these particles have different properties in relation to the surface and volume ratio. The method is going to
produce and adapt nanomaterials in a reliable, predictable and industrially applicable manner as to their
functionality, formulation and production; as well as to control the particle size, particle size distribution,
shape, crystallinity, and surface properties. Numerous techniques are referred to the literature, the most
common being spray drying, emulsion, coacervation, and use of supercritical fluids. Techniques that operate
under these conditions include Supercritical Antisolvent, Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions, Gas
Antisolvent, among others. The supercritical fluid can be employed as a solvent, cosolvent or antisolvent.
In this context, natural product nanocapsules are a physical coating in which substances are surrounded by
an encapsulating agent in order to partially or completely isolate the active core-shell in capsule form. The
main goals of this procedure are to control the active core-shell with regard to release, to avoid oxidation
reactions, to reduce its volatility and reactivity and to increase its stability under adverse environmental
conditions such as the presence of extreme light, oxygen or pH. Associating the extracts obtained from
natural raw materials with supercritical fluid use (non-toxic solvents) in nanoparticles/nanocapsules
synthesis consists in an alternative technological route for sectors such as food, cosmetics, biocidal and
others. The viability of this technological route involves obtaining extracts, nanoparticles/nanocapsules
production, and analysis of the nanomaterials and mathematical modeling of the extract delivery.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Industrial Application, Natural Extracts.


30

DIRECT MOLECULAR INTERROGATION FACILITATED BY A NANOPORE


TECHNOLOGY

Guigen Zhang

Department of Biomedical Engineering


University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Corresponding author’s email: guigen.bme@uky.edu

ABSTRACT: Biosensing and molecular detection are crucial to advancing our understanding of how
human bodies function and how biological systems operate. The challenges facing today’s biosensing
techniques include not only the complexity in utilizing foreign molecules for labeling, tagging, probing, or
reporting purposes, but also the reductive way of investigation and data interpretation. In this talk, I will
discuss a new molecular sensing method in the form of a solid state nanopore without using any foreign
molecules (hence, direct interrogation). Building upon our patented technology we fabricate non-
functionalized electrodes in a nanopore to bring molecules to the sensing surface for interrogation. By
measuring multiple signals related to electron transfer and ion reorganization in the EDL surrounding the
molecules, we aim to resolve the physical and chemical structures of the analyte molecules. Aside from
molecular interrogation, we are also exploring the other novel applications for the nanopore technology,
including nanopore gating device as well as nanopore transistor and oscillator, etc. Along the way, I will
also showcase more examples of how an integrative approach assisted by computational modeling and
experimental validation & realization can help us accelerate our innovative processes.

Keywords: Biosensing, Nanopore, Electron Transfer


31

SMALL- AND WIDE-ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING - A VALUABLE TOOL FOR


ANALYZING NANOSTRUCTURED
MATERIALS USING A COMPACT LABORATORY SYSTEM

Jean-Luc Brousseau1, Gerd Langenbucher1, Heiner Santner2


1
Anton Paar USA, Ashland, USA.
2
Anton Paar, Graz, Austria.

Corresponding author’s email: jean-luc.brouseau@anton-paar.com

ABSTRACT: The small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) method draws increasing
attention in the characterization of nanostructured materials. SAXS determines the size, shape and internal
structure of colloidal structures in a range from typically 1 nm and 300 nm. Materials that can be analyzed
include nanoparticles, surfactants, emulsions, liquid crystals, porous media, polymers and fibers.
Nanostructured thin-film samples are analyzed using the GI (grazing-incidence) SAXS in which the X-ray
beam penetrates the sample under a very shallow angle and retrieves information on the nanostructure only
from surface and surface-near areas. WAXS ideally complements results obtained by SAXS since it
provides essential information on a sample’s crystallinity at the atomic level. For example, WAXS
straightforwardly determines if a sample is monomorphic or contains polymorphic phases; the sample’s
crystalline structure can often be directly related to its properties like melting point, taste, etc. Both methods,
(GI-)SAXS and WAXS, are ideally suited to analyze samples under changing external conditions, e.g. in-
situ monitoring of processes in dependence of temperature, pH, additives, humidity, pressure, tensile stress,
rheological shear, etc. In this contribution we will discuss selected applications of the
SAXS/WAXS/GISAXS technique for characterizing different nanostructured materials, including
dispersions of very large silica nanoparticles, BioSAXS studies of proteins in solution, GISAXS
characterization of nanosized thin film samples and combined rheological-scattering measurements. All
measurements were performed with the SAXSpoint 2.0 system, the most compact and versatile laboratory
SAXS/WAXS/GISAXS system.

Keywords: Small Angle X-Ray Scattering, Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering.


32

NANOCATALYST FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE EOR ELECTRODES: APPLICATION TO


WATER SPLITTING AND CO2 REDUCTION

Joan Ramon Morante

IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research. Sant Adria del Besos. Spain.
University of Barcelona, Barcelona. Spain.

Corresponding author’s email: jrmorante@irec.cat

ABSTRACT: The development of cost-effective large-scale electrodes for highly active and stable oxygen
evolution reaction (OER) catalysis is an essential step toward reaching commercial viable solutions for
electrochemical water and CO2 reduction. The OER is a complex multi-step reaction. This complex
reaction is kinetically less favored than the concomitant hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Commercial
electrolysis systems currently rely on expensive and scarce elements such as iridium and ruthenium.
Here we show the outstanding performances of bimetallic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) supported on
large-scale electrodes as oxygen evolution catalysts. Colloidal CoFe2O4 NPs were loaded on low-cost and
high surface area nickel foam (NF) scaffolds. Through this optimization, we were able to have
overpotentials below 300 mV for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this prototype device, stable
operating currents up to 500 mA at remarkably low cell-voltages of 1.62 and 1.53 V, at ambient and 50 ºC
electrolyte temperatures, respectively, were reached during operation periods beyond 50 hours. The high
electrochemical energy efficiencies reached, 75 % and 83 % respectively, rendered these devices
particularly appealing to be combined with low-cost photovoltaic systems for bias-free hydrogen
production suggesting potential STH >18% and STF >15% which are quite feasible for industrial uses in a
new society involved with the energy transition from fossil to renewal.

Keywords: Oxygen Evolution Reaction, Cobalt Ferrite, Nanoparticles.




33

NANOMATERIALS FOR BATTERY ELECTRODES: VANADIUM REDOX FLOW AND


LITHIUM SULFUR BATTERIES

Joan Ramon Morante

IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research. Sant Adria del Besos. Spain.
University of Barcelona, Barcelona. Spain.

Corresponding author’s email: jrmorante@irec.cat

ABSTRACT: The charge transfer among an electrode and the active chemical specimens present in the
electrolyte constitutes a key feature for transforming electrical energy into chemical one and vice versa.
This functionality can typically be enhanced using nanomaterials as catalysts in order to facilitate the charge
transfer diminishing the associated resistance, equivalent to diminish the required overpotential and, hence,
improving the kinetics of the associated chemical reactions involved in this process.
In this contribution, two different representative situations concerning this issue will be presented and
analyzed. From one side, the case of the vanadium redox flow batteries considering the positive and
negative electrode cases. On the other case, lithium sulphur batteries will be detailed.
In the first case, the use of metal oxide nanoparticles as well as the role of functional groups will be shown
as feasible alternative for increasing working current densities up to several hundreds of mA/cm2.
In the second case, urchin shaped NiCo2Se4 (u-NCSe) nanostructures getting hollow structure allowing
relieving volumetric expansion, superior electrical conductivity to improve electron transfer, high polarity
to promote absorption of lithium polysulfides (LiPS) and outstanding electrocatalytic activity to accelerate
LiPS conversion kinetics; have been applied. These results show that appropriate selection of nanocatalysts
constitutes a relevant strategy for the rational design and the development of battery electrodes with long-
life and high-rate electrochemical performance.


Keywords: Battery Electrodes, Vanadium, Lithium, Life, Performance.


34

TECHNICAL ADVANCES IN ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY

Leopoldo Enriquez Moreno

JEOL de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Corresponding author’s email: enriquez@jeol.com.mx

ABSTRACT: Electron Microscopy remians as a fundamental tool in the characterization of materials. The
lastest technological advances have focused on several directions. One is to allow a simpler and friendlier
handling of the instruments with modern control tools. Another, of course, is aimed at improving image
resolution to solve smaller and smaller systems. Finally, a versatility in the instrument that allows the
handling of different analytical techniques simultaneously. Thanks to its constant effort and innovation,
JEOL now offers instruments with important advances in these three directions in both SEM and TEM.

Keywords: Electron Microscopy, Characterization, Nanomaterials.


35

INFLUENCE OF CONTROLLED FUNCTIONALIZATION ON THE 1D ELECTRONIC


PROPERTIES OF SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

Paola Ayala

University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Boltzmanngasse, 1090 Vienna, AUSTRIA


University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics

Corresponding author’s email: paola.ayala@univie.ac.at

ABSTRACT: Whether we are dealing with the inevitable interactions of nanotubes in a bundle, single
dopants, encapsulated structures, suspending media or tailored defects, the energies of charge carriers and
lattice vibrations are always modified. This is one of the reasons why all-carbon nanoelectronics remains a
dream but constant efforts have already shown positive steps in such direction.
We will discuss on how the practical difficulties to produce ultra-clean, nearly defect-free carbon
nanostructures have constantly appeared as stumbling blocks to observe the desired physical phenomena.
This is not surprising because the electronic and optical properties are very sensitive to the chemical
environments. I will present an overview and a progress report of my group´s research related low-
dimensional carbon materials. The use of photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy
as key tools to understand the properties of low dimensional carbon systems will be explained. Among
other topics, this overview will provide an approach to how these techniques can be utilized to understand
and analyze changes in the site-selective valence and conduction bands (in particular of single-walled
carbon nanotubes and graphene).

Keywords: Single-Walled, Carbon Nanotubes, Defect.


36

RECENT TECHNOLOGIES IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR NANOMATERIALS


CHARACTERIZATION

Rafael Villaurrutia

ThermoFisher Scientific, México.

Corresponding author’s email: rafael.arenas@thermofisher.com


ABSTRACT: New possibilities for the application of focused electrons are being revealed for atomic-scale
materials characterization. While advances in materials science demand advances in electron microscopy
techniques, the electron microscopy technologies evolution demand more challenges to push their limits.
The availability of functional and modern materials has provided ideal samples and challenges for entirely
describing the structure of such materials. Correctors for the parasitic lens aberrations that otherwise limit
resolution, new electron sources for increasing the signals, new and more detectors for analysis, have opened
new possibilities of study for the new generation of nanomaterials and devices. Scanning transmission
electron microscopy (STEM) technique has undergo significant advances in recent years, allowing electron
beams to be produced with a spot size well below 1Å, sufficient to resolve inter-atomic spacings in most
crystal structures. This is revolutionising our understanding of new devices, heterostructures and
nanoparticles. This includes qualitative analysis of structures with picometer precision, mapping of electric
polarization at the unit cell scale, mapping of chemestry on an atom-by-atom basis and crystallographic
orientations. Nonetheless, the electron microscopy evolution has been noticeble not just in scanning
transmission electron microscopy, but as well in the whole range of techniques which have become
complementary between them. This includes the scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam. It is
necessary to be aware of the evolution of each technique in order to have the whole picture in the
characterization of new materials. In this talk we highlight the recent advances of the main techniques in
electron microscopy with applications in modern materials.


Keywords: Nanomaterials, Characterization, Electron Microscopy.










37



STRUCTURED CATALYSTS FOR SYNTHETIC NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION THROUGH
CO2 METHANATION

Teresa Andreu1, Jordi Guilera1, Andreina Alarcón1, 2, Martí Biset-Peiró1


1
Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC). Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930, Sant Adrià del
Besòs, Barcelona, Spain.
2
Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOL, Facultad de Ingeniería en Ciencias de la Tierra,
Campus Gustavo Galindo Km. 30.5,
Guayaquil, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: tandreu@irec.cat

ABSTRACT: The Power-to-Gas concept has the challenge to convert the excess of renewable electricity
to synthetic natural gas, composed mainly by methane, through CO2 methanation. Manufacturing of
catalysts with high reaction rates at mild conditions is important for an efficient production of synthetic
natural gas. In this work, the design of a technical catalyst based on an optimal content of Ni as active
phase, a metal oxide as promoter and γ-Al⁠2O⁠3 micro-spheres as suport (d⁠p=400–500μm) is evaluated.
Results indicated that the addition of metal oxide promoters was beneficial in all cases. Characterization
results revealed that their role was to enhance the interaction between CO2 and the catalyst, as well as
changing the reaction pathway corroborated by FTIR. Among them, the catalytic performance was led by
the catalyst with La2O3 and CeO2, with superior tolerance to H2S impurities. Once optimized, the catalyst
was tested under relevant conditions at COSIN project, a pilot plant located in a wastewater treatment plant
for the conversion of biogas to synthetic natural gas using a micro-structured reactor. Besides, an alternative
reactor was developed, which is able to achieve similar levels of CO2 conversion at much lower temperature
by plasma-catalysis. In this novel process, the catalyst was more active at a lower amount of CeO2 with
respect to thermal catalysis, reducing the catalyst fabrication cost, thanks to the CO generated by plasma
CO2 dissociation that has a significant role for methane production.


Keywords: Power-To-Gas, Methanation, Synthetic Natural Gas.














38


ADVANCES IN NANOMEDICINE: CANCER HYPERTHERMIA TREATMENT USING


THERANOSTIC NANOMATERIALS AND NANOTOXICOLOGY STUDIES

Valtencir Zucolotto

Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology Group, University of Sao Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil.

Corresponding author’s email: zuco@ifsc.usp.br

ABSTRACT: Upon conjugation with specific biomolecules, nanomaterials are capable of targeting
specific tissues and cells, promoting diagnosis and therapy at the same time. These so-called theranostic
materials represent the state-of-the-art in the use of nanocomposites for cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Due to their ease of preparation and functionalization, graphene oxides and gold nanorods (AuNRs), in
particular, have found applications as theranostic agents for cancer therapy. These materials exhibit an
absorption band in the near infrared region - where the maximum radiation penetration through tissues
occurs-, which makes them appropriate for in vivo photothermal applications. This talk will address the
synthesis and application of a hybrid nanocomposite based upon AuNRs coated with human lung
adenocarcinoma epithelial cell (A549) membrane, used as active materials in photohyperthermia against
cancer cells. Graphene oxide nanocomplexes were also synthesized and applied in the hyperthermia studies.
The incorporation of gold nanorods into real membrane monolayers was also studied using Langmuir
techniques. Our results revealed significant differences on how the nanorods systems interact with the
membranes. The use of cancer cell membrane-coated nanoparticles opens up new possibilities regarding
the development of efficient theranostic nanosystems and brings benefits to the field of personalized
medicines. The toxicity exhibited by the nanocomplexes against healthy human cells and aquatic organisms
will also be addressed.


Keywords: Theranostic Nanomaterials, Cancer Hyperthermia, Toxicity.


















39

NATIONAL INVITED SPEAKER

IMPROVING THE ENERGY CONVERSION EFFICIENCY OF DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR


CELLS BY CO-SENSITIZATION OF GRAPHENE/NATURAL DYES

Cristian Santacruz1, Adriana Rodríguez2, Juana Pinanjota2, Leonardo Basile1, Henrry Osorio1
1
Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Civil y Ambiental, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: cristian.santacruz@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC’s) are considered a feasible alternative to clean energy
generation, however the drawback is their low power conversion efficiency (PCE). One of the factors that
limits the PCE, is the low charge transfer efficiency from sensitizer to semiconductor material. In this study,
the PCE of DSSC’s has been improved by using co-sensitization of few layer graphene and natural dyes.
Graphene has been exfoliated by electrochemical methods. The graphene flakes were mixed with dye
solutions extracted from fruits and flowers, and the mixture was used as sensitizer for TiO2 photoanodes.
The DSSC’s were characterized by current – voltage (I-V) analysis, and impedance spectroscopy. The I-V
data show that the density current of the graphene/dye sensitized solar cells increases 30%. Solar cell series
resistance, measured by impedance spectroscopy, is reduced by co-sensitizing graphene and natural dyes.
Therefore, PCE can be credited to increase of electron transfer efficiency from dye molecules to conduction
band of TiO2 and to reduce semiconductor resistance.

Keywords: Solar Cell, Dye, Graphene, Efficiency.



40

BACTERIAL CELLULOSE WITH NANO PARTICLES USED FOR FRUIT SHELF LIFE
EXTENSION

Liana Cerda1,2, Alexis Debut3, Ronald Palacios1, Jorge Acosta1, David Terán1, 4, 5
1
Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Facultad de Ciencias e Ingeniería en Alimentos y Biotecnología,
Ambato, Ecuador.
2
Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, Faculty of Biology, Universidad de Barcelona,
Barcelona, Spain.
3
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
4
Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Departamento de Investigación y Desarrollo, Ambato, Ecuador.
5
Institute for Applied Sustainability Research, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: da.teran@uta.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Bacterial biofilms are being an important field of study, due to their wide use in different
fields. However, due to its high production costs, its use is limited. For this reason, this work aimed to obtain
biofilms using different agroindustrial residues (sugarcane bagasse, rice bran and cocoa husk), using an H-
S medium and minimum medium in static and agitated culture. Demonstrating that agroindustrial waste
contributes to the environment the carbon and nitrogen source necessary for the bacterium
Komagataeibacter xylinus to develop and generate the biofilms. Also, an impregnation with silver and zinc
particles was made to the biofilms produced from the cocoa husk. Furthermore, by X-ray diffraction analysis
(XRD), it was possible to determine that the biofilms obtained corresponded to Cellulose I, cellulose Iα
being present in a higher proportion. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) helped to observe the
structure of the biofilms and by means of a Mapping the presence of the Ag and Zn nanoparticles
impregnated in the structure of the biofilm was verified. Then, biofilms with silver nanoparticles were used
to extend the shelf life of strawberries, because this fruit is susceptible to physiological changes, great
vulnerability to microbial attack. The benefits of edible coatings are: slow breathing rate, prolonged periods
of storage, retention of firmness and reduced microbial growth. It was determined that the samples with
bacterial cellulose coating with silver nanoparticles have an average lifetime of 12, 6 and 3 days while
samples without coating the time was 8, 3 and 2 days at temperatures of 4, 25 and 37 ºC. In addition, the
strawberries with bacterial cellulose coating impregnated with silver nanoparticles showed no growth of
aerobic, nor mesophilic microorganisms during the analysis.

Keywords: Biofilms, Bacteria, Cellulose, Shelf Life.


41

ANALYSIS OF NATURAL ZEOLITES (ALUMINOSILICATES) EXISTING IN ECUADOR AS


POSSIBLE SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL

Diana Coello Fiallos1,2, Maritza Ureña1,2, Santiago Medina1,2, Cristian Medina1,2


1
Facultad de Ingeniería Civil y Mecánica, Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ambato, Ecuador.
2
Science and Technology of Materials Group, Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ambato, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: dc.coello@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT: Ecuador is considered as a country with the greatest diversity per square kilometer on earth
and is intersected from north to south by a volcanic section of the Andes Mountains, and from east to west
by the Gulf of Guayaquil, a forested plain and the Amazon respectively. The influence of the Pacific Ring
of fire results in high volcanic activity and generates a variety of minerals; like the natural zeolites. This
initial work collects information about the existent natural zeolite (NZ) deposits in Ecuador to study its
properties like supplementary cementitious material. The zeolites have an open 3D structure constructed
with silicon or aluminum tetrahedra (Al, Si) O4, and are classified according to the (SiO2: Al2O3) ratio
present in the material. Natural zeolites are aluminosilicates with a regular and micro-porous crystalline
structure, characterized by large internal surface area (approx. 600–800 m2 / g), uniform pores size, and
good thermal stability, which makes them minerals with outstanding physical and chemical properties. The
use of natural zeolites as pozzolanic materials in construction dates back 3000 years, the presence of Al and
Si in zeolites combined with lime gives excellent cementing properties. In Ecuador, 16 mining projects of
zeolite extraction with a total area of 1473.60 hectares are located and reported, which will be studies to be
used in building construction.

Keywords: Zeolite, Cement, Characterization, Building Construction.


42

DRUG NANODELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR INTRACELLULAR INFECTIONS:


LEISHMANIASIS

Javier Santamaría Aguirre1, Karen Tufiño1, Lissette Estévez1, Gina Loachamín1, Vanessa Morales1,
Franklin Guaján1, Pamela Mosquera1,2, Gabriela Morales1, Jessenia Basantes1, Luis Sebastián Espíndola3,
Fernanda Yauri3, Iliana Alcocer4, Miguel Ángel Méndez4, Mónica López-Fanarraga5,Eliana Lara1, Ana
Poveda Gabaldón1
1
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Instituto de Investigación en Salud Pública y Zoonosis CIZ, Universidad
Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Universidad UTE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica. CENBIO, Quito, Ecuador.
3
Grupo de Química Computacional y Teórica Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.
4
Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador.
5
Grupo de Nanomedicina, IDVAL, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, España.

Corresponding author’s email: jrsantamaria@uce.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Certain pathogens reside and replicates, as part of their life cycle, within eukaryotic cells to
have a source of nutrients almost without restriction. In this situation they succeed in evading the host's
immune system, making them complex targets for drugs. Nano-drug delivery systems can overcome
biological barriers by maintaining drug integrity; increasing the efficacy and limiting the toxicity; improving
the specificity and controlling the drug release in biological media. For cutaneous and mucocutaneous
leishmaniasis, endemic in Ecuador, the first-line treatment is megumin antimoniate that presents serious
adverse effects generating lack of therapeutic compliance and resistance of the parasites. Modeling and
docking studies confirm that leishmania type II topoisomerases, like bacterial ones, are potential
fluoroquinolone targets. This is an opportunity for developing effective, safe and accessible therapeutic
alternatives for the treatment of this parasitic disease. Enrofloxacin was incorporated into transferosomes
and nanoparticles. After exposure to the drug or nanosystem, the viability of promastigotes and amastigotes
(Leishmania mexicana) as well as mammalian macrophages cytotoxicity, was determined. In promastigotes,
enrofloxacin had a higher activity than the other fluoroquinolones tested, and all of them were more active
than meglumin antimoniate. In vitro tests show that enrofloxacin is as effective as antimoniate meglumine
against amastigotes. To improve selectivity against amastigotes, studies with cationic liposomes are under
way.

Keywords: Drug Delivery, Leishmaniasis, and Enroflaxin.


43

SYNTHESIS OF BiFeO3 NANOPARTICLES WITH ENHANCED VISIBLE-LIGHT


PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY

María J. Benítez1, Thomas Cadenbach2, Alexis Debut3, Francisco Quiroz4


1
Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Quito, Ecuador.
2
Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.
3
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
4
Departamento de Ciencia de los Alimentos y Biotecnología, Escuela Politécnica Nacional. Quito,
Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: maria.benitezr@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: In the past few years, multiferroic materials have attracted great interest in the scientific
community due to their magnetic and ferroelectric properties and their potential applications in information
storage, spintronics, and sensors. Among those, bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanostructures, have received
special attention due to the reported unusual properties, such as high magnetic susceptibility and increased
dielectric coupling. In addition, BiFeO3 is a promising candidate in photocatalytic applications due to its
narrow band gap of 2.2-2.8 eV and good chemical stability.

In this talk, we show the synthesis of phase-pure BiFeO3 nanoparticles with a diameter of 8 nm using a
nanocasting technique with mesoporous silica, SBA-15, as a hard template. The samples were characterized
by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance
spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the BiFeO3 samples was further tested in the degradation of
Rhodamine B dye in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. We found that the samples showed
an enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity when compared to similar sized BiFeO3 particles
synthesized by non-templating techniques.

Keywords: Photocatalic Activity, Nanoparticles, Bismuth Ferrite.



44

DETECTION OF MOLECULES IN BLOOD AS IF USING ANTIBODIES BUT WITH DNA


NANOBIOSENSORS

Andrea Montero Oleas1, Cesar Costa-Vera2, Miguel Angel Méndez3


1
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Laboratorio de Biotecnología Vegetal, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Grupo MSOS, Departamento de física, Quito, Ecuador.
3
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmendez@usfq.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: A system was designed where a DNA molecule identifies precisely one molecule. When the
analyte (molecule of interest) is present in the simple, it emits visible light. The system works for total
blood and plasma. As a probe of concept, the system detects the protein thrombin; but, if the specific
sequence is chosen the system can detect any molecule. One of the main advantages is the low volume (a
few microliters) needed for the sample; also, the system detects thrombin concentrations as low as 0.1
micromolar. This method was named CAFA (Chimeric aptafluorescence assay). The assay is relevant for
clinical diagnostics or research purposes whenever the election of choice uses antibodies, equipment, or
ready-to-use kits that are a lot more expensive for the application intended. Here, we propose an assay that
can give origin to a robust methodology that uses simple equipment to detect molecules of interest for the
clinic, the academy, or the business. Specifically, the method uses aptamers, nanosystems whose use is
rising due to the promising variety of applications for them.
Nevertheless, the development of an application for point-of-care detection calls our attention specifically
because the vast majority of diagnostic tools are designed to work within a clinical lab setting, giving results
to be reported hours later. Now nanotechnology allows speeding up the results while simplifying the assay;
this means that in practice, the assay can be done anywhere, anytime. The aim of developing CAFA is to
contribute to the coming of powerful detection methods that can be applied without the need of sending
samples to a lab.

Keywords: DNA, Nanobiosensors, CAFA.


45

POLYMER COMPOSITES WITH REDUCED THERMAL EXPANSION BY THE


INCORPORATION OF TITANATE NANOTUBE/Y2W3O12 HYBRID FILLER

Patricia I. Pontón1, Katia Yamada2, Marco V. Guamán3, Bojan A. Marinkovic4


1
Department of Materials, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, 170525, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Centro Universitário de Volta Redonda – UNIFOA, Av. Paulo Erlei Alves Abrantes 1325, Volta
Redonda, RJ, Brazil.
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, 170525, Quito, Ecuador.
4
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro,
22451-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Corresponding author’s email: patricia.ponton@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Hybrid fillers have triggered a lot of research in the field of polymer composites since they
offer a range of properties that cannot be attained by a single filler. Herein, a novel hybrid filler consisting
of titanate nanotubes (TTNT), which exhibit high stiffness, and Y2W3O12, a thermomiotic ceramic, was
added into a high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix at low contents (2 mass %) to reduce the thermal
expansion of the matrix without deteriorating its mechanical properties. The effect of TTNT/Y2W3O12 mass
ratio (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1), surface treatment of hybrid filler with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)
and chemical modification of HDPE with polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA), on the
mechanical and thermal properties of HDPE was studied. The optimum TTNT/Y2W3O12 mass ratio was
defined as 2:1, since it allowed achieving the largest increase (25%) in Young’s modulus and the greatest
reduction (23%) in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of HDPE, without a significant alteration of
the thermal degradation properties of the matrix. At this TTNT/Y2W3O12 mass ratio, CTAB treatment of
hybrid fillers was more efficient than PE-g-MA modification of HDPE matrix, promoting a better
dispersion of TTNT/Y2W3O12, which was a key factor to obtain an increase of 34% in the composite
stiffness and a CTE reduction of 18%. Therefore, these ternary composites could be used in structural
components such as internal pressure sheaths of offshore flexible risers, where the stiffness and dimensional
stability upon temperature variations are critical factors.

Keywords: Polymer, Composites, Nanotube, Titanium, Characterization.



46

DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF LOW COST PHOTOREACTORS IN


PHOTODEGRADATION REACTIONS USING POROUS MXBi1-XFeO3 (M = Gd, La, Dy, X =
0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) NETWORKS

Thomas Cadenbach1, María J. Benítez2, Alexis Debut3


1
Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Colegio de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Quito, Ecuador,
3
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: tcadenbach@usfq.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: During the past 10 years, converting light in chemistry, physics and material science to
chemical energy has been a major focus in many key research areas such as water splitting, CO2 reduction,
solar energy capture and treatment of highly polluted toxic wastewaters. The key aspect in this field is the
utilization of appropriate equipment such as photoreactors. However, major disadvantages of commercially
available reactors are their high cost, short life-time of their light sources, their high energy consumption,
danger of explosion due to high pressures and working temperatures, problems related to inner gas leakage
as well as hazardous risks stemming from mercury and other toxic substances. Herein, we present the design
and application of a low-cost LED photoreactor which represents a superior alternative to expensive and
overpriced photoreactors. The presented reactor offers total control of the wavelength and intensity of the
light used, pH and temperature monitoring as well as a secondary auto-sampling unit, which allows a fully
automated reaction setup. The DIY reactor was then applied in wastewater treatment reactions using
semiconductor photocatalysts and organic dyes such as Rhodamine B as model pollutants. Novel porous
doped and undoped BiFeO3 networks were chosen as representative photocatalysts. The catalysts were
synthesized by a glycine-nitrate autocombustion method and were fully analyzed by XRD, SEM and band
gap measurements.

Keywords: Photoreactor, Wastewater, Treatment, Porous Metals.


47

ONE STEP SYNTHESIS OF Fe/Ti OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES FROM ECUADORIAN BLACK


SANDS

Víctor H. Guerrero1, Karina Lagos1, Emilio Pardo2, Bojan A. Marinkovic3,


Patricia I. Pontón1, Alexis Debut4
1
Department of Materials, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Molecular Science Institute, University of Valencia, Paterna, Spain.
3
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
(PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
4
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: victor.guerrero@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: TiO2-based nanostructures have attracted special attention due to their photocatalytic
activity, ion exchange capacity and high specific surface area. These are key properties in applications such
as energy storage and pollutants photodegradation [1]. However, these nanostructures can only absorb
radiation in the UV region. This drawback might be overcome through their doping with metal ions (i.e. Fe)
in order to enhance their efficiency of absorbing visible radiation. The conventional route for the synthesis
of Fe/Ti oxide nanostructures, generally involves expensive reactants and complex procedures. Another
promising approach, but even less explored, is based on the alkaline hydrothermal treatment (AHT) of low
cost and unrefined natural precursors, such as ilmenite beach sands, that contain Fe and Ti in their crystal
structures [2] Large reserves of this mineral are located in the northern coast of Ecuador (Mompiche-
Esmeraldas). These black sands are fairly attractive from the point of view of their phase composition that
does not only comprise ilmenite (45-56%), but also hematite and magnetite, ranging from, 25-37 % and 10-
17%, respectively. Since Ecuadorian black sands exhibit a high Fe content, TiO2-based nanostructures
doped with Fe can be synthesized during AHT, while the excess of Fe could re-precipitate as nanohematite
and/or nanomagnetite. This opens a framework to prepare hybrid nanostructures in just one step soft-
chemistry synthesis. These nanostructures would also exhibit magnetic properties, which are of paramount
importance in industrial processes that imply their removal from aqueous media. The aim of this work is to
synthesize Fe/Ti oxide hybrid nanostructures in a single step, from unrefined Ecuadorian black sands. These
sands were ball milled and fed into a Teflon reactor to conduct the AHT, using a 10 M NaOH aqueous
solution under vigorous stirring. The reaction time was defined as 70 h and temperatures between 110 °C
and 190 °C were selected to evaluate the effect of this variable on the phase composition of the as-
synthesized nanostructures. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy with
energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses were performed to identify the crystalline phases and
elemental composition of the as-prepared nanostructures, respectively. Their morphology was evaluated by
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while their specific surface area was measured by N2 adsorption
using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method. This research shows an inexpensive approach for the
synthesis of Fe/Ti oxide hybrid nanostructures and the importance of further studies to determine the
photocatalytic and magnetic properties of these nanostructures.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Titanium Oxide, Photocatalytic Properties.


48

ACCEPTED SPEAKER

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE COMPOUND HYDROXYAPATITE, CARBON


NANOTUBES AND CHLORHEXIDINE HEXAMETAPHOSPHATE FOR BONE
REGENERATION IN ORAL CAVITY

Carlos Hernández Uribe1, Gerardo Ortega Cervantez2, Nadia Pérez Vielma3, Ángel Miliar García1

1
Departamento de Biología Molecular, ESM-Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Ciudad de México.
México.
2
Departamento de Física, ESFM-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad de México. México.
3
Departamento de SEPI, CICS-UST-Instituto Politécnico Nacional. Ciudad de México. México.

Corresponding author’s email: ángel.miliar@yahoo.com.mx

ABSTRACT: Introduction: Periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth organ loss in adults. Within
periodontal treatment, prophylactic procedures should be performed with the aim of eliminating the
bacterial load present, and approximately 30% of patients will require continuing to a surgical phase by
removing connective tissue infected to achieve bone regeneration by grafting osteoregenerative materials.
Objective: Develop a biomaterial from Hydroxyapatite, Multiple Wall Carbon Nanotubes and Clorhexidine
Hexametaphosphate (HA-MWCNT-CHX-HMP) to achieve bone regeneration with application in
periodontal disease.
Material and Methods: Characterize the compound (HA-MWCNT-CHX-HMP) using Raman
Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy.
Results: MWCTs were functionalized with nitric acid (appearance of carboxyl groups) which helps them
become more soluble and improve adhesion with other materials. Raman spectroscopy, was used to
characterize functionalized MWCNTs, and see the changes by means of the intensity ratio (ID/IG) of the
main bands of the nanotubes that give us information about the changes they undergo regarding the
nanotubes of pristine carbon. Using X-ray diffraction technique, calcium and phosphate groups typical of
Hydroxyapatite and Chlorhexidine Hexametaphyte were located, and the morphological characteristics of
(HA-MWCNT-CHX-HMP) were observed using Electronic Scanning Microscopy.
Conclusions: The functionalization of MWCNT was identified. Thus the presence of Calcium and
Phosphate groups belonging to HA and the binding of the compound (HA-MWCNT-CHX-HMP).

Keywords: Nanotubes, Bone Regeneration.


49

STUDY OF TOXICITY AND DEATH DUE TO NANOPARTICLE EXPOSURE AT A


CELLULAR LEVEL

David Carchi1, David Cárdenas1, Jonathan Escorza1, Ariana Drouet2, Alex Gavilanes2, Carlos Aguirre2,
Yolanda Angulo2, Luis Cumbal2, Alexis Debut2, Marbel Torres Arias1,2.
1
Centro de Posgrado, Maestría de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas
ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.
2
Centro de nanociencia y nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: This study was initiated to enhance our insight on the health and treatment impact of silver,
gold and polystyrene nanoparticles. To study their toxic effect in two types of cellular types (J744A.1 and
U251). The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthetized using sodium borohydride as reductant agent for
chemical synthesis, while polystyrene nanoparticles were synthesized by mini emulsion polymerization.
Toxicological properties were characterized by percentage of cell survival (using a MTT assay),
fluorescence microscopy, and nitric oxide assay (NO). It was also observed resistance in S. Aurus, E. Coli
and Salmonella Bacteria by CMI. The results suggest that silver nanoparticles induce cell death in J744A.1
and U251 confirmed by the use of MTT assays. The cell death has shown to appear at dose-time dependent
manner in both cell lines. An NO assay was used to describe cell toxicity and a possible pathway to induce
cell death by nanoparticles in these cell lines. As for the gold nanoparticles have shown to be less toxic and
they produce less cell death on both cell lines even though a greater concentration of gold nanoparticles can
still generate cell toxicity and death. The resistance on different bacteria strains proved that silver
nanoparticles can be toxic in small sizes to different bacteria, but not in big particle sizes. This toxicity has
shown to be also concentration dependent in a direct way.

Keywords: Cell, Nanoparticles, nanotoxicity.


50

STUDY OF THE POROSITY OF MWCNTS/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES


USING X-RAY NANOTOMOGRAPHY

David Lajones1, Julio Chacón1, Gema González1, Yadira Vega2, Elizabeth Mariño3
1
School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Química, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey,
México.
3
School of Earth Sciences, Energy and Environment, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: david.lajones@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Nanotomography, much like tomography and micro-tomography techniques, uses x-rays to
obtain 2D scans of a sample. Once processed, these 2D photograms can be used to create a 3D object and
virtually recreate a sample without destroying the original. As a nondestructive method of testing, it has
become a crucial tool in medicine and has also found uses in geological analysis. Here we present a
systematic tomography analysis performed with a nanotomograph (SkyScan-2011) that can be used to
measure the porosity of a nanocomposite composed of bentonite clay (matrix) and MWCNTs as fillers. The
experiment showed a decrease in porosity from the control sample (17.3%) for MWCNTs concentrations
of 0.01 wt. % (3.7%) and 0.05 wt. % (3.3%). A concentration of 0.50 wt. % increases the porosity to 3.9%
but it still remains below the control sample. The rise in porosity in the last sample could be indicative of
the reach of a critical concentration of MWCNTs in bentonite. Nanotomography was used to measure
porosity of these samples without risking contaminating or damaging them as in mercury intrusion and gas
adsorption techniques. Thus, we propose it as a complementary analysis for characterizing nanocomposites.

Keywords: Multi-Wall Nanotube, Porosity, Nanotomography.


51

GREEN SYNTHESIS OF IRON NANOPARTICLES USING GUAYUSA (ILEX GUAYUSA)


EXTRACT FOR CATALYTIC APPLICATIONS

Diogo Videira Quintela1, Erika Murgueitio2, Luis Cumbal2, Olga Martin3, Gemma Montalvo1
1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,
University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Polytechnic School, Carlos III University of Madrid,
Leganés, Madrid, Spain.

Corresponding author’s email: gemma.montalvo@uah.es

ABSTRACT: Iron nanoparticles are promising nanomaterials with catalytic properties for different
applications such as environmental remediation. In this work, iron nanoparticles were synthesized via
polyphenol assisted reduction by using Guayusa (Ilex guayusa) plant extract. With characterization by
scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy
(TEM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy, the structure and components of the green synthesized iron nanoparticles
were well-defined. Carbamazepine (CBZ) adsorption and dye degradation was performed to evaluate the
performance of the synthesized iron nanoparticles for environmental remediation applications. In
conclusion, this work provides a faster metallic iron nanoparticle production by offering an environmentally
friendly, simple, economical, reliable, sustainable and eco- friendly protocol, in contrast with the generally
applied toxic synthesis by using sodium borohydride and other similar chemicals. The results obtained in
the performed applications were satisfactory, obtaining an approximately 80% adsorption of CBZ, 25-30%
adsorption of dye and 75-80% degradation by a Fenton-like process of the same dye. Also, the novelty
regarding the use of Guayusa (Ilex guayusa) plant extract for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles is
highlighted.

Keywords: Green Chemistry, Nanoparticles, Iron, Photocatalytic.


52

STUDY OF HEAVY METALS IMMOBILIZATION FROM PORTOVELO SEDIMENTS BY


MULTICOMPONENT NANOPARTICLES (MCNPS) APPLICATION

Erika Llumiquinga & Luis Cumbal.

Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la


Agricultura,
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: emllumiquinga1@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The mining activities cause huge environmental problems in Ecuador because its effluents
containing a high amount of heavy metals are discharged into the rivers surrounding Zaruma-Portovelo,
Ponce Enriquez and Nambija. In this study MCNPs (Fe/FeS) were applied to sediments from Portovelo to
immobilize heavy metals: Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Hg and the metaloide As. To synthesize the MCNPs, 700
𝜇L of Na$ SO' 1M, 1000 𝜇L of FeCl, . 6H2O 1M and 120 mL of NaBH' 0.4M were added to 2.0 L of rain
water. It was found that the nanoparticles´ injection flow of water did not interfere on the immobilization
results and the ratio 2:1 (MCNPs: soil, mL/g) provided the best results. For the metals: Cd, Cr, Ni and Hg,
more than 90% immobilization was reached, while for Cu, Pb and As was 80, 70 and 40 %, respectively.
It was found that the pH was the main factor on the immobilization of toxic elements, but not for arsenic
because at basic pH, the arsenate anion predominate causing electrostatic repulsion forces against the FeO-
group of the oxidized Fe0 thus avoiding the As sorption onto the MCNPs. The metals which easily leached
were Cd, Ni and Hg but after applying the MCNPs, the leachability decreased to 77, 69 y 39%, respectively.
Based on the results, MCNPs applied into contaminated soils can be a powerful tool to immobilize heavy
metals; especially for Cd, Cr, Ni and Hg contained in sediments of the Calera River, Portovelo, El Oro
province.


Keywords: Multicomponent nanoparticles (MCNPs), heavy metals, adsorption, leachability,
immobilization.


53

GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF


SOLANUM MAMMOSUM: ANALYSIS OF POLYPHENOLS AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT
ACTIVITY

Fernanda Pilaquinga1,2, Neus Piña1, Jeroni Morey1


1
Department of Chemistry, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
2
Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mf.pilaquinga1@estudiant.uib.eu

ABSTRACT: Plants contain a considerable amount of active principles, such as polyphenols, which
promote the reduction of metal ions, thus making it possible to obtain metallic nanoparticles by means of a
green chemical reaction. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) where synthesized using the aqueous
leaf extract of Solanum mammosum. Optimal conditions were obtained using 20 mL of AgNO3 1 mM,
1 mL of plant extract, pH 8, and by heating for 90 s in a microwave at 800 W. Silver nanoparticles
obtainedare spherical and dispersed with an average size of 5.2 ± 2.3 nm as measured by TEM.XRD
confirmed the reduction of Ag+1 to Ag0 and the formation of semicrystalline AgNPs. Polyphenolic total
content in the extract analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu method was 826.6 ± 20.9 EGA / 100 g and 139.7 ± 20.9
mg EGA / 100 g in AgNPs. Antioxidant activity in the extract measured by ORAC-Fluorescence was 3944
± 112 μM and 637.5 ± 14.8 μM ET / g in AgNPs colloidal solution. The decrease of polyphenol total
contentand antioxidant activity confirms the reduction of silver ions in the reaction, and suggests that
polyphenols act as reducing agents in the formation of silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver, Nanoparticles, Antioxidant Activity, Solanum Mammosum.



54

HYBRID CARBON-BASED MATERIALS SUPPORTED IN 304 STAINLESS STEEL FOR


ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

Fernando Pantoja Suárez1,2,3, Islam Alshaikh1,2, Joan Martí González1,2, Roger Amade 1,2, José
Luis Andujar1,2, Esther Pascual1,2 and Enric Bertran Serra1,2
1
ENPHOCAMAT (FEMAN) Group, Dep. Applied Physics, Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i
Franquès, 1, 08028, Barcelona, España.
2
Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, España.
3
Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ladrón
de Guevara, E11-253, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: fpantoja@ub.edu

ABSTRACT: Carbon-based materials (CBM) are suitable candidates for use in the manufacture of high
power and high energy density storage systems (e.g. supercapacitors and batteries). Basically, the
researchers are looking for electrodes made of a composite material, with a high specific surface, good
electrical conductivity, high chemical stability and high capacitance. The contribution of CBM are the
three-dimensional nanoscale structure, high specific surface, good conductivity and chemical stability. The
high capacitance is provided by materials such as metal oxides. MnO2 is the one that concentrates the
attention of the scientific world and industry. Its low cost, low toxicity and environmental friendliness make
this oxide the perfect candidate for a wide range of electrochemical applications. In this work, a new
approach to produce electrodes based on CBM and MnO2 is presented. Graphene nano walls (GNWs) have
been grown on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using 304 stainless steel as substrate. Then
MnO2 was deposited on this hybrid structure by electrodeposition. Well-defined and homogeneously
distributed oxide nanoparticles were obtained along the boundaries of GNWs. Plasma enhanced chemical
vapor deposition (PECVD) was the process used to obtain CNTs, while GNWs were obtained by inductive
coupled plasma-chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD). We observe, by scanning electron microscope
(SEM), that the carbon structure morphology strongly influences the geometry of the MnO2 particles. In
addition, the Raman spectra of the samples were obtained to know their structural fingerprint. In order to
know the electrochemical performance of the electrodes, cyclovoltammetry (CV) and electrochemical
impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out.

Keywords: Hybrid Carbon-Based, Energy Storage.


55

BIOSYNTHESIS OF SELENIUM NANOPARTICLES USING THE GREEN MICROALGA


CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII: TOWARDS AN OPTIMIZED PROCESS

Francisco Eliseo Jaramillo Torres

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s e-mail: Francisco.jaramillo@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) have attracted tremendous attention owing to their high
biological activity and low toxicity. Amorphous selenium nanoparticles have demonstrated unique
photoelectric, semiconducting and x-ray-sensing properties. Moreover, selenium is a metalloid and exhibits
high photoconductivity, good photo-electrical properties and nonlinear optical properties. The present study
displays the preliminary results obtained in the bioproduction of Se-NPs using living cultures of the
unicellular, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii via a single-step process. This microalga was
grown for 3 weeks in Bold's Basal Medium (BBM), incubated at ~23°C with a photoperiod of 16 hours
light and 8 dark. To evaluate the feasibility of Se-NPs production by C. reinhardtii, three precursors of
selenium were introduced to the flask at a final concentration of 10-3 M: selenium tetrachloride (SeCl4),
selenious acid (H2SeO3) and sodium selenate (Na2SeO3). Most notorious results were obtained using
selenous acid (H2SeO3). This was confirmed by the change in color from green to orange-red, the presence
of an absorption band ~580 nm using UV-Vis and spherical NPs in the range of 10-30 nm in diameter using
transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, this process is light-dependent. The impact of the pH, cell
density and light intensity will be optimized towards the scalable production of SeNPs.

Keywords: Selenium Nanoparticles, Biosynthesis, Microalga, Optimization, Green Chemistry.


56

MOLECULAR ELECTRONIC DEVICES BASED ON MONOMOLECULAR FILMS

Henrry M. Osorio1, Santiago Martín2, Pilar Cea2, Paul J. Low3, Simon J. Higgins4, Richard J. Nichols4
1
Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Av. Ladron de Guevara, E11-253, 170525
Quito, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza,
50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
3
School of Molecular Sciences, University of Western Australia, 6009 Crawley, WA, Australia.
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZD Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Corresponding author’s email: henrry.osorio@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Molecular Electronics is an emergent technology in which organic, inorganic or


organometallic molecules are connected between two (or three) electrodes, and their electrical properties
are harnessed to perform some useful function that can translate to enhanced or novel performance in an
electronic device. Thus, this nascent technology emerges as candidate to replace the current complementary
metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. However, there are a number of scientific and
technological challenges that need to be addressed before molecular electronics can be implemented in the
market. One of these challenges is related to the incompatibility that exists between the studied single-
molecule devices (metal-molecule-metal juntions) and the production of devices using large-scale
fabrication techniques. In this talk, I will describe our efforts to address this challenge, using molecular
assemblies forming metal-organic monolayer-metal juntions. Specially, the talk will describe the
experimental results that show the influence in the electrical response of a junction upon increasing the
surface coverage of molecular components from truly isolated single molecules to more densely packed
and ordered films.

Keywords: Molecular Electronic, Film, Monomolecular, Metal-Oxide.


57

DECONTAMINATION OF VOC POLLUTANTS WITH CELLULOSE FROM BIODIVERSITY

Isaac Bravo1, Freddy Figueroa1, Maria Swasy3, Mohamed Attia4, Mohamed Ateia5, Domenica Encalada1,
Karla Vizueta2, Alexis Debut2, Daniel C. Whitehead3, and Frank Alexis1, #
1
School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Imbabura, Ecuador.
2
Center of Nanosciences and Nanotechnology (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui Ecuador.
3
Department of Chemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.
4
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, USA.
5
Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South
Carolina, USA.
#
BiodiverseSource, San Miguel de Urcuquí 100651, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: dwhiteh@clemson.edu, falexis@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Aldehydes are commonly encountered Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released to the
atmosphere from a variety of anthropogenic sources. Based on the increasing interest in developing
sustainable and environmentally friendly materials for the decontamination of VOCs, cellulose has emerged
as one possible candidate, but there is a lack of understanding of the physico-chemical properties affecting
the adsorption of VOCs, and the effect of the extraction source on these intrinsic features. The present study
was focused on the evaluation of unmodified cellulose extracted from biodiversity sources in Ecuador as
potential VOC decontaminants. Modifications of the natural fibers with polyethylenimine (PEI) coating
were performed to the enhance adsorption effectiveness. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),
x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET)
measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used to characterize the physico-
chemical properties. Gas chromatography assays demonstrated that unmodified cellulose adsorbed
aldehyde VOCs, like hexanal, reaching up to a 56.42 ± 7.30% reduction. Electrostatic coating of the
cellulose samples with small quantities of PEI enhanced the VOC remediation capacities (i.e. 98.12 ±
1.18%). Results demonstrated that the biodiversity source can affect the gas capturing properties, and that
these fibers can be an environmentally friendly solution for effective adsorption of VOC pollutants.

Keywords: Cellulose, Decontamination, Volatile Organic Compound.


58

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETICALLY SEPARABLE MAGNETITE-


TITANIUM DIOXIDE COMPOSITE FOR PHOTODEGRADATION

Isamar Sarabia1, Paul Vargas1, Henrry Osorio2, Leonardo Basile2, Cristian Santacruz2
1
Departamento de Ciencias Nucleares, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: cristian.santacruz@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used as a photocatalyst to remove pollutants in
waste water due to their strong oxidation power and large specific surface area. However, catalyst recycling
is not an easy task. This work presents the synthesis of Fe3O4-TiO2 magnetically separable and
photocatalytic active nanocomposite. Magnetite was synthesized by co-precipitation method, and it was
modified by Stöber method to produce Fe3O4-TiO2 nanocomposites. The material was characterized using
some techniques such as: UV-Vis diffuse reflectance, FTIR, XRD and AFM. Importantly, XRD shows the
formation of pure magnetite (Fe3O4) without planes (210) and (211) ruling out the presence of maghemite
(γ-Fe2O3). FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of Fe3O4 and the successful surface modification for
adsorption of TiO2. Photocatalytic activity of both materials (pure TiO2 and Fe3O4-TiO2) was studied by
methylene blue degradation. Finally, our results show that Fe3O4-TiO2 nanocomposite can enhance TiO2
photoactivity, and the material can be easily removed from aqueous media after photocatalytic process
applying an external magnetic field.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Titanium Dioxide, Photocatalitic Activity.


59

VALUE ANALYSIS AS AN IMPACT ASSESSMENT TOOL


FOR SUSTAINABLE PROJECTS UTILIZING SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENTS SYSTEM
(SAS)
“CATEGORIES & STANDARDS”

Jamal Alduaij

Kuwait University, Civil Engineering Department, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Corresponding author’s email: jamal.alduaij@ku.edu.kw

ABSTRACT: This paper is targeting professionals whom are concerned with the development of projects
and looking forward to enhancing its planning, designing, launching, or even operating & maintaining
phases.
It presents Value Analysis as an impact assessment tool to deal with these activities for the said
enhancement under the SAS categories as the main sustainability indicators in the green industry and
shedding light on implementing and integrating Nanotechnology in these standards.
The program presents the Value Analysis background and concept, systematically integrated with the said
SAS categories and schemes.
Outlines:
1. Value analysis in the project management environment: Enhancing the project soundness:
(performance, quality, & the life cycle costing).
2. The SAS Categories and Standards
3. Value Analysis Methodology (Overview).
4. Value Analysis and the SAS Categories (Impact Assessment)
5. Impact Assessment for the SAS Schemes.
6. Sample value Analysis study.

Keywords: SAS, Renewable Energy Industry, Nanotechnology


60

MODELLING ENANTIOMERIC CATALYSTS: ENANTIOSELECTIVE HYDROGENATION


OF METHYL ACETOACETATE OVER NI SURFACES

Jorge Ontaneda1, Ricardo Grau Crespo2, Georg Held3

1
Departamento de Química, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano Alto, Loja
1101608, Ecuador.
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AD, UK.
3
Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX, UK.

Corresponding author’s email: jeontaneda@utpl.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Most of the current knowledge in enantioselective heterogeneous catalysis refers to the
hydrogenation of β-ketoester over Ni-based catalysts and the hydrogenation of α-ketoester on Pd-based
systems. These reactions require a crucial step in the catalyst preparation: the adsorption of chiral modifiers
onto the metal nanoparticles of the catalyst. In the case of the simplest β-ketoester, methyl acetoacetate
(MAA), the hydrogenation results in a racemic mixture R- and S-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate (MHB) when
performed over an unmodified Raney Ni catalyst. The reaction, however, can be directed to a high
enantiomeric excess if the Ni surface is modified with chiral α-amino acids or α-hydroxy acids. Even though
the process is well-characterised in terms of macroscopic quantities, information at molecular scale is
missing regarding the influence of chiral modifiers have on adsorption complex of MAA. The
understanding of this mechanism would help to achieve and optimise enantioselective behaviour of Ni-
based catalysts. By combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption
fine structure (NEXAFS) with Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling, we have been studying the
adsorption complex of reactant MAA and typical chiral modifiers (e.g., alanine, aspartic acid, and tartaric
acid) over Ni{111} and Ni{100} surfaces. We have found MAA adsorbs on flat surfaces forming
deprotonated enolate species with bidentate coordination, and the molecular plane of the adsorbate leans
towards one side. These findings suggest that the role of modifiers in the enantioselective hydrogenation of
MAA is to stabilise only one of two possible tilt directions, which would lead to the chiral product
formation.

Keywords: Model, Enantiomeric Catalyst, DFT.


61

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAPHENE OXIDE DECORATED WITH


SILVER NANOPRISMS

Joselyn Benalcázar Jaramillo1, José Andrés Arcos1, Esteban Lasso1, Katy Hubbman2, Svitlana
Trotsenko2, Julio Chacón Torres1, Stephanie Reich2, and Sarah Briceño1
1
Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Urcuqui, Ecuador.
2
Freie Universität Berlin, Experimental Physics Department, Berlin, Germany.

Corresponding author’s email: sbricenio@yachaytech.edu.ec


ABSTRACT: Graphene oxide nanocomposites with silver nanoparticles have several applications
including catalysis, sensors, biomedicine and as antibacterial agents. Graphene oxide (GO) has been
recognized as an ideal supporting material for the dispersion of nanoparticles. The size and shape of the
nanoparticles influence directly the optical properties of the nanocomposite, thus the metallic nanoprisms
(NPs) are of great interest, since its shape provides unique physical-chemical properties. In this work, we
present a simple, low cost and effective in-situ method for the decoration of GO with silver nanoprisms.
The structural characterization of GO composites with Ag-NPs revealed a homogeneous dispersion of the
NPs along the graphene surface. Our scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electronic micrographs
confirmed the presence of Ag nanoprisms with an average size of 30nm on the GO surface. The Raman
spectroscopy characterization confirmed the high quality of the GO. These results show that our
photochemical reduction method promotes the synthesis of homogeneous nanoprisms on GO layers, which
generates a new flanged nanostructured material with potential applications in optoelectronics.

Keywords: Silver nanoprisms, Graphene oxide, Optoelectronics.


62

THREE-DIMENSIONAL GRAPHENE ELECTRODES FOR WATER DESALINATION BY


CAPACITIVE DEIONIZATION
Leonardo Basile, Ronny de la Bastida, Henrry Osorio, Cristian Santacruz
Department of Physics, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador.
Corresponding author’s email: leonardo.basile@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Water scarcity around the world is a looming problem with very few easy solutions.
Established desalination technologies, like reverse osmosis or multi-stage distillation, are expensive and
energy intensive. Capacitive deionization (CD) has emerged as a low cost and energy efficient alternative
to desalt brackish water. There, a two-electrode cell, under an electric potential difference, removes and
stores salt ions of opposite charge in each electrode. The CD process is the electrosorption of salt ions in
the electrical double layers formed at each electrode. Recently, CD has attracted new attention due to the
development of novel electrode materials. Graphene, an atom thick layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal
lattice, assembled with a cellular structure, could make an ideal electrode material due to its large surface
area, excellent electrical conductivity, and being chemically inert. Here we report our efforts to fabricate
three-dimensional porous graphene electrodes by freeze drying a graphene ink prepared by electrochemical
exfoliation. The as produced ink and porous electrode material were characterized by UV-VIS, AFM,
FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, and conductivity measurements. The performance of the freeze-dried
material was investigated as an electrode for CD by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge discharge
and complex impedance measurements. Our results show electrodes with large surface area and superior
specific capacitance. In summary, 3D graphene electrodes prepared from graphene inks are promising
candidates for CD due to relatively simple fabrication, low cost and the use of non toxic materials.

Keywords: Water Desalination, Graphene, Electrode.


63

COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF THE INTERACTION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES


WITH SOME BIOMOLECULES

Lorena Meneses1, Felipe Gallegos1, Josefa Arias1, Caterine Muzo1, Sebastián Cuesta1, Paola Rodríguez2,
Fernanda Pilaquinga2
1
Laboratorio de Química Computacional, Escuela de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y
Naturales, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Laboratorio de Nanotecnología, Escuela de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y
Naturales, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: lmmeneses@puce.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles are recognized for numerous physical, biological, and pharmaceutical
applications. Their main uses in the medical field comprise diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this
work, the interaction of silver nanoparticles and some biomolecules such as monosaccharides and
antioxidants were studied, in order to know how nanoparticles, behave when they are in contact with them.
An optimization of the geometry of clusters containing 1, 3, and 5 silver atoms was performed along with
the optimization of alfa-d-Glucose, alfa-d-Ribose, d-Erythrose, d-Glyceraldehyde, Anethole, Gallic Acid,
Caffeine and Theobromine using Density Functional Theory implemented in the Gaussian 09W package of
programs. The interaction energies between the biomolecules and silver clusters were calculated in order
to obtain the more stable complex-conformation. The energy interaction values change from one group of
molecules to another. A study of Molecular Orbital describing HOMO interactions of the clusters was
performed showing that the electronic density was around the silver cluster. Molecular Dynamics
simulation was performed using Abalone program. Silver clusters got far away from the biological
molecules over a certain period of time, showing that silver nanoparticles react with the biomolecules, but
then, they have good clearance properties.

Keywords: Simulation, Silver, Nanoparticles, Biomolecules.


64

LUMINESCENT NANOTHERMOMETRY IN TRIVALENT EUROPIUM DOPED TITANIUM


OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

Luis Borrero González1, Selene Acosta2, Carla Bittencourt2, Maja Garvas3, Polona Umek3, Luiz Nunes4
1
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Escuela de Ciencias Físicas y Matemática, Pontificia
Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Chimie des Interactions Plasma – Surface (ChIPS), Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering,
Université de Mons, Mons, Belgium.
3
Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
4
Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Corresponding author’s email: ljborrero@puce.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: A novel technique for determining temperature changes in Y2O3 nanocrystals doped with
trivalent Europium (Eu3+) has recently been developed. This technique consists of monitoring certain
thermally coupled Eu3+ transitions. Seeking applications in nanomedicine, the host material for Eu3+ must
be biocompatible and excitations and emissions must be within biological transparency windows. This
work’s objective is thus the construction of a nanothermometer based on Eu3+-doped titanium oxide
nanoparticles. The samples were synthesized through the sol gel method. The phase composition was
performed using XRD; the morphology using TEM; and the content of europium and its oxidation state
using XPS. The optical characterization was carried out through photoluminescence and
photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies using a spectrofluorometer coupled to a Peltier module with
automatic temperature controller. We observed that the intensities of the excitation bands for the 7F0®5D0
(576 nm) and 7F2®5D0 (610 nm) transitions, monitoring the 5D0®7F4 (700 nm) transition, are strongly
temperature-dependent. This dependence is explained in terms of a thermal coupling between the 7FJ levels.
Relative sensitivity values between 1.78 and 1.41 % K-1 were obtained when the material’s temperature is
increased from 288 to 323 K. We show that the nanothermometer calibration can be obtained by a single
luminescence room temperature measurement. Finally, our results indicate the potential application of the
material studied for temperature sensing in biological systems.

Keywords: Temperature Sensing, Biological Systems, Titanium Oxide, Nanoparticles.


65

BIOSYNTHESIS OF MoS2/rGO NANOCOMPOSITE AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS


PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITY FOR THE REMOVAL OF RESIDUAL
PHARMACEUTICALS

Ana Gabriela Noboa Aguirre & Luis Cumbal

Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas,


Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding autor´s e-mail: lhcumbal@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) have been found in rivers, lakes and
reservoirs with concentrations above regulated concentrations. These compounds are linked with alterations
on fish and toxicity on some types of algae and invertebrates. PPCPs are photocatalytically removed from
water by TiO2-based materials1 but the process needs UV light to excite electrons from the valence band to
conduction band and produce reactive oxygen substances (ROS) involved in the degradation of PPCPs. In
this study, we prepared nanocomposites (NCs) containing MoS2 nanostructures and reduced graphene oxide
(rGO) layers to be used in treatments under sunlight. GO was prepared from graphite by Hummer´s
method2. MoS2 was synthetized using the procedure developed by Huang et al.3. Then, MoS2/rGO
nanocomposites were prepared using cochineal extract as a reducing agent. Degradation of PPCPs was
carried out mixing solutions of diclofenac and carbamazepine with various volumes of NCs under solar
simulator and sunlight for 4 h. Nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy
(SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry and HPLC was used to analyze PPCPs before
and after treatment. SEM images show structures of 50-300nm MoS2 are embedded on a matrix of rGO.
Cyclic voltammetry indicates that oxygen groups of GO have been reduced to rGO in the NCs and have
good stability. XRD analysis shows low crystallinity peaks associated to rGO and MoS2 components.
Preliminary degradation tests at pH 6.3 for diclofenac resulted in 50.0 and 75.2% for solar simulator and
sunlight, respectively while for carbamazepine 63.3 and 60.5% in the same order.

Keywords: Removal, Residual Pharmaceuticals, Nanocomposites.


66

pH SENSITIVE POLYMER FOR POTENTIAL BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION


OBTAINED BY GAMMA-RAY

Moisés Bustamante Torres1, Victor H. Pino Ramos2, Sandra Hidalgo3, Emilio Bucio2
1
School of Biological and Applied Sciences, Biomedical Engineering Department, Yachay Tech University,
Urcuquí city, Ecuador.
2
Department of Radiation Chemistry, Nuclear Science Institute, National Autonomous University of
Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.
3
School of Chemical and Applied Sciences, Chemistry Department, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí city,
Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: moises.bustamante@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The synthesis of pH-responsive hydrogel systems has biomedical applications. Poly (AAc)
(PAAc), has the facility to retain antimicrobial agents as antibiotics and metallic nanoparticles such as silver
(AgNPs), cupper, among others. Additionally, PAAc has a great capacity to bind other molecules through
ionic interaction with metallic ions. PAAc is a highly biocompatible polymer and, once Ag+ ions are bound
to the structure by absorption and acquire antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to synthesize
pH-responsive hydrogels highly crosslinked by means of γ-ray for obtaining polymeric matrices for potential
as an antimicrobial system. Polymeric material consisted of agar that was dissolved in distilled water at 80
°C with fixed stirred; it was mixed with distilled acrylic acid (AAc) at different concentration, then were
heated at different reaction time and temperature. The samples were place into petri dishes and irradiated
with 60Co γ-sources (Gammabeam 651 PT, Nordion International Inc.) with an activity of 63200 Ci at a dose
rates of 7.2 kGy h-1, applying absorbed doses between 15 and 25 kGy. The influence of preparation
conditions, such as absorbed dose, monomer concentration, and reaction time were studied. The structure of
stimuli-responsive hydrogel was studied by FT-IR, TGA, DSC, mechanical testing and swelling. The pH-
responsiveness of hydrogels was measured by swelling assay under cycling changes in the pH from 2 to 12.
AgNPs was characterized by UV/VIS spectroscopy and SEM. Finally, the hydrogel loaded with AgNPs and
ciproprofloxacin were subjected challenged against E. coli and S. aureus exhibiting good antimicrobial
activity.

Keywords: Hydrogel System, Antimicrobial, Silver Nanoparticles, Ciproprofloxacin, Gamma-


Ray.


67

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES FROM


GERANIUM (P. DOMESTICUM) FOR MILITARY APPLICATIONS

Natalia Villarroel, Alexis Debut, Blanca Naranjo, Yolanda Angulo

Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,


Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: nyvillarroel@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The nanoparticle green-synthesis is a low-cost method that decreases the toxicity of the
produced nanoparticles. The process uses natural poliphenols from geranium (P. domesticus) extracts as
copper reducing agent. The copper nanoparticles exhibit a high surface-volume ratio, high heat transfer
capacity and antimicrobial properties. Therefore, these nanoparticles can be used to coat military
equipment. Petals of P. domesticum were dried, pulverized and macerated with methanol slightly acidified
with 1N HCl for 72 h. Subsequently, the content was filtered and concentrated in a rotary evaporator. One
hundred and fifty miligrams of extract was diluted in 1 mL of distilled water Q1 (pH 11). Copper nitrate
(Cu(NO3)2) was used at three concentrations: 5mM, 10mM and 15mM dissolved in 0.5 mL of extract for
the final synthesis. Using UV-vis spectrophotometry, a high stability of the synthesized nanoparticles was
determined, while the size of the particles was performed by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and obtained
values range between 60 ± 20 nm. TEM images showed nanoparticles with spherical shape. Due to the size
and shape of the copper nanoparticles, they are ideal for coating polymeric matrices and increase resistance
to heat impacts for military protection equipment.

Keywords: Greem Synthesis, Copper Nanoparticles, Polymer, Bullet Proof.


68

STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN POLYOXOMETALATES NANOCLUSTERS


EVIDENCED BY ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE

Pedro Silva1,2,3, Reinaldo Atencio1,2,3, Alexander Briceño2, Julia Bruno Colmenarez2, Erick Limones1
1
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL),
Guayaquil, Ecuador.
2
Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela.
3
Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Nanomateriales (CIDNA), Guayaquil, Ecuador.

Corresponding autor´s e-mail: pejosi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Hybrid (organic-inorganic) compounds based on polyoxometalates are of great interest due
to their physicochemical properties associated with their structural features and they can be tunable by
controlling the synthesis conditions. Polyoxomolybdates have great industrial importance due to their
applications as catalytic precursors in the hydro-processing of oil feedstock materials, as well as in hydro-
desulfurization processes and in many other applications of industrial value. In this work, Electron
Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) was used to study structural changes in four samples of molybdate-based
hybrid materials with the aim to explain its physicochemical properties. These four novel compounds were
hydrothermally synthetized and structurally characterized. Compound {[Cu(OH2)(bpy)][Cu-
(bpy)]2W6O21}·4H2O}n (1) is a thermodynamically stable 1D polymer built up from an unusual
hexatungstate entity decorated by three ‘Cu(bpy)’ moieties. In the compounds {[Co(bipy)3]2[(a-
Mo8O26)1/2(b-Mo8O26)1/2]}×5H2O (2), {[NH4+][Co(bipy)3][(g-Mo8O26)1/2(b-Mo8O26)1/2]}×4H2O (3) cations
[Co(bipy)3]n+ (bpy=2,2’-bipyridine; n=2 or 3) drives the isolation of pairs of octamolybdate isomers a-b
and g-b coexisting in the crystal structures. A fourth compound involves crystallographically independent
b-b variants {[Co(bipy)3]2[(b-Mo8O26)1/2(b- Mo8O26)]}×8H2O (4). The temperature dependence of the
Resonance field and the linewidth was obtained for the compound 1, these results suggest structural
reversibility as function of the temperature. In the last three nanoclusters 2-4 a room temperature study of
the EPR spectra on the cobalt ion was recorded and a rhombohedral distortion was observed on the cobalt
coordination environment.

Keywords: Nanocluster, Paramagnetic Resonance, Hybrid Compound, Polyoxomolybdate.


69

GREEN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF CYCLOHEXANOL USING HYBRID NANOMETRIC


ISOPOLYMOLYBDATES [Mo36O112(OH2)16]8- AS PRECURSOR AGENTS.

Reinaldo Atencio1,2,3, Xacvier Galindo1, Alexander Briceño1, Lindora D`Ornela4

1
Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela.
2
Departamento de Ciencias Químicas y Ambientales, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas,
Escuela Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil, Ecuador.
3
Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Nanotecnología, Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral
(ESPOL), Guayaquil, Ecuador.
4
Centro de Química Organometálica y Macromolecular, Escuela de Química, Facultad de Ciencias,
Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV).

Corresponding author´s e-mail: ratenciof@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: The synergism frequently observed in the hybrid inorganic/organic materials has been an
attractive target for many solid-state researchers. Such solids combine the unique characteristics of the
components to provide novel structural types, as well as new properties arising from the synergistic
interplay of the two parts. The ability to understand and control the organic and inorganic structural
attributes of these hybrids is essential for being able to engineer the physical characteristics, both for
fundamental studies as well as potential applications. Herein, the structure-directing effect of organoamine
compounds was used to obtain crystalline solids with nanometric {Mo36}-clusters. The synthesis and the
single-crystal X-ray diffraction characterization of these nanometric isopolymolybdates
[Mo36O112(OH)16][H2TMA]4.24H2O (TMA= tetramethylammonium; 1) and
.
[Mo36O112(OH2)16][H2bpy]4 28H2O (bpy= 2,2’-bipyridine; 2) is reported. The solids were synthesized from
(Na2MoO4·2H2O) and an ethanolic solution of the corresponding heterocyclic amine as starting materials.
2 was previously communicated, but the comparison of its crystal packing with that of 1 is treated herein.
1 crystallizes in a monoclinic system in a spatial group P21/n, and cell parameters a=14.447(3),
b=20.102(4), c=29.614(5) Å, b=119.188(1)°. Both crystal structures show cavities where water molecules
and the organic contraions are hosted. The packing is stabilized by a complex set of N-H…O hydrogen
bonds. Crystallization water molecules can be removed and reabsorbed without losing the striking feature
of the crystal packing. Both solids 1 and 2 resulted in clean catalysts for the green catalytic oxidation of
cyclohexanol, showing a modest activity when hydrogen peroxide is used as an oxygen transfer agent.

Keywords: Hybrid Material, Organoamine, Characterization.


70

ULTRA-FAST KINETIC AND STABILITY STUDIES OF SILVER NANOCOLLOIDS USING A


LIQUID CORE WAVEGUIDE MEMBRANE MICROREACTOR

Sebastián Ponce & Bastian J.M. Etzold

Ernst-Berl-Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt,


64287 Darmstadt, Germany.

Corresponding author’s email: etzold@tc1.tu-darmstadt.de

ABSTRACT: Due to their exceptional optical, electrical, antimicrobial, antifungal, and antiviral properties,
silver nanoparticles (NPs) have found many applications in today’s life, and certainly in future scenarios.
However, there is a big concern that their intrinsic toxicity would affect natural microbial communities,
causing a significant impact on the environment. AgNP toxicity properties arise principally from their
tendency to suffer a number of chemical and photochemical transformations. Thus, since technical NP
suspensions will be exposed to different working conditions, it is essential to develop simple and fast
screening methods to define how variables; such as temperature, gas saturation, light exposure, ligand
concentrations, physical media, etc may affect their initial properties and surroundings. Recently, we
reported a liquid core waveguide membrane microreactor (LCWM), based on a Teflon AF tube, which
allows in situ UV/Vis spectra of liquid phases while complete gas/liquid saturation is achieved. In this
study, the novel concept of a LCWM microreactor is used to carry out ultra-fast photochemical
transformations, controlling e.g. light irradiation (UV and/or VIS), gas saturation (N2, air), for kinetic and
stability studies of Ag nanocolloids with surface plasmon resonance properties. The results obtained within
the LCWM reactor are consistent with observations carried out in common photo-reactors (time scale:
hours-days-months), but using lesser amount of particles and much shorter time scales (min-hours). Finally,
while common photo-reactor studies allow for qualitative interpretation of photooxidation processes, the
experiments within the LCWM reactor enabled reliable quantitative information.

Keywords: Silver, Nanoparticles, LCWM Reactor, Characterization.


71

ORIGIN OF COLOR VARIATIONS OF THIN, NANO-SIZED LAYERS OF VOLCANIC


CINDER FROM THE SIERRA NEGRA VOLCANO OF THE GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS –
IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANETARY GEOLOGY

Theofilos Toulkeridis1, Andrea V. Vaca1,2, Alexis Debut1, Carlos R. Arroyo1


1
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas, ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN), Facultad Regional Haedo, Haedo, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Corresponding author’s email: ttoulkeridis@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Volcanic cinder, also known as scoria, is an extrusive igneous rock that forms when gas-
rich magmas of basaltic or andesitic composition cool quickly. It is typically dark in color, ranging from
black to red depending on its chemical composition. Sometimes fresh cinder samples show a variety of
shiny metallic colors on its surface ranging from blue to gold to silver. Up to now, the origin of these colors
has remained unknown. Cinder samples from an eruptive event occurred in October 2005, have been
collected at the surroundings of the Sierra Negra volcano in the Galapagos Islands. The crystallographic
structure, chemical composition and surface morphology of these samples have been analyzed by using
XRD, EDS and SEM respectively. Based on an extensive analysis, we were able to demonstrate that these
colors are due to a light interference phenomenon. These results have a great potential to be used for a wide
variety of purposes such as determining the temperature and composition of the magma as well as
evaluating volcanic samples for planetary studies.

Keywords: Cinder, Galapagos, optical interference, nano-sized layers, crystallization speed


72

POSTER PRESENTATION

PREVENTION OF BACTERIAL ACCUMULATION THROUGH USE OF BIODEGRADABLE


AND CONDUCTIVE THIN FILM BASED ON GRAFENE

Alanis Chicaiza Zambrano, Nelson Santiago Vispo, Camilo Zamora Ledezma, Frank Alexis

School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Universidad de Investigación de Tecnología


Experimental Yachay Tech, Ibarra, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: alanis.chicaiza@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The chance of an infection in a patient with a prosthesis is very high due to the bacterial
accumulation that forms a biofilm layer. Currently, the resistance of the biofilm to traditional antimicrobial
agents has increased because bacteria modified the metabolic states that make them less susceptible even
to the action of antibiotics (Caubet, et al., 2004). Therefore, thin films based on graphene are presented as
the appropriate disinfection biomaterial to combat and annihilate bacteria, avoiding the formation of biofilm
(Kotela, et al., 2019). Graphene is the material indicated for the coating of different materials due to its
physical-chemical properties, such as good conductivity, mechanical strength, flexibility, high-density
permeability, and biocompatibility. Even, the graphene layers can be easily adapted, which makes it an
excellent material for surface coating. One of the simplest methods for making the layers of the graphene
figures is drop deposition (Ahmad, et al., 2018). Here, we show how to produce thin layers of conductive
graphene using Graphene-Elicarb dissolved in dimethylformamide (DMF) and PLGA 2% by the method
of drop-casting and its possible application as a coating and disinfection material. The objective is to
investigate the ability of graphene layers to kill the Escherichia Coli bacteria of the TG1 strain by applying
frequencies in the range of 5 MHz to 15 MHz through the layers. The emitted radiofrequency will create
an electromagnetic field that affects the polar parts of the biofilm molecules (Caubet, et al., 2004). For the
bacterial count, the method of dilutions is used, which consists of counting the viable colonies by
performing successive dilutions of the sample and sowing a volume of it in a specific culture medium. In
addition, the optical density of the sample is measured at 600 nm, which creates a bacterial survival curve
that shows the percentage of E. coli TG1 bacteria annihilation. The results showed a decrease in Escherichia
Coli TG1 when exposed to radiofrequency between 10MHz and 15MHz on a thin film of Graphene-Elicarb
for 1 hour, this trend continued for 12 hours. The prevention of colony formation and assembly, a
prerequisite for biofilm formation, was also observed at lower radiofrequency, 5MHz after 12 hours. The
current results provided many promises for the application of radiofrequency as an alternative method to
prevent the formation of prosthetic biofilms.

Keywords: Graphene, Biodegradable Film, Infection.


73

EXOSOME-LIKE VESICLES PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION FROM


PASSIFLORA EDULIS.

Alejandra Muñoz1, Michelle Simaluisa1, Sofia Taday1, Alexis Debut1,2, Karla Caiza2,
Marbel Torres Arias1,2
1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y Agricultura, Carrera de Biotecnología, Laboratorio de
Inmunología y Virología, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas, ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: In recent years, interest has focused on plant-derived nanovesicles (Zhang et al., 2016) that
can act as a cellular therapy free of cells that transport drugs to tissues and specific organ of interest. From
fruit juice have been possible isolate lipoprotein vesicles of the apoplastic fluid and exosome-like vesicles
(ELV) that contains short interfering RNAs, proteins and secondary metabolites. Passiflora edulis is a
source rich in flavonoids, which exerts a sedative action on the nervous system; It contains 5-HT, molecule
similar to the neurotransmitter serotonin that modulates behavior, feeding and sleep controlled by central
nervous system (Briguglio et al., 2018), also contain ascorbic (vitamin C) and retinoic acid (vitamin A) that
have properties anticancer and relaxing, which act as antioxidants preventing cell aging and heart disease.
The objective was purified vesicles similar to exosomes of Passiflora edulis using qEVoriginal / 70nm
exclusion columns (iZON). Its characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
obtaining ELV of 30-150 nm in diameter and the content of ascorbic acid and retinoic acid was confirmed
by thin-layer chromatography. ELV represents an important tool as much for diagnostic and therapy,
combining the benefits of synthetic nanocarriers and drug delivery systems in cells.

Keywords: Exosome, Vesicles, Characterization, Passiflora Edulis.


74

ELECTROCHEMICAL GENERATION OF THIN CONDUCTING POLYMER FILMS

Alex Palma Cando1, Ibeth Rendón Enríquez2, Ullrich Scherf3, Michael Tausch2
1
School of Chemistry and Engineering, Yachay Tech, Urcuqui, Ecuador.
2
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Education, Bergische Universitä t Wuppertal, Wuppertal,
Germany.
3
Macromolecular Chemistry Group, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.

Corresponding author’s email: apalma@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: During the last 40 years, the study of intrinsically conducing polymers (ICPs) has caught
the attention of the scientific community due to different potential applications of this relatively new
semiconducting materials. ICPs has been widely utilized among others in organic solar cells, organic light
emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, actuators, pseudo capacitors, sensor and biosensor. Most of
these applications demands the formation of thin polymer films which can be managed by using
electrochemical polymerization. Advantages of this methodology, namely electropolymerization, for
producing thin polymer films are metal and catalyst free synthesis, one step polymerization and film
deposition, easy control of thickness and roughness, in situ characterization, etc. Bifunctional monomers,
with only two linking sites, have mainly synthesized and used for thin film electrogeneration; however, in
the last 4 years many different multifunctional monomers, with three or more linking sites, have been
designed and synthesized for producing cross liked polymer networks with high surface areas and high
stability. In this work, we show examples for the electrochemical polymerization of both kind monomers,
bifunctional and multifunctional, for the generation of thin films (nanometric thick). Electrochemical,
optical and morphological characterization of these films were carried out showing potential applications
in electrochromic devices and explosive sensors.

Keywords: Conducing Polymer, Characterization, Film.


75

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY


IN AGNPS USING SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM LEAF EXTRACT

Alexandra Robalino & Fernanda Pilaquinga

Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: alex-robalino@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT: Studies have been reported where Solanum Lycopersicum fruit extract was used for the
synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). But there is very little information regarding the use of its leaves
even though it possesses anti-inflammatory and healing properties. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized
by green chemistry method using as a reducing agent the aqueous leaf extract of this species. An analytical
method for the detection of polyphenols was also studied and the ability of the extract and nanoparticles to
eliminate DPPH radicals at different concentrations evaluated. In addition, cyclic voltammetry was used to
study its antioxidant capacity. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Visible
spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result,
AgNPs with an average size of 13 nm were obtained at a maximum absorption wavelength of 416 nm. The
polyphenolic content was 901.8 and 44.89 mg / L, expressed as equivalents of gallic acid, in the extract and
the nanoparticles colloidal solution, respectively. The DPPH ratio between standard-extract was 1145.32
and the ratio between standard-nanoparticles was 76.74 which is lower, therefore, the extract was a better
DPPH eliminator. Regarding cyclic voltammetry, it was shown that the extract has a high antioxidant
capacity, because it reduces the oxidation peak when extract is added in the support electrolyte. It is
concluded that the extract is a good reducing agent and has a high antioxidant capacity in the synthesis of
AgNPs.

Keywords: Silver, Nanoparticles, Antioxidant Activity, Solanum Lycopersicum, Leaf Extract.


76

DEVELOPMENT OF BIONICS PLANTS FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION

Alison Torres1, Steve Morales2, Jonathan Escorza2, Alexis Debut1, Yolanda Angulo1
1
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas ArmadasESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui,
Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: samorales6@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The current world population is about 7.2 billion, it is expected to reach 9.6 billion by the
end of 2050. This forecast puts tremendous pressure on the agriculture and energy sector. Nowadays,
agriculture must improve its production without using pesticides so as not to deteriorate the quality of the
environmental. In this work, we developed bionics plants using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). There were
exposed directly to the leaves for protection against fungi, parasites and increased electrical potential.
AgNPs of 35 nm in size and different morphologies were used. The morphological structure of the plant
was simply observed. On the other hand, analyses of the absorption of AgNPs were carried out in the plant
with SEM and DRX techniques. Measurement of IvsV curves was performed with and without AgNPs in
plants.

Keywords: Bionic Plant, Energy Production, Silver Nanoparticles.


77

TIGHT BINDING MODEL FOR LITHIUM ADSORBATE ATOMS IN DIFFERENT


ADSORPTION PLACES (TOP, HOLLOW, BRIDGE) ON GRAPHENE

Andrés Hidalgo & Mayra Peralta

School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ibarra, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: andres.hidalgo@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: In this work we present an analytical Tight Binding Model (TBM) for graphene with
adsorbate atoms of Lithium, in different positions of adsorption. The configurations analyzed here are: a)
Top site (adsorbate atom on top of the carbon atom of the sublattice A of graphene), b) Hollow site
(adsorbate atom in the center of the graphene hexagonal lattice), and c) Bridge site (adsorbate atom in the
middle of the A-B bridge of the graphene carbon atoms). The theoretical comparison of the Top and Bridge
configurations with respect to the reported as more energetically stable, Bridge configuration, is proposed
by virtue of the electronic properties of those configurations. The Top site configuration presents a linear
dispersion and a gap between the energy bands. On the other hand, in the Hollow and Bridge configurations
the Dirac cone is preserved as in the case of pristine graphene. We find excellent agreement of our results
when are compared with the calculations of DFT bands found in literature. This review will help to
understand how the different places of adsorption will affect the properties of Li-doped graphene.

Keywords: Graphene, Tight Binding Model, DFT.


78

PHOTO-REACTOR FOR THE EVALUATION OF CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF


NANOPARTICLES UNDER IRRADIATION WITH VISIBLE OR UV LIGHT

Angélica Navarrete1, Marcos Hidalgo1, Pablo Cisneros1, Poojesh Bertram2, Miguel Herrera1, Jan
Spengler1
1
Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Tena, Ecuador.
2
Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule, Jena, Germany.

Corresponding author’s email: jan.spengler@ikiam.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Photocatalytic nanomaterials are under investigation around the world dealing with
environmental issues (e.g. for water decontamination). However, the evaluation of their activities relies
upon controlled irradiation with an UV or visible intense light source. Such irradiation experiments must
be safe in design in order to avoid health risks especially for skin and eyes. Here we present a prototype of
photo-reactor that was designed for safe, convenient and space-saving conduction of irradiation
experiments at laboratory scale. This device can be placed right over a typical laboratory bench. The photo
reactor consists of two compartments: the lower one is a bottomless box that fits over a magnetic stirrer
with glassware placed onto it. A door in front permits a user-friendly handling of the samples. Light is
irradiated from the above compartment through an “ON/OFF” door. The light source itself is fixed right
above the aperture with laboratory stative and clips. Different light sources can be tested in the device.
Several degradation experiments with photo-active BiOX nanoparticles were performed successfully. The
heat emitted by the light source is the limiting factor. Otherwise, the heat development in the photo reactor
has to be controlled constantly. In summary, the photo-reactor permits a comfortable and save working
with LED light sources.

Keywords: Catalytic Activity, Photoreactor.


79

DETERMINATION OF THE BEST SOLVENT AT DIFFERENT pH FOR SYNTHESIS AND


CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY (LACTIC-CO-GLYCOLIC ACID) (PLGA)
NANOPARTICLES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Camila Gallegos1, Vanessa Gaona1, Karla Vizuete1,2 Katherine Pazmiño2, Brajesh Kumar3, Frank
Alexis4, Alexis Debut1,2
1
Department of Life Science and Agriculture, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
2
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
3
Department of Chemistry, TATA College, Chaibasa-833202, Jharkhand, India.
4
School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, University Yachay Tech, Ibarra, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: apdebut@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The development of nanoparticles from polymeric biomaterials has had an increasing
progress to combat diseases. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a biodegradable polymer used in the
encapsulation of medicine because it protects the drug from degradation and improves its stability. Also,
as an advantage, when PLGA is degraded it produces metabolites such as lactic acid and glycolic acid that
are metabolized in the body. The present investigation consists in the synthesis of nanoparticles of PLGA
through the nanoprecipitation method. The objective was to define the influence of pH on the synthesis and
characterization of PLGA nanoparticles with different solvents. Acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO),
ethyl acetate, acetic acid and dichloromethane (DCM) were used as solvents, distilled water as non-solvent
and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as surfactant. The investigation determined that the pH had influence on the
nanoparticles size.

Keywords: PLGA, Nanoparticles, Characterization.


80

STUDY OF THE ABSORPTION OF SPHERICAL SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN DIFFERENT


SPECIES OF PLANTS

Carlie Barboza1, Kevin Moreno1, David Carchi2, Alexis Debut2, Yolanda Angulo2
1
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui,
Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: kmoreno1@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology offers a new approach to solving complex and challenging problems related
to agriculture and environment. In this work, we investigated the absorption, growth and morphological
effects of spherical silver nanoparticles in different species of ornamental plants such as Centranthus ruber
and Impatiens walleriana. The spherical nanoparticles of sizes 30 nm were adhered to surface of the roots.
The wavelength absorption of silver nanoparticles is 409nm. The Analyzes were realized by optical
observation for a month and a half. The samples were also analyzed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
and DRX techniques.

Keywords: Plant, Silver Nanoparticules, Absorption.


81

DEVELOPMENT OF A LATERAL FLOW TEST FOR THE DETECTION OF LEISHMANIA


SPP., USING GOLD NANOPARTICLES

Carlos Aguirre1, Yolanda Angulo2, Marbel Torres Arias1,2


1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y Agricultura, Carrera de Biotecnología, Laboratorio de
Inmunología y Virología, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Leishmania spp., produces a tropical disease that occurs in most continents. Its diagnosis is
made only with observation of parasite under microscope, for which patient must already present
symptoms, like Trypanozoma spp. symptoms which leads to look for new diagnostic methods such as lateral
flow test. This test allows us a greater sensitivity thanks to presence of gold nanoparticles allowing
diagnosis in absence of symptoms. The project aimed at synthesis and characterization of 15 nm gold
nanoparticles using chemical synthesis and development of lateral flow test for diagnosis of Leishmania
spp. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using Turkevich method. Considering its high reproducibility
and low toxicity is widely used for the formation of gold nanoparticles that will subsequently undergo
functionalization with various compounds such as DNA and proteins. Unlike nanoparticles of other metals,
gold nanoparticles do not require a strong reducer, are easily observed by the color change during synthesis
and may have biological applications. In sizes from 15 to 30 nm, can be used as means of transporting
compounds in cells or used in biosensors. The methods used for its characterization were absorbance
measurements, dynamic light scattering, cyclic voltimetry, X-ray crystallography and photographs in
transmission electron microscopy. The result was a lateral flow test for detection of Leishmania spp. with
gold nanoparticles of a size of 15 ± 2 nm, an absorbance of 520 nm and spherical shapes. The lateral flow
test with gold nanoparticles makes it possible to detect the disease with greater sensitivity allowing a
preventive diagnosis.

Keywords: Leishmania, Gold Nanoparticles, Detection.


82

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS OF THE RENAL


TISSUE OF MICE INDUCED BY AMIKACIN USING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY (TEM) AND SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM).

Carolina Panchana1, Gissela Tibán1, Marbel Torres Arias1,2, Karla Vizuete2, Rachid Seqqat1,2, Alexis
Debut1,2
1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: rseqqat@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibacterial drug that has considerable nephrotoxic side
effects in both humans and laboratory animals, as it causes mechanisms of oxidative reactions in the body.
More specifically, in Ecuador there is no records of the consumption of this type of antibiotic and the
damage it can cause due to its indiscriminate use. The objective of this study is to observe the ultrastructural
changes of the renal tubular system caused by amikacin by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and
transmission (TEM) using 6-week-old female BALB/C mice as an animal model. The mice were divided
into a control group and into three groups in which different concentrations of amikacin were administered:
1.2, 0.8 and 0.3 g / kg of body weight intraperitoneally for 10 days. Histopathological analysis revealed
podocyte alterations, necrosis, cell apoptosis, and glomerular membrane changes in amikacin-treated mice,
highlighting the tissue damage caused by the antibiotic.

Keywords: Electron Microscopy, Renal Tissue, Mice, Amikacin.


83

GREEN SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER SELENIDE (AG2SE)


NANOPARTICLES VIA A LOW-TEMPERATURE REFLUX ROUTE

Cinthya Daniela Armijo1, Lupe Mendoza1, Alexis Debut2, Si Amar Dahoumane1


1
School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech, San Miguel de Urcuqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author´s email: cinthya.armijo@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Silver selenide nanostructures have been successfully synthesized by the reaction between
silver nitrate (AgNO3) along with sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) as Ag and Se source in the presence of mono-
and poly-saccharides as crystallizing and stabilizing agents, respectively. The entire process was carried by
a reflux method using water as the solvent at mild temperature following the principles of Green Chemistry.
A screening study was carried out regarding the impact of experimental parameters, such as the nature of
the mono-saccharides, the amounts of mono- and poly-saccharides, and reaction time, on the size, shape
and colloidal stability which in turn impact the optical properties of the as-obtained nanostructures. The
morphology and phase composition of the as-synthesized Ag2Se nanoparticles have been characterized by
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Besides, the optical
properties of Ag2Se were studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Compared with previous methods, the
present environmentally benign method shows a simple and low-cost way to synthesize valuable
nanomaterials that may have a wide range of bio-applications.

Keywords: Green Chemistry, Ag2Se, Nanoparticles.


84

GUAYABA (PSSIDIUM CATTLEIANUM) ES CAPAZ DE SECRETAR EXOSOMAS


Cristina Cajas1, David Flores1, Alexandra Paredes1, Karla Caiza2, Ariana Drouet2, Alexis Debut1,2,
Marbel Torres Arias1,2
1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología y Virología,
Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Exosomes are transporters of molecules such as: DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids; that are
secreted from different cell types. Its content reflects the metabolic state of the source cells, therefore, they
are important for the development of biomarkers in clinical diagnosis. In addition, they can be carriers of
antigens and provide an effective means of vaccination in mammals. It has been shown that plants also
secrete exosomes with high biological activity. Guava (Psidium cattleianum) is a shrub of the Myrtaceae
family, whose fruits vary from yellow to purplish red and served as a model for the present study, which
aimed to isolate and purify exosomes from a plant matrix by centrifugation and then separate them by size
exclusion chromatography (SEC), allowing the sequential elution of fractions of exosomes of different sizes
from a single column. The exosomes of Psidium cattleianum were isolated by obtaining the juice from its
fruit and subjecting it to repetitive centrifugation processes to obtain a supernatant that was divided into six
aliquots of approximately 5mL, from which 2mL was taken and placed in the single-use columns. until
collecting fractions of 0.5mL of purified exosomes. The excess volume of the aliquots was stored at -20
°C. The electron microscope analysis allowed to identify the presence of intact nano-vesicles with sizes
between 50 and 70nm, concluding that the single-use columns used in the SEC are suitable for the
purification of exosomes.

Keywords: Exosome, Guayaba, Electron Microscopy.


85

STUDY OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF CADMIUM PRESENT IN COCOA FLOORS,


THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF MULTICOMPONENT NANOPARTICLES PREPARED
BY GREEN SYNTHESIS, AT THE LABORATORY LEVEL

Daniela Vera1, Luis Cumbal1, Alexis Debut2, Karla Vizuete2


1
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Laboratorio de Caracterización de Nanomateriales, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: lhcumbal@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Manabí province is well known due to the production of fine or flavor cocoa. However, it is
suspected that in some areas soils contain high concentrations of heavy metals that exert a high degree of
toxicity to living things. In the present work, we characterized soils of cocoa plantations from Manabí in
order to determine the amount of existing cadmium, and synthesized a novel type of nanoparticles capable
of removing this metal.
It was obtained by the sequential soil digestion test which contained an amount of 1.8 mg/kg Cd close to
exceeding the permissible maximum limit in Ecuador 2mg/kg soil. So to remedy this soil, multicomponent
nanoparticles (iron oxides/iron sulfide) were prepared using 0.1M ferrous sulfate, sodium sulfate 0.035M
and Jamaicaflower extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa) with carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) at 0.8% as a
stabilizer. These nanoparticles had a diameter of 34.4 nm measured with the electron transmission
microscope (TEM) and the submicron particle analyzer (DLS). In contrast, the spectrum obtained with
ultraviolet light spectroscopy (UV-Vis) shows absorption bands at 280nm and 450nm. Subsequently, the
nanoparticles were characterized by reactivity using artificial water doped with 2mg/L Cd obtaining a 94%
removal efficiency for Cadmium. Work is underway on soil treatment through column testing.

Keywords: Cadmium, Immobilization, Nanoparticles, Green Synthesis.


86

GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THIN FILMS OF HYBRID SAMPLES OBTAINED


THROUGH SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES

David Bolaños1, Blanca Naranjo1, Alexis Debut2, Yolanda Angulo2


1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Carrera Ingeniería en Biotecnología,
Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: dabolna_94@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT: In the present study the growth and characterization of thin films of hybrid samples obtained
by the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed. AgNPs were synthesized using green
synthesis with a higher density than that registered in literatures. Pelargonium domesticum extract was used
as a silver salt reducer with a concentration of 150 mg/mL. Different concentrations of stabilizer were
analyzed to improve the stability of the AgNPs. The hybrid samples showed an absorption band around 403
nm, which is characteristic of AgNPs. FTIR studies were carried out to compare the different chemical
bonds present in the extract, and in the samples of AgNPs without and with PEDOT: PSS, these studies
showed that the stabilizing agent did not interfere in the physical-chemical processes of the synthesis of the
AgNPs. The morphology of the AgNPs was spherical, with average diameters of 37.8±1.84 nm determined
by DLS and 11.44±1.84 nm determined by TEM. The thin films of the samples hybridized with different
concentration of PEDOT: PSS registered higher thicknesses than those observed in the samples without
stabilizer and their values were between 19.4±8.99 and 48.2±11.57 nm, on silicon oxide substrate, with a
roughness between 16.11±7.82 and 26±8.97 nm. This result shown that all samples in thin film generate an
electric field, being the highest value the one with 0.2 % PEDOT: PSS. These studies have shown that with
this green synthesis process can be developed thin films for the manufactured of hybrid devices (solar cells).

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Thin layer, Sping coating.


87

NANOPARTICLES’ IMPACT ON LIVING CELLS

David Carchi1, David Cárdenas1, Jonathan Escorza1, Ariana Drouet2, Alex Gavilanes3, Marbel Torres
Arias2,3
1
Centro de Posgrado, Maestría de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas
ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.
2
Centro de nanociencia y nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
3
Laboratorio de inmunología y virología, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí,
Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The use of nanotechnology is growing rapidly, but its consequences on living organisms is
not well understood. Since this technology can impact the environment and organisms, including humans,
we need to gather information of nanoparticles’ effects and safe uses. Herein, we demonstrate the effects
of several nanoparticles on macrophage (J744.1) and brain cancer cell lines (U251), and some common
bacterium species. Different types of metallic and polystyrene nanoparticles were used in the culture media
of the cell lines. These cells were exposed to nanoparticles up to four days and the effects were measured
using MTT and Nitric Oxide (NO) assays to evaluate their cytotoxicity, stress induced, and induced
apoptosis. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy was used to obtain images of apoptosis induction due to
the presence of nanoparticles. Also, an agar plate assay was used to determine the effects on bacteria
proliferation. As a result, the MTT, NO assays, and the fluorescence microscope showed the nanoparticles’
exposition on cell lines lead to high cytotoxicity and stress levels. Additionally, most of these nanoparticles
show a bactericidal effect on the tested bacteria. Here, we show that the exposition to nanoparticles on
living cells, such as mouse macrophages, human brain cancer cells, and common bacterium species, can
cause a severe harm when used on them using concentrations above 1mM of precursor salt.

Keywords: Cell, Nanoparticles, Toxicity.


88

APTAMER DESIGN IN SILICO FOR NANOVESICLES SURFACE MODIFICATION

David Cárdenas1, Ligia Ayala2, Marbel Torres Arias2


1
Centro de Posgrado, Maestría de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas
ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.
2
Centro de nanociencia y nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: david_dfcm@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT: The nanovesicles are ubiquitous and natural cell information carriers, which could be used
to carry external agents such as added genetic material or drug molecules. These nanovesicles have surface
protein receptors that bind to their cell of origin, acting as targeted therapy against their own cells of origin.
However, in some particular cases these receptors are not completely specific, and they need external
modifications to achieve the goal of a targeted therapy. Herein a way to design an external RNA or DNA
molecule called aptamer that can bind to these vesicles and create an artificial targeted therapy is shown.
In order to achieve that goal, an aptamer to target the protein GP69 of Leishmania sp. was developed. First,
a full sequence genome analysis was performed with the information of the National Center of
Biotechnology Information and the Kinetoplastid Genomics Resource in order to search for matches within
the GP69 structure in at least 7 species of the parasite. This structure was modelled using MC-Fold and
MC-Sym algorithms to obtain a 3D structure of the analogs, and the minimum energy analogs were used
for the next steps. Molecular complementarity was analyzed considering docking of the molecule to the
protein information in databases using PatchDock web server. By this protocol, an aptamer design with a
high score protein binding was obtained ready to use it in lab, so a novel target to treat Leishmaniasis can
be developed.

Keywords: Leishmania, Nanovesicles, RNA.


89

GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AND


ITS REACTION DYNAMICS BY DISCRIMINATION OF LIGHT

David Chávez1, Alexis Debut2, Blanca Naranjo1, Yolanda Angulo2


1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: dichvezj@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The extracts derived from the Jamaican flower are natural compounds with possible
applications in the food industry and the development of materials, these components such as vitamins (C
and E), polyphenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins, have antioxidant activity, contributing to
anticancer and cardioprotective actions. Within the studies one of them is the synthesis of silver
nanoparticles (AgNPs) with this pigment, to obtain a wide degree of applications. Among its possible
applications is considered preventive medicine such as chemopreventive, bactericides, fungicides in
different types of excipients in cosmetology. This work focuses on producing AgNPs using Hibiscus
sabdariffa (Jamaican flower) extract as reducing agent and physical synthesis protocol. The physical
synthesis process will help stabilize the nanoparticle solution throughout the UV-Vis region. For the
synthesis process 20mL of silver nitrate was used with three different concentrations in 1mL of extract with
concentration of 100 mg/mL at ambient temperature and the reaction was excited with a solar simulator
(2.821 cd/cm2). On the other hand, the wavelength performing the synthesis was discriminated in individual
sources of 470 nm, 530 nm, and 627 nm and were used with the same conditions performed in the previous
study. The results shown at pH 8 do not have any reduction of silver at room temperature, which implies
that the results specified are by physical synthesis. The sizes recorded were 65 nm average according to the
DLS technique. The size of use format for cosmetic application is that green synthesis by physical method
with sizes of 30-100 nm.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver, Nanoparticles, Hibiscus.


90

FERRUGINOUS AND TITANIFEROUS SANDS FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE CAPTURE

Dayanna Vera Cedeño1, Darío Viloria Vera1, Marvin Ricaurte Fernández1, Jorge Toro Álava2, Alex
Palma Cando1
1
School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
2
School of Earth Sciences, Energy and Environment, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author´s email: apalma@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Natural gas and oil extraction carried out by hydrocarbon industries releases acid gases;
among them, hydrogen sulfide, methane and carbon dioxide. Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic, corrosive and
flammable gas. At high concentrations, this gas can cause serious health problems and even death. For this
reason, various methods for trapping hydrogen sulfide have been designed including adsorption reaction
on iron oxides. Ecuador is a country rich in mineralogical resources. Black sands based on ferruginous and
titaniferous minerals of different areas of the country show high composition of iron and titanium oxides.
In this work, fourteen sand samples were taken from different areas of Ecuador that were dried and stored
for further analysis and characterizations. A natural enriched sand sample, named SEM-208 collected from
Mompiche-Ecuador, was used for a preliminary determination of their reactivity on hydrogen sulfide.
Pristine sand sample was analyzed by SEM and XRD resulting in high concentration of iron and titanium
of 29% and 7%, respectively that correspond to the presence of hematite and rutile. After reaction on
hydrogen sulfide, SEM-208 changes its color from black to dark yellowish-black and its pH from neutral
(7) to acid (2) clearly pointing out to successful adsorption and reaction with acid gas. Additional
characterization by SEM and XDR are on the way for the reacted sands. Adsorption of hydrogen sulfide
could be boosted by milling processes of black sands up to nanometric particle size resulting in higher
active surface areas where the reactive process would take place.

Keywords: Hydrogen Sulfide, Capture, Adsorption.


91

CYTOTOXICITY PREDICTION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES USING ELECTRONIC


STRUCTURE SIMULATIONS AND QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY
RELATIONSHIPS MODELING

Doménica Bermeo1, Alicja Mikolajczyk2, Yadira Ordonez3, Mireia Casasampere4, Henry P. Pinto1

1
CompNano Group, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Yachay Tech University, Urcuqui-
Ecuador.
2
Laboratory of Environmental Chemometrics, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
3
BIONAP, Escuela de Ciencias Agrícolas y Ambientales, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador
Sede Ibarra, Ibarra, Ecuador.
4
CSIC, Institut de Quimica Biomedica, RUBAM, Barcelona-Spain.

Corresponding author´s email: domenica.bermeo@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Electronic structure simulations and quantitative structure-activity relationships modeling


(QSAR) has been successfully applied to predict toxicity of chemical compounds without expensive and
time-consuming experiment with use of animal testing. These computational methods could provide a
sophisticated approach to accelerate the discovery and production of new chemical compounds targeted to
specific needs that could be of interest in the developed of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals.
Recent studies on the biological activity of these set of compounds have shown promising cytotoxicity
when applied on brain cancer cells. Those compounds induce cell death by either apoptosis or autophagy.
Inspired by those promising experimental results, we present here a QSAR modeling capable of predicting
the LD50 of the already tested organic molecules.
Specifically, we will employ rigorous quantum mechanics calculations using density-functional theory
within the B3LYP approximation to obtain the electronic structure of the molecules; the conformers of each
molecule will be explored with a semiempirical quantum mechanical method and finally a predictive QSAR
model will be developed to describe relationship between structure and cytotoxicity effect of tested organic
molecules.
The developed QSAR model as well as obtained electronic structure properties will be then applied to
predict the cytotoxicity effect of similar molecules without the need of experiments. In result we expect
that the design process of new tested chemicals for brain cancer therapy will be faster, cheaper and more
efficient.

Keywords: Simulation, Electronic Structure, Toxicity, Organic Molecules.


92

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXOSOMES OF PERSEA AMERICANA

Eskarle Albuja1, Jhosep Castillo1, Mike Dávila1, Alexis Debut2, Marbel Torres Arias1,2, Karla Caiza1
1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Carrera Ingeniería en Biotecnología,
Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Exosomes are vesicles secreted by cells that contains proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA. The
exosomes are related to intercellular communication and have other biological functions that are not
completely understood. They are used as biomarkers and as vectors of drugs for the treatment of various
diseases due to their low immunogenicity. Avocado is an evergreen tree native from Latin America, its fruit
is widely consumed as food because of its nutritional value and its health benefits. Some studies have
determined that this fruit is antihypertensive, antioxidant, antiobesity, hypolipidemic, anticonvulsant,
antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and chemoprotective, giving these fruits a unique value. These properties
are related to a different bioactive phytochemical, especially carotenoids, phenolics and polyphenolic
compounds, phytosterols and phytostanols. The consumption of phytosterols and phytostanols decreases
the serum levels of cholesterol, preventing cardiovascular diseases and potential protection in cancer
development. This study is focused on purification and characterization of the exosomes of the Persea
americana fruit. For the isolation of the exosomes, an extract of the pulp was used, which was purified in
size exclusion columns (qEVoriginal). These columns enable the rapid isolation of the exosomes from the
extract while maintaining their biological properties. The size and shape were determined in a transmission
electron microscope (TEM). The exosomes obtained have a diameter between 30-120 nm and are mostly
rounded. For determining the protein concentration, we used the Bradford protein assay. Exosomes
extracted may have future applications in the area of biomedicine.

Keywords: Exosomes, Characterization, Extraction, Persea Americana.


93

THREE VOLCANIC ASH PARTICLES FROM ECUADOR AFFECT PULMONARY


INFLAMMATION IN MICE.

Fernanda Toscano1, Nathaly Flores1, Michelle Apunte1, Karla Vizuete1,2, Theofilos Toulkeridis3, Alexis
Debut1,2, Marbel Torres Arias1,2, Rachid Seqqat1,2
1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura y de la Agricultura, Carrera de Ingenieria en
Biotecnologia, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
3
Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y de Construcción, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: rseqqat@espe.edu.ec




ABSTRACT: Ecuador is located along the northwestern active continental margin of South America, where a
high density of erupting volcanoes prevails. There is still a lack of extensive studies upon the impact of volcanic
ash on human health. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the pulmonary
inflammation induced in the mice BALB/C after exposition the ash particles from Cotopaxi, Pichincha and
Tungurahua Volcanos. The SEM images analysis show angular and round shaped particles, the granulometry
average of the fine-grained volcanic ash was 21.99 μm for Cotopaxi ash, 15.09 μm for Pichincha ash and 13.17
μm for Tungurahua ash. The Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revel andesitic up to dacitic
compositions of all volcanic ash particles. Each ash sample was weighed, sonicated, and diluted in 100 μl PBS for
the administration of the mice, the applied concentrations were 0.5, 1and 3.75 mg/100 g of body weight (BW).
Twelve to fourteen weeks old mice were treated with single dose transtracheally for one week (short time) or eight
weeks (long time). BW was registered every two days. One and eight weeks after the treatment, the lung tissue
was weighed and stored at -80°C for further analysis. At the dose 3.75mg/100 BW, the ash particles from Cotopaxi
and Pichincha induced respectively 28% and 29% of increase in the lung tissue weight at one week of treatment.
This increase in lung tissue weight was significantly reduced and return the control value at eight weeks. In
conclusion, the preliminary macroscopic analysis of the lung tissue evidently demonstrates a clear inflammation
with edema one week after the exposition to volcanic ash particles.

Keywords: Ash Particles, Pulmonary Inflammation, Mice.


94

STABILITY ASSESSMENT OF CATIONIC LIPOSOMES OF ENROFLOXACIN BY


ISOTHERMAL AND ISOCONVERSIONAL METHODS.

Franklin Guaján Cachipuendo1, Robert Alcocer Vallejo1, Luis Castillo Cabay2, Ana Poveda Gabaldón3,
Javier Santamaria Aguirre3
1
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
3
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Instituto de Investigación en Salud
Pública y Zoonosis CIZ, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: ffguajan@uce.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Cationic liposomes, like other Drug Delivery nano Systems (DDnS), have unique
characteristics: they protect the molecule and allow to target it, modify its release and optimize its dose.
Among its disadvantages are low encapsulation efficiency, low reproducibility, poor stability, and high
production costs, limiting its accessibility as medicines. Traditional stability studies determine the shelf life
of a drug product based on kinetic gas theory, DDnS are heterogeneous systems that do not fit these models,
whereby such methods may be inefficient, not very robust and relatively expensive, delaying the
development, scale up, manufacturing and marketing of new medicines. Once the process for obtaining
cationic liposomes from pronanosomes was standardized, they were characterized in terms of size,
polydispersion index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and dissolution kinetics, their stability was
assessed by Isothermal Isoconversion and compared it to that obtained by the traditional method. The results
show that cationic liposomes with reproducible chemical physical characteristics can be obtained;
additionally, its stability can be evaluated by isoconversion methods.

Keywords: Drug Delivery, Enrofloxacin, Stability.


95

VESÍCULES LIKE PARTICLES PRESENT OF CITRUS RETICULATA

Gabriela Borja1, Yadira Guasumba1, Karla Caiza, María José Acuña1, Alexis Debut1,2, Marbel
Torres Arias1,2
1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura y Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología,
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.
2
Centro de nanociencia y nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The extracellular vesicles known as exosomes are membrane vesicles secreted by different
types of cells, whose main function is to direct proteins and lipids for their subsequent degradation.
Extracellular vesicles encapsulate different compounds such as nucleic acids and proteins, from the cells
from which they originate, therefore, they have a fundamental role in cellular communication. Due to the
size they present and the compounds they contain, they have become attractive for the administration of
drugs and nucleic acids that are used for the treatment of various diseases, as well as for their use as
biomarkers. The present study aims to isolate and purify the exosomes present in Citrus reticulata
(mandarin), a fruit belonging to the genus Citrus that contains active ingredients such as flavonoids and
carotenoids, which have antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer activities, given that
they act as blockers and / or suppressors. For the isolation of extracellular vesicles of Citrus reticulata, first
it is necessary to obtain the juice of the fruit in sterile conditions to later purify it, by means of serial
centrifugations and finally pass through the column qEVoriginal of rapid exclusion, where 1mL of the juice
must be loaded and be loaded and the manufacturer's protocol must be followed for dilution and reuse of
the column as recommended. After isolation, the extracellular vesicles will be characterized using
transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the method used, it is expected to obtain purified
extracellular vesicles with an approximate size of 30 to 150 nm in diameter that can be used in future
therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Exosomes, Extraction, Citrus Reticulata, Characterization.


96

PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF CRYSTAL VIOLET DYE USING ECUADORIAN


BLACK SANDS

Johanna Gómez Gómez, Darío Viloria Vera, Alex Palma Cando

School of Chemistry and Engineering, Yachay Tech, Urcuqui, Imbabura, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: apalma@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Organic compounds from textile industry wastewater generate problems for the environment
and for human health. One of these compounds is the crystal violet or methyl violet dye which is mutagenic
and mitotic poison. The degradation of this dye has been a challenge through conventional treatments such
as the homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalytic processes showing economic limitations on an
industrial scale. The ferruginous-titaniferous black sands can be considered as natural catalysts because
they contain compounds such as titanium, iron and aluminium oxides in their structure. The objective of
this work is to investigate the possible use of black sands from different areas of the Ecuadorian coast and
the volcanic beds of Quilotoa in photocatalytic processes for the degradation of crystal violet dye.
Preliminary experiments of heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic processes were carried out, to
analyse and compare the reaction kinetics of each in order to choose the most efficient procedure and carry
it out with the black sands. An experiment was carried out with the purified black sand of Mompiche where
28% of discoloration was obtained, confirming that it can be considered as a photocatalyst in these
processes on an industrial scale, due to its low cost and easy access. Degradation of crystal violet could be
boosted by milling processes of black sands up to nanometric particle size resulting in higher active surface
areas where the photocatalytic process would take place.

Keywords: Photocatalytic Degradation, Dye, Organic Compound, Black Sands.


97

COMPARISON OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL, ELECTRICAL AND ENERGY TRANSFER


PROPERTIES OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND ITS REDUCING AGENT BETWEEN A
GREEN SYNTHESIS AND A CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS PROCESS

Jonathan Escorza2, Blanca Naranjo3, Alexis Debut1, Marbel Torres Arias1, Yolanda Angulo1
1
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Posgrado, Maestría de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas
ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
3
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: jlescorza@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The morphological, electrical and energy transfer properties of synthesized silver
nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a chemical synthesis and a green synthesis were analyzed. Comparison of the
nanoparticles´ properties were done in order to understand the effects of the organic material. Protocols
established by literature were used. Some parameters were modified to obtain the same size and shape of
the nanoparticles by the two processes. For green synthesis, extracts of natural plants such as Pelargonium
domesticum (Pd) and Rhamnus myrtifolius (Rm) were used as reducing agents. The silver nitrate (AgNO3)
concentration and the pH of reducing agent were controlled to reach sizes between 30-60 nm with triangular
(Pd) and circular (Rm) shapes. For chemical synthesis some processes were replicated. To obtain similar
sizes and shapes obtained by green synthesis, the concentration of the reducing agent (sodium citrate and
sodium borohydride), temperature and time of synthesis were tuned.
The formation and stability of AgNPs were analyzed. We showed that AgNPs synthesis is easier by green
synthesis than by chemical synthesis and does not contaminate the environment. It was also observed that
the UV-Vis absorption bands and X-ray diffraction of the AgNPs synthesized with green synthesis are
wider than the observed with chemical synthesis, mainly due to the organic coating. The same effect is
observed with DLS and TEM techniques. These results are very useful if the application is oriented to
hybrid compounds (AgNPs + organic coating), as for example for photocatalytic application. In addition,
the process of reducing silver to Ag0 has been studied with cyclic voltammetry and differential
voltammetry. It shows that independently of the reducing agent, traces of AgO2 are observed in all samples.
Finally, the fluorescence decays at room temperature were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and
confocal microscopy when AgNps synthesis are used as a solution and a thin film, respectively.

Keywords: Silver, Nanoparticles, Green Synthesis, Chemical Synthesis, Characterization.


98

STUDY OF THE COUPLING OF ORBITALS AND THE DEPENDENCE OF MECHANICAL


DEFORMATION IN A MODEL OF HELICENE

José Andino1, Solmar Varela1,2, Ernesto Medina3,4


1
YachayTech, School of Chemical Science & Engineering, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
2
Escuela de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
3
YachayTech, School of Physical Science & Nanotechnology, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
4
Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado 21827, Caracas
1020A, Venezuela.

Corresponding author’s email: jose.andino@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Belonging to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Helicenes have helical nonplanar
screw-shaped skeletons formed by ortho-fused benzenes. They present chirality due to their ability to wind
itself in opposite directions and their 𝐶$ symmetry. This evidence allows them to be used in spintronic
applications. As members of the PAHs, Helicenes are good electron donors and this makes an interesting
effect intrinsically present in the spin selectivity of the electron appears. The relationship between the
chirality of the molecule and the spin is given by the CISS effect. Considering this, through Tight-Binding
(TB) model that incorporates kinetic and intrinsic spin-orbit (ISO) contributions, the spin-orbit interactions,
spin selectivity and its dependency mechanical deformation in Helicene are studied.
As a first approximation, a study of the overlap of atomic orbitals and their relationship with the structure
of the basic unit of Helicene, benzene was made.

Keywords: Tight Binding Model, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Helicene, and Benzene.


99

SYNTHESIS AND PHOTOCHEMICAL GROWTH MECHANISM OF AG-TRIANGULAR


NANOPLATES.

José Andrés Arcos1, Esteban Lasso1, Kevin Rovalino1, Sarah Briceño1, Alexis Debut2,
Julio Chacón Torres1

1
Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT). Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: jchacon@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Silver triangular nanoplates are interesting plasmonic nanostructures with potential
antibacterial, and biosensing applications, as well as potential enhancers for surface enhanced Raman
spectroscopy (SERS). These advantageous nanostructures can be synthesized by chemical methods,
electrochemical synthesis, photochemical reduction, templating procedures or sonochemical routes. In the
photochemical reduction method, it has not been reported a complete growth mechanism that takes into
account important factors as the pH, ligand concentration and irradiation wavelength. In this work we
developed, based on the photochemical reduction method, a facile route to explain the bottom-up growth
mechanism from small spherical nanoparticles (~10nm) towards the creation of homogenous 100 nm Ag
triangular nanoplates. We defined the precise synthesis conditions and the effect of varying important
photochemical factors. The results gave us the most stable structures with the largest production yield
confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM images and allow us to have a comprehensive understanding
of the nanostrucutres’ growth and the factors that can affect it.

Keywords: Nanoplate, Silver, Nanoparticles, Growth Mechanism.


100

PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLANUM BETACEUM EXOSOMES.

Joselyn Castro1, Victor Criollo1, Nicole Jarrín1, Alexis Debut1,2, Marbel Torres Arias1,2
1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología, Universidad de las
Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.
2
Centro de nanociencia y nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Exosomes are nanovesicles of endocytic origin with a diameter of 30 to 120 nm, these
extracellular vesicles are capable of transferring different biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, RNA,
DNA, depending on the conditions and the type of cell from which they are derived, that they are involved
in cellular communication through the transmission of information. The objective of this study is to isolate
and purify exosomes from the sample of Solanum betaceum (tree tomato). The fruits of the tree tomato are
characterized by having a high antioxidant activity, the main antioxidant component of these are
polyphenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, known for their beneficial role for human health, which
help the body to protect itself from neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and reduce the risk of getting
cancer. For the isolation and purification of exosomal exosomes of nanoparticles in the Solanum betaceum
plant sample, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) will be used by means of Izon Qev columns, which are
based on fractionation separation of the EV according to its size. Its characterization will be carried out by
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the concentration of proteins will be determined by
colorimetry. Using SEC, 100 uL of extracellular vesicles derived from tree tomato will be collected. In the
characterization of TEM, it is expected to observe the morphology of isolated vesicles with an approximate
size of up to 50 to 70 nm.

Keywords: Exosomes, Purification, Characterization, Solanum Betaceum.


101

QUANTUM DOT SPECTROSCOPY OF TOPOLOGICAL RASHBA NANOWIRES

Juan D. Torres1 & Denis Chevallier2


1
Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, 100119 Urcuquí, Ecuador
2
Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Corresponding author’s email: denis.chevalier@unibas.ch

ABSTRACT: In condensed matter physics, Majorana fermions (MFs) are quasiparticles with non-Abelian
statistics making them good candidates for topological quantum computing. We study first a one-
dimensional Rashba nanowire in proximity with an s-wave superconductor and in presence of an external
magnetic field. By tuning the parameters of the system such as the chemical potential, we can bring it in
the topological phase where MFs emerge as zero-energy modes at the edges. We then propose a
spectroscopy experiment to study the intrinsic properties of such particles using a quantum dot (QD). To
do so, a QD is built within the same nanowire by applying an external gate. Tuning this gate allows us to
probe the topological section in energy and in spin. This way to create a quantum dot is not 100% efficient
because the control on the position and the width of the quantum dot is far from being perfect meaning that
a normal section of the nanowire can be present between the quantum dot and the topological section. Our
main goal is to study the interaction between the quantum dot states and the Andreev bound states living in
this normal section and understand how they spoils the spectroscopy.

Keywords: Rashba Nanowire, Spectroscopy, Quantum Dot State.


102

PRODUCTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY FUNGI


COLLETOTRICHUM SP. AND RHIZOPUS SP. AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS

Juan Diego Valenzuela Cobos1, René Oscar Rodríguez Grimón1, Ana Grijalva Endara2, Cristian Vargas
Farías3
1
Universidad Espíritu Santo - Ecuador.
2
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Guayaquil- Ecuador.
3
Ecuahidrolizados – Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: juan_diegova@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is the most prevalent human fungal pathogen causing diseases ranging
from mucosal to systemic infections for patients with compromised immune systems. The aim of this
research was to produce the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Colletotrichum sp. and
Rhizopus sp., and evaluate their antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans. The fungal strains of
Colletotrichum (CL124) and Rhizopus (Rh54) were isolated from banana and tomatoes respectively, and
were incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 28 oC in complete darkness for 72 h. These
strains were grown on a propagation solution (40% glucose and 20% of xhantan gum) at 28 °C for 40 h.
The fungal biomasses used in the biosynthetic experiment were filtered, and after 72 h were brought into
contact with 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution at 40 °C under constant agitation at 180 rpm. The
characterization of AgNPs of the two fungal strains was realized by UV–Visible spectral analysis. The
AgNPs of the Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizopus sp. showed antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans
with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 150 and 200 μg/mL. The AgNPs of Colletotrichum
sp. and Rhizopus sp. presented efficient antimicrobial activities and could be used for clinical applications.

Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, Antimicrobial Activity, Colletotrichum, Rhizopus.


103

DIFFERENT METHODS FOR ISOLATING EXOSOMES FROM FRUITS WITH


THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL LIKE ANNONA SP.

Karla Caiza1, Ariana Drouet1, Alexis Debut2, Marbel Torres Arias1,2


1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y Agricultura, Laboratorio de Inmunología y Virología,
Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: In recent years, research focused on understanding the biology of exosomes has increased
exponentially suggesting important implications within human health. Most of these studies have been done
in animal cells although the secretion of extracellular exosomes is a phenomenon preserved in most living
organisms. The study of exosomes isolated from fruits constitutes a novel line of research for the
development of therapeutic applications within the nanomedicine, like as Annona spp. study due to its anti-
carcinogenic properties. Since there are several purification techniques and characterization of exosomes,
the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three methods usually used in the isolation of exosomes.
We isolated exosomes derived Annona sp. by ultracentrifugation with a purification step using a sucrose
cushion; size exclusion chromatography and commercial kit based on solubility alteration of exosomes
using a water-excluding polymer and their precipitation by low speed centrifugation. Then we characterized
the isolated exosomes by transmission electron microscopy to determine its morphology and size in addition
to protein analysis. The preparations obtained by ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography
showed vesicle populations with size ranging from 50 to 100 nm maintaining the membrane integrity with
respect to the preparations isolated by kit. In addition, preparations obtained by ultracentrifugation showed
higher protein concentration than the other techniques analysed, with a concentration of 1263.33 μg/mL.
These findings suggest that the most effective method for the isolation of exosomes from fruits is the
conventional technique by ultracentrifugation using a sucrose cushion.

Keywords: Exosomes, Extraction, Purification, Annona.


104

AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GARLIC PLANT (ALLIUM SATIVUM) LEAVES AS A REDUCING


AGENT TO SYNTHESIZE SILVER NANOPARTICLES

Katherine Pazmiño1,2, Alexis Debut2, Karla Vizuete2, Fernanda Pilaquinga1


1
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author: mfpilaquingaf@puce.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: In Ecuador, 57% of the garbage produced corresponds to organic matter that could be used
in different process with the purpose to mitigate its environmental impact. The principal problem, which is
the garbage collection and its proper storage, has been increasing since the last several years. Therefore, a
sustainable solution is prevailing that reduces the amount of organic waste generated. In this study, it has
been proposed the use of the extract of garlic plant (Allium sativum) leaves, which are normally discarded,
to “green synthesize” silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). There is a great interest in the antibacterial and
antioxidant properties of this kind of nanoparticles because they can be applied in the biomedicine field.
Moreover, their “green synthesis” does not utilize toxic chemical compounds harmful to the human health
and the environment. AgNPs were synthesized microwave-assisted and were characterized by Visible UV
spectrophotometry, electron transmission microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray
diffraction (XRD). The results showed small nanoparticles with sizes between 9,9±10,5 nm.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, Silver, Nanoparticles, Garlic.


105

EFFECT OF TRIANGULAR SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON PLANTS

Katherine Viera2, Brayan Socasi2, Jonathan Escorza1, Alexis Debut1, Yolanda Angulo1
1
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui,
Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: kaviera@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The current agricultural practices are highly dependent on the application of synthetic
fertilizers and pesticides, intensive tillage and irrigation, but the excessive use of synthetic fertilizers has
polluted the environment and increased cost of agricultural production. The objective of this work is to
implement a new hybrid method that is nontoxic for the environment based in silver nanoparticles
synthesized with green chemistry to protect the plant against parasites, bacteria and fungi. Silver
nanoparticles (AgNPs) with shape triangles, hexagonal and multiform shapes of approximate sizes of 30
nm were used in this study. Its maximum absorption wavelength is between 410 nm and a bandwidth of
between 50 nm. Ten mL of nanoparticle solution was used directly to the root of the plant each week for
five weeks. The state of the plant has been analyzed with optical observation. On the other hand, the study
of the absorption of AgNPs in the plant were determined with the SEM and DRX techniques. Finally, its
electric potential was measured with AFM in the plants with and without nanoparticles.

Keywords: Plant, Silver, Nanoparticles.


106

CYTOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF A PHOTOCATALYTIC NANOCOMPOSITE APPLIED


FOR REMOVAL OF DICLOFENAC AND CARBAMAZEPINE

Lizeth Salazar1 & Marcelo Grijalva1,2


1
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: rmgrijalva@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: New nanoscale materials for removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs)
from wastewater are the focus of intensive research. Nanotoxicity, however, needs to be evaluated to rule
out human health hazards. In the present work, we assessed the effect on cell viability (normal IMR-90 and
cancer A549 cell lines) of different treatments of a novel photocatalytic nanocomposite capable of removing
diclofenac (DCL) and carbamazepine (CBZ). Cells were exposed to different concentrations of the
following treatments for 24 hours: 1) nanomaterial, 2) DCL + nanomaterial, 3) DCL + nanomaterial
(sunlight), 4) CBZ + nanomaterial, and 5) CBZ + nanomaterial (sunlight). An MTT assay was performed
in order to calculate the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for each treatment. The
nanocomposite affected cell viability in a dose-dependent manner on both cell lines, with treatment 1
showing the highest toxicity. For instance, cell viability decreased more than 90% when cells were exposed
to 100ppm of treatment 1. IC50 values were 20.92ppm for A549 and 22.91ppm for IMR-90 cells.
Furthermore, treatments under sunlight irradiation showed lower cell toxicity. The IC50 values reported for
treatments 3 and 5 are higher than those obtained for treatments 2 and 4, for both cell lines. Nanocomposite
concentrations below 5ppm showed no effect on cell viability. This concentration might be used as starting
point for PPCPs removal field tests.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, Nanocomposite, Removal, Diclofenac, Carbamazepine.


107

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(LACTIC-CO-GLYCOLIC ACID) (PLGA)
NANOPARTICLES BY THE INSTANTANEOUS NANOPRECIPITATION METHOD.

María Fernanda Arias Erazo1, María Fernanda Pazmiño Flores1, Karla Vizuete1,2 Katherine
Pazmiño2, Brajesh Kumar3, Frank Alexis4, Alexis Debut1,2
1
Department of Life Science and Agriculture, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí,
Ecuador.
2
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
3
Department of Chemistry, TATA College, Chaibasa-833202, Jharkhand, India
4
School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, University Yachay Tech, Ibarra, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: apdebut@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Polymeric poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) can be used for the
administration of a wide range of drugs due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Physical
characteristics such as morphology and size of PLGA NPs can be controlled by varying specific parameters
in the synthesis of the method used. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate if there are significant
differences in the size of the NPs synthesized by varying the pH of the aqueous solution. Organic solvents
like acetone and chloroform were employed with the addition of 1% PEG and concentrated Tween 80
(surfactants) respectively. Transmission microscopy (TEM), scanning microscopy (SEM) and dynamic
light scattering (DLS) analyses showed a variable size of NPs between solvents, while there were no
significant differences between the different pH values evaluated. The average sizes of NPs obtained using
chloroform were 30.6 - 76.5 nm and those obtained with acetone were between 116.1 - 168.1 nm. These
range of values of the nanoparticles are satisfactory to utilize in biomedical applications.

Keywords: PLGA, Synthesis, Characterization, pH.


108

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FOR DRUG
DELIVERY APPLICATIONS.

Marlon Gancino Guevara1,2, Seidy Pedroso Santana2, Noralvis Fleitas Salazar2, Emilio Lamazares
Arcia2, Carolina Gómez Gaete3, Nelson Santiago Vispo1, Jorge R. Toledo Alonso2
1
School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, Urcuquí, Ecuador.
2
School of Biological Sciences, Pathophysiology Department, University of Concepción, Concepción,
Chile.
3
School of Pharmacy, Pharmacy Department, University of Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

Corresponding author’s email: marlon.gancino@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The development of protein-transportation mechanisms through the use of polymeric


nanoparticles as protein nanocarriers has taken a crucial role in the optimization of protein-based therapies
in the recent decade. In such context, the obtention of nanoparticles within the size range of 10-500 nm is
desired for both the favorable drug delivery into cancer tissues by the enhanced permeability and retention
(EPR) effect and cell uptake. In this research, the establishment of a protein formulation through Bovine
Serum Albumin (BSA) encapsulation in biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles has
been attempted. Thus, polymeric nanoparticles have been synthesized by mean of ionotropic gelation using
the pair chitosan (CS) - sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Nanoparticles within the sought size range were
obtained and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM),
and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Evidence of BSA encapsulation and cell uptake of
nanoparticles were studied in-vitro, by using BSA - Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate. As a
result, we confirmed the reproducibility (p = 0.05) of the method for the synthesis of solution-stable protein-
loaded nanoparticles. Finally, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2–5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)
assays showed no citotoxicological effect of the synthesized nanoparticles. In conclusion, this study
confirms the extensive potential of chitosan nanocarriers for protein-based therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Polymer, Nanoparticles, Drug Delivery, Synthesis, Characterization, Chitosan.


109

PROXIMITY-INDUCED EXCHANGE AND SPIN-ORBIT EFFECTS IN GRAPHENE ON Ni
AND Co

Mayra Peralta1,2, Ernesto Medina2,3, Francisco Mireles1


1
Departamento de Física, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
México, 22800 Ensenada-BC, México
2
Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, 100119 Urcuquí, Ecuador
3
Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A,
Venezuela

Corresponding author’s email: mperalta@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The proximity-induced effects of the nearly commensurate lattice structure of a graphene
layer AC stacked on Ni(111) and Co(0001) substrates are addressed. To this end, a minimal tight-binding
Hamiltonian is constructed within the Slater-Koster method. We consider the hybridizations of the magnetic
3d orbitals of Ni (Co) atoms with the pz orbitals of graphene, in addition to the atomic spin-orbit coupling
and the magnetization of the Ni (Co) atoms. A derivation of the low-energy perturbed π bands in the vicinity
of the Dirac points enables us to get further insight into the physical nature of the induced effective
couplings to the graphene layer. It is shown that a magneto-spin-orbit type effect may emerge through two
competing mechanisms simultaneously present: the proximity-induced exchange and Rashba spin-orbit
interaction. Such effects result in giant exchange splittings and robust Rashba spin-orbit coupling
transferred to the graphene layer in agreement with recent density functional theory calculations and
experimental observations.

Keywords: Graphene, Nickel, Cobalt, Spin-Orbit, Simulation.


110

MULTIPLE ION CLUSTER SOURCE (MICS) FOR THE GENERATION OF
NANOPARTICLES WITH ADJUSTABLE SIZE AND CONTROLLED STOICHIOMETRY

Mercedes Díaz Lagos1, Lidia Martínez2, Yves Huttel2


1
Facultad Seccional Sogamoso, Ingeniería Geológica, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de
Colombia., Sogamoso, Colombia.
2
Materials Science Factory. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de
Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, 28049, Madrid, Spain.

Corresponding author’s email: mercedes.diaz@uptc.edu.co

ABSTRACT: Growing nanoparticles has attracted great interest in fundamental science and for industrial
applications in different areas such as catalysis, magnetism, optics or electronics. There is a variety of
methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) composed of more than one element, the
chemical procedures being the most common approaches with the possibility to obtain a core@shell
structure and polyhedral geometries. In the present work we present a bottom-up fabrication route called
Multiple Ion Cluster Source (MICS) that is based on the sputtering gas aggregation source and allows the
generation of nanoparticles with controllable and tunable chemical composition while keeping the control
of the cluster size. We demonstrate that the chemical composition of the particles can be monitored by the
individual adjustment of the working parameters of the magnetrons inserted in a gas aggregation zone. It is
shown that the individual control of the working parameters of each of the magnetrons allows the generation
of a wide range of NPs. In particular it is shown that the mean size, deposition rate and atomic deposition
rate can be adjusted through the working parameters of the magnetrons like applied power, argon flux in
each magnetron, total argon flux and aggregation length. Furthermore, the proposed fabrication method is
free of toxic byproducts and can produce pristine NPs without the need of additional functionalization in
oposition to chemical methods. Examples of NPs produced using the MICS will be presented together with
the study of their structural, chemical, morphological and magnetic properties.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Multiple Ion Cluster, Toxicity.


111

CYTOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF LIPOSOMES IN MACROPHAGES

Pamela Mosquera1,3, Gabriela Morales1, Eliana Lara2, Ana Poveda Gabaldón2, Javier Santamaría
Aguirre2
1
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
2
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Instituto de Investigación en Salud Pública y Zoonosis CIZ, Universidad
Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
3
Universidad UTE, Centro de Investigación Biomédica CENBIO, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: pamela.mosquera@ute.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: For several years, liposomes have been considered as an alternative pharmaceutical form, a
vehicle for the supply of drugs that offers significant therapeutic advantages in terms of effectiveness and
controlled release of active ingredients. The lipids of the liposomal membrane, which solubilize lipophilic
molecules and keep hydrophilic molecules inside the vesicle, can become fused with biological membranes
delivering the active substance. As part of the research in alternative therapies for leishmaniasis, carried
out at the Institute of Research in Public Health and Zoonoses (CIZ), the effect of liposomes with and
without the active molecule, enrofloxacin, on macrophages was studied. The MIC, NIC, IC50 of liposomes
with and without active principle in macrophages was determined using a fluorometric method; data was
processed with the Gompertz equation. The results showed that liposomes, by themselves, are not free of
toxicity. In conclusion, liposomes have proven to be efficient vehicles for medications such as enrofloxacin,
however, their dose and even the composition of their membrane must be optimized so that they can be
used safely in humans.

Keywords: Liposomes, Cytotoxicity, Enroflaxcin.


112

A MODEL FOR SPIN ACTIVITY IN OLIGO-PEPTIDES

Raul Hidalgo1, Juan D. Torres1, Ernesto Medina1,2


1
Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, 100119 Urcuquí, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, 21827, Caracas 1020 A,
Venezuela.

Corresponding author’s email: emedina@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Recently experiments have shown very significant spin activity in biological molecules such
as DNA, proteins, oligo-peptides and aminoacids. Such molecules have in common their chiral structure
and the absence of time reversal symmetry breaking or magnetic exchange interactions. The spin activity
is then assumed to be due to either the pure Spin-orbit (SO) interaction or such interaction coupled to the
presence of strong local sources of electric fields. Here we derive an analytical tight-binding Hamiltonian
model for Oligo-peptides that assumes that the basic ingre- dients are: i) The atomic SO interaction of
double bonded (π orbital) Oxygen atoms in the Amine units ii) The Stark interaction matrix element
between the pz orbital and the Oxygen s orbital produced by the hydrogen bond ii) Overlaps between π
nearest neighbor Oxygen orbitals. We use a lowest order perturbation theory band folding scheme and
derive the real space and recip- rocal space Rashba type Hamiltonian to evaluate the spin activity of the
oligopeptide considering half filling. Explicit dependences of the interactions on the geometry of the
molecule and the type of Amino-acid units are obtained.

Keywords: Simulation, Rashba Space, Tight Binding Model, Oligo-Peptides.


113

SYNTHESIS OF HIGH QUALITY GRAPHENE MULTILAYERS BY ELECTROCHEMICAL
EXFOLIATION USING PULSE-WIDTH-MODULATION.

Ronny De La Bastida¹, Andres Hidalgo², Alexandra Vera², Johana Pilicita³, Leonardo Basile¹

¹ Physic Department, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, Ecuador.


² Physic Department, Yachay Tech, Urcuqui, Ecuador.
³ Nanotechnology Department, Yachay Tech, Urcuqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s mail: leonardo.basile@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Graphene is a remarkable nanomaterial for technology and industry applications due to its
electronic, optical and mechanical properties. Since 2004 many methods of production had been developed,
being electrochemical exfoliation a widely used technique to produce high quality graphene flakes with
low defects. Flake´s lateral size and thickness can be controlled during the intercalation and exfoliation
stages. This work presents a study of the properties of graphene obtained by applying a pulse-width-
modulated signal between two graphite foils during electrochemical exfoliation in both H2SO₄and
(NH4)2SO₄ used as electrolytes. To control flake´s size and thickness we change both bias voltage and pulse
duration during the intercalation and exfoliation processes. The exfoliated graphene was dispersed in a
water-ethanol mixture and characterized using AFM, Raman, UV-VIS and conductivity measurements
using the standard Van der Pauw geometry. Flakes larger than 1 µm of lateral size and less than ten layers
in thickness were produced. Our results show a cost effective and easy to set up methodology to prepare
high quality graphene flakes.

Keywords: Graphene, Synthesis, Exfoliation, Pulse Width Modulation.


114

AN ARCHAEOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED PIGMENTS
REVEALED IN ECUADORIAN POTTERY

Sarah Briceño1, Alejandra Sánchez Polo2, Alex Jamett1, Salomé Galeas3, Orlando Campaña3, Víctor H.
Guerrero3, Carlos R. Arroyo4, Alexis Debut4, Duncan J. Mowbray1, Camilo Zamora Ledezma1,5, Jorge Serrano1
1
Yachay Tech University, School of Physical Sciences and Nanotechnology, 100115-Urcuquí, Ecuador.
2
Museo de Arte Precolombino - Casa del Alabado, Quito, Ecuador.
3
Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Departamento de Ingeniería de Materiales, Quito, Ecuador.
4
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT). Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE.
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
5
Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A,
Venezuela.

Corresponding author’s email: sbricenio@yachaytech.edu.ve

ABSTRACT: Ecuadorian pottery is renowned for its beauty and the particularly rich colour of its pigments.
However, a major challenge for art historians is the proper assessment of the provenance of individual
pieces due to their lack of archaeological context. Of particular interest is the Jama-Coaque culture, which
produced fascinating anthropomorphic and zoomorphic pottery from ca. 240 B.C. until the Spanish
Conquest of 1532 A.D. in the coastal region of Ecuador. Using a combination of microscopic and
spectroscopic techniques, i.e., transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning
electron microscopy (SEM); we are able to characterize these pieces. We have found several kinds of iron-
oxide based nanostructures in all the colour pigments we investigated for the Jama-Coaque culture,
suggesting the same unique volcanic source material was used for their clay. Such nanostructures were
absent from the pigment samples studied from other contemporary coastal-Ecuadorian cultures, i.e., the
Tumaco-La Tolita and Bahía cultures. In the yellow pigments of goethite, we find carbon nanofibres,
indicating these pigments were subjected to a thermal treatment. Finally, in the blue, green, and black
pigments we detect modern pigments (phthalocyanine blue, lithopone, and titanium white), suggesting
modern restoration. Our results demonstrate the power of TEM, Raman, FTIR, EDX, and SEM
archaeometric techniques for characterizing pieces without a clear archaeological context. Furthermore, the
characterization of nanostructures present in such pieces could be used as a possible fingerprint for a
provenance study.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Pottery, Characterization, Pigments.


115

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE SYNTHESES OF PLGA-PEG NANOCAPSULES MADE AT
DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Silvana Elizabeth Romo1, Andrea Patricia Viteri1, Karla Vizuete1,2, Katherine Pazmiño2, Brajesh
Kumar3, Frank Alexis4, Alexis Debut2
1
Department of Life Sciences and Agriculture, University of the Armed Forces ESPE, Sangolquí,
Ecuador.
2
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center (CENCINAT), University of the Armed Forces ESPE,
Sangolquí, Ecuador.
3
Department of Chemistry, TATA College, Chaibasa-833202, Jharkhand, India.
4
School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, University Yachay Tech, Ibarra, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: apdebut@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Nanomaterials are very important and useful for biomedical applications such as instance
drugs administration because they have the capacity to provide a big range of compounds that offer
therapeutic options for several pathologies. Specifically, nanoparticulate drug delivery systems have
become extremely attractive due to their high biocompatibility, drug compatibility, biodistribution,
circulatory half-life, degradation, and easy elimination throw metabolic pathways. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic
acid) (PLGA) is one of the most used polymers thanks to its favorable degradation products,
biocompatibility, and versatility. Because of PLGA nanocapsules properties are strongly dependent on the
preparation methods, the aim of this study is to evaluate different conditions of synthesis of PLGA-PEG
nanocapsules using the nanoprecipitation technique. Nanoprecipitation refers to a simple, rapid, economic,
and easily scalable method which has two main steps: (i) dissolution of the polymer in an organic solvent,
and (ii) precipitation of this solution as nanoscale particles, while it is exposed to a non-solvent that is
miscible with the solvent. In this research, acetone was used as solvent and water as non-solvent. The
nanoprecipitation method was tested with temperatures at 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, 40°C and 50°C with PLGA
(Mw 7 000 – 17 000) as polymer. The results, obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM),
presented a size variation, which was dependent on the temperature applied.

Keywords: PLGA, Nanoparticles, Temperature, Nanoprecipitation.


116

EVALUATION OF THE INSECTICIDAL EFFECT OF SULFUR NANOCOMPOSITES WITH


ACTIVE INGREDIENTS OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS AND ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS IN
FORFICULA AURICULARIA

Sophia Araujo, Josué Villota, Vladimir Aguirre, Vicente Delgado, Petronio Gavilanes

Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología


(CENCINAT), Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: lsaraujo@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The excess in the use of synthetic insecticides with high toxicity, slow degradation and
bioaccumulation has caused damages in the human being and the environment. Several investigations have
reported the antimicrobial and antifungal application of sulfur nanoparticles to counteract conditions in the
agricultural field. The objective of this work is the synthesis of sulfur nanocomposites with insecticidal
effect in the ectoparasite Forficula auricularia collected from maize crops in Sangolquí-Ecuador. To carry
out the investigation, a solution of thiosulfate was reduced in a zero-valent sulfur, stabilized with
carboxymethylcellulose and coated with 100% essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus
officinalis. The nanocomposites were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission
electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzes shows a particle size distribution
in the range of 10-100 nm. The synthesized sulfur nanocomposites present a positive insecticidal effect to
eliminate the ectoparasite Forficula auricularia.

Keywords: Sulfur, Nanocomposites, Insecticidal Effect, Eucalyptus.


117

CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLES LIKE EXOSOMES ISOLATED FROM


BLACKBERRY (RUBUS GLAUCUS BENTH.) BY TRANSMISSION ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY

Tannya Sandoval1, Camila Armas1, M. Fernanda Arias1, Karla Caiza1, Ariana Drouet1, Alexis Debut2,
Marbel Torres Arias2
1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida y la Agricultura, Carrera de Ingeniería en Biotecnología,
Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui, Ecuador.
2
Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CENCINAT), Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Sangolqui, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mmtorres@espe.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: The exosomes are vesicles of extracellular lipid bilayer responsible for the communication
between cells, they are secreted by the three domains: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya; and the plant
derivatives are called nano-vesicles such as exosomes. These are important in the area of biomedicine
because of their similarity to exosomes of mammals; They are also characterized by their ability to be
absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, their anti-inflammatory properties and their role in the control of
homeostasis. For its application in medicine and the understanding of the mechanisms of action and
biological interactions, it is first necessary to characterize them according to their shape, size and biological
action. Therefore, the present study aims to obtain and characterize isolated exosomes of blackberry (Rubus
glaucus Benth.), fruit with high levels of phenolic compounds, which contribute to its high antioxidant
capacity and other biological properties. The extracellular nano-vesicles were purified with centrifugations
and then it will be isolated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in original columns/35 nm and their
average diameter and morphology will be determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is
expected to obtain nano-vesicles called exosomes between 30 and 120 nm with spherical morphology,
respectively. Finally, a future application against antiproliferative effect on cancer cells.

Keywords: Exosomes, Extraction, Characterization, Blackberry.


118

THE CLOSED-EDGE STRUCTURE OF GRAPHITE AND THE EFFECT OF


ELECTROSTATIC CHARGING

Victor Posligua1, Joana Bustamante2, Cesar H. Zambrano3, Peter J. F. Harris4, and Ricardo Grau
Crespo1
1
Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AD, United Kingdom.
2
Departamento de Química, San Cayetano Alto - Av. Paris, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja,
110107, Loja, Ecuador.
3
Instituto de Simulación Computacional (ISC-USFQ), Diego de Robles y Vía Interoceánica, Universidad
San Francisco de Quito, 17-1200-841 Quito, Ecuador.
4
Electron Microscopy Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading
RG6 6AF, United Kingdom.

Corresponding author’s email: r.grau-crespo@reading.ac.uk

ABSTRACT: The properties of graphite, and of few-layer graphene, can be strongly influenced by the
edge structure of the graphene planes, but there is still much that we do not understand about the geometry
and stability of these edges. Here we present an experimental and theoretical study of the closed edges of
graphite crystals, and of the effect of an electric field on their structure. High-resolution transmission
electron microscopy is used to image the edge structure of fresh graphite and of graphite that has been
exposed to an electric field. In the latter case, a separation of the graphene layers is observed. Computer
simulations based on density functional theory are used to rationalise and quantify the preference for the
formation of multiple concentric loops at the edges. A model is also presented to explain how the
application of an electric field leads to the separation of the folded edges.

Keywords: Graphite, Edge Structure, Simulation, DFT.


119

INFLUENCE OF NANOSHEET THICKNESS ON THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF


GRAPHENE FILMS

Jimmy Narváez, Ronny de la Bastida, Cristian Santacruz, Leonardo Basile, Henrry M. Osorio

Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Av. Ladrón de Guevara, E11-253, 170525 Quito,
Ecuador

Corresponding author’s email: henrry.osorio@epn.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, graphene is an important material because of its unique mechanical, electrical
and optical properties. However, theoretical studies have shown that electrical conductivity have strong
dependence on the thickness of graphene nanosheets. In this context, it is important to develop some
strategies in order to confirm the theoretical results, as well as obtaining graphene nanosheets of equal
thickness for future electronic aplications. In this study, nanosheets of graphene dispersed in ethanol
(polydisperse material) was obteined from electrochemical exfoliation of bulk graphite. In addition, liquid
phase cascade centrifugation (LCC) technique was used to achieve a nanosheet size-selection obtaining
thickness-selected nanosheets (monodisperse material). Both materials were studied using diferent
microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Atomic force microscopy together with UV-Vis and RAMAN
spectroscopies confirmed that electrochemical exfoliation produce graphene nanosheets of diferent sizes
with some defects. Importantly, atomic force microscopy confirmed the thickness-selection using the LCC
technique. Finally, graphene films were obtained through drop-casting and spray-coating methods.
Electrochemical and electrical characterizations of films revealed that charge transport increase when
monodisperse material is used, confirming that electrical conductivity in graphene depends on the thickness
of the nanosheets.

Keywords: Nanosheet, Graphite, LCC.


120

STUDY OF THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT AND SPIN SELECTIVITY IN DNA



Jorge Cardenas1, Solmar Varela1, García José2

1
Yachay Tech, School of Chemical Science & Engineering, 100119-Urcuquí, Ecuador
2
Institut Català de Nanociència I Nanotecnología (ICN2) ,08193-Barcelona, España

Corresponding author’s email: jorge.cardenas@yachaytech.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Groundbreaking experiments have shown strong spin selectivity in biological chiral single
molecules of DNA. Recent theoretical approaches, analytical and numerical, have attempted to create a
tight-binding model emulating electron and spin selectivity transport through two DNA helix with one type
of nucleotide pair a single oriented π orbital per base. Using these evidence, we have developed a simulation
using KWANT, a python library which allow us to calculate the transport in different structures, DNA for
our case, in order to include tight-binding (TB) model, that incorporates kinetic and intrinsic spin-orbit
(ISO) contributions, the spin-orbit interactions and study how is conductance and spin selectivity in DNA
molecule.



Keywords: Intrinsic spin-orbit, KWANT, Electron transport.


121

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REPORT OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES: A


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD AND HEALTH

Fernanda Pilaquinga

Faculty of Nursing, School of Nutrition & Dietetics, First-semester Nutrition & Dietetics students,
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
School of Chemistry Sciences, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Pontificia Universidad Católica del
Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.

Corresponding author’s email: mfpilaquingaf@puce.edu.ec

ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles have gained popularity in the food industry for their ability to improve the
texture, appearance and taste of food. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), for example, is added to numerous foods as
an anti-caking agent. This chemical compound is a bleaching agent used in a wide variety of products, from
chewing gum to baked goods, milk powder, among others. The maximum limit allowed is 1% in food.
Although it was considered harmless for a long time, concerns about its use on a nanometric scale have
increased in recent years. In this study a bibliographic search was carried out regarding the use of titanium
dioxide nanoparticles in food and its possible impact on health. Toxicity studies indicate risks by inhalation
and its relationship with asthma; also with Crohn's disease due to intake as it affects the microbiota of the
small intestine. In addition, it has been classified as a possible carcinogen. It has been found that TiO2 with
a size of 17 nm (anatase) used as a food coloring, is 100 times more toxic than TiO2 (rutile) having a size
of 490 nm. It is concluded that the use of TiO2 in the food industry must be controlled, due to the fact that
numerous studies indicate a greater use than allowed in food, and its real effect on a nanometric scale on
human health has not been thoroughly described.

Keywords: Titanium dioxide, Food industry, Nanoparticles.