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To investigate the variation in
output(voltage) after changing diodes in a
full wave rectifier.

Prepared by:-

Roshan kumar BASTIA

12th 'A'
Roll no.:- 1210

submitted to:-

Mr Arun Tumsare
This is to certify that investigation work entitled:

Investigation in variation in output(voltage) after

changing diodes in full wave rectifier

Has been carried out by

Students of class XII ‘A’

Roshan Kumar BASTIA

Kendriya Vidyalaya, SECL, Baikunthpur (C.G)

He had submitted this project during the

Academic year 2015-2016,

Towards partial fulfilment of requirement

Of CBSE Board.

Mr Arun tumsare Signature

(Physics Teacher) [External]

I am extremely grateful to Mr Arun tumsare

Teacher of physics for his able guidance and useful
suggestions, which helped me in completing the
investigation work, in time.

I would also like to thank all the teaching and

non-teaching staff of physics department who
helped me directly or indirectly in the completion
of this investigation .

Finally, yet importantly, I would like to express my

heartfelt thanks to my beloved parents for their
blessings, my friends/classmates for their help and
wishes for the successful completion of this
investigatory project.

Roshan kumar BASTIA

Kendriyavidyalaya SECL,
1. Introduction

2. Materials req.

3. Circuit diagram

4. Working

5. Procedure

6. Observation

7. Conclusion

8. Precautions

9. Uses

10. Bibliography
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts
alternating current (AC), which periodically
reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which
flows in only one direction. The process is known
as rectification.
Rectification produces a type of DC that
encompasses active voltages and currents, which
are then adjusted into a type of constant voltage
DC, although this varies depending on the current's
The current is allowed to flow uninterrupted in one
direction, and no current is allowed to flow in the
opposite direction.
Physically, rectifiers take a number of forms,
including vacuum tube diodes, mercury-arc valves,
copper and selenium oxide rectifiers,
semiconductor diodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers
and other silicon-based semiconductor switches.
Rectifier circuits may be single-phase or multi-
phase. Most low power rectifiers for domestic
equipment are single-phase, but three-phase
rectification is very important for industrial
applications and for the transmission of energy as
1. Connecting Wires
2. A plug
3. Single Lead Wire- 2m
4. Three Nuts & Bolts 2-3cm length
5. Circuit Board
6. A Transformer (12V)
7. A Resistor
8. P-N Junction Diodes
9. A LED
10. Insulation Tape, Blades, Soldering
Wax, Soldering Lead, Soldering Iron &
Sand Paper
As shown in the figure, an ac input is applied to the primary coils
of the transformer. This input makes the secondary ends P1 and
P2 become positive and negative alternately. For the positive half
of the ac signal, the secondary point D1 is positive, GND point will
have zero volt and P2 will be negative. At this instant diode D1 will
be forward biased and diode D2 will be reverse biased. As
explained in the Theory Behind P-N Junction and Characteristics
of P-N Junction Diode, the diode D1 will conduct and D2 will not
conduct during the positive half cycle. Thus the current flow will
be in the direction P1-D1-C-A-B-GND. Thus, the positive half cycle
appears across the load resistance RLOAD.

During the negative half cycle, the secondary ends P1 becomes

negative and P2 becomes positive. At this instant, the diode D1
will be negative and D2 will be positive with the zero reference
point being the ground, GND. Thus, the diode D2 will be forward
biased and D1 will be reverse biased. The diode D2 will conduct
and D1 will not conduct during the negative half cycle. The current
flow will be in the direction P2-D2-C-A-B-GND.

When comparing the current flow in the positive and negative half
cycles, we can conclude that the direction of the current flow is
the same (through load resistance RLOAD). When compared to
the Half-Wave Rectifier, both the half cycles are used to produce
the corresponding output. The frequency of the rectified output
voltage is twice the input frequency. The output that is rectified,
consists of a dc component and a lot of ac components of minute
Connect the circuit as shown in diagram. The
outputs of transforms are connected to cathode of
diodes D1 and D2.The centred tap of transformer is
connected to resistance and a bulb is connected in
series with it. The anode of D1 and D2 and one end
of bulb is connected with a wire & another wire
connected to the terminal where centre tap and
resistance connected..these two wires provides
Diodes Output voltage(v)

IN4007 10.58

IN5408 10.47

IN5399 10.36

159C 9.94

From this investigation we conclude that ,there is

very small change appear in voltage as we change
the diodes..
.. From this investigation we
conclude that ,there is very small change appear in
voltage as we change the diodes
1.keep safe yourself from high voltage.
2.solder the wire safely.
3.while soldering don't touch the soldering tip.
4.solder under adult supervision.
Most electronic device cannot withstand very high
voltage or alternating current due to its intense
high power.
The use of batteries in all devices is not practical as
their replacement and durability is a huge problem
as the devise has to be dismantled each time for
such replacement.
So these rectifiers are used in most of the
electronic devices like TV‟s, Radios, Chargers and
Lightings etc.
The common uses of rectifiers are to supply
polarized voltage for welding, detection of
amplitude modulated radio signals.
1.from Mr Arun Tumsare (physics teacher)
2.from other teachers.
3.from ncert textbook.
4.from internet.