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ASHISH PUJARI

Sound

 ➢ Wave motion is a form of disturbance which travels through a medium due to repeated periodic motion of the particles about their mean position and the disturbance is transferred over from one particle to the other without actual motion of the particle. ➢ In wave motion, there is no transference of the particle of the medium. It is only the propagation of energy by means of the waves. There is no transfer of mass. These types of waves are also called as traveling or progressive waves. ➢ Wave motion has the following characteristics o The particles of the medium repeatedly change their position, without displacement of the medium. o This disturbance (energy) travels through the medium without any transfer of mass. ➢ The requisites of the medium for the propagation of waves are 1) The medium must possess elasticity (able to return to its original condition after being disturbed). 2) The medium must possess inertia due to which particles have the capacity to store energy. 3) The medium should be frictionless so that there will be no energy loss during propagation ➢ Waves can be classified into two types: Mechanical or elastic waves, and Electromagnetic waves. ➢
 Mechanical or Elastic Waves (sound) Electromagnetic Waves (light) 1 These waves require material medium for their propagation, e.g., matter waves, sound waves. it cannot travel through vacuum These waves do not require material medium for their propagation, e.g., light waves, radio waves etc it can travel through vacuum. 2 These are caused due to the vibrations of the particles of the medium. These are caused due to varying electric and magnetic fields in space. 3 These waves have low speeds These waves have very high speed 4 These waves can be transverse or longitudinal. These waves are only transverse waves 5 sound travels faster in solids than in air Light travels slower in transparent medium than in air

Mechanical waves require material medium for their propagation, e.g., sound waves, water waves, waves in a spring and on ropes, etc.

Electromagnetic (light ) waves travel through vacuum with the speed of 3 x 10 8 m/s.

Wave motion can be classified into two categories: transverse waves, and Longitudinal waves.

In transverse waves the particles of the medium oscillate perpendicular to the direction of propagation of wave.

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Transverse waves can propagate through solids and on the surfaces of liquids, in the form of crests and troughs.

The disturbance on the water surface when stone is dropped in still water of a pond is shown.

In longitudinal waves, the particles of the medium vibrate along the direction of propagation of wave, in the form of alternate compressions and rarefactions.

Longitudinal waves can propagate freely through solids, liquids and gases.

Pulse is a wave set up in the medium due to sudden and short disturbance, e.g., wave pulse produced by dropping a stone in a pond, sound produced by a clap of hands.

Periodic wave is caused by continuous and regular vibrations in which a particular pattern repeats itself after a fixed distance and after a fixed time interval, e.g., prongs of a vibrating tuning fork, oscillations of a load hanged at the lower end of a vertically suspended spring.

Amplitude is the maximum displacement of the particle of medium from the mean position.

Time period is the time taken by the particle of the medium in completing one vibration.

Frequency (v) is defined as the number of vibrations completed by a particle of the medium in one second. Its SI unit is hertz. (Hz)

Wavelength (λ) is the distance between two consecutive crests (or troughs) of a transverse wave.

Wave velocity is the distance traveled by the wave in one second. Its SI unit is m/s.

Sound is a form of energy that produces the sensation of hearing in our ears.

Sound is produced when a body vibrates.

Sound is mechanical wave. It requires material medium to propagate. It cannot travel through vacuum

On moon due to absence of medium (atmosphere) sound cannot travel since it is a mechanical wave

Sound is a longitudinal wave. It can travel through solids liquids and gases

Blanket, thick curtains absorb most of the sound.

ASHISH PUJARI

Relationship between the wavelength, wave velocity and frequency :

Let velocity of wave be V, time period T, frequency f and wavelength λ

Wavelength λ = distane travelled by the wave in one time period

λ = wave velocity X Time period

λ

= Vx T

λ = V /f

V =f λ

Speed of sound in solids

T = 1/f

a. directly proportional to square root of elasticity of the medium, and

b. Inversely proportional to square root of density of the medium.

Factors affecting speed of sound in air:

a. As density increases speed of sound decreases

b. As humidity increases speed of sound increases

c. Speed of sound increases with rise in temperature, i.e., 0.61 m/s for every 1° C rise in temperature.

d. Wind.

e. Speed of sound in air or gases is independent of pressure.

Speed of sound is more in solids than in air. (iron 5100m/s, water 1450 m/s, air 330m/s at 0 °C)

sound is produced at one end of a very long steel bar, two sounds are heard at the other end. First sound travels through steel with speed 5100m/s and second sound is heard through air which travels with speed 330m/s

If

We see lightning and then hear thunder because speed of light in air is 3 X 10 8 m/s and sound travels much slower (330m/s) in air

a

When the starter in an athletic event fires a gun, a spectator sitting at a distance hears the sound of fire

little later while the smoke is instantaneously seen.

The speed of sound in a gas is independent of change in pressure. The ratio pressure/ density remains unchanged with the change in pressure. When pressure increases volume decreases but the mass remains unchanged so the density increases, such that the ratio P/ρ remains constant. Hence speed of sound in gas is independent of change in pressure.

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Audible sound is the sound of frequency in the range of 20 Hz to 20000 Hz.

Sound below 20 Hz is called infra sound. Humans cannot hear infra sound and ultra sound.

Ultrasonic is the sound of frequency more than 20000 Hz. These are produced by bats, dogs, cats, birds, porpoises and insects.

Human ear is most sensitive in the range 2000Hz to 3000Hz.

Ultrasonic has two important properties which other sounds don’t posses

a. They have high energy

b. They have high directivity. They can travel along a well-defined straight path. It does not bend appreciably at the edges of an obstacle because of its small wavelength. They can be confined to narrow beam so they travel large distance without getting scattered.

Infrasonic or subsonic is the sound of frequency less than 20 Hz. These are produced by volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, whales, elephants etc.

Ultra sound waves are used in drilling holes, making cuts of desired shape in glass, clean small parts of watches, detection of defects in metals, ultrasonography, echo cardiography , in surgery to remove cataract, in kidneys to break small stones, in SONAR

SONAR = sound navigation and ranging

Supersonic: it is used for objects travelling with speed more than the speed of sound in air. Eg concord airplanes and fighter planes.

EXERCISE

1) What is a wave?

2) A stone is dropped on the surface of water in a pond. Name the type of waves produced.

3) What do you mean by wave motion? Explain it with a suitable example.

4) What do you mean by mechanical and electromagnetic wave? Give suitable examples.

5) State the requisites of the medium for the propagation of waves.

6) Write the differences between mechanical and electromagnetic waves.

7) Distinguish between transverse wave and longitudinal wave.

8) Mention similarities between transverse and longitudinal waves.

9) Differentiate between a pulse and a periodic wave.

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Define the following terms: Amplitude (ii) time period (iii) frequency (iv) wavelength (v) wave velocity. Obtain the relation between wave velocity, frequency and wavelength. Define time period and frequency for a wave motion. State their relation. Differentiate between sound waves and light waves. Draw a sketch of the variation of the displacement with time for a sinusoidal wave motion and mark amplitude, wavelength, time period on it. How do the following factors affect, if at all, the velocity of sound in air?

Pitch of sound (ii) temperature of air, (iii) pressure of air, (iv) moisture of the air. Explain, why a distant lightning flash is seen before the thunder is heard.

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 17) Why can we not hear each other on the moon? 18) If a person strikes at the one end of a long iron tube and the listener places his ear at a very far distance 19) on the other end. He hears the sound of striking two times, why? Why is the sound produced in air, not heard by a person deep inside the water? 20) Why is it possible to detect the approaching of a distant train by placing the ear very close to the railway line?

Numerical problems:

1) In a longitudinal wave there is a state of maximum compression at a point at any instant. After what time interval, the same point will be in the state of maximum rarefaction, if the frequency of the wave is 50 Hz?

2) Human beings have hearing range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Calculate the wave lengths of sound waves in air corresponding to above frequencies? Take speed of sound in air as 340 ms -1

3) A source of wave produces 20 crests and 20 troughs in 0.4 s. find the frequency of the wave.

4) Figure shows a wave form in a string. The speed of the wave is 12.0 m/s. What is its wavelength? Calculate the frequency of the wave.

Position x (cm)

5) The given figure shows a snapshot of a wave form of frequency 50 Hz in a string. The number on the figure represents distance in cm. Find (i)wavelength, (ii) the amplitude, and (iii) the velocity for the given wave motion

6)

Distance (cm)

On the sea shore, an observer observes that in one minute 72 waves reach the shore. Calculate their velocity if the wavelength of the waves is 5 m. What type of waves is observed by the observer?

7) The frequency of radio transmission station is 300 kHz. What is the wavelength of the radio waves? The speed of electromagnetic wave is 3.00 x 10 8 m/s.

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8) A source of a wave produces 60 crests and 60 troughs in 0.6 second. Find the frequency of the wave.

9) A wave has a speed of 240 m/s and a wavelength of 3.2 m. What are the (i) frequency and (ii) period of the wave?

 10) A boat at anchor is rocked by waves, whose consecutive crests are 100 m apart. If the wave velocity of moving crests is 10 ms -1 , calculate the frequency at which the boat will rock? 11) Find the wavelength for an (i) AM radio station with frequency 1000 kHz and (ii) FM radio station with frequency 92.5 MHz. The speed of electromagnetic wave 3 x 10 8 m/s. 12) Calculate the corresponding frequency of the sound wave emitted by a bat of shortest wavelength 3.3 mm. Take velocity of sound 330 m/s. 13) A boy hears an echo from a cliff 4 seconds after the sound from a powerful cracker is produced. How far away is the cliff from the boy? (Take velocity of sound in air as 340 m/s) 14) A human heart on an average is found to beat 75 times a minute. Calculate it frequency. 15) The speed of ripples on the surface of water is 0.5 ms -1 . If the period of the ripples on water is 0.1 s, find the wavelength of ripples water. 16) In a pond ripples are sent and a small piece of wood goes up and down 6 times in 15 s. The wave crests are 0.4 m apart. Calculate the wavelength, frequency and speed of the water waves. 17) A sound source produces 40 crests and 40 troughs in 0.4 s. find the frequency of the wave. 18) Sonar emits pulses on the surface of water which are detected after reflection from the bottom. If the time interval between the emission and detection of the pulse is 2 s find the depth of water. Take velocity of sound in water as 1500 ms -1. 19) The wavelength of a sound wave is 66 m. calculate the frequency of the wave if the velocity of sound is 330 ms -1 . Can this sound be audible to the human ear? 20) The distance between two consecutive troughs in a wave train produced in a string is 5 cm. Find the speed of the wave, if two complete waves pass through any point per second. 21) Sound waves travel with a speed of about 330 ms -1 . What is the wavelength of sound whose frequency is 660 Hz? 22) Ripples are generated by a vibrator on the surface of water which covers a distance of 37.8 cm in 1.2 s. The distance between consecutive crest and trough is 1.5 cm. Calculate the wavelength, wave velocity and the frequency of the generated waves. 23) The distance between the crest and trough of a transverse wave is 15 cm. What is the velocity of the wave if its frequency is 1000 Hz? 24) Sound wave of length 70 cm travels 840 m in 2.5 s. What is the velocity and frequency of sound? 25) In a ripple tank the distance between the neighboring crest and trough is 12 cm. If 10 ripples are produced in 0.1 s then calculate the time period, frequency, wavelength and velocity of the wave. 26) A vibrating body produces a wave of wavelength 2.5 m in a medium where the wave travels with a velocity of 1250 ms -1 . Find t period of vibration of the wave
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A tuning fork of frequency 480 Hz produces sound which moves through the air with a velocity

compressions

of 340 ms -1 . Find the distance between (a) two consecutive compression and rarefaction.

A tuning fork of frequency 500 Hz is used to produce transverse waves in a string. The distance between two consecutive crests is 50 cm. Find the velocity of the wave.

The frequency of a tuning fork is 374 Hz. The velocity of sound in air is 352 ms -1 . Find how far the sound has traveled while the fork completes 36 vibrations.

A sound of wavelength 68 cm travels 850 m in 2.5 s. Calculate: (i) the velocity of sound, (h) the

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frequency of sound

 31) Five second elapses between a lightening flash and the clap of thunder. How far away is the thunder? Take speed of sound 330 ms -1 . 32) The wavelength and frequency of a sound wave in certain medium is 40 cm and 825 Hz. Keeping the medium unchanged, if the wavelength is changed to 32 cm, calculate the resulting frequency. 33) The wavelength of the vibrations produced on the surface of water is 2 cm. If the wave velocity is 16 ms- 1 , calculate (i) No. of waves produced in one second (ii) Time required to produce one wave. 34) The distance between one crest and one trough of a sea wave is 4.5 m. If the waves are produced at a rate of 240 / min, calculate (i) Time period (i) Wave velocity.