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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Rationale of the Study

The University of San Carlos has been one of the best schools in Cebu. Hence, the school

has become a well-known destination for both local and foreign students/visitors coming from

different countries. Due to the increasing number of students studying in the school, the

maintenance crew are having a hard time in segregating the solid wastes. With this situation, the

researchers would conduct a study and basis in designing detectors to minimize human effort.

Due to rapid increase in population, it led to improper waste management in metro cities and

urban areas which resulted in spreading of diseases (Aleena, Sreejith & Rosmi, 2016, p.1). In a

study conducted by Ramya (2018), he mentioned that mismanagement of waste can be prone to

diseases. Not only to individuals has it also harmed the nature, thereby harming all the other

living species on the earth. In addition, regarding smart bins, Sushma (2017) used RFID sensors

that will segregate all incoming waste into wet waste and dry waste, and further segregate dry

waste into plastic waste and non-plastic waste.

1.2 Objectives

The aim of this study was to design a prototype of a smart trash bin or “smart bin”. The idea

was to develop a smart bin system which is capable of segregating the dry and wet waste

automatically without any human intervention. The idea basically comes in the domain of

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sewage and waste management. As the technology is rapidly growing only some was interested

in manually managing the sewage and waste system (Ramya, et al, 2018).

Finally, this study is to be conducted to minimize human effort and to improve

environmental sustainability and energy conversation by creating a trash bin that automatically

segregates solid wastes, biodegradable and non-biodegradable. By doing so, the school becomes

more environmental friendly and healthier to study in.

1.3 Scope and Limitation

This study is primarily focus on designing a prototype of a smart trash bin that is capable of

segregating dry and wet waste automatically. The scope area of the study is inside the University

of San Carlos, Talamban Campus. This study will only limit to the solid waste.

1.4 Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine and analyse the segregation of solid waste in USC-TC Bunzel

Building. Specifically thus study attempted to answer the following questions.

1) What are the ways in segregating solid waste in USC-TC Bunzel building?

2) What are the advantages of segregating waste?

3) How can segregating waste greatly improve the amount of materials that being recycled.

4) How can waste segregation minimized the pollution in our surroundings.

5) Is the machine an environmental friendly?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is in accordance of the following benefits that may be brought to the students and

janitors of USC-TC Bunzel Building, the solid waste management of the area, and the

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surroundings through ensuring the clean surroundings of the school building. Students, is to

attain proper attitude in throwing the garbage.

Janitors, is to minimize human effort and time in segregating waste. Employers to adopt the

culture and proper segregation of waste. And the university itself, the place is very safety and a

clean environment to lived in, thus the students productivity will improve.

And last but not the least the future researchers that will be conducting such experiment, this

proposal will be beneficial to their study and the data gathered here will be helpful in future

research.

CHAPTER 3

3.1 Theoretical Background

CHAPTER 4

4.1 Review of Related Literature

It is possible to define solid waste as non-liquid material that no longer has any value for the

person responsible. When talking about solid waste, the words rubbish, garbage, trash and refuse

are often used as synonyms (Da Zhu, et al, 2008). Any solid material that is rejected by society

in the pattern of material flow is called solid waste. So, solid waste is the organic or inorganic

waste materials produced by different social activities that have lost value to the first user. It is

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created by activities related to domestic, commercial, industrial, education, agriculture and

mineral extraction and accumulates in streets and public places.

According to Archana(2018), the environment can be maintained by proper solid waste

management. Second, by recycling the goods it conserves resources helps to reduce the

production of new products and raw materials. Second, by increasing the concentration of gases

such as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from waste, it decreases air pollution. Finally,

health would be diminished by properly segregating waste exposure that can affect human health

and cause multiple diseases.

Leblanc (2018) described solid waste management as the discipline associated with

managing the production, storage, collection, transport or transfer, processing and disposal of

solid waste materials in a manner that best addresses the scope of public health, sustainability,

economic, aesthetic, technology and other environmental considerations. Between residential and

industrial users, urban and rural areas, and developed and developing nations, solid waste

management practices may differ. Non-hazardous waste disposal in metropolitan areas is the

responsibility of local government departments. On the other hand, it is usually the generator's

job to manage hazardous waste materials, subject to regional, national and even foreign

authorities.

According to Republic Act No. 9003 or also known as “Ecological Solid Waste

Management Act of 2000”, the protection of public health and environment must be ensured.

The Environment is the most important resource for life. Individuals get water, power and

oxygen from the Environment. It helps to clear pollution and is a large habitat for animals. Earth

is getting polluted by poisonous gases and fumes made by cars and factories. A clean

environment is essential for healthy living (Lewis, 2016). This study is in line with the Republic

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Act No. 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, and the other laws

applicable to this study. After conducting this study, segregating waste of USC-TC Bunzel

Building would hopefully improve.

The smart bin (Ramya, Pooja & Ranjitha, et al, 2018) also known as “Smart Trash Bin”,

is a device that automatically segregates solid wastes. The smart bin consequently open the cover

when it identifies the general population who need to toss out their waste. It can additionally

identify the level of the junk that inside the smart bin. If the smart bin is full of trash at the

certain level, the lid will not open even when there are people who want to throw out their trash.

Managing waste can save energy, reduce cost, recover resources and make workplace safe.

Furthermore, it minimize human effort and time in segregating waste, and ensure the clean

surrounding of the environment. Bad waste management practices can also cause land and air

pollution which can result in serious medical conditions in humans and animals. Essentially,

implementing a proper solid waste management can reduce the risk of a person’s health (Lewis,

M., 2016).

Based on the researchers observations, mostly of the students doesn’t segregate solid waste

properly. Others just throw them whichever is the nearer trash bin. The smart bin will be used to

segregate solid wastes automatically with less human effort (Ramya, Pooja & Ranjitha, et al,

2018). To formulate this hypotheses, the smart bins will be placed at the side of the trash bins in

Bunzel building. By doing so, the researchers would observe and collect data if the theory would

be acceptable.

CHAPTER 4

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4.1 Flow Chart

Design of Smart Bin

Gather all the equipment


and devices required

Set-up the designed smart


bin

Applying the necessary


equipment to conduct the
experiment

Testing

Gathering of data for wet and


dry solid waste

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Conclusion

4.2 Experimental Set-up

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4.3 Design

Table 1. Result of segregating

Waste to be segregate Type of waste Angle of Inclination Bin

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Paper Dry 45 to the left Dry

Banana peel Wet 45 to the right Wet

Plastic Dry 45 to the left Dry

Wet cloth Wet 45 to the right Wet

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REFERENCES

Aleena V.J., K. B., Rosmi T.B., S. K. K. ., & Sreejith S., T. D. S. (2016). Automatic Waste
Segregator and Monitoring System. [PDF]. Retrieved April 13, 2019, from
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317720527_Automatic_Waste_Segregator_an
Monitoring_System?fbclid=IwAR26BIF2JKPttWRbCzBtq-WNk89VKYBTB_xMZbmu-
NZ2s841AKGNtlTZiM
Archana (2017). Waste management essay. Retrieved from
https://www.indiacelebrating.com/essay/waste-management-essay/
Da Zhu, P. U. Asnani, Chris Zurbrugg, Sebastian Anapolsky, Syamala Mani (2008). Improving
Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: A Source Book for Policy Makers and
Practitioners. Retrieved from
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/682051468267572634/Improving-municipal-
solid-waste-management-in-India-a-sourcebook-for-policy-makers-and-practitioners

Leblanc, R. (2018, October 20). What is Solid waste Management? Retrieved from
https://www.thebalancesmb.com/an-introduction-to-solid-waste-management-2878102

Lewis, M. (2016, November 22). Why do we need to protect the environment? Retrieved from
https://www.quora.com/Why-do-we-need-to-protect-the-environment-2

Ramya, R., Ranjitha, D., Pooja, G., Tabassum Taj, B., & Guptha, N. (2018, May 3). Smart Bins
Using Dry and Wet Waste Detectors. International Journal of Advanced Research in
Computer Science (pp 164 - 167). Retrieved from
https://www.ijarcs.info/index.php/Ijarcs/article/viewFile/6221/5043

Sushma, M., & Sridhar, S. (2017, July - August). Waste Segregation using RFID Technology.
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science (pp 845-847).
Retrieved from DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26483/ijarcs.v8i7.4394

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