Sei sulla pagina 1di 364
MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA A REPORT TO THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING BY ABRAHAM FLEXNER WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY HENRY S. PRITCHETT PRESIDENT OF THE FOUNDATION BULLETIN NUMBER FOUR (1910) (Reproduced in 1960) (Reproduced in 1972) 487 MADISON AVENUE NEW YORK CITY 10022 COPYRIGHT, 1910 BY THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING —.W. Avpranam Fuexwen’s study of medical education was originally published more than 60 years ago. It, and subsequent generous grants from the General Education Board and others, provided the impetus for revolutionary advances in the training of physicians. ‘The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching still receives numerous requests for the Flexner report. which, in addition to being a landmark in the history of medical training, is considered to be a classic in the literature of education. December, 1972 SE aS D. B. UPDIKE, THE MERRYMOUNT PRESS, BOSTON REPRODUCED BY PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY BY WM. F. FELL CO,, 1960 AND 1972 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction © ee wee PART I CHAPTER I. Historical and General. . . . . . . II. The Proper Basis of Medical Education . . . . . Til. The Actual Basis of Medical Education IV. The Course of Stody: The Laboratory Branches, ) First and second Years. ‘The Course of Sindy: ‘The Latin Branches ® First and 5 Second ‘Years (continued) . |. The Course of Study: The Hopi ed the Medial School to "Third and Fourth Years. ‘The Course of Study: The Hospital tnd the Medica School, 0 "Third and Fourth Years (continued) Vv. VI. VIL. VI. The Financial Aspects of Medical Baueation . m, x. Reconstruction. 6 6. ee ee Medical Sets 6. we wen XL TheSteteBorrds ©... ww XI. The Postgraduate School . . 2). . XIII. The Medical Education of Women . . . . . . XIV. ‘The Medical Education of theNegro . . ww, PART I ‘The Medical Schools of Arkansas. . . . . . . . . . . . California . . oe . . . . . . . Colorado. . . . . . . . . . . . Connecticut. . . . . . . . . . District of Columbia. . . . . . . . . . BS a 52 n 91 105 126 143. 156 167 1% 178 180 185. 187 188 197 199 201