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Presentation · October 2012

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2456.8408


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Mubashera Tufail Khan

Allama Iqbal Open University


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Branches of Philosophy: Axiology

Presented by: Mubeshera Tufail

Department of Education
Faculty of Social Sciences
International Islamic University
• Definitions
• Historical Background
• What is value?
• Nature of Value
• Kinds of Values
• Hierarchy of Values
• General Theory of Value
• Branches of Axiology
•Axiology and Modern Man
•Axiology and Religion
• Axiology and Science
• Axiology and Society
• Axiology and Education
•Axiology in our Daily Life
• Conclusion
The word “Axiology” is derived from two
Greek roots

‘Axios’ Worth or Value

‘Logos’ Logic or Theory

(Arora, 2010)
 Axiology is the branch of philosophy
dealing with quality or value
Axiology is the branch of philosophy that
studies judgments about values including
both of ethics and aesthetics (Chopra,
•The term “Axiology” was first used in the
early 20th century by Paul Lapie and E. Von
Hartmann (Arora,2010).
• The search for a science of value originated
with early Greek philosophers in 5th and 6th
centuries B.C.
•During medieval times, it was argued for the
division of religious(faith, hope and love) and
natural values i.e., wisdom, courage,
temperance and justice (identified by Plato).
•The 20th century saw the rise of Pragmatism.
(Foss & Littlejohn,2009)
Gradually the modern view of morality
emerged i.e., Values are regarded as tools
for processing of ideas and things
(Foss & Littlejohn,2009)
 Values are the preferences made on the basis
of what we consider ‘good’ in various fields
of life (Lobo, 1974).
 Value may be some sort of existent with a
particular property or properties, which can be
discussed in terms of its nature and its
relationship to other existents (Bowyer,1970).
Value is the property of material object and
phenomenon of social consciousness which
characterize its importance to society, to a
class or a man (Rosenthal & Yudin, 1967).
 Values may be subjective (personal) or
objective (impersonal).
 Values may be changing or constant.

There are seven types of values which are as
• Health, Bodily, Recreational
• Economic Values
• Social values
• Moral Values
• Aesthetic Values
• Intellectual values
• Religious Values
(Lobo, 1974)
 Idealists’ View
 Realists' View
 Pragmatist’s View
 Experimentalists Objects
acquires value after choosing.
 Emotivists Individuals will
decide which value should be adopted?
 Objectivists Values are in objects
or in relation among objects.
(Lobo, 1974)

Ethics Aesthetics

 Ethics studies values in the realm of
human conduct (Kneller,1971).
 “Ethics evaluates human habits, character
and voluntary determination and their
propriety” (Singh &Nath, 2008).
It deals with such questions as:
(a)What is good for all men?
(b)How one should behave?
(c)What is right?
(d)What is morally wrong?
Aesthetics studies values in the realm of
beauty (Kneller,1971).
 Aesthetics involves the study of art and
experience of beauty (Sharma,2010).
Aesthetic values are likely to be personal
and subjective (Kneller,1971).
It discusses such questions:
(a) what is beauty?
(b) which art should be appraised?
(c) What is the importance of art in
human life?
•Axiology can guide human life, individual
as well as social, secular as well as non-
secular, in the right direction.
•Man searches for truth, praises beautiful
and attempts good. Axiology serve as a
guide for this purpose.
The main concern of religion is the
relationship between God and man, and
between man and man.
 Religion emphasizes self-control and
conservation of values i.e., individual,
social, spiritual values.
•Science can provide us with means only, it
can never give about ends.
•It is the philosophy of values which helps
us in deciding as to how and for what
purpose these means should be utilized.
(Nigal, 1986)
Each society has its own set of values. All
the individuals should adopt those values.
Values are everywhere in education.
 By using values
a. Teachers evaluate Student.
b. Students Evaluate Teachers.
c. Society and Educators evaluate each
“Axiological thinking” or “thinking on
values” is unavoidable and necessary.
• We are busy in “axiological thinking” or
“thinking on value” when we refer to such
notions as:
• “Success” and “Failure”
• “Progress” and “ Regress”
• “Better” and “Worse”
• “More efficient” and “less efficient”
• “Needed” and “Not Needed”
• “More important” and “Less Important”
We all possess values that guide our
thoughts, actions and behaviors in every
aspect and field of life i.e., personal, social,
intellectual and emotional. We are involved
in axiological thinking in every moment,
intentionally or unintentionally.
 Arora,N.(2010). Educational Philosophy. Delhi: Saurabh
Publishing House.
Bowyer,Carlton H.(1970).Philosophical Perspectives for
Education.USA:Scott, Foresman and Company.
Chopra,R.(2005).Academic Dictionary of
Philosophy.Delhi:Isha Books.
Ebert,E.S. & Culyer,R.C.(2011).School: An Introduction
to Education.USA:Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Foss,K.A.& Littlejohn,S.W .(2009).Encyclopedia of
Communication Theory. USA:SAGE Publications,Inc.
Kneller,George F.(1971).Introduction to Philosophy of
Education. USA:John Wiley & Sons,Inc.
 Lobo,A.T.(1974).Educational Ideas and Their
Impact.Karachi:Rotti Press.
Nath,R. & Singh,Y.K.(2008). Education in Emerging
Indian Society. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.
Nigal, S.G.(1986).Axiological Approach to Vedas. New
Delhi: Northern Book Centre.
Skowronski,K.P.(2009).Values and Powers: Re-reading
the Philosophical Tradition of American Pragmatism.
Rodopi:New York.
Sharma,A.P.(2010).Indian and Western Philosophy.New
Delhi: Unicorn Books.
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