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CH301&Unit&4&Lecture&4:&&Using&Table&Data&to&Solve&Thermodynamics&Problems&

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Active&Learning.&&Looks!at!the!examples!of!data!that!you!will!use!to!perform!calculations!in!this!lecture.!!Talk!about!each!type!of!data!and!why!that!
particular!information!!!is!useful.!
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CH301&Unit&4&Lecture&4:&&Using&Table&Data&to&Solve&Thermodynamics&Problems&
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Active&Learning.&&Looks!at!the!examples!of!data!that!you!will!use!to!perform!calculations!in!this!lecture.!!Talk!about!each!type!of!data!and!why!that!
particular!information!!!is!useful.!
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Answer:!!The&bond&energy&table!includes!average!bond!energies!for!a!collection!of!non<metals!commonly!found!in!organic!compounds.!!It!is!
interesting!to!consider!these!values!in!the!context!of!what!you!leaned!in!Unit!2<<covalent!bond!energies!are!between!400!and!1000!kJ/mole,!with!
double!bonds!and!triple!bonds!have!more!energy.!!This!data!is!ONLY!used!in!bond!energy!calculations!and!only!works!for!gas!phase!reaction.!
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The!Thermodynamic&table&of&inorganic&compounds!runs!on!for!pages!and!pages.!!Thermodynamic!measurements!have!been!made!for!pretty!much!!
every!substance!possible!to!yield!!heat!capacity!data!used!in!calorimetry,!!absolute!molar!entropy!data!(discussed!in!Lecture!5)!!and!enthalpy!and!
free!energy!data!from!formation!reactions.!!This!is!the!collection!of!data!you!will!use!mostly!often!in!Unit!4!thermo!calculations!
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The!Thermodynamic&table&of&organic&compounds!is!similar!to!inorganic!data.!!The!only!difference!is!that!since!organic!molecules!can!be!
combusted,!the!ΔHcomb!for!any!mole!of!an!organic!molecule!!!(CxHyOz!!!+!!O2!!!!!CO2!+!H2O!)!is!also!included.!
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Note:!!You!could!spend!hours!looking!at!this!data!making!sense!of!it!and!using!it!to!perform!calculations.!!That!is!what!we!will!be!doing!in!getting!
ready!for!the!exam.!!So!have!it!handy.!
&What&do&all&those&funny&symbols&in&the&thermo&table&headings&&mean?&
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Scientists!use!shorthand!to!talk!with!each!other!and!in!thermo,!that!shorthand!is!often!found!in!superscripts!
and!subscripts!of!state!functions.!!You!can’t!just!do!the!math!without!knowing!what!these!symbols!mean!or!
you!have!just!!number!and!idea!what!is!going!on.!
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Active&Learning.!!For!each!of!the!symbols!below,!indicate!what!the!subscripts!and!superscripts!are!telling!you.!
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CP,m!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!ΔHfo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Smo!
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What&do&all&those&funny&symbols&in&the&thermo&table&headings&&mean?&
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Scientists!use!shorthand!to!talk!with!each!other!and!in!thermo,!that!shorthand!is!often!found!in!superscripts!
and!subscripts!of!state!functions.!!You!can’t!just!do!the!math!without!knowing!what!these!symbols!mean!or!
you!have!just!!number!and!idea!what!is!going!on.!
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Active&Learning.!!For!each!of!the!symbols!below,!indicate!what!the!subscripts!and!superscripts!are!telling!you.!
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CP,m!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!ΔHfo!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Smo!
Answer.&
P!in!the!heat!capacity!term!means!that!the!heat!capacity!was!calculated!at!constant!pressure.!!This!is!the!heat!
capacity!that!is!associated!with!calorimetry!to!find!ΔH!=!qp.!!There!is!also!a!Cv!that!is!the!heat!capacity!at!
constant!volume!used!in!finding!ΔU!=!qv.!
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m!!means!the!data!is!for!a!mole!of!material.!!Most!thermo!data!are!extensive!properties,!so!you!have!to!
designate!the!amount,!as!in:!if!you!have!twice!as!much!sample!you!have!twice!as!much!heat!capacity,!or!
energy,!or!entropy.!!The!standard!unit!of!amount!in!these!tables!is!always!the!same:!!per!one!MOLE!
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!means!the!data!was!collected!at!standard!temperature!and!pressure,!which!for!our!purposes!is!1!atm!and!
298K!(I!always!simply!use!300K.)!!The!reasons!for!assigning!standard!conditions!is!that!scientists!need!to!be!!
able!to!use!the!same!experimental!conditions.!!There!are!equations!for!working!at!non<standard!conditions!
but!in!this!course!we!usually!work!at!1!atm!and!300K!so!expect!to!see!the!o!a!lot.!
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f&&designates!that!the!data!in!the!table!is!from!a!formation!reaction.!!By!definition,!this!means!that!elements!in!
their!standard!state!yield!a!ΔHo!or!ΔGo!to!make!one!mole!of!the!substance.!!This!formation!data!has!the!
advantage!over!bond!energies!in!that!it!employs!!!Hess’!Law!to!find!thermodynamic!data!but!it!takes!into!
account!IMF!to!make!liquids,!solids!and!aqueous!species.!!!
Identifying&formation&reactions.&
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Formation!reactions!are!strictly!defined.!!This!is!important!because!everyone!needs!to!know!the!specific!
conditions!used!to!yield!the!numerical!values!for!each!substance.!Remember:!
•! elements!must!be!in!their!standard!state!!
•! only!one!mole!of!substance!is!being!made!
•! the!reaction!needs!to!be!“forming”!the!substance,!not!decomposing!it.!
•! the!reaction!needs!to!be!stoichiometrically!balanced.!
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Active&learning.!!Which!of!the!following!is!NOT!a!formation!reaction?!!If!it!is!not!a!formation!reaction,!what!
needs!to!be!done!to!make!it!one?!
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H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(l)!
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2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(l)!
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H2(s)!+!1/2O2(g)!!!!H2O(l)!
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H2(g)!+!1/2O2(g)!!!!H2O(l)!
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H2(g)!+!1/2O2(g)!!!!H2O(g)!
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H2O(g)!!!!H2(g)!+!1/2O2(g)!
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Identifying&formation&reactions.&
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Formation!reactions!are!strictly!defined.!!This!is!important!because!everyone!needs!to!know!the!specific!
conditions!used!to!yield!the!numerical!values!for!each!substance.!Remember:!
•! elements!must!be!in!their!standard!state!!
•! only!one!mole!of!substance!is!being!made!
•! the!reaction!needs!to!be!“forming”!the!substance,!not!decomposing!it.!
•! the!reaction!needs!to!be!stoichiometrically!balanced.!
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Active&learning.!!Which!of!the!following!is!NOT!a!formation!reaction?!!If!it!is!not!a!formation!reaction,!what!
needs!to!be!done!to!make!it!one?!
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H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(l)!!!!! No.!!Reaction!isn’t!balanced!and!2!moles!of!product!are!made!
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2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(l)!! No.!!2!moles!of!product!are!made!
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H2(s)!+!1/2O2(g)!!!!H2O(l)!!!!No.!!One!of!the!reactants!is!not!an!element!in!its!standard!state.!
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H2(g)!+!1/2O2(g)!!!!H2O(l)!!!!Yes.!!One!mole!of!product!from!elements!in!their!standard!state.!
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H2(g)!+!1/2O2(g)!!!!H2O(g)!!!Yes.!!Any!state!of!matter!is!fine.!!This!is!how!IMF!is!included.!
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H2O(g)!!!!H2(g)!+!1/2O2(g)!! !No,!this!is!a!decomposition!reactions.!!Needs!to!be!reversed.!
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Getting&down&to&business.&&Here&are&the&calculations&you&will&do&in&this&lecture.&
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Worksheet!10!offers!a!lot!of!opportunity!to!work!different!kinds!of!thermo!calculations!using!table!
data.!!In!this!lecture!we!will!perform!calculations!for!two!combustion!reactions!and!two!phase!
changes.!!Here!are!the!boxes!to!be!filled!in:!

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Active&Learning.!!Look!at!the!four!reactions!above.!!For!each,!explain!what!is!going!on!physically.!
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Getting&down&to&business.&&Here&are&the&calculations&you&will&do&in&this&lecture.&
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Worksheet!10!offers!a!lot!of!opportunity!to!work!different!kinds!of!thermo!calculations!using!table!
data.!!In!this!lecture!we!will!perform!calculations!for!two!combustion!reactions!and!two!phase!
changes.!!Here!are!the!boxes!to!be!filled!in:!

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Active&Learning.!!Look!at!the!four!reactions!above.!!For!each,!explain!what!is!going!on!physically.!
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Answers:&
•! CH4(g)!+!2O2(g)!!!CO2(g)!+!2H2O(g).!!The!first!reaction!is!the!combustion!of!methane.!!It!would!be!expected!that!
this!reaction!is!exothermic!and!spontaneous.!!!
•! 2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(l):!The!second!reaction!is!the!exploding!of!a!hydrogen!balloon!like!Dr.!Laude!does!all!
the!time!in!class.!!This!reaction!is!also!exothermic!and!spontaneous.!
•! H2O(l)!!!!H2O(g):!!The!third!reaction!is!a!physical!process!in!which!liquid!water!vaporizes!to!become!gaseous!
water.!!This!reaction!is!NOT!spontaneous!under!standard!conditions!(room!temperature)!
•! C6H6(g)!!!C6H6(l):!!The!fourth!reaction!is!a!physical!process!in!which!gaseous!benzene!condenses!to!become!
liquid!benzene.!!This!reaction!is!spontaneous!under!standard!conditions!(room!temperature)!because!
benzene!is!a!liquid!a!room!temperature.!
The&equations&used&to&do&thermo&calculations.&
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The!equations!used!in!general!chemistry!thermo!classes!are!not!hard.!!Just!a!lot!of!basic!arithmetic.!!
The!reason!it!is!so!easy!to!get!wrong!answers!is!that!there!are!a!ton!of!arithmetic!operations!AND!
signs!always!have!to!be!perfect.!
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Here!is!a!modified!table!of!the!thermo!equation!sheet!you!will!have!for!the!exam.!
ΔSorxn!=!ΣΔSom!(prod)!< ΣΔSom!(reac)!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ΔHorxn!=!ΣΒΕ!reac!< ΣΒΕ!prod!
Δnsys!(g)!!=Σ Δngas!prod!!< Δngas!reac!!!!!!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
nsys!!=Σ Δnprod!!< Δnreac!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Gorxn!=!ΣΔGof!(prod)!< ΣΔGof!(reac)!
ΔHorxn!=!ΣΔHof!(prod)!< ΣΔHof!(reac)!
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ΔG rxn!=!ΔH rxn!<!TΔS rxn!!! ! ! ! ! ! w!=!<!Δn!sys!(g)!!RT!!!!!!
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Active&learning.!!Assign!the!equations!above!to!the!calculations!you!will!perform!in!this!lecture.!
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The!equation!for!bond!energy!calculations!is:!
The!equation!for!ΔHorxn!calculations!is:!
The!equation!for!Δngas!calculations!is:!
The!equation!for!work!calculations!is:!
The!equation!for!Δnsys!calculations!is:!
The!equation!for!TΔSo!!calculations!is:!
The!equation!for!ΔGorxn!calculations!is:!
The&equations&used&to&do&thermo&calculations.&
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The!equations!used!in!general!chemistry!thermo!classes!are!not!hard.!!Just!a!lot!of!basic!arithmetic.!!
The!reason!it!is!so!easy!to!get!wrong!answers!is!that!there!are!a!ton!of!arithmetic!operations!AND!
signs!always!have!to!be!perfect.!
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Here!is!a!modified!table!of!the!thermo!equation!sheet!you!will!have!for!the!exam.!
ΔSorxn!=!ΣΔSom!(prod)!< ΣΔSom!(reac)!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ΔHorxn!=!ΣΒΕ!reac!< ΣΒΕ!prod!
Δnsys!(g)!!=Σ Δngas!prod!!< Δngas!reac!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
nsys!!=Σ Δnprod!!< Δnreac!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Gorxn!=!ΣΔGof!(prod)!< ΣΔGof!(reac)!
ΔHorxn!=!ΣΔHof!(prod)!< ΣΔHof!(reac)! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
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ΔGorxn!=!ΔHorxn!<!TΔSorxn!!! ! ! ! ! ! w!=!<!Δn!sys!(g)!!RT!!!!!!
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Active&learning.!!Assign!the!equations!above!to!the!calculations!you!will!perform!in!this!lecture.!
Answers.!!!
The!equation!for!bond!energy!calculations!is: ΔHorxn!=!ΣΒΕ!reac!< ΣΒΕ!prod!
The!equation!for!ΔHorxn!calculations!is:!!! ! ΔHorxn!=!ΣΔHof!(prod)!< ΣΔHof!(reac)!
The!equation!for!Δngas!calculations!is: Δnsys!(g)!!=Σ Δngas!prod!!< Δngas!reac!!!!(only!gases!are!used)!
The!equation!for!work!calculations!is:!!! ! w!=!<!Δn!sys!(g)!!RT!!!!!(Remember!RT!=!2.5kJ!at!300K)!
The!equation!for!Δnsys!calculations!is:!! Δnsys!!=Σ Δnprod!!< Δnreac!!!!(all!states!are!used)!
The!equation!for!TΔSo!!calculations!is:!!!!! (ΔSorxn!=!ΣΔSom!(prod)!< ΣΔSom!(reac))!!!x!T!=!!TΔSorxn!!!!
The!equation!for!ΔGorxn!calculations!is: ΔGorxn!=!ΣΔGof!(prod)!< ΣΔGof!(reac)!!!!
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! or!! ΔGorxn!=!ΔHorxn!<!TΔSorxn!!!
Relevant&Thermo&Data&for&Calculations&in&this&lecture&(keep&this&handy).&
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Here!is!the!relevant!data!thermodynamic!data!you!should!use!to!answer!all!the!questions!in!this!
lectures!except!the!BE!calculations.!!Be!careful!about!the!column!headings.!!They!are!different!for!
the!inorganic!and!the!organic!compounds.!
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Taking&a&big&picture&view&of&the&answers&before&we&start.&&
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You!have!been!shown!the!boxes!that!need!to!be!filled!in!for!this!lecture.!!Good!news:!!the!answers!are!shown!
below.!!Why!do!this?!!It!is!valuable!to!see!what!the!answers!are!BEFORE!you!start!doing!the!boring!math!
because!understanding!thermo!is!NOT!about!showing!you!can!multiply!and!add!numbers,!it!is!understanding!
the!magnitudes!and!signs!of!the!results!that!allow!you!to!“get&thermo.”!
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Active&learning:!!Look!at!the!answers!below!and!discuss!patterns!that!you!see!in!the!data.!

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Taking&a&big&picture&view&of&the&answers&before&we&start.&&
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You!have!been!shown!the!boxes!that!need!to!be!filled!in!for!this!lecture.!!Good!news:!!the!answers!are!shown!below.!!Why!do!
this?!!It!is!valuable!to!see!what!the!answers!are!BEFORE!you!start!doing!the!boring!math!because!understanding!thermo!is!
NOT!about!showing!you!can!multiply!and!add!numbers,!it!is!understanding!the!magnitudes!and!signs!of!the!results!that!allow!
you!to!“get&thermo.”!
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Active&learning:!!Look!at!the!answers!below!and!discuss!patterns!that!you!see!in!the!data.!

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Answer:&
1.!!Combustion!reactions!are!large!exothermic!reactions!that!are!also!spontaneous.!
2.!Bond!energies!and!ΔH!are!the!same!if!everything!is!a!gas!with!no!IMF.!
3.!!The!bond!energies!are!0!and!NOT!correct!for!the!phase!transitions!because!they!don’t!account!for!IMF!like!
H<bonding!or!dispersion!forces!
4.!Values!for!work!calculations!are!multiples!of!2.5!and!are!insignificant!relative!to!ΔH!for!combustion!
5.!TΔS!values!are!NOT!significant!compared!to!ΔH!in!combustion!reactions!so!Δ!H!!is!about!equal!to!ΔG.!
6.!TΔS!values!ARE!significant!for!phase!changes!and!are!the!source!temperature!dependence!that!determines!
spontaneity.!
7.!The!ΔG!for!phases!changes!above!make!sense:!!Water!is!NOT!a!gas!at!room!temperature!so!ΔG!is!+.!!
Benzene!is!a!liquid!at!room!temperature!so!ΔG!is!<.!
8.!ΔG!is!ALSO!equal!to!ΔH!<TΔS!which!shows!internal!consistency!in!the!math!calculations.!
Calculation&Time.&&Bond&Energies.&
Active&learning.!!Use!BE!tables!to!find!BE!for!the!two!combustion!and!phase!change!calculations.!
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Calculation&Time.&&Bond&Energies.&
Active&learning.!!Use!BE!tables!to!find!BE!for!the!two!combustion!and!phase!change!calculations.!
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Answers.&&Use!the!equation!!!!&ΔH rxn!=!ΣΒΕ reac!< ΣΒΕ!prod!!!
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CH4(g)!+!2O2(g)!!!CO2(g)!+!2H2O(g):!there!are!4!CH!bonds,!2!O=O!bonds,!2!C=O!bonds,!4!O<H!bonds!
ΔHorxn!=!![4!x!413)!+!2!x!495!]!–![!2!x!799!!+!4!x!463]!!=!<808!kJ!!(which!is!close!enough!to!<802)!
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2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(l):!!there!are!2!H<H!bonds,!1!O=O!bonds,!4!O<H!bonds!
ΔHorxn!=!![2!x!436)!+!1!x!495!]!–![4!x!463]!!=!<485!kJ!!(which!is!close!enough!to!<484!kJ)!
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H2O(l)!!!!H2O(g)!and!C6H6(g)!!!C6H6(l):!!!You!can't!do!phase!transition!calculations!with!bond!
energies.!!Bond!energy!tables!assume!every!substance!is!a!gas!so!only!energy!change!is!covalent!
bond!breaking.!Since!no!bonds!are!broken!in!a!phase!transition,!!the!BE!calculation!assumes!ΔHorxn!
=!0!which!is!clearly!wrong.!
Calculation&Time.&&ΔHorxn&Using&Formation&constants.&
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Active&learning.!!Use!the!provided!ΔHof!!data!to!find!!ΔHorxn!for!two!combustion!and!phase!change!calculations.!
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Answers:&&Use!the!equation!ΔH rxn!=!ΣΔH f!(prod)!< ΣΔHof!(reac)!
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CH4(g)!+!2O2(g)!!!CO2(g)!+!2H2O(g):!ΔHof!!values!are!CH4!(<75),!O2(0),!CO2(<393),!H2O(g)!(<241)!
ΔHorxn!=!![<393)!+!2!x!<241!]!–![!<75!+!2!x!0]!!=!<800!kJ!!(which!is!close!enough!to!<802)!
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2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(g):!!ΔHof!!values!are!H2(g)!(436),!O2(g)!(495),!H2O(g)!(463)!!!
ΔHorxn!=!![2!x!436)!+!1!x!495!]!–![4!x!463]!!=!<485!kJ!!(which!is!close!enough!to!<484!kJ)!
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H2O(l)!!!!H2O(g):!!values!for!liquid!water!(<285)!!and!gaseous!water(<!241)!
ΔHorxn!=!!<241!–!(<285)!=!+!44!kJ!!which!makes!sense.!!About!two!H!bonds!worth!and!endothermic!
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C6H6(g)!!!C6H6(l):!!gaseous!benzene!(+49)!and!liquid!benzene!(+83)!!
ΔHorxn!=!+!49!–!(83)!=!<34!kJ!which!makes!sense.!!Lots!of!dispersion!forces!and!exothermic!process!
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Calculation&Time.&&What&is&work&for&each&of&the&reactions&or&phase&changes?!
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Active&learning.!!In!this!course!work!is!all!PV!work!and!for!the!chemical!reactions!is!found!from!PV!=!nRT.!!
Assume!300K!so!RT!=!2.5kJ.!
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Answers:&&&Use!w!=!<PΔV!=!<ΔngasRT!!and!assume!that!significant!ΔV!is!from!changes!in!gas!volume&
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CH4(g)!+!2O2(g)!!!CO2(g)!+!2H2O(g):! Δngas!=!0!so!w!=!0.!!No!work!is!done.!
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2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(g):!!Δngas!=!2<3!=!<1.!!w!=!<ΔngasRT!!=!<(<1)2.5!=!+!2.5!kJ.!!Makes!sense,!work!is!
done!on!the!system.!
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H2O(l)!!!!H2O(g):!!Δngas!=!1<0!=!+1.!!w!=!<ΔngasRT!!=!<(1)2.5!=!<!2.5!kJ.!!Makes!sense,!work!is!done!on!
the!surroundings!
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C6H6(g)!!!C6H6(l):!!Δngas!=!0<1!=!<1.!!w!=!<ΔngasRT!!=!<(<1)2.5!=!+!2.5!kJ.!!Makes!sense,!work!is!done!on!
the!system.!
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Calculation&Time.&&Calculate&TΔSorxn&using&molar&entropies&from&table&data,&assuming&T&=&300K&
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Active&learning.!!Use!Som!!data!to!find!!TΔSorxn!!!
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Answers:!Use!!ΔSorxn!=!ΣΔSom!(prod)!< ΣΔSom!(reac)!!!!!Remember!to!divide!by!1000!to!get!from!J!to!kJ!and!then!
multiply!x!300K!
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CH4(g)!+!2O2(g)!!!CO2(g)!+!2H2O(g):!!Som!!values!from!table!are!CH4!(186),!O2(205),!CO2(214),!H2O(g)!189)!
ΔSorxn!=!(214!+!2!x!188)!–!(186!+!2!x!205)!!=!<4!!Now!convert!to!kJ!and!multiple!x!300!=!<1.2!kJ/mole.!!
This!makes!sense.!!We!would!predict!a!small!ΔS!there!is!no!change!in!!
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2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(l):!!Som!values!from!the!table!are!H2!(131),!O2!(205),!H2O!(189)!
ΔSorxn!=!!(2!x!189)!–!(2!x!131!!+!205)!=!<89!!Now!convert!to!kJ!and!multiple!x!300!=!<27!kJ/mole!
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H2O(l)!!!!H2O(g):!!Som!values!from!the!table!are!!70!for!liquid!water!and!!189!for!water!vapor!
ΔSorxn!=!!189!–!70!=!+!119!!!!Now!convert!to!kJ!and!multiple!x!300!=!36!kJ/mole!
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C6H6(g)!!!C6H6(l):!!Som!values!are!!173!for!liquid!benzene!and!!270!for!benzene!vapor!
ΔSorxn!=!!173!–!270!=!<!<97!!!Now!convert!to!kJ!and!multiple!x!300!=!<29!kJ/mole!
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Calculation&Time.&&Calculate&ΔGorxn&using&molar&entropies&from&table&data,&assuming&T&=&300K&
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Active&learning.!!Use!the!provided!ΔGof!!data!to!find!!ΔGorxn!for!two!combustion!and!phase!change!calculations.!
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Answers:&&Use!the!equation!ΔG rxn!=!ΣΔG f!(prod)!< ΣΔGof!(reac)!
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CH4(g)!+!2O2(g)!!!CO2(g)!+!2H2O(g):!ΔGof!!values!are!CH4!(<51),!O2(0),!CO2(<395),!H2O(g)!(<228)!
ΔGorxn!=!!(<395)!+!2!x!<228!]!–![!<51!+!2!x!0]!!=!<800!kJ!!!
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2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(g):!!ΔGof!!values!are!H2(g)!(0),!O2(g)!(0),!H2O(g)!(<228)!!!
ΔGorxn!=!!(2!x!<228)!–!(0!+!2!x!0)!!!=!<456!kJ!!!
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H2O(l)!!!!H2O(g):!!values!for!liquid!water!(<237)!!and!gaseous!water(<!228)!
ΔGorxn!=!!<228!–!(<237)!=!+!9!kJ!!which!makes!sense.!!Water!doesn't!vaporize!at!300K!
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C6H6(g)!!!C6H6(l):!!gaseous!benzene!(+129)!and!liquid!benzene!(+124)!!
ΔGorxn!=!+!124!–!(129)!=!<5!kJ!which!makes!sense.!!Benzene!is!a!liquid!at!300K!
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Calculation&Time.&&Confirm&ΔGorxn&using&&ΔHorxn&and&TΔSorxn&&results&
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Here!is!the!summary!of!all!the!calculations!we!just!did.!

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Active&learning.!!Compare!the!ΔG rxn!data!to!!the!!!ΔH rxn!<!TΔS rxn&&data!in!the!table!above:!
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Answers:&&Use!the!equation!ΔG rxn!=!ΔH rxn!<!TΔS rxn&&!
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CH4(g)!+!2O2(g)!!!CO2(g)!+!2H2O(g):! −802 −(−1) = −801!kJ/mole!which!is!also!the!value!of!!ΔGorxn!
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2H2(g)!+!O2(g)!!!!2H2O(g):!! −485 −(−27) = −458 kJ/mole!which!is!also!the!value!of!!ΔGorxn!!!
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H2O(l)!!!!H2O(g):!! 44 −(35) = +9 kJ/mole!which!is!also!the!value!of!!ΔGorxn!!!
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C6H6(g)!!!C6H6(l):!! −34 −(−29) = −5 kJ/mole!which!is!also!the!value!of!!ΔGorxn!!!
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