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Unit III: Music of the Romantic Period


Romantic music refers to Western music composed in NICCOLO PAGANINI He was born in
the late 18th century to the 19th century. Composers and October 27, 1782 in Genoa, Italy in a
artists believed in letting their imagination and passion be family of six children. His musical skills
seen through their works. started with playing the mandolin at the
Program music became the main form of age of five. He eventually transferred his
instrumental compositions which is evident in concert training to the violin at the age of seven
overtures, Program symphonies, symphonic poems and with different violin professors in Italy.
incidental music. Program music is a form that portrays an His violin teachers could not keep up
idea or relays a story to the audience. An example of this with the progress of his violin skills that he kept on
musical form may be seen in Hector Berlioz’s “Symphonie transferring from one violin teacher to another. This led him
Fantastique.” Some of the other famous composers of the to adopt all his teachers’ influences in playing the violin.
period are Franz Liszt, Frederic Chopin, Camille Saint-Saëns, Paganini became the most famous violin virtuoso in
Robert Schumann and Peter Ilyich Tchaikowsky. the world. However, together with his fame came the rumors
Short piano pieces in ABA form that shows emotion about his amazing violin skills that was said to be a gift from
were developed during this period. the devil and that he sold his soul in exchange for those skills.
As the century progressed, music became increasingly He was also rumored to have a problem with women and
available and popular among the middle class. Concert halls gambling.
provided venues for musical performances, and instrumental His compositions inspired a lot of other composers
music was available to a wide audience. such as Franz Liszt, Frederic Chopin and Robert Schumann.
Nationalism is reflected in most of the music of the Some Works of Niccolo Paganini:
Romantic era. In the previous historical periods, composers 1. “La Campanella”
borrowed musical styles from Germany, Italy, and France. 2. 24 Caprices for Solo Violin, Op. 1
However, composers of the Romantic period began 3. Concerto No. 1 in Eb , Op. 6
incorporating their country’s native folk songs and musical 4. 15 Quartets for Guitar and Strings Trio
styles into their compositions. 5. The Carnival of Venice
Romantic Period is described as a cultural
Piano music of the Romantic period was filled with
movement that stressed emotion, imagination,
innovations. Most of the compositions require a high level of
individualism and freedom of expression. These virtuosity. Some were reinventions of sonatas from the
characteristics are evident in music, art and literature of Classical era.
the era. Today, some piano compositions from the Romantic
Nationalism was also incorporated in the music period have been adapted into songs. An example of this is
of the Romantic period. An example of a composition Chopin’s Etude Op. 10, No. 3 in E major that was used for the
that shows nationalism is the Polonaise of Frederic song “No Other Love”.
Chopin, which is a dance composition for piano and is
famous in Poland until today. 1. FREDERIC CHOPIN
Ludwig Van Beethoven bridged the music from Frederic Chopin was known as the “Poet
of the Piano”. He was born on March 1,
Classical to Romantic era by expressing his passion and
1810 in Zelazowa, Poland.
emotions through his music. Other composers were
Frederic Chopin began to play piano at
inspired by this musical style that they started to use age 4. He composed polonaise at the age
music as a means of expressing their emotions and of 7. He studied piano at Warsaw
individuality. This change in musical form also paved the Conservatory under Wilhelm Würfel and
way for expanding the orchestra as the composers most of his music was influenced by folk
explored various instrumentations. music. He finished his formal education at the higher school in
Piano music of the Romantic period is in free 1829 and soon traveled to Europe giving concerts in places
form such as fantasy, rhapsody, ballade and nocturne. such as Vienna, Munich, Paris, and London. He wrote almost
Program music was expressed in tone poems such as exclusively for piano. He made extensive use of piano pedal in
Symphony Fantastique. most of his compositions.
Chopin composed almost primarily for the piano and
Most of the musical compositions of the era
some of his most well known compositions are Fantasie in F
portray literature, history, emotions, and nature.
minor, Op. 49, Revolutionary Etude, Op. 10, No. 12 and 24 He was also known with his generosity in sharing time
Preludes, Op. 28. and money to the orphans, victim of disasters and the many
In 1831, Chopin arrived in Paris and met other students he taught music for free.
legendary composers such as Franz Liszt, Felix Mendelssohn Some of Liszt’s Piano works:
and Robert Schumann. During this time in Paris, Chopin met La Campanella Liebestraume No. 3 Liszt's "Hungarian
and married the famous French writer George Sand which Rhapsodies" were originally written for solo piano, but many
later became a source of inspiration as well as a maternal were arranged for orchestra or other combinations of
figure in Chopin’s life. In the latter part of Chopin’s life, his instruments.The Hungarian Rhapsody No.2 is the most
health began to decline and he was diagnosed with popular and was the basis for the Tom & Jerry cartoon called
pulmonary tuberculosis. Chopin died on October 17, 1849, in the Cat Concerto Un Sospiro Sonata in B Minor
Paris. Chopin’s music is recognized worldwide for its beauty Arrangements of the 9 Beethoven Symphonies
and his works on the piano are mainstays in the piano Transcriptions of Lieder by Schubert
repertoire. ORCHESTRAL COMPOSITION Symphonic Poems (Hamlet,
Some of his music is characterized by its beautiful Les Preludes)
tone, rhythmic flexibility, grace and elegance. Some of his
compositions like mazurkas and polonaise express his love for 3. ROBERT SCHUMANN
Poland. Chopin is famous for the following: One of the famous Romantic
o BALLADE- a verse form or narrative that is set to music composers that beautifully combined
o ETUDE –a piece composed for the development of a music and words is Robert
specific technique. Schumann. He was a composer and
o MAZURKA - a Polish dance in triple time signature music critic.
o NOCTURNE - an instrumental composition of a pensive, Robert Alexander Schumann was
dreamy mood, for the piano born in 1810 in Zwickau. His father
o POLONAISE – a slow Polish dance in triple time that wanted him to study law and so in
consists of a march or procession 1821, Schumann went to Leipzig to study law. However, he
o PRELUDE - a short piece of music that can be used as a spent most of his time with musical and literary circles thru
preface, and introduction to another work or may stand the effort of Friedrich Wieck who took some time to teach
on its own Schumann how to play the piano.
o WALTZ – a German dance in triple meter It was also this time when he wrote some of his first
o IMPROMPTU–a short free-form musical composition piano compositions. He eventually convinced his family that
usually for a solo instrument, like the piano he should put aside law in favor of a performing career. In
o SCHERZO - a musical movement of playful character, 1830, Schumann went to live with Wieck in Leipzig. He soon
typically in ABA form developed a problem with his hands, effectively ending his
o SONATA - composition for one or more solo instruments dreams as a pianist.
usually consisting of three or four independent It was in 1834 when Schumann founded the music
movements varying in key, mood, and tempo journal, Jornal Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, wherein he edited
2. FRANZ LISZT -The best word that and wrote music criticism for his publication. He wrote
describes the works of Franz Liszt is numerous write-ups and one of which was the performance
“virtuosity”. He was known as the of Frederic Chopin in Paris, France. In his journal, Schumann
virtuoso pianist, a composer and the often wrote under two pseudonyms - Eusebius (his sensitive,
busiest musician during the romantic era. lyrical side) and Florestan (his fiery, stormy side).
He played and studied in Vienna and Paris Piano Works
while performing in concerts in the rest of "Abegg Variations," Opus 1(1830) "Davidsbundlertanze"
Europe. ("Dances of the Band of David"), Opus 6 (1837) "Carnaval,"
Liszt was born in the village Doborjan, Hungary. He displayed Opus 9 (1835) - a portrait of a masked ball attended by his
remarkable talent at a young age and easily understood sight allies and his beloved Clara "Phantasiestucke," Opus 12
reading. His father was his first teacher at age six. A turning (1837) - a series of mood pieces Kreisleriana," Opus 16
point came when, in his early twenties, Liszt heard the (1838) - a fantasy on the mad Kapellmeister
virtuoso violinist Niccolo Paganini performs so he decided to "Kinderszenen," Opus 15 (1838) - a poetic series of
dedicate himself in becoming a virtuoso pianist. evocations of a child's world
He was known for his symphonic poems where he He wrote over 100 Art Songs. Some of which are:
translated great literary works into musical compositions. He "Frauenliebe und Leben" ("A Woman's Love and Life")
also made piano transcriptions of operas and famous "Dichterliebe" ("A Poet's Love")
symphonies. Many of his piano compositions are technically Orchestral music:
challenging pieces.
"Piano Concerto in A Minor," Opus 54 "Overture, Scherzo
“Finale," Opus 52 (a mini symphony) "Konzertstuck in F
Major for Four Horns and Orchestra," Opus 86


Program music is an instrumental composition that conveys (Pyotr Ilyich Chaykowsky)
images or scenes to tell a short story without text or lyrics.It Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky who was
entices the imagination of the listener. born on May 7, 1840 in Votkinsk,
COMPOSERS OF PROGRAM MUSIC: Russia, was known for his ballet
music. He first studied law and
1. HECTOR BERLIOZ became a law clerk in St. Petersburg
Hector Berlioz is a French romantic in his twenties. He rebelled and
composer born on December 11, 1803. began to study music at the
At his young age, he learned to play conservatory also in St. Petersburg.
guitar and flute but never became As a big fan of Mozart, Tchaikovsky studied composition with
skilled in a specific musical instrument. Anton Rubinstein and moved to Moscow and started teaching
His father was a physician who sent at the new conservatory.
Hector to medical school but he ended He continued his music career in New York despite
up pursuing a career in music. having marital problems and became famous after composing
One of his famous musical compositions is a five the musical poem “Fatum” and “Romeo and Juliet”. He
movement symphony called “Symphonie Fantastique”. In this composed haunting melodies and used a great deal of folk
composition which is also known as “Fantastic Symphony”, music in his symphonic works. Unfortunately, there are very
Berlioz showcased the important features in his composition few surviving manuscripts written by Tchaikovsky. His fame
in creating tone color. He assembled hundreds of musicians to peaked in the last ten years of his life and later died due to
produce a powerful sound. In most of his compositions, he cholera.
made tone color as the basic part of his musical language. Tchaikovsky’s Famous Compositions:
STORY OF SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE: Swan Lake Sleeping Beauty The Nutcracker Romeo &
A young, extremely sensitive and imaginative Juliet 1812 Overture Symphony No. 2 Symphony No. 6
musician tries to kill himself with opium due to depression “Pathetique” Piano Concerto No. 1
caused by discouraged love. Unfortunately, the dose was not 3. CAMILLE SAINT-SAËNS
enough and does not kill him but instead, plunges him into a Camille Saint-Saëns was known as a
heavy sleep flocked with nightmares. His experiences, feelings talented musician from an early age.
and memories are translated into hallucinations of musical He was born in Paris on October 9,
thoughts and images. The girl he loves was transformed into a 1835 and started his music through
melody and like a recurring theme, he meets and hears the help of his aunt by teaching him
everywhere. Each movement of the symphony refers to a piano lesson when he was only two
different vision in the young musician’s mind. years old and afterward he began
SEQUENCE OF SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE: composing piano piece at age three.
He was considered as a composer who creates
elegant music, neat, clean, polished and never excessive. One
of this is example is “The Swan”. As an organist and one of the
best pianists of his time, he sat very still at the piano and
played gracefully and cool.
Some of the facts during the peak of his career in
musician and composer, many beautiful building, churches
and instruments were being built in France which includes the
famous Eiffel Tower.
Best known music of Camille Saint-Saëns:
Carnival of the Animals Danse Macabre and his
SymphonyNo. 3 The Swan Over 300 works, unusually in
all genres, including 3 operas (Samson and Delilah the only
one remembered) 5 Symphonies (best known No3 the
Organ Symphony ) 3 concertos for violin and orchestra
5 concertos for piano and orchestra 2 concertos for cello
and orchestra organ music numerous pieces for the details of classical subject-matter without adding distracting
piano approximately 100 songs chamber music sacred details but with as much historical accuracy as possible.
music including a Requiem NEO-CLASSICAL ARTISTS
Unit III in ARTS: Arts of Neoclassic and Romantic There are a number of neo-classical artists from Europe and the
Periods United States. Below are some of them:
In the middle of the 18th century, Neoclassicism was JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID
born out of rejection of the Rococo and late Baroque styles. (1748-1825) France- was an
Romanticism began in the same era but its approach had to do influential French painter in the
with the modern or new rather than the traditional. Neoclassical style, and considered to
In this unit, you will learn about Neoclassical and be the pre-eminent painter of the
Romantic artworks. Their influences today were highly visible era. His subjects of paintings were
through the style of paintings, sculptures and other artworks more on history.
ada\opted by the well-known artists internationally and also by
some of our National Artists. Some of the existing architectural
structures convey the traits and characteristics of such periods. THE
Neoclassicism and Romanticism were the movements DEATH OF MARAT
after the Rococo period that flourished across Western Europe (J. David)
and the United States which spanned approximately from the
David’s masterpiece shows the
late eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries.
portrayal of a revolutionary
Lesson 1:NEOCLASSICISM 1780-1840 martyr. This is a painting of the
The word neoclassic came from the Greek word neos
meaning new and the Latin word classicus which is similar in murdered French
meaning to the English phrase first class. revolutionary leader Jean-
The Western movement in decorative and visual arts was Paul Marat.
called Neoclassicism. It also applies to literature, theater, music,
and architecture that were influenced by the classical art and
culture of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. NAPOLEON CROSSING THE
The Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th century ALPS (J. David) The painting
Age of Reason also known as the Age of Enlightenment. The art that showed a strongly
style in this period was brought about by the renewed interest in idealized view of the real
Greek and Roman classics. crossing that Napoleon and his
Neoclassical art pieces such as paintings, sculpture and army made across the Alps
architecture generally portrayed Roman history which elevated through the Great St.
the Roman heroes. Bernard Pass in May 1800.
- portrayal of Roman history - formal composition - the use of
diagonals to show the peak of an emotion or moment (versus a OATH OF THE HORATII
regular moment) - local color - overall lighting - classic geo- (J. David) It was a large
structure painting that depicts a
Neoclassicism: This is the renewed interest in classical ideals scene from a Roman
and forms that influenced European and American society legend about the dispute
through idea, politics and fine arts during the 18th and 19th between Rome and Alba
century. It also refers to the art forms created after but inspired Longa. The three brothers, all of whom appear willing to sacrifice
by the ancient times. This period was derived from the Classicism their lives for the good of Rome, are shown saluting their father
movement. who holds their swords out for
Classicism: This is the period in which Greek and Roman them.
principles and styles were reflected in society.
Be careful not to interchange the two terms. Classicism refers to JEAN-AUGUSTE-
the art forms produced in antiquity or inspired by it afterward, DOMINIQUE INGRES
while Neoclassicism always refers to the art forms inspired by
(1780-1867) France
ancient times, but created later.
Ingres was a pupil of Jacques
NEOCLASSICAL PAINTING Louis David. He was influenced
Neoclassical artists embraced the ideals of order and moderation by Italian Renaissance painters
in which artistic interpretations of classic Greek and Roman like Raphael, Nicolas Pousin,
history were restored to realistic portrayals. Neoclassical Botticelli, and his mentor,
painters gave great importance to the costumes, settings and JacquesLouis David.
His paintings were usually nudes, portraits and mythological Washington currently displayed at North Carolina Museum of
themes. He was regarded as one of the great exemplars of History.
academic art and one of the finest Old Masters of his era.
Famous Artworks:
painting depicts Napoleon in his
decadent coronation costume,
seated upon his goldenencrusted
throne, hand resting upon smooth
ivory balls. During his reign, the (1789-1838) Denmark
painting was owned by the Corps Thorvaldsen was the first internationally acclaimed Danish
Legislatif which was a part of the artist. He executed sculptures of mythological and religious
French Legislature. The painting themes characters.
was believed to be commissioned
by Napoleon as King of Italy.

Famous Artworks:
The painting was a state-commission by Charles X to
have him remembered in the building works of the
Louvre. The painting depicts an image of Homer,
receiving all the
A marble
brilliant men of Rome, Greece, and contemporary
image of
The Neoclassical period was one of the great Christ
ages of public sculpture. Artists looked to Roman currently
styles during the time of Alexander the Great for located at
inspiration as well as to mimic their style. the Thorvaldsen Museum
ANTONIO CANOVA (1757-1822) Italy
-Canova was a prolific Italian artist
and sculptor who became famous for
his marble sculptures that delicately
rendered nude flesh. He opened the
idea for portraying discrete sexual
pleasures by using pure contours with
his mythological compositions. A sculpture of a dying
lion in Lucerne,
Famous artworks: Switzerland that
commemorates the
A marble sculpture portraying the
Swiss Guards who
relationship of Psyche and
were massacred in
1792 during the
French Revolution.

This is a
Neoclassical architectural styles started in the mid-18th
century. It turned away from the grandeur of Rococo style
and the Late Baroque. In its purest form, Neoclassical
architecture was a style principally derived from the
architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and the
architectural designs of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
Types of Neoclassical Architecture:
1. TEMPLE STYLE Temple style building design was based on
an ancient temple. These buildings were uncommon during
the Renaissance as architects of that period focused mainly on
applying classical elements to churches and modern buildings
like palazzos and villas.
Many temple style buildings feature a peristyle (a
continuous line of columns around a building), a rare feature
of Renaissance architecture

Most famous Temple Style buildings of the Neoclassical age:

These mansions illustrate that while Palladian

architecture shares certain basic features, (derived from the
villas of Palladio) it takes diverse forms.
3. CLASSICAL BLOCK STYLE The building features a rectangular
or square plan, with a flat roof and an exterior rich in classical
detail. The exterior features a repeated classical pattern or series
of arches and/or columns. The overall impression of such a
building was a huge, classically-decorated rectangular block.
Classical block aesthetic was also known as “Beaux-Arts
style”, since it was developed principally by the French École des
Beaux-Arts (School of Fine Arts).
Classical block architecture also flourished in the United States,
particularly in New York.
Famous Architects of this architectural style were:
A. HENRI LABROUSTE - His masterpiece is the Library of

2. PALLADIAN STYLE Palladian buildings were based on

Andrea Palladio’s style of villa construction. Some of the
buildings feature a balustrade which is a railing with vertical
along the
edge of the
roof. There
are vertical
B. CHARLES GARNIER – He designed the most famous
within a
classical block of all which is the Palais Garnier (a
known as Neobaroque opera house).
or spindles”. It
is also a
classical method of crowning a building that has a flat or low
lying roof. One of the famous architects in the era was:
ROBERT ADAM (1728-1792) Britain -He was known as the
Palladian architect of the Neoclassical who designed two well-
known American civic buildings- The White House and the United
States Capitol. He had also designed many country houses.


French emigrants en route to West Africa.

His first major work revealed the

influence of the style of Rubens
and an interest in the depiction
subject matter.

One of several portraits Gericault

made of the mentally disabled that
has a peculiar hypnotic power.

Lesson 2: ROMANTICISM 1800s-1810s

Romanticism was a movement in which the artists of
Neoclassical period sought to break new ground in the
expression of emotion, both subtle and stormy. It embraced a France was considered the greatest
number of distinctive themes, such as a longing for history, French Romantic painter of all. He
supernatural elements, social injustices, and nature. achieved brilliant visual effects using
Landscape painting also became more popular due to small, adjacent strokes of contrasting
the peoples’ romantic adoration of nature. color. He was the most influential to
Romanticism was a reaction to the classical, contemplative most of Romantic painters and
nature of Neoclassical pieces. eventually, his technique was
adopted and extended by the
Impressionist artists.
- shows the height of action
- emotional extremes Famous Artwork:
- celebrated nature as out of control This painting
- dramatic compositions commemorates the July
- heightened sensation (life and death moments) Revolution of 1830, which
toppled King Charles X of
ROMANTIC PAINTING (Portraits/Figures) France. A woman holding
The paintings of the Romantic period gave more emphasis on the flag of the French
emotion. Artists expressed as much feeling and passion as it Revolution personifies
could be on a canvas. Liberty and leads the
PAINTERS OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD people forward over the
JEAN LOUIS THÉODORE bodies of the fallen.
GÉRICAULT (1791-1824)
France was the first French FRANCISCO GOYA (1746-1828) Spain -
master and the leader of the was a commissioned Romantic painter
French realistic school. His by the King of Spain. He was also a
masterpieces were energetic, printmaker regarded both as the last of
powerful, brilliantly colored, and the “Old Masters” and the first of the
tightly composed “Moderns”.
Famous Artworks:
The Raft of the Famous Artworks:
Medusa portrays the
victims of a The Third of May is Goya’s
contemporary masterpiece that sought to
shipwreck. The people commemorate Spanish
on this raft were resistance to Napoleon's armies
during the occupation of 1808 in the Peninsular War. leading sculptors of each type were Rude and Barye,
FRANÇOIS RUDE (1784-1855) France -was best known for his
social art which aimed to inspire and capture the interest of a
broad public. He rejected the classical repose of the late 18th-
This artwork depicts the Greek myth and early 19th-century French sculpture in favour of a dynamic,
of the Titan Cronus (Saturn), who fears emotional style and created many monuments that stirred the
that he would be overthrown by one of public for generations.
his children, so he ate each one Famous Artworks:
upon their birth.
-Known as La
this work
portrays the
liberty urging
The "Burial of the Sardine" was a Spanish ceremony celebrated
the forces of
on Ash Wednesday and was a symbolical burial of the past to
the French
allow society to be reborn, transformed with new vigor.
ROMANTIC PAINTING (Landscape Painting) 1875) France -He was the most
Landscape painting depicts the physical world that surrounds famous animal sculptor of all
us and includes features such as mountains, valleys, vegetation, time. He studied the anatomy of his
and bodies of water. The sky is another important element subjects by sketching residents of
shaping the mood of landscape paintings. Landscape art ranges the Paris zoo.
from highly detailed and realistic to impressionistic, romantic and Famous works:
idealized. 1. Hercules Sitting on a Bull
Famous landscape artists during the Romantic Period: 2. Theseus Slaying the Minotaur
1. Théodore Rousseau
2. Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot
They were members of the Barbizon School (a circle of
artists who held meetings in the village of Barbizon) that led the
Romantic landscape painting in France.


Gothic Revival, also referred to as Victorian Gothic or
Neo-Gothic, is an architectural movement that began in the late
1740s in England.
Many of Neogothic buildings feature castellation in which
the walls and towers are crenellated in imitation of medieval
castles. Indeed, heavily castellated Neogothic buildings have
been often referred to as “castles”, even though they never
served as a defensive structure. Among them was Strawberry
Hill (demolished and restored), the most famous work of the
decorative phase of the Gothic Revival.

Romantic sculpture can be divided
into works that concern about the
human world and those that
concern the natural world. The
JUAN LUNA Y NOVICIO (1857-1899) Juan Luna was a painter
and sculptor, who became one of the first recognized Philippine
artists. He was also a political activist of the Philippine Revolution
during the late 19th century.
One of his famous artwork was the Spoliarium. Spoliarium is
a Latin word referring to the basement of the Roman Colosseum
wherein the fallen and dying gladiators were dumped and devoid
of their worldly possessions. The painting features a glimpse of
Roman history centered on the bloody carnage brought by
Gothic Revival became widely used for churches and civic gladiatorial matches.
buildings throughout the West, especially in Britain and the
United States. Bricks and stones were both commonly used.
Architects who used Neogothic Style:
1. CHARLES BARRY was the
name behind Britain’s
foremost Gothic Revival
monument, the Westminster
Palace (a.k.a. the Houses of

2. JAMES RENWICK -Renwick’s crowning American work:

the St. Patrick’s Cathedral (New York).
The subject of Luna’s Spoliarium can be interpreted as an
allegory of Imperial Rome corresponding to Imperial Spain. The
image of the Romans dragging the dead gladiators symbolizes
the colonial oppression of the indigenous populations.
FERNANDO CUETO AMORSOLO (1892-1972) Amorsolo was a
National Artist in Painting. He was a portraitist and painter of
Lesson 3: NEOCLASSICISM and ROMANTICISM rural Philippine landscapes, and he was popularly known for his
in the Philippines craftsmanship and mastery of the use of light.
Here in the Philippines, the ideology of Neoclassicism and
Romanticism can be seen through various major artworks such
as paintings, sculptures and architectural structures. Some of the
well-known contributing artists express their skills and ideas in
their own respective field of specialization.
Hidalgo was one of the great Filipino painters of the late 19th
century who was significant in the Philippine history for inspiring
members of the Philippine reform movement.
The painting portrays two scantily clothed Christian female
slaves being mocked by a group of boorish Roman male


Tolentino is a Filipino sculptor who was named National Artist for
the Visual Arts in 1973, and is hailed as the “Father of Philippine
Famous Artworks:

OBLATION (University of the

Philippines) (G. Tolentino)
Abueva is a National artist for Sculpture. He was entitled as
the "Father of Modern Philippine Sculpture". He has been the
only Boholano to be given the distinction of National Artist of the
Philippines in the field of Visual Arts.
Famous Artwork:

(N. Abueva) SUMMARY


Art forms of the Neoclassic Period were produced in
the late 18th century. These artworks are influenced by
Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Some of the famous
artists of the Neoclassic Period are J.A.D. Ingres, Jacques-
Louis David, Robert Smirke, Robert Adam, Antonio
Canova, JeanAntoine Houdon, and Bertel Thorvaldsen.
Neoclassic style is highly visible in paintings, sculptures
and architecture of the 18th century.
Romanticism is highly contrasted with Neoclassicism.
It is a reaction to the classical, contemplative nature of
Neoclassical pieces. It seeks modernism and expresses
emotion through art. Famous artists in this era were
Jean Louis Théodore Géricault , Eugène Delacroix ,
Francisco Goya, François Rude and Antoine-Louis Barye.
Landscape painting became more popular due to the
peoples’ romantic adoration of nature. Théodore
Rousseau and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot led the the country’s festival of festivals, the Aliwan Fiesta which is
done in the month of April.
Romantic landscape painting in France.
Filipinos do festivals primarily to celebrate. There are
Gothic Revival architectural movement began in the a multitude of reasons for this reason. We celebrate our unity
late 1740s in England. It became widely used for amidst the diversity of cultures and we celebrate our industry
churches and civic buildings throughout the West, bringing about a bountiful harvest. Festivals have been a
consistent crowd-producing activity leading to upliftment of a
especially in Great Britain and the United States. community’s economy due to its tourism and entertainment
value. Basically, festivals are a form of entertainment that
GLOSSARY attracts foreign and domestic tourists to visit a place eventually
leading to the elevation of the Filipino’s quality of life.
aesthetic - concerned with beauty or the appreciation of Whatever festival we celebrate, be it done to honor a
beauty apex – top, peak, summit, climax religious icon or celebrate our industry. Festival dances are a
balustrade - a railing with vertical supports along the reflection of the unity of the Filipino community that despite the
economic, social, environmental, cultural and political
edge of the roof challenges we face every day, there can be no other race
castellation - the crenellated walls and towers in more resilient than ours.
imitation of medieval castles.
chasseurs - any of certain light cavalry or infantry troops Religious and Secular Festivals
trained for rapid maneuver As mentioned earlier, festivals may either be religious,
in honor of a certain religious icon or secular or non-religious,
contours - a surface, especially of a curving form in thanksgiving or celebration of peoples industry and bountiful
decadent - having low morals and a great love of harvest. The following are some of the said festivals:
pleasure, money, fame, etc.
discrete - separate and different from each other
grandeur - a great and impressive quality
peculiar – not usual or normal
peristyle - a continuous line of columns around a
pre-eminent - more important, skillful, or successful
than others: better than others
prolific - producing a large amount of something
viguor - substantial effective energy or force, resilient
strength of body or mind
Unit III in PE 9: Festival Dances
Fitness plays a very crucial role in our existence as
human beings. It is a sustaining base of our physicality that
allows us to overcome challenges of our daily living. It is with
fitness that our eagerness to do things that we are capable of
doing physically arise, which eventually leads us in making our
own lives, including that of others, better and more productive.
Festival dances are cultural dances performed to the
strong beats of percussion instruments by a community of
people sharing the same culture usually done in honor of a
Patron Saint or in thanksgiving of a bountiful harvest. Festival
dances may be religious or secular in nature. But the best
thing about festivals is that they add to the merry-making and
festivities where they are celebrated, the reason why they are Locomotor Movements
called festival dances after all. Festival dances draw the These are movements that allow you to move from
people’s culture by portraying the people’s ways of life through one point in space to another. It is canned from two words,
movements, costumes and implements inherent to their place “locos” which means place and “motor” which means
of origin. movement. They include the following: Preparatory
Some of the famous festivals in the country include movement:
Sinulog of Cebu, Dinagyang of Iloilo, Ati-atihan of Kalibo, Step - This is the basis of all locomotor movements. It
Aklan, Buyogan and Lingayan of Leyte, Bangus of Dagupan, prepares you to move in any direction you wish to go. It is
T’nalak of South Cotabato, Masskara of Bacolod City, defined as transfer of weight from one foot to the other. Try
Bambanti of Isabela, and Kadayawan of Davao. Many one! Stand with your weight equally distributed to both of
others, especially from Luzon, are now paving their way to join your feet. Now, let your right foot carry it all. You got it!
That’s what you call a step.
Walk - Series of steps executed by both of your feet
alternately in any direction. In executing a walk, observe
that there’s this moment when both feet are in contact with
the ground while one foot supports the weight and transfers
it to the other.
Run - Series of walks executed quickly in any direction
wherein only one foot stays on the ground while the other is
off the ground.
Jump - This movement is simply described by having both
feet lose its contact with the ground. There five ways to
do it:
Take off from one foot and land on the same;
Take off from one foot and land on the other;
Take off from one foot and land on both feet;
Take off from both feet and land on one foot; and
Take off from both feet and land on both.

Non-Locomotor movements
These are movements that are performed in one
point in space without transferring to another point. They
don’t allow you to move from one place to the other. These
movements include:
Flexion - It is the act of decreasing the angle of a joint.
Another term for flexion is to bend. If you bend a joint, like
your elbow or knee, you are performing flexion. Extension
- This is the opposite of flexion. You are extending if you
are increasing the angle of a joint. Stretching is another
word for extension.
Contraction - A muscle movement done when it shortens,
narrows and tightens using sufficient amount of energy in
the execution.
Release - A muscle movement opposite to contraction done
when it let goes or let looses of being held into a shortening
Collapse - To deliberately drop the exertion of energy into a
body segment.

Recover - The opposite of collapse. This is to regain the

energy exerted into a body segment.
Rotation - To rotate is to move a body segment allowing it
to complete a circle with its motion. It’s not only limited to Fuelling our body for exercise
circumduction which is done in ball and socket joints. Our body is like a machine. It needs to be fuelled
Rotation can also be done in wrists, waist, knees and for it to run. Unlike machines, we eat foods that make us
ankles. go. You have learned in the past years about the three
Twist - To move a body segment from an axis halfway food groups already but this time, we will focus on energy
front or back or quarter to the right or left as in the twisting giving foods. These specific foods that give us energy are
of the neck allowing the head to face right or left and the called go foods. They are the primary source of
like. carbohydrates. They are found in rice, bread, pasta or
Pivot - To change the position of the feet or any body part noodles and others. Other sources of carbohydrates also
that carries the body’s weight allowing the body to face in a include proteins and fats. They give us energy. Energy is
less than 360 degrees turn. measured in calories. Calories energize us and when we
Turn - To move in a turning movement with a base of move or do any physical activity, light or heavy, calories are
support, usually a pointed foot, the other raised, while consumed. Overconsumption of calories results to
equilibrium is maintained until the completion of the turn. dizziness or hypoglycaemia. When this happens, we need
to refuel our bodies to get it active and moving again.

Basic 2 4 Time Folk Dance Steps

Maintaining, losing and gaining weight
By large, all basic food nutrients mentioned in table 3. To alleviate suffering
3 are important in the study of fitness. The amount 4. To prevent further injury
and kind of food that an individual consumes on a Characteristics of a Good First Aider
regular basis also serve as good indicator of health 1. Gentle-does not cause pain and panic
and fitness. With regard to maintenance of 2. Observant-notices all signs
appropriate weight, a well-balanced diet and a 3. Resourceful-makes the best use of things at hand
regular exercise program are still the best 4. Tactful- does not frighten the victim
fundamentally sound approaches to achieve general 5. Sympathetic- comforts and reassures the victim
fitness. Principles of First Aid
So far the safest and most acceptable method of  Dos in Giving First Aid
losing weight is to engage oneself in vigorous 1. DO stay calm.
aerobic activities together with a well-planned diet. 2. DO reassure and comfort the victim.
Administration of diet pills, herbal medicines and
3. DO check for a medical bracelet indicating a condition,
other fad methods appear to be less effective and such as epilepsy or diabetes.
sometimes unhealthy especially if weight loss is
4. DO loosen any tight clothing.
associated with increased daily bowel movement or
5. DO keep the victim covered to reduce shock
dehydration due to excessive perspiration with very
minimal or total absence of physical activity.  Don’ts in Giving First Aid
On the other hand, on gaining weight, it has been 1. DON’T give food and drink to an unconscious person.
found that the most effective approach is for one to 2. DON’T move an injured person unless you need to place
engage in weight resistance training together him/her in the recovery position.
with a well-designed diet program. The popular LESSON 2: Survey of the Scene and the
belief that one has to overheat in order to gain weight Victims
may be partially correct but with regard to health and Steps in Assessing Emergency Situations
fitness, this approach may not be totally acceptable. 1. Is anyone in danger?
Any excess in calories that are not burned through 2. Move to the quietest victim
physical activity is stored in the body and are later 3. Open the airway
transformed into fat. As mentioned earlier, the risk 4. Check for breathing
of CAD (coronary artery diseases) and CHD 5. Look for signs of circulation
(coronary heart diseases) is greater if this happens. Vital signs are measures of various physiological
In terms of weight resistance training, muscle mass statistics taken in order to assess the most basic body
has a greater weight advantage that stored fat. functions. The act of taking vital signs normally entails
Thus developing the muscles of the body will provide recording body temperature, pulse rate or heart rate, blood
greater increase in body weight and the risk of pressure, and respiratory rate.
contracting common degenerative diseases is also Recommending that chest compressions be the first
minimized. step for lay and professional rescuers to revive victims of
Unit II: INJURY PREVENTION, SAFETY AND sudden cardiac arrest, the association said the A-B-Cs
(Airway-Breathing-Compressions) of CPR should now be
FIRST AID (Unintentional) changed to C-A-B (Compressions-Airway-Breathing).
LESSON 1: Basics of First Aid
LESSON 2: Survey of the Scene and the Victims Remember to spell C-A-B
LESSON 3: Dressing and Bandages The American Heart Association uses the acronym of CAB —
LESSON 4: Carrying and Transporting an Injured Person circulation, airway, breathing — to help people remember
LESSON 5: First aid for common unintentional injuries the order to perform the steps of CPR.
Circulation: Restore blood circulation with chest
LESSON 1: Basics of First Aid compressions
First Aid is an immediate and temporary care given to a Airway: Clear the airway
person who suddenly gets ill or injured. It includes self-help
Breathing: Breathe for the person. Breathing can be mouth-
and home care if medical assistance is not available or
to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is
delayed. It can mean the difference between life and death in
seriously injured or can't be opened.
extreme cases. However, we must know the limits of the first
aid we can give because improper first aid can actually do Difference between signs and symptoms
more harm than good in some instances. Anyone who gives Signs are details discovered by applying your senses – sight,
first aid is a first aider. touch, hearing and smell during the course of the examination.
Roles of First Aid Example: bleeding, swelling, deformities
1. It is a bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the Symptoms are sensations that the victim feels or
physician. experiences and may be able to describe. Example: nausea,
2. It is not intended to compete with or to take the place of vomiting, heat, impaired sensations
the services of the physician. Monitoring Vital Signs
3. It ends when the services of the physician begins. a. Checking Level of Response-Assess the casualty’s level
Objectives of First Aid of response using the AVPU code.
1. To save lives  A – Is the casualty ALERT?
2. To prolong life Does he/she open her/his eyes and respond to questions?
 V – Does the casualty respond to VOICE? P-eriod of pain (How long? What started it?)
Does he/she obey to simple command? A-rea (Where is the pain coming from?)
 P – Does he/she respond to PAIN I-ntensity
Does he/she react if s/he is pinched? N-ullify (What stopped it?)
 U – Is he/she UNRESPONSIVE? II. Checking for Vital Signs
b. Checking Pulse-Use fingers rather than thumb (it has its A. Pulse rate
own pulse) and press lightly until you can feel the pulse. Steps in checking the pulse:
Record the number of beats per minute, strength (weak or  Use your fingertips in getting the pulse. Follow the
strong), and rhythm (regular or irregular). The following are the following procedure:
major pressure points of the body. 1. Place the finger tip over an artery where it either crosses a
 Temporal – temple or scalp bone or lies close to the skin.
 Facial – lower face or below eyes 2. Feel the pulsations as the pressure wave of blood causes
 Brachial pulse – inner side of upper arm the vessel wall to expand – that is the pulse.
 Radial pulse – base of the thumb just below the creases  The pulse rate may be taken in different points in the body
of the wrist like:
 Carotid pulse – side of the neck, in the hollow between 1. Brachial 5. Subclavian
the windpipe and the large neck muscle 2. Carotid 6. Axillary
 Femoral – thigh, lower leg or foot 3. Wrist 7. Femoral
*Normal Pulse of Adult is 60-80 beats per minute. 4. Temporal
c. Checking Breathing-Feel the chest movement and count  The usual radial points are found at the wrist and carotid.
and record the number of breaths per minute, depth (deep or
NO-NO in Getting Pulse Rate
shallow), ease (easy, difficult or painful), and noise (quiet or
noisy). The normal breathing rate of an adult is 12-16 breaths  Never use your thumb; it has its own pulse.
per minute while for young children it is 20-30 breaths.  Do not palpate both the carotid arteries at the same time.
d. Checking Temperature-To obtain body temperature, use a  Do not get the pulse in sitting position. Pulsations disappear
temperature reader (digital, mercury, forehead or ear sensor). as the victim is elevated to sitting position.
The normal body temperature is 370C or 98.60F.  Never put too much pressure or massage the carotid. You
There are two ways to conduct physical may disturb the heart’s electrical conduction system.
Normal Pulse Rate
examination when giving first aid: 60-70 Men
1. Primary Survey - Primary survey of the victim is used 70-80 Women
when the victim is unconscious and one needs to find out and 80-90 Children over 7 years old
treat immediately life-threatening conditions. 80-120 Children over 1-7 years old
a. Check for Consciousness and Circulation
110-130 Infants
1. Ask the victim: “Hey, hey, are you okay?” while carefully
shaking the victim’s shoulder. B. Temperature
2. When there is no response, even mumbles and groans, Guidelines in checking temperature:
the victim is therefore unconscious and in need of immediate  It is with much importance that temperature be monitored as
medical help. in the case of stroke and high fever.
b. Open the Airway  Body temperature is measured by using a thermometer
1. The victim’s unconsciousness may be due to obstruction within:
in his/her airway. It may also be caused by a narrowed airway 1. Rectum (rectal)
making breathing impossible. 2. Oral (mouth)
2. Find out if there is loss of muscular control in the throat 3. Auxiliary (armpit)
area which allows the tongue to slip back and block the throat. C. Respiration
3. Lift the chin and tilt the head of the victim (if the victim is Guidelines in checking respiration:
an adult). This way you will be able to lift the tongue from the  Count the number of breaths per minute.
back of the throat, leaving the airway clear.  A whistle sound or wheeze and difficulty in breathing may
c. Check for Breathing mean an asthma attack.
1. Put your face near the victim’s mouth and look, listen,  A gurgling or snoring noise and difficulty in breathing may
and feel for breathing. You should observe for chest mean that the tongue, mucous or something else is stuck in
movement or sound of breathing the throat and does not let enough air to get through.
2. Secondary Survey is used when the victim is *Between12-20 breaths per minute are normal for adults
conscious or has revived. It aims to detect everything about and older children;
the patient’s condition. 40 breaths per minute are normal for babies.
I. History Taking D. Skin color
SAMPLE PAIN is the mnemonic code in order to perform the Guidelines in checking skin color:
steps more easily.  Skin color reflects the circulation of blood and the saturation
S-ymptoms (the chief complaint of the patient) of oxygen in the blood.
A-llergy (find out if the victim is allergic to anything)  The presence of mucous around the mouth, inner eyelids,
M-edication (what are the medicines s/he is currently taking) and nail beds is a sign of poor blood circulation.
P-revious illness (that may be related to the problem)  A healthy skin is warm and pink because blood flows
L-ast meal (only for those subject for operation) normally in the blood vessels.
E-vents prior to what happened III. Head to Toe Examination
1. Head and neck STEP 6: While applying maximum head-tilt-chin-lift method,
 Are there any lacerations or contusions in the area? pinch the nose and give 2 initial full breaths to the victims.
 Is there a presence of blood in his / her hair? If yes, STEP 7: Take off the clothes of the victim that can block the
immediately find out where it is coming from. compression area.
 Is there any fluid in the victim’s nose, and ears? If so, STEP 8: Perform CPR on the victim.
the victim has a skull fracture. Do 5 cycles of 30 compressions and 2 breaths.
2. Eyes STEP 9: If victim is revived, do the secondary survey of the
 Pay close attention to the pupils. victim. If not, continue performing CPR while waiting for the
Pupil rescue team.
Appearance Assessment STEP 10: Do the secondary survey. Record all the data and
Dilated pupil State of shock surrender to the rescue team.
Very small pupils Poison or use of prohibited drugs
S-ymptoms (the chief complaint of the patient)
Different size Head injury that requires immediate attention
A-llergy (find out if the victim is allergic to anything)
Small and bright Pupils are reactive M-edication (what are the medicines s/he is currently
No reaction DEATH taking)
3. Chest P-revious illness (that may be related to the problem)
 Check for cuts, bruises, penetrations, and other L-ast meal (only for those subject for operation)
impairments. E-vents prior to what happened
 If the victim feels pain while you apply pressure onto VITAL SIGNS-Carefully check the following vital signs
his/ her chest, there could be a rib fracture. Eyes: dilated-shock; constricted-stroke or drug abuse;
4. Abdomen Pupils are unequal-stroke or head injuries
 Does the victim’s abdomen hurt? Where is the pain Nose: watery-fracture or skulls injury
coming from? Bluish skin color: lacking oxygen (cyanosis)
 Is his/ her abdomen tender? Body temperature
 Did you feel any lumps? If yes, get immediate medical Blood pressure
assistance. HEAD TO TOE EXAMINATION-check for the ff:
5. Back D-eformity
 Is there movement in the victim’s lower extremities? C-onfusions
 Is there sensation in these parts? If the answer is yes, A-brasions
do not move the victim. Immobilize him/ her. P-unctures
Top Ten things to do in case of emergency B-urns
1. Shout for HELP!
2. Survey the scene and assess the situation.
3. Determine if the accident warrants a visit to the nearest
hospital or if simple cleansing and band aid will do.
4. If you are certified in CPR and a victim needs it, begin CPR LESSON 3: Dressing and Bandages
right away. A dressing is a piece of sterile cloth that covers a wound to
5. Stop the bleeding, if there is any. prevent infection and/or to stop bleeding.
6. Treat any symptoms of shock. Techniques in Applying a Dressing:
7. Look for the medical alert tag in every victim. 1. Wash hands and wear gloves, if possible.
8. Seek trained medical assistance. 2. Unwrap the dressing as close to the wound as possible. Be
9. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious victim. sure not to touch the wound.
10. Wait for medical professionals to arrive. 3. Skin is not sterile. If the dressing slips over the victim’s skin
*ALWAYS LOOK FOR A MEDICAL ALERT TAG IN EVERY VICTIM. while you are trying to position it, discard and use a fresh one.
4. Place dressing over the wound.
EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES 5. Use a dressing that is large enough to extend at least 1 inch
Source: Red Cross Manual beyond the edges of the wound.
STEP 1: Is the scene safe? If yes, proceed to the next steps. If
6. If body tissue or organs are exposed, cover the wound with
no, do not attempt to go to the accident. Call Emergency
a dressing that will stick.
Medical Services instead.
STEP 2: Make sure the victims is lying on his back. If not, roll 7. Secure the dressing with a bandage or adhesive tape.
the victim. Cold compress is used to reduce swelling and relieve
STEP 3: Check for responsiveness by gently tapping the pain, especially used for sprains and strains. Cold packs can
be used as cold compress. Hot compresses are also used to
shoulder of the victim saying: “hey, hey, hey are you okay?”
STEP 4: If there is no response, call for help immediately. allow normal blood circulation. Cold and hot compress are
STEP 5: Do the primary survey of the victim. applied alternately for closed wounds or contusions.
AIRWAY-check if there is blockage in the airway (If Bandages are used to apply pressure to bleeding; for
yes, take it out using your pinky finger in a scooping motion. covering wounds and burns; and providing support for
BREATHING-use the maximum head-tilt-chin-lift immobilization for broken bones, sprains and strains. There
method and look-listen-feel (If negative, perform rescue are three main types of bandages namely: triangular, ace
breathing) and tubular.
CIRCULATION-Use carotid pulse (If negative, go to 1. Triangular bandage is made from cloth and can be used as
Step 6) cold compress, padding, support for pressure, or support sling.
2. Ace bandage secures dressings in place.
3. Tubular bandage is used to support joints or hold dressings
in place. Smaller tubular bandage is used for finger injuries.

Figure 4 Making A Square Knot

A wound is a break in the continuity of a tissue in the body. It
may be closed in which there is no break or damage in the
skin. It is also called hematoma or contusion. A wound may
Figure 1 shows the parts of a triangular bandage. also be an open wound in which there is a break in the
Figure 2 Parts of a Triangular Bandage skin.
Two Phases of Bandaging Kinds of Open Wounds
A. An open phase bandaging is used for wounds on top and 1. Puncture is a piercing wound caused by nails, needles
back of the head, chest, back, hand, and foot, and as arm and other pointed objects.
B. Cravat phase bandaging is used for wounds that need
extra support like wound on the eye, forehead, ear, cheek, jaw,
shoulder, hip, arm, leg, elbow, knee, and palm and for a
sprained ankle. The narrower the cravat is, the greater
pressure it will give.

2. Abrasion is caused by rubbing or scraping the skin

against a rough surface.
3. Incision is a cut caused by knife, broken glass or any
sharp object.

Figure 3 Phases of Bandaging

Techniques in Bandaging
1. Keep in mind the following:
a. Always use a square knot.
b. Keep the cloth sterile to avoid infection.
c. Always keep the ends.
2. Bandaging technique depends upon the size and location of
the wound, your first aid skills, and materials at hand.
3. Bandage firmly over bleeding and securely over the broken Abrasion Incision
bone, not so tight so as not to cut off blood circulation. 4. Laceration is a blunt breaking or tearing of soft tissues
4. When wrapping bandages around the body, such as knees, usually resulting from mishandling tools and other accidents.
ankles, neck, and small of the back, uses its natural hollows to 5. Avulsion is a forcible tearing or partial tearing away of
slide the bandage gently into place. Start from the part with the tissues.
smaller diameter to the larger diameter.
5. Since most injuries swell, check regularly to ensure that the
bandage is still comfortable and that it remains firmly secured.
6. Secure the bandage with a tape, clips or a bow or square
knot. Ensure that the bandages, especially the knots, do not
touch the skin.
How to do a square knot
 Right over left and left over right (Figure 3)
Laceration Avulsion
How to Manage Wounds:
A. For management of hematoma, we use the mnemonic
1. Rest the injured part
2. Ice application
3. Compression  Fireman’s Drag or Tied-hands Crawl – used when
4. Elevation first aider and victim must crawl underneath a low structure
B. First Aid for Open Wounds with Severe Bleeding or smoky room
1. Wear gloves and remove or cut clothing as necessary to
expose wound.
2. Control bleeding by applying direct pressure.  Blanket Drag – used when the victim is
3. Elevate the injured part above the heart except for eye seriously injured and should not be lifted.
injury and wounds with embedded object.
4. Cover wound with sterile dressing and bandage.
5. Care for shock.
6. Consult a physician immediately.
Two-man Carry
LESSON 4: Carrying and Transporting an
Injured Person
Transporting an injured person to a safer place requires great  Chair or Seat Carry –
care. A first aider must have to undergo proper training. When when there are two first
doing this, a first aider must consider the following factors:
a. Weight and height of the victim
aiders and a chair is
b. Status of the victim (conscious or unconscious)
c. Environment (safe, floor is smooth, narrow or wide)
d. Special needs considerations (injuries of the victims)

One-man Transport

Three or More-Man Transport

 Fireman’s Carry
– the easiest way to transport a
light and smaller victim  Hammock Carry
– when there are three
first aiders

 Piggy Back – when the

victim is conscious

 Pack Strap Carry -

when the victim is smaller than
the first aider
 Bearer Alongside Carry – carriers will stay on the
uninjured side of the victim

 Shoulder Drag –
used when the floor is
smooth, short distance
6. If obstruction still has not cleared, call for an ambulance.
 Six Man Lift and Carry – when there are six first Continue until help arrives.
aiders H. DROWNING happens when air cannot get into the
lungs because of water. It can cause immediate death when
LESSON 5: FIRST AID FOR COMMON taken for granted.
A. FRACTURE is a break or crack in a bone. An open 1. Lat the person down on his/her back.
fracture pierces the skin surface while in a closed fracture, 2. Check breathing and open the airway.
the skin above is intact. 3. Give rescue breaths and chest compression if necessary.
First Aid: 4. If the person is breathing, place him/her in the recovery
1. Check vital signs. position.
2. Do not move the injured part. 5. Treat for hypothermia by removing wet clothing and
3. Stop bleeding if there is any. covering him/her with a dry blanket.
4. If you have to move the person, immobilize the broken part I. HEART ATTACT is caused by a sudden obstruction of
by splinting. blood supply to the part of the heart muscles.
5. Seek medical help immediately. First Aid:
B. DISLOCATION is a partial or complete displacement of 1. Help the person sit or lie down with head elevated.
the bones. 2. Call for medical help.
First Aid: 3. If the person is conscious, give him/her a full-dose aspirin
1. Call for help immediately tablet and advise him/her to chew it slowly.
2. Splint the affected part. 4. Constantly monitor the vital signs. Be prepared to give
3. Do not try to move a dislocated part or force it back into rescue breaths and chest compression.
place. J. CHEMICAL BURNS may occur when electricity passes
4. Apply ice on the injured part to reduce swelling through the body.
C. SPRAIN is an injury to the ligaments of a bone due to First Aid:
accidental tearing or overstretching. 1. Make sure that the contact with electrical source is broken.
D. STRAIN is an injury to the muscles which is a result of 2. Flood the sites of injury at the entry and exit points of the
improper use of the muscle. current with plenty of cold water.
3. Wear disposable gloves and place a sterile dressing or a
First Aid:
bandage over the burn to protect it from airborne infection.
1. Rest the injured part
4. Call for medical help.
2. Apply ice.
5. Reassure the victim and treat for shock.
3. Compress the injured part.
4. Elevate the injured part. K. BURNS are often due to domestic incidents such as
E. HEAT EXHAUSTION is caused by loss of salt and touching a hot iron, friction (rope burn) or spilling boiling
water due to excessively high temperature. This may lead water on the skin.
to heatstroke and even death. First Aid:
1. For minor burns, flood the injured are with cold water to stop
First Aid: burning and relieve pain.
1. Transport a victim to cool place. 2. Put on gloves and cover the area with sterile non-adhesive
2. Give him/her plenty of water. dressing or bandage.
3. Check for vital signs. 3. For severe burns, help the person to lie down and prevent the burnt
4. Seek medical help. are from coming into contact with the ground. Douse the burn with
F. FOOD POISONING is caused by consuming food or plenty of cold liquid.
drink that is contaminated with bacteria or viruses. 4. Seek medical assistance. Do not delay medical help.
5. Wear disposable gloves and gently removes any rings, watches,
First aid: belts, shoes, or smoldering clothing before the tissue begin to swell.
1. Help the person to lie down and rest. 6. Carefully remove any burnt clothing, unless it is sticking to the skin.
2. Give him plenty of flavorless fluids to drink and a bowl to Cover the burnt area with non-adhesive dressing or bandage.
use if he vomits. 7. Continue to monitor vital signs.
3. Call for medical help if the condition worsens. 8. Reassure casualty and treat for shock.
G. CHOKING results when a foreign object blocks the L. HEAT STROKE is caused by a failure of the
throat. “thermostat” in the brain to regulate body temperature.
First Aid: When this happens, the body becomes seriously heated.
1. Ask the person if he is choking. First Aid:
2. Encourage him/her to cough. 1. Move the person immediately to a cool place.
3. When the person cannot speak or stops coughing, give him five 2. Remove as much of his outer clothing as possible.
back blows. Stand behind him and help him to lean forward. Support
his chest with one hand, and give five sharp blows between the
3. Call for medical help.
shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. 4. Wrap the person in a cold, wet sheet and keep the sheet
4. If back blows fail, try abdominal thrusts. Stand behind the person wet until his temperature drops to 38°C or 37.5°C under the
and put your arms around the upper part of his abdomen. Clench your tongue or armpit, respectively.
fist with thumb inward. Place it between navel and the bottom of 5. If the person has returned to normal temperature, replace
breastbone. Grasp your fist with your other hand. Pull sharply inwards wet sheet with a dry one.
and upwards up to five times. 6. Monitor vital signs until help arrives.
5. Check his mouth if obstruction is not cleared, repeat the back 7. If temperature rises, repeat the cooling process.
blows and abdominal thrust.
M. STROKE is a condition in which the blood supply to a
part of the brain is suddenly and seriously impaired by a
blood clot or ruptured blood vessel.
First Aid:
1. If the person is conscious, help him lie down with his head
and shoulders slightly raised and supported.
2. Incline his head to the affected side and place a towel on his
shoulder to absorb any dribbling.
3. Call for help.
4. Loosen any tight clothing.
5. Monitor vital signs and reassure the victim.
6. If the victim is unconscious, give rescue breathing and chest
7. Call for an ambulance or call for help.
Accident - any unexpected event causing injury
Airway - the passage of air in the body
Bandage - any sterile cloth used to cover a wound, stop bleeding or
immobilize bone injury
Choking - an injury in which a certain object is stuck in the throat
Circulation - the flow of blood
Cravat phase - folded triangular bandage
Direct pressure- a way of controlling bleeding in which compress or a
bare hand is pressed directly on the wound
Dislocation - a condition in which bones are partially or completely pulled
out from its position
Dressing - any sterile cloth used to cover a wound
Electrical burn - a burn occurring from the passage of electricity in the
First aid - an initial treatment given to an injured person before the arrival
of a medical practitioner
First aider - a person giving first aid
Fracture -a break or crack in the bone
Heart attack - a sudden obstruction of the blood supply to parts of the
heart muscle
Heat stroke - failure of the thermostat in the brain
Physician - a medical doctor
Open phase -unfolded triangular bandage
Poisoning -exposure or ingestion of toxic substances
Severe bleeding- serious bleeding that can cause blood loss
Shock -a life-threatening condition characterized by rapid pulse,
paleness, coldness, and sweating
Sprain -an injury to the ligaments, tendons and muscles due to
overstretching, over wrenching or sudden movement
Sterile - clean, germ-free
Strain - an injury to the ligaments, tendons and muscles due to
overstretching, over wrenching or sudden movement
Survey -an act of investigating or examining something
Thermostat - body temperature regulator
Transport - to move or transfer to another place
Unintentional injuries- injuries which are not expected; also known as
Victim - the injured person
Vital signs -refers to the level of response, pulse, breathing and
temperature of the victim
Wound - a break in the continuity of the tissue or skin