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PHYSICS

Investigatory
PROJECT

PROJECT TITLE
MODEL OF MINI TESLA COIL

Prepared By:
Prasoon Kumar Jha
Class:-XII,
Roll no.:30

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MINI
TESLA
COIL

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CONTENT

Sr. No. Contents Page no. Remarks

1 Certificate 4

2 Acknowledgement 5

3 Introduction 6

4 Circuit diagram & components 7-9

5 Winding set-up 10 - 11

6 Directions: 12

7 Construction & working 13

8 Result 14

9 Applications: 15

10 Safety 16

11 Safety warning 16 - 17

12 Bibliography 18

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MNR SCHOOL OF
EXCELLENCE
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify That Mr. Prasoon Kumar Jha a student of
Class XII-A, Roll no:-30 has Successfully completed a project
work on “Model of Mini Tesla Coil” during the year 2019-20
in partial fulfilment of Physics practical examination.

---------------- ---------------- ----------------


EXTERNAL INTERNAL PRINCIPAL

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I extend my deep gratitude and science thanks to my Principal
Mrs. Rajani Nair, who was a constant of motivation and
inspiration for the student.

I would like to thank my school for providing me the platform


to glow and excel.

I would like to thank my Physics teacher Mrs. Savita V, who


guided me for explaining the concepts of the project and theory.

I would like to express my gratitude to the lab assistant


Mr.Vaijanath, who constantly helped me laboratory with the
lab equipment/instruments.

I would like to thank my parents for providing he project


means of complete his project and each and every person
who has been supporting and motivating me throughout the
project.
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INTRODUCTION

In 1891, inventor Nikola Tesla created the first system to wirelessly


transmit electricity known as the Tesla coil. Only about a decade had gone
by since the first homes in the United States were lit using electricity when
Tesla was dreaming of spreading wireless electricity across the world.

The Tesla coil functions through the


principle of electromagnetic induction in which a conductor is placed in a
changing magnetic field and produces voltage across the conductor. Early
radio antennas and telegraphs used the technology and although the Tesla
coil is not widely used today, the revolutionary invention introduced and
demonstrated the wireless application of electricity.

By building our own Tesla coil, we are


able to produce an oscillating radio frequency to generate a high enough
voltage to illuminate a light bulb all by itself.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & COMPONENTS

Components Required

• Battery 9V
• Switch
• Resistor 22KΩ
• Transistor 2N2222A (NPN)
• Connecting Wire
• Enamelled Copper Wire 22 SWG
• CFL Lamp
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BATTERY 9V : An electric battery is a device consisting od one or more
electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
Each cell contains a positive terminal or Cathode and a negative terminal or Anode.
Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes and terminals, which allows
current to flow out of the Battery to perform work.

Primary (Single use or disposable) batteries are used once and discarded, the
electrode materials are irreversibly changes during discharge. Secondary
(Rechargable batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times, the
original compositions of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current.

2. ON / OFF SWITCH : ON / OFF Switch is used to on or off the power supply in


the circuit. A simple On / Off Switch is being used in the model.

3. RESISTOR : A resistor is a component that opposes a flowing current (A resistor


of 22 KΩ resistance is used in the project). Every conductor has a certain resistance
if one applies a potential difference V at the terminals 0f a resistor, the current I
passing through it is given by :

I = V/R

This formula is known as Ohm’s Law. The SI unit of resistance is Ohm (Ω). One can
show that the power (in J/s) dissipated due to a resistance is equal to :

P = VI

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4. TRANSISTOR : A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch
electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material
usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.

The 2N2222 is a common NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) used for general
purpose low-power amplifying or switching applications. It is designed for low to
medium current, low power, medium voltage, and can operate at moderately high
speeds

5. CONNECTING WIRES : Connecting wires allows an electrical current to


travel from one point on a circuit to another because electricity needs a
medium through which it can move. Most of the connecting wires are made
up of copper or aluminum. Copper is cheap and good conductivity.

6. ENAMELLED COPPER WIRE 22 SWG : Enameled wire is a copper or


aluminium wire coated with a very thin layer of insulation. It is used in the
construction of transformers, inductors, motors, generators, speakers, hard
disk head actuators, electromagnets, and other applications that require tight
coils of insulated wire. For our project we have selected the size 22 SWG,

7.CFL LAMP : A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also called compact


fluorescent light, energy-saving light, and compact fluorescent tube, is a
fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb.

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WINDING SET-UP

For primary winding make 3 to 6 turns after completing secondary winding,


Here we have used 22 SWG (Standard Wire Gauge ) Enamelled Copper Wire
for Secondary winding and made 275 turns around PVC pipe. One side wire
of secondary coil is connected with Transistor base and another side wire is
kept open.

Battery power supply is applied to the Primary coil and Base terminal of Q1
transistor Through Switch and make sure to connect 22KΩ Resistor at the
base terminal. Connect a LED (Red colour) between base and negative supply
to indicate the oscillating pulse level. Emitter terminal is connected to the
battery negative supply and collector terminal is connected to the L1 coil. L2
coil is connected with the base terminal.
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When we apply power supply to this circuit initially Q1 stays is off condition
and coil L1 gets supply due to the threshold level supply flow on the base Q1
slowly gets turn ON and completes the power supply flow of L1 coil and we
know whenever the coil gets supply it will produce magnetic flux and hence
due to the magnetic flux near L2 coil also induced and it produce high voltage
because it has more turns than L1 coil. EMF through L2 makes more supply
appear at Base terminal and hence Transistor Q1 becomes Active, and so the
maximum power connected to battery negative supply through L1 coil, hence
power supply through R1 resistor to base gets drop so Q1 becomes saturated
condition, again EMF through L2 makes more supply appear at Base terminal
and so on this cycle continues upto the presence of power supply to the
circuit.

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DIRECTIONS:

1. Tape one end of the 28-gauge copper wire to the top of the PVC pipe. This
will be your secondary coil, which will act as the conductor through which
the current travels.

2. Leave a small space at the top of about 0.5 centimetres and begin to wind
copper wire about 300 to 400 times around the PVC pipe. This part of the
experiment will take the longest but it’s one of the most crucial steps. As you
wrap the copper wire, try not to overlap wires or leave large spaces. When you
reach the bottom, tape the wire to the bottom of the PVC pipe. Leave a 5-inch
tail of wire and you can now cut the wire from its spool.

3. Hot glue gun down the wrapped PVC pipe to the cardboard. Next, glue down
the switch to the left of the PVC pipe followed by the battery and finally,
transistor.

4. Using an insulated cable or 22-gauge copper wire, start about three inches
in and wrap 3 to 4 times around the wire-covered PVC pipe. This is
your primary coil, which you will then need to tape to the PVC pipe and glue
the ends onto the cardboard.

5. Attach the battery clip to the battery.

6. Glue the resistor in between the switch and transistor.

7. Following the diagram below, twist the corresponding wires together and
cover with electrical tape to ensure safety.

8. Now you can flip the switch on. Pick up your light bulb and hold near the
secondary coil. Hover for a few seconds if it does not immediately turn on.

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CONSTRUCTION & WORKING

In this mini tesla coil circuit important part is tesla coil winding setup before
proceeding with circuit make the winding setup. For that we need non
conducting cylindrical material and Primary coil made with conducting wire
(Use the insulated wire used to make the circuit).

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RESULT

Whenever we bring a CFL bulb close to the secondary winding, after switching
on the circuit, The bulb glows producing high intensity light as bulb glows
when supplied ac power.

It is the transmission of electrical energy from power source to electric load,


over a distance, without usage of wires or cables.

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APPLICATIONS

Tesla coils are displayed as attractions at science museums and electronics


fairs, and are used to demonstrate principles of high frequency electricity in
science classes in schools and colleges.
Since they are simple enough for an amateur to make, Tesla coils are a
popular student Science fair project,
Today, although small Tesla coils are used as leak detectors in scientific
high vacuum systems and igniters in arc welders, their main use is
entertainment and educational displays.

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SAFETY

Don’t leave the Tesla coil on for too long as it could overpower the transistor.
Be careful with the hardware after turning off as the energy will likely heat up
the apparatus.

SAFETY WARNING

High Voltages and Currents: Tesla coils use and produce extraordinarily
high voltages and currents. Output voltages for small coils are typically in the
range of 500,000 to 1,000,000 volts. Currents of 1000 to 5000 amperes may
be present in the input circuits. Under no circumstances should one come
into contact with these voltages and currents. In all cases the voltages and
currents used in Tesla coils are considered far beyond lethal levels. Please see
special note.

Burns: Due to the high frequencies involved, Tesla coils can cause severe
burns without the sensation of pain. These burns are typically very deep and
need long term medical attention.

Long Distance Arcing: Tesla coils, by their nature, produce electrical arcing
which can travel unpredictably in any direction and can strike at considerable
distances. These arcs can be very dangerous.

Electromagnetic Fields: Tesla coil type equipment produced extreme


magnetic, electrostatic, and radio frequency fields. These may interfere with

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pacemakers and any other critical electronic devices in the area. These effects
are unpredictable.

Ozone: Tesla coil equipment produces large quantities of ozone, which is


poisonous. Adequate ventilation must always be maintained.

Ultraviolet Light: Spark gaps used in Tesla equipment produce intense


ultraviolet light. This light can burn the retina of the eye with ease. Always
cover any exposed arcs.

Fire: Tesla coils can and have started a number of fires. They can arc to
flammable objects with ease. Any fire extinguishing equipment must be rated
for electrical fires but still must only be used when the power is removed from
this type of extremely high voltage equipment.

PCB Oil: Although rarely used now, high voltage devices such as transformers
and capacitors may use oils containing PCBs. These substances can cause
very serious and long-term heath problems and fatal cancers.

Explosions: Components used in Tesla coils can explode with great violence.
High voltage capacitors especially can store a tremendous amount of energy
and can fail catastrophically. Always wear eye protection and physically shield
energy storage components.

Energy Storage: Tesla coil circuits can store lethal voltages long after
external power sources are removed. Circuits can spontaneously become
energized without warning. Power supplies and especially high voltage
capacitors must be discharged before approaching this type of equipment.

X-rays: Vacuum tubes, light bulbs, and other evacuated spaces will produce
X-rays when exposed to high voltages.

Radio Frequency Interference: Tesla coils always produce intense radio


frequency interference.

Electronic Equipment Damage: Tesla coils can easily destroy any type of
electronic equipment in the area or connected through the common AC wiring.
This includes Computers, Televisions, etc.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

(1) How to make a mini tesla coil


https://circuitdigest.com/electronic-circuits/how-to-make-a-mini-tesla-coil-9v

(2) How to Make a Miniature Tesla Coil


https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-a-
Miniature-Tesla-Coil/

(3) How to make a mini Tesla coil


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zjnX41K1pE
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uwf4rAexbPU

(4) Tesla coil - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla_coil

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