Sei sulla pagina 1di 13

JOHN BROWN’S RAID ON HARPER’S FERRY

• Abolitionist John Brown studies slave uprisings


in Rome and Haiti and decided to try to start
one in the U.S.
• October 16, 1859 led blacks and whites to
federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry VA
– Hoped to take stored guns, distribute
them to local slaves, and start revolt
• US Troops led by Robert E. Lee captured
Brown and killed 2 of his men
• Brown was put on trial for treason
– He was convicted
– Lincoln and Douglas called him a murderer
– Abolitionists mourned his death
– Southerners were terrified and
pushed for secession
SOUTHERN
P O R T R AYA L
OF JOHN
BROWN

Include in your
chart:
What are the
differences between
the Northern and NORTHERN
Southern images of P O R T R AYA L
John Brown?
OF JOHN
BROWN
ELECTION OF 1860/LINCOLNS
ELECTION
-The Kansas-Nebraska Act marked the death of the
Whig Party
Alternatives?
– “Free-Soilers”  opposed expansion of
slavery and advocated for free land in the
West
– The American Party (“Know-Nothings”)
• Nativist: anti-immigrant
• Anti-Catholic: anti-German/Irish
Catholics
• Republican
-The founding of the Republican Party
– Northern Whigs
– Northern Democrats
– Free-Soilers
– “Know-Nothings”
– Other opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
THE REPUBLICAN PLATFORM
OF 1860
-No abridgment of
-Protective tariff
-Non-extension of rights for immigrants (a
(Northern
slavery (Free-Soilers) disappointment for the
industrialists)
“Know-Nothings”)

-Free homesteads for


-Govt aid to build a -Internal improvements public domain (farmers)
Pacific Railroad (West) at federal • Homestead Act: 160 acres
(Northwest) expense that must be improved on by
five years
ELECTION •OF 1860
Results of the Election
• Democrats nominated 2
candidates – Northern Democrats
– Northern Democrats • 12 Electoral college votes
picked Stephen Douglas • 1,382,713 popular votes
(popular sovereignty) – Southern Democrats
– Southern Democrats • 72 Electoral College votes
picked John C.
Breckenridge (pro-slavery) • 848,356 popular votes
– Constitutional Union
• Republicans nominated • 39 Electoral College votes
Abraham Lincoln • 592,906 popular votes
(anti-slavery) – Republicans
• 180 Electoral College
• Constitutional Union Party votes
nominated John Bell (ignored • 1,865,593 popular votes
slavery, keep country • Lincoln won! Because he
together) won all the free states
(was not even on the
ballot in the South)
1860
ELECTION:
A N AT I O N
COMING
APART?
Include in your chart:
How is the election of 1860
portrayed in this cartoon?
SECESSION: SOUTH CAROLINA
ON YOUR CHART: MARK OUT “CRITTENDEN
COMPROMISE” AND REPL ACE WITH “SUCCESSION”
• The South feared that Northern Republicans would subject
them to “political bondage”
– “states rights” meant independence from federal control
– White southerners feared end to slavery
• South Carolina seceded on December 20, 1860
• War is imminent
– North isn’t going to destroy country without trying to
save it
– South has no “men and appliances of war”
– South only has “spirit and determination” “in all else
[they[ are totally unprepared”
– Many resignations in Washington as Southerners joined
the Confederacy
SUCCESSION: FORMING THE CONFEDERACY
• Several states follow SC’s lead and secede
– Mississippi January 9, 1861
– Florida January 10, 1861
– Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas
quickly secede in winter 1861
• February 4, 1861 delegates from
secessionist states met in Alabama and
formed the Confederate States of America
– Constitution of the Confederacy
almost identical to US except it
protected and recognized slavery and
made each state independent
– Elected Jefferson Davis President,
Alexander Stephens Vice President
– Select Richmond,VA as capital
– Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and
Tennessee join the confederacy in the
spring of 1861
BATTLE OF FORT
SUMTER
• Confederate soldiers began
taking over federal forts
• Fort Sumter, on island in
Charleston SC harbor one
of the only left in federal
control when Lincoln takes
office
• The fort is dangerously low
on supplies and the
Confederacy is demanding
that the commander
surrender the fort or be
attacked
BATTLE OF FORT SUMTER
• Lincoln’s dilemma
– He can order the US Navy to shoot into
harbor and reinforce the fort
• He will be responsible for starting war
– He can evacuate
• He will treat the Confederacy as a
legitimate nation
– Lincoln decides to send food but no war
supplies
• Shots are fired!
– Jefferson Davis orders Confederate troops to
bombard the fort at 4:30 AM on April 12,
1861. Union surrenders
• Confederacy grows
– Northerners rally around the fall of Ft.
Sumter, people volunteer to fight
– VA, NC, AR, TN secede
SECESSION
BEGINS
Include in your chart:
Why do you think the purple
states waited until after Fort
Sumter to secede?
Why do you think the red
states did no secede?