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# Ex. No. 1 Ohm’s Law [R.H.

S]
AIM
To determine resistance per unit length of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
A wire of unknown resistance (~10Ω), battery eliminator or an accumulator (0 to 3V) or two dry cells (1.5 V each),
voltmeter (0-5 V), milliammeter (0 – 500 mA), rheostat, plug key, connecting wires and a piece of sand paper.
PRINCIPLE
Ohm's law states that the electric current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential
difference across its ends, provided the physical state of the conductor remains unchanged. If I be the current
flowing through the conductor and V the potential difference across its ends, then according to Ohm's law ,
V = RI
where R is the constant of proportionality and is termed as the electrical resistance of the conductor.

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM [L.H.S]

PROCEDURE [R.H.S]
1. Clean the ends of the connecting wires with the help of sand paper in order to remove any insulating coating on
them.
2. Connect various components - resistance, rheostat, battery, key, voltmeter and ammeter as shown in circuit
diagram.
3. Note whether pointers in milliammeter and voltmeter coincide with the zero mark on the measuring scale. If it is
not so, adjust the pointer to coincide with the zero mark by adjusting the screw provided near the base of the needle
using a screw driver.
4. Note the range and least count of the given voltmeter and milliammeter.
5. Insert the key K and slide the rheostat contact to one of its extreme ends, so that current passing through the
resistance
6. Note the milliammeter and voltmeter readings.
7. Remove the key K and allow the wire to cool, if heated. Again insert the key. Shift the rheostat contact slightly to
increase the applied voltage. Note the milliammeter and voltmeter reading.
8. Repeat step 7 for four different settings of the rheostat. Record your observations in a tabular form.

OBSERVATIONS [L.H.S]
1. Range of ammeter = 0 ... mA to ...mA
2. Least count of ammeter = ... mA
3. Range of voltmeter = 0 ... V to ...V
4. Least count of voltmeter = ...V
5. Least count of metre scale = ... m

Page 1
s.
no. V I R=V/I

## (volt) (milli Ampere) (ohm)

1
2
3
4
5

CALCULATIONS [L.H.S]
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

1. Plot a graph between the potential difference across the wire (V) and the current (I) flowing through it as shown in
Fig.

2. Determine the slope of the graph. The resistance of the given wire is then equal to the reciprocal of the slope.
BC
From the graph, resistance of the given wire is, R  =……. 
AB
R 1
3. Resistance per unit length of given wire is, r  = ...... m
l
RESULT [R.H.S]
1. The potential difference across the given wire varies linearly with the current.
2. The resistance of the given wire is .................Ω
3. The resistance per unit length of the wire is .................Ω cm-1
PRECAUTIONS [R.H.S]
1. Connections should be made neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. The wire used should be having uniform area of cross-section.
3. Zero error in measuring instruments (voltmeter, ammeter, metre scale) should be corrected.
4. The key should be inserted only while taking observations, as excessive flow of current causes unnecessary
heating of the wire.
SOURCES OF ERROR [R.H.S]
1. Connections may not be correct
2. The wire used may not be of uniform area of cross-section.
3. The Ammeter or Voltmeter may have zero error.

*****

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Ex. No. 2 Meter Bridge – Determination of Resistivity [R.H.S]
.

AIM
To determine the resistance of a given wire using a metre bridge and hence determine the resistivity of the
material of the wire.

## APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

Metre bridge, a wire about 1m long (of material whose specific resistance is to be determined), a resistance
box, a rheostat, galvanometer, a jockey, one-way key, a cell or battery eliminator, thick connecting wires, sand
paper, screw gauge.

## C IRCUIT D IAGRAM [L.H.S]

P RINCIPLE
A metre bridge works on the principle of Wheatstone’s bridge.
[R.H.S]

P R
If there is no deflection in the galvanometer G, then balance condition for Wheatstone’s bridge is 
Q S
We use this relation to determine S if P, Q and R are known.

Unknown resistance X of the wire, having uniform cross-sectional area, is then given by

## Where, R is resistance in the resistance box

l and (100 – l) are balancing lengths

## Where, X is the resistance of the

D 2
wire of length L and A (D being the diameter of the given wire) is the area of cross-section.
4

P ROCEDURE [R.H.S]
(i) Draw the circuit diagram given above and make the connections according to the circuit diagram.

Page 3
(ii) Remove the insulations from the ends of the connecting wires with the help of sand paper and make neat, clean
and tight connections.
(iii) Make sure that the resistance in the resistance box is of same order of magnitude as the unknown resistance S.
(iv) To check whether the connections of the circuit are correct, Touch the jockey gently, first at the left and then at
the right end of the metre bridge wire. If the deflections in the galvanometer are in opposite directions, the
connections are correct.
(v) Now choose an appropriate resistance R from the resistance box. Slide the jockey on the metre bridge wire
gently by touching and lifting it again and again till the galvanometer reads zero nearly in the middle of the wire.
(vi) Record the lengths of both parts of the wire in the observation table.
(vii) Repeat the above steps two times more by selecting the suitable values of R for getting null point between 30
cm and 70 cm.
(viii) Now cut the resistance wire S at the points where it leaves binding terminals. Straighten it by stretching and
remove 3 kinks.
(ix) Measure the diameter of the wire by a screw guage atleast the different points. At each point, the diameter
should be measured in two mutually perpendicular directions.
(x) Repeat the whole experiment for second wire of different mater
[L.H.S]

Calculation [L.H.S]
Length of the unknown wire (L) = ………………….. m.
Diameter (d) of the unknown wire (using screw gauge) = ………………….. m.

## Then, the specific resistance of the given wire is ρ =

RESULT [R.H.S]
The resistance of the material of the given wire is ……….. ohm
The specific resistance of the material of the given wire = ………………….. ohm m
PRECAUTIONS [R.H.S]
1. Connections should be made tight, neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. The meterbridge wire used should be having uniform area of cross-section.
3. The key should be inserted only while taking observations, as excessive flow of current causes unnecessary
heating of the wire.
SOURCES OF ERROR [R.H.S]
1. Connections may not be correct
2. The meterbridge wire used may not be of uniform area of cross-section.
3.The key may not be plugged in properly.

*****

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Expt. No. 3 METRE BRIDGE – RESISTORS IN SERIES [R.H.S]
AIM :
To verify the laws of combination of resistances in series using a meter bridge.
APPARATUS:
Meter bridge, galvanometer, one way key, a resistance box, battery, jockey, two unknown resistance wires, and
connecting wires.
THEORY:
The effective resistance Xs of the combination of two resistors when connected in series can be calculated by :
Xs = X1 + X2 -----------(i)
The resistance (X ) of a resistor is given by:

## Where ‘l’ is the balancing length and R, the known resistance.

[ LHS ]

PROCEDURE: [R.H.S]
(i) Measure the unknown resistances X1and X2 separately using the procedure explained in experiment 2, after
making the suitable connections as done in experiment 2. Here you can find the value of unknown resistances
without interchanging the R. B. and unknown wire in the gaps.
(ii) After finding the value of X1 and X2, connect the two in series as shown in figure.
(iii) Proceed in the same way as in experiment 2. Take at least three sets of observations for balance point lying
between 30 cm and 70 cm.
(iv) Calculate the effective resistances using equation (ii).
(vi) Compare the measured values of effective resistances using Meter Bridge with the calculated values.
[L.H.S]

Page 5
[L.H.S]

RESULT [R.H.S]
The value of unknown resistances X1 = ……..Ω and X2 = ……..Ω
The value of effective resistance in series:
By calculation, xS = ……..Ω By experiment, xS = ……..Ω
Hence the law of combination of resistances in series is verified.

PRECAUTIONS [R.H.S]
1. Connections should be made tight, neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. The meterbridge wire used should be having uniform area of cross-section.
3. The key should be inserted only while taking observations, as excessive flow of current causes unnecessary
heating of the wire.
SOURCES OF ERROR [R.H.S]
1. Connections may not be correct
2. The meterbridge wire used may not be of uniform area of cross-section.
3.The key may not be plugged in properly.

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Expt. No. 4 METRE BRIDGE – RESISTORS IN PARALLEL
[R.H.S]
AIM :
To verify the laws of combination of resistances in parallel using a meter bridge.
APPARATUS:
Meter bridge, galvanometer, one way key, a resistance box, battery, jockey, two unknown resistance wires, and
connecting wires.
THEORY:
The effective resistance XP of the combination of two resistors when connected in parallel can be calculated by :

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM; [L.H.S]

PROCEDURE: [R.H.S]
(i) Measure the unknown resistances X1and X2 separately using the procedure explained in experiment 2, after
making the suitable connections as done in experiment 2. Here you can find the value of unknown resistances
without interchanging the R. B. and unknown wire in the gaps.
(ii) After finding the value of X1 and X2, connect the two in parallel as shown below in figure.
(iii) Proceed in the same way as in experiment 2. Take at least three sets of observations for balance point lying
between 30 cm and 70 cm.
(iv) Calculate the effective resistances using equation (ii).
(vi) Compare the measured values of effective resistances using Meter Bridge with the calculated values.

OBSERVATIONS: [L.H.S]

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VERIFICATION: [L.H.S]

=……..Ω
From observations: X P = ……Ω
Thus the law of parallel combination of resistors is verified.

RESULT [R.H.S]
The value of unknown resistances X1 =………Ω and X2 =………Ω
The value of effective resistance in parallel:
By calculation xp= ………Ω By experiment, xp = …….. Ω
Hence the law of combination of resistances in parallel is verified.

PRECAUTIONS [R.H.S]
1. Connections should be made tight, neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. The meterbridge wire used should be having uniform area of cross-section.
3. The key should be inserted only while taking observations, as excessive flow of current causes unnecessary
heating of the wire.
SOURCES OF ERROR [R.H.S]
1. Connections may not be correct
2. The meterbridge wire used may not be of uniform area of cross-section.
3.The key may not be plugged in properly.

*****

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Ex. No.5 POTENTIOMETER - COMPARISION OF emf OF CELLS [R.H.S]

## AIM : To compare the emf’s of the two given primary cells .

Materials Required:Potentiometer, Daniel cell, Leclanche cell, Jockey, Battery eliminator, Resistance box,
Galvanometer, One way keys, Rheostat, Ammeter, Connecting wires, etc

FORMULA:
Ratio of the emf of the two cells is

## Where, 𝐸1 and 𝐸2 emfs of cell-1 and cell-2

𝑙1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑙2 are balancing lengths for cell-1 and cell-2

## C IRCUIT D IAGRAM [L.H.S]

( )
k Rh
E Primarycircuit

A J B
Secondary circuit
E1 k
( 1)
G
( )
E2 k2

PROCEDURE [R.H.S]

 Arrange the required materials on a table and make the connections as per the connection diagram.
 Tight the plugs of the resistance box.
 To test the connection, insert plug in the one way key k and also in the key K1. Introduce a sufficiently high
resistance on the resistance box (R.B). Place the jockey at the two end points of the wire. Press the jockey at both
end of the potentiometer wire and note the deflection in galvanometer. If the galvanometer shows opposite
deflection, the connections are correct.
 Now, gently slide the jockey along the potentiometer wire and stop when null point is obtained.
 Measure the length l1 between this point and the end A of the potentiometer. It is the balancing length for the cell
E1.
 Disconnect the cell E1 by removing the plug from the key K1 and connect the cell E2 by inserting plug the key K2.
 Again slide the jockey along the potentiometer wire to obtain the null point. Measure the new balancing length l2 for
the cell E2 based on this point.
 Change the resistance in the rheostat
 Repeat the experiment by increasing the current by adjusting the rheostat and record the observations.
E1 l1
 Each time, the ratio between the emf’s of the given cells can be calculated using the relation, 
E2 l2

Page 9
Observations [L.H.S]

## No. E1 in the circuit, E2 in the circuit,

l1 (cm) l2 (cm)

1
2
3
4
5
6

Calculations [L.H.S]

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

E1 l1
Mean  = ..............
E2 l2

Result
The emf’s of the two given primary cells are compared.
E1 l1
The ratio of emf’s of the two given primary cells,  = ..............
E2 l2

P RECAUTIONS [R.H.S]
1. Connections should be made tight, neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. The POTENTIOMETER wire used should be having uniform area of cross-section.
3. The key should be inserted only while taking observations, as excessive flow of current causes unnecessary
heating of the wire.

## S OURCES OF ERROR [R.H.S]

1. Connections may not be correct
2. The POTENTIOMETER wire used may not be of uniform area of cross-section.
3.The key may not be plugged in properly.

Page
10
Ex. No.6 POTENTIOMETER – INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A CELL [R.H.S]

AIM
To determine the internal resistance of a given primary cell using a potentiometer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
(1)Potentiometer (2) Leclanche cell (3) one resistance box (RB) 4) keys (5) galvanometer (6) Battery eliminator
(7) A rheostat (8) jockey (9)connecting wires.

THEORY
l1
The internal resistance of the given cell is r(  1) R
l2
Where,
𝑙1 is balancing length for cell E1
𝑙2 is balancing length when R is included
R is the resistance in the resistance box

## C IRCUIT D IAGRAM [L.H.S]

PROCEDURE [R.H.S]
1. Different electrical components are connected as shown in the circuit (Fig.).After checking the circuit
connections ,key K1 and K2 is closed.
2. With key K1 open and the position of the Balance point is found.
3. R = 10 Ω is taken (from R.B), the key K1 is closed and quickly the new balance length l2 is measured
and K1 is open as soon as this has been done.
4. Keeping the resistance in the rheostat constant throughout the above observation the balance length l2
is obtained by reducing the value of R in equal steps of 1 Ω for each value of R
5. At the end of the experiment, by opening key K1 and repeating step 2, l1 again found.

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11
OBSERVATIONS [L.H.S]
l1 = ... cm (in the beginning of the experiment)
l1 =…. cm (at the end of the experiment)
Mean l1 = ... cm.

CALCULATION: [L.H.S]
1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

RESULT [R.H.S]
The internal resistance of the given primary cell is r = ….... Ω

P RECAUTIONS [R.H.S]
1. Connections should be made tight, neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. The POTENTIOMETER wire should be having uniform area of cross-section.
3. The keys should be plugged in properly.
4.The key should be inserted only while taking observations, as excessive flow of current causes unnecessary
heating of the wire.

## S OURCES OF ERROR [R.H.S]

1. Connections may not be correct
2. The POTENTIOMETER wire used may not be of uniform area of cross-section.
3.The keys may not be plugged in properly.
4. Heating of the potentiometer wire by current may introduce some error.

Page
12
Ex. No.7 GALVANOMETER - FIGURE OF MERIT
AIM
To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method and find it’s figure of merit
APPARATUS REQUIRED
(1) A moving coil galvanometer (2) A battery eliminator (0 - 6 V), (3) one resistance box (RBOX- 1) of range 0 t-
100 Ω (4) one resistance box(RBOX- 2) of range 0 t-10000 Ω (5) two one way keys, (6) voltmeter, (7) connecting
wires and a piece of sand paper.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

FORMULA:
Galvanometer resistance,

Where, R is the resistance in the resistance box-1 and S is the resistance in the resistance box- 2

## where, E is emf of the cell and θ is the deflection in the galvanometer

P ROCEDURE
1. Clean the connecting wires with sand paper and make neat and tight connections as per the
circuit diagram.
2. From the high resistance box (RBOX 1) (1-10 kΩ), remove 5 kΩkey and then close the key K1.
Adjust the resistance R from this resistance box to get full scale deflection on the galvanometer dial.
Record the values of resistance, R and deflection θ.
3. Insert the key K2 and keep R fixed. Adjust the value of shunt resistance S to get the deflection in
the galvanometer which is exactly half of θ. Note down S. Remove plug K2 after noting down the
value of shunt resistance, S.
4. Take five sets of observations by repeating steps 2 and 3 so that θis even number of divisions
and record the observations for R, S, θand θ/2 in tabular form.
5. Calculate the galvanometer resistance G and figure of merit k of galvanometer respectively

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13
OBSERVATION
E mf of the battery E = ...... V

C ALCULATIONS:

## Mean value of G (resistance of galvanometer) = ... Ω

Mean value of k (figure of merit of galvanometer) = ... ampere/division.

RESULT
1. Resistance of galvanometer by half deflection method, G = ... Ω
2. Figure of merit of galvanometer, k = ...ampere/division

PRECAUTIONS [R.H.S]
1. Connections should be made tight, neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. The keys should be plugged in properly.
3.Emf of the battery should be constant.

## SOURCES OF ERROR [R.H.S]

1. Connections may not be correct
2.The keys may not be plugged in properly.
3.Emf of the battery may not be constant.
*****

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14
Ex. No. 8 REFRACTION THROUGH A PRISM
AIM
To determine the angle of minimum deviation for a given glass prism by plotting a graph between the angle of
incidence and the angle of deviation.

## APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED

Drawing board, triangular glass prism, metre scale, alpins, drawing pins, graph paper, protractor,white paper sheets

FORMULA:
A  m
sin( )
Refractive index of the prism is  2
A
sin( )
2
Where, A- angle of prism
 m - angle of minimum deviation
RAY DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
1. A white sheet of paper is fixed on a drawing board with the help of cello tape or drawing pins.

2. A straight line XY,is drawn using a sharp pencil nearly in the middle and parallel to the length of the paper.
3. Points O1, O2, O3. ., . . . . are marked on the straight line XY at suitable distances of about 8 to 10 cm and normals
N1 O1, N2 O2, N3O3. . . . drawn on these points .
4. Straight lines, P1 O1, P2 O2, P3 O3, . . . are drawn corresponding to the incident rays making angles of incidence
at 35°, 40°, 45°, 50°, ... 60° respectively with the normals, using a protractor. The values of the angles P1 O1 N1, P2
O2 N2, P3 O3 N3,...are written on the white paper sheet .
5. The prism is placed with its refracting face AB on the line XY with point O1 in the middle of AB as shown in the
figure. The boundary of the prism is drawn with a sharp pencil.
6. Two alpins Pl and Q1 are fixed with sharp tips vertically about 10 cm apart, on the incident ray line
Pl Ql such that pin Q1 is close to point O1. Closing one eye (say left) and looking through the prism, right eye is
brought in line with the images of the pins Pl and Ql. Alpins Rl and Sl are fixed about 10 cm apart vertically on the
white paper sheet with their tips in line with the tips of the images of pins Pl and Ql. In this way pins R1 and S1 will
become collinear, with the images of pins P1 and Q1.
7. Removing the pins Rl and Sl and encircling their pin pricks on the white paper sheet with the help of a sharp pencil
,the pins P1 and Q1 are removed and their pin pricks encircled also.
8. The points ( or pin pricks) Rl and Sl is joined with the help of a sharp pencil and scale, to obtain the emergent ray
Rl S l. R1S1 is produced in backwards to meet the incident ray Pl Ql (produced forward) at T1. Arrowheads are
drawn on Pl Ql and R1 S1 to show the direction of the rays.
9. The angle of deviation 1and the angle BAC (angle A) of the prism (Fig. 1) are measured with a protractor and the
values of these angles are indicated in the diagram.
10. Steps 5 to 9 are repeated for different values of angle of incidence (40°, 45°, 50°...) and the corresponding angles
of deviation 2, 3... are measured with the protractor, and indicated them in the respective diagrams.
11. Observations are recorded in tabular form with proper units and significant figures.

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15
OBSERVATIONS
Angle of the prism, A = ...(degree)

CALCULATIONS
Take angle of incidence i along x-axis and angle of deviationalong y-axis, using the observed values from Table.
Choose suitable scales on these axes and plot a graph between i and .

A tangent is drawn on the lowest point of the graph parallel to x-axis & the angle of minimum deviation  m is noted
on the y-axis of the graph.

µ=

RESULT
Angle of minimum deviation, m = ...... degree
The refractive index of glass of the prism = ……………
PRECAUTIONS
1. Alpins should be straight fixed vertically to the plane of paper.
2. Drawing board should be leveled.
3. Prism should be clean.
4. Position of the prism should not be disturbed for a given set of observations.
SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Alpins may not be straight.
2. Drawing board may not be leveled.
3. Prism may be uncleaned and broken.
4. Position of the prism may be disturbed

Page
16
EX. NO. 9 Focal length of Concave mirror
Aim
To determine ‘v’ for different values of u and plot a graph between (u and v) or (1/u and 1/v) and compute the focal
length of the given concave mirror.
Material Required
Concave mirror, optical bench with three uprights, mirror holder, two pins, knitting needle, metre rod, spirit level.
Formula

Where, f is the focal length of the given concave mirror , v is the distance of the image and u is the distance of the
object.

PROCEDURE:
HOW TO SET-UP THE EXPERIMENT
(i) Fix an upright at zero cm mark on the optical bench and put mirror holder in it.
(ii) Place the other two uprights holding pins on the optical bench at different positions.
(iii) Level the optical bench with the help of spirit level and levelling screws.
(iv) Fix the mirror in mirror-holder and adjust the tips of the pins so that they are in the same horizontal line as the pole of the
mirror
HOW TO PERFORM THE EXPERIMENT
(a) Determination of bench-correction
(i) Place the knitting needle along the metre scale. Read the position of its two ends, avoiding error due to parallax. Find the
length of the knitting needle l.
(ii) Using knitting needle, adjust the object-pin, so that the distance between the pole of the mirror and the tip of the pin is l. Now
read the position of the mirror arid the object-pin A, on the scale of the optical bench. Find the observed length of knitting needle
as measured on the optical bench-scale, l1.

## (iii) Find bench correction ( l–l1) for pin A.

(iv) Repeat the same procedure for image pin ‘B’ also.
(b) Determination of approximate focal length of the mirror
(v) Take out the mirror from mirror-holder and hold it in such a way so that a clear distinct image of a distant object is obtained
on the wall.
(vi) Measure the distance between the mirror and the wall with the help of a metre scale. This gives the approximate focal length,
f1 of the mirror.
(c) Determination of v for different values of u
(vii) Fix the mirror again in the mirror-holder.
(viii) Fix the object-pin A at a point between, f1 and 2 f1 but so that looking into the mirror, you will see a clear real, inverted and
highly enlarged image of A.
(ix) Position the image-pin B beyond 2 f1, so that there is no parallax between the tip of B and the tip of image of A.
(x) Fix pin B.
(xi) Repeat the procedure (ii) and (iii) for different positions of pin A between f1 and 2 f1 and seeing that it is enlarged.
(xii) Record the observations in tabulated form as shown in table,
(xiii) Find the values of 1/u and 1/v for each observation, by taking u and v in metres.
(xiv) Plot a graph with 1/u on x-axis and 1/v on y-axis, taking scone scale on both axes and start from zero on
either axes,
(xv) Read the intercept on y-axis. Reciprocal of it gives the focal length.
OBSERVATION

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17
Rough focal length of the mirror f1 =………. cm.
s. Object Distance Image 1/u 1/v Focal length,
No (u) Distance (v) uv
. f 
uv
(cm) (cm) cm-1 cm-1
cm
1
2
3
4
5
Mean, f = ………. cm

Calculations:

Calculate the value of focal length (f) each time and find its mean.
Plot a graph with u along X axis and v along Y axis by taking same scale for drawing the X and Y axes. Draw the bisector OA and join OC and
OB. Thus, OC=OB= 2f. Calculate the focal length from this.
Plot a graph with 1/u along X axis and 1/v along Y axis by taking same scale for drawing the X and Y axes. The graph is a straight line
intercepting the axes at A and B. Then OA=OB= 1/f. Calculate the focal length from this.

## From u-v graph, calculation:

OB =….....….cm
OC = ...……..cm

= ........... cm
From 1/u – 1/v graph,
OA =…………cm
OB =…...…... cm

= ............ cm

Results

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18
The focal length of the given concave mirror, f
By u-v method = ……..×10-2 m
From u-v graph = .……..×10-2 m

## From 1/u- 1/v graph = ……...×10-2 m

PRECAUTIONS
1. The uprights supporting the optical elements should be rigid and mounted vertically..
2. Parallax should be removed.
3. Optical bench should be leveled.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. The uprights may not be vertical.
2. Parallax removal may not be perfect.
3. Optical bench may not be levelled
*****

## EX. NO. 10 Focal length of Convex lens

AIM
To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
An optical bench, two sharp-edged needle (pins), convex lens, three uprights (with clamps),index
needle (may be a knitting needle), metre scale and spirit level.
THEORY

For an object placed at a distance u from the optical centre of a thin convex lens of focal length f , a real and inverted
image is formed on the other side of the lens at a distance v from the optical centre. The relation between these
distances is:

PROCEDURE
* Obtain approximate value of the focal length of the thin convex lens by focusing the image of a distant object. It
can be found by obtaining a sharp image of the Sun or a distant tree on a screen, say a plane wall, or a sheet of paper
placed on the other side of the lens and measuring the distance between the lens and the image with a scale. This
distance is a rough estimate of the focal length, f of the convex lens.
Note: Do not look at the image of Sun directly as it may hurt your eyes.
1. The optical bench is placed on a rigid table or on a platform, and using the spirit level to make it horizontal with
the help of leveling screws provided at the base of the bench.

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2. The convex lens is clamped on an upright and mounts it vertically almost near to the middle of the optical bench
such that its principal axis is parallel to the optical bench. In this position, the lens would lie in a plane perpendicular
to the optical bench.
4. Index correction is found for both the pins.
5. The vertically mounted sharp pins P and P’ are placed on left and right hand sides of the lens respectively. Pins P
and P’are so adjusted the heights of the tips of these pins become equal to the height of the optical centre O of the
lens from the base of the optical bench. Let the pin P (placed on left hand side of the lens ) be the object pin and the
pin P’ (lying on right hand side) be the image pin. A small piece of paper is put on one of the pins (say on image pin
P’) to differentiate it from the object pin P’.
6. The object pin P (on left side of the lens) is displaced to a distance slightly less than 2f from the optical centre O
of the lens &the position of the real and inverted image on the other side of the lens above the image pin P’ is
located.
7. Using the method of parallax, the position of the image pin P’ is adjusted such that the image of the object pin P
coincides with the image pin P’.
Note: As the value of u changes from 2f to f, v changes from 2f to infinity. Since the values of u and v are
interchangeable, i.e., the object and image are two conjugate points, therefore it is clear that complete range of
values for both u and v between f and infinity are obtained for a movement of the object pin over the range 2f to f.
8. The upright position of the object pin, convex lens and image pin on the optical bench are recorded observation
table.
9. The object pin P is moved closer to the optical centre O of the lens (say by 2 cm or 3 cm) & the experiment is
repeated for at least six sets of readings for various distances of object pin between f and 2f from the lens.

OBSERVATIONS
1. Approximate focal length of the convex lens by distant object method = ... …..cm

## Distance between the lens and uv

1/u 1/v f 
s.No. Object, u Image, v u v
(cm-1) (cm-1)
(cm) (cm) (cm)

1
2
3
4
5
Mean f =

CALCULATION:

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Mean f =

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(B)CALCULATION OF FOCAL LENGTH BY PLOTTING GRAPHS
(a). u – v Graph: Taken u along x-axis and v along y-axis. Scales of x- and y-axis should be same. A hyperbola curve is drawn
for various values of u and v (Note that six sets of readings For u between f and 2f, give 12 points on the graph by interchanging
values of u and v).

The point u = 2f; v = 2f is shown as point Z on u – v graph . The point Z is the point intersection of a line OZ bisecting the angle
XOY with hyperbola. Two lines AZ and BZ drawn perpendicular to Yand X-axis, respectively. The lengths AZ and BZ are both
equal to distance 2f.
Thus by plotting the u – v graph, the focal length of the lens can be obtained.
Distance OA (= 2f ) on y-axis = ......... cm
Distance OB (= 2f ) on x-axis = ……. Cm

## Mean focal length of the convex lens,

(b).1/u – 1/v graph: A straight line graph drawn by plotting 1/u along the X-axis and 1/v along the Y-axis .

Both the intercepts OA’ (on y-axis) and OB’ (on X-axis) will be equal to distance 1/f.
Intercept OA’ (= 1/f ) on y-axis=............cm–1Intercept OB’ (= 1/f ) on x-axis=..................cm–1

## Mean focal length of the convex lens

RESULT
The focal length of the given converging thin convex lens:
(i) from calculations as shown in Observation Table f = ............cm
(ii) from u – v graph f =...............cm, and
(iii) from 1/u – 1/v graph f =..........cm.

PRECAUTIONS
1. The uprights supporting the optical elements should be rigid and mounted vertically..
2. Parallax should be removed.
3. Optical bench should be leveled.
SOURCES OF ERROR
1. The uprights may not be vertical.
2. Parallax removal may not be perfect.
3. Optical bench may not be levelled

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Ex. No.11 FOCAL LENGTH OF A CONVEX MIRROR USING A CONVEX LENS
AIM- To find the focal length of a convex mirror using a convex lens.
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
An optical bench with uprights for holding lens, mirror and two convex lens, a convex mirror, index needle (may be
a knitting needle or a pencil sharply pointed at both ends), a metre scale and a spirit level.
PRINCIPLE
the distance P C is the radius of curvature R and half of it would be the focal length of the convex mirror. That is, R

P ROCEDURE
1. In case, if the focal length of the given thin convex lens is not known then approximate value of its focal length
should be estimated first.
2. Place the optical bench on a rigid table or on a platform. Using the spirit level, make it horizontal with the help of
levelling screws provided at the base of the bench.
3. Place the uprights mounted with pin P1 (object pin), convex lens LL′, and convex mirror MM′ on the horizontal
optical bench.
4. Check that the lens, mirror, and pin P1 are vertically placed on the optical bench. Also verify that the tip of the
pin, optical centre O of the convex lens LL′, and pole P′ of the convex miror MM′ lie on the same horizontal straight
line, parallel to the optical bench.
5. Determine the index correction between upright holding of the convex mirror and image pin respectively, using
an index needle.
6. Place the object pin P1 from the convex lens LL′ at a distance slightly greater than the focal length of the lens.
7. Adjust the position of the convex mirror MM′ till the light rays reflected back from the mirror pass through the
lens and form a real and inverted image coinciding with the object pin P1, as shown in Fig. (a). This occurs when the
rays starting from the tip of pin P1, after passing through the lens strike the mirror normally and are reflected back
along their original paths. Remove the parallax between the image and object pins.
8. Read the position of uprights holding the object pin P1, convex
lens LL′, and convex mirror MM′ and record the observations in the observation table.

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9. Remove the convex mirror from its upright and fix image pin P2 on it. Adjust the height of pin such that the tip of
it also lies on the principal axis of the lens. That is, the tips of the pins P1 and P2 and the optical centre O of the
convex lens, all lie on a straight horizontal line parallel to the length of the optical bench.
10. You may put a small piece of paper on image pin P2 to differentiate it from the object pin P1.
11. Using the method of parallax and without changing the position of lens LL′ and object pin P1, adjust the position
of image pin P2 on the other side of the lens so that it coincides with the real and inverted image of the object pin P1
formed by the convex lens [Fig.(b)]. Note the position of the image pin.
12. Repeat the experiment by changing the separation between the pin P1 and lens L L′ and the mirror MM′. In this
manner, take five sets of observations.
OBSERVATION
1. Focal length of the convex lens, f (estimated/given) = …….. …..cm

CALCULATION:

RESULT The focal length of the given convex mirror is f =... ... cm.

PRECAUTIONS
1. The uprights supporting the optical elements should be rigid and mounted vertically.
2. Parallax should be removed.
3. Optical bench should be leveled.
4. mirror should be close to the lens
SOURCES OF ERROR
1. The uprights may not be vertical.
2. Parallax removal may not be perfect.
3. Optical bench may not be leveled.

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EX. NO. 12 Focal length of a concave lens with the help of a convex lens

AIM
To find the focal length of a concave lens with the help of a convex lens.
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
An optical bench with uprights for holding the lenses and two needles, a thin concave lens, a convex
lens of focal length (~15 cm) smaller than that of the concave lens, index needle (may be a knitting
needle), a metre scale and a spirit level.

P ROCEDURE
1. In case, if the focal length of the given thin convex lens is not known then rough value of its focal length (fL) should be
estimated first to ensure that its focal length is less than that of the concave lens.
2. Place the optical bench on a rigid platform and using the spirit level, make it horizontal with the help of levelling screws
provided at the base of the bench.
3. Place the uprights mounted with pin P1 (object pin), convex lens L1, and another pin P2 (image pin) on the optical bench. You
may put a small piece of paper on image pin P2 to differentiate it from the image of object pin P1 [Fig. E 12.2(a)].
4. Check the collinearity of the tip of pin P1, optical centre O of convex lens L1, and the tip of image pin P2 along a horizontal
straight line which is parallel to the length of the optical bench. In this condition the planes of lens and both the pins would be
perpendicular to the axis of the lens.
5. For the determination of the index correction, bring a mounted pin close to the concave lens L2. Adjust the index needle (a
sharpedged knitting needle would also serve the purpose) horizontally such that its one end touches one of the curved surfaces of
the lens and the other end touches the tip of the pin. Note the positions of the two uprights on the scale provided on the optical
bench. The
difference of the two would give the observed length of the index needle. The actual length between the tip of the pin and optical
centre O′ of the lens L2 would be length of the index needle (as measured by a scale) plus half of the thickness of the lens at its
optical centre. The difference of the two lengths is the index correction. (If the concave lens is thin at the centre, its thickness at
the centre can be ignored).
6. Separate the object pin P1 from the convex lens by a distance slightly greater than the focal length fL of the lens.
7. Locate its real and inverted image at point I1 on the other side of the lens by removing the parallax between the image pin P2
and image of the object pin P1 [Fig. E 12.3(a)].
8. Read the positions of the uprights holding the object pin P1, convex lens L1, and image pin P2 (i.e. point I1). Record these
observations in the Table.

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9. From now on, do not change the position of the convex lens L1 and the position of the object pin P1. Insert the concave lens
L2 in between the convex lens L1 and image pin P2. Now the image of
object pin will shift further from the convex lens L1 to a point I2(say). Adjust the position of the concave lens so that the point I2
is sufficiently away from the point I1.
10. In case the image formed by the combination of convex and concave lenses is not distinctly visible, try to see it on moving
the concave lens nearer to the point I1 and to locate the image by using a pencil held in hand, and keeping the image pin P2 at
point I1 as a guide to decide which way to shift the concave lens L2. After having seen the clear image at point I2 and ensured
that it lies within the range of the optical bench, move image pin P2 to locate the image (or point I2) more accurately using the
method of parallax [Fig. E 12.3(b)]. Since the image forming at I2 is quite enlarged, it can be blurred.
11. Note the position of uprights holding the concave lens and image pin P2, i.e., point I2. Note the readings in the Observation
Table.
12. Change the position of upright holding the object pin P1 and repeat the steps 6 to 10. Take five sets of observations.

CALCULATION:

RESULT:
The focal length of the given concave lens is………

PRECAUTIONS
1. The uprights supporting the optical elements should be rigid and mounted vertically.
2. Parallax should be removed.
3. Optical bench should be leveled.
SOURCES OF ERROR
1. The uprights may not be vertical.
2. Parallax removal may not be perfect.
3. Optical bench may not be leveled

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Ex. No. 13 P-N Junction Diode - Forward Biased and Reversed Biased
AIM-To draw the I-V characteristics of PN junction in forward bias and determine static resistance of the PN
junction diode at 0.7 V.
To draw the I-V characteristics of PN junction in reverse bias and determine the break down voltage of the PN
junction diode.

Equipment & components required: Power Supply, Voltmeter , Ammeter (mA range), Ammeter (µA
range), resistors, p-n junction diode

Theory
PN Juction Diodes
Semiconductor diode is simply the combination of a p-type and an n-type material. It is formed by doping half of the
silicon crystal with trivalent impurity (p-type) and the other half with pentavalent impurity (n-type). It has the
characteristics of passing current in one direction only. If there is no voltage is applied across the junction, electrons
will diffuse through the junction to p - side and holes will diffuse through the junction to n - side and they combine
with each other. Thus the acceptor atom near the p - side and donor atom near n – side are left unutilized and is
called the depletion layer. An electron field is generated by these uncovered charges which called the barrier
potential. This opposes further diffusion of carriers and is known as depletion region.

## Circuit diagram of forward bias:

PROCEDURE
1.The range, least count and zero error of both the voltmeters and millammeter are recorded.
2.After identifying the P and N terminals of given diode, it is connected between the given Knobs for forward bias
in the P-N junction characteristics apparatus (as per the circuit).
3.Supply is given to P-N junction diode characteristics apparatus and the switch is set to on position.
4.The potential difference across the diode is gradually increased and the voltmeter ,corresponding milliammeter
readings are recorded after suitable interval up to the specified limit.

Observations

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Forward V-I Characteristics :

## Forward bias voltage, Vf Forward current, If

Sl. No.
(V) (mA)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Calculations

For the forward characteristics of the given p-n junction diode, a graph is plotted with forward voltage along X axis
and forward current along Y axis. The forward current shows a sudden increase at certain forward voltage, which is
known as the knee voltage.

## Circuit diagram of reverse bias:

PROCEDURE
1.The range, least count and zero error of both the voltmeters ,micro ammeter and millammeter are recorded.
2.After identifying the P and N terminals of given diode, it is connected between the given Knobs for reverse bias in
the P-N junction characteristics apparatus (as per the circuit).
3.Supply is given to P-N junction diode characteristics apparatus and the switch is set to on position.

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4.The potential difference across the diode is gradually increased and the voltmeter ,corresponding micro-ammeter
readings are recorded after suitable interval up to the specified limit.

## Reverse bias voltage, Vr Reverse current, Ir

Sl. No.
(V) (µA)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Calculations

Result

(i)The forward characteristics of the given p-n junction diode is drawn and the static resistance of the PN
junction diode at 0.7 V is ………. Ω
(ii) The reverse characteristics of the given p-n junction diode is drawn and the break down voltage of the PN
junction diode is ……. V
PRECAUTIONS
1. Connections should be made neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. Zero error in measuring instruments (voltmeter and ammeter) should be corrected.
3. The key should be inserted only while taking observations, as excessive flow of current causes unnecessary
heating of the wire.
SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Connections may not be correct
2. The Ammeter or Voltmeter may have zero error.
3. Keeping the key inserted continuously causes excessive flow of current and may lead the damage of diode ( even
ammeter and voltmeter )
*****

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Ex. No.14 CHARACTERSTICS OF REVERSE BIASED ZENER DIODE
AIM
To draw the reverse characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to find its reverse breakdown voltage.
Materials required:
Battery, Rheostat, Small resistance (200 Ω), Microammeter, Voltmeter, Key, Zener diode
Theory:
A Zener diode is a heavily doped silicon crystal diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the
same manner as an ideal diode. It also permits the current to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above
a certain value known as the breakdown voltage. Breakdown voltage is also known as Zener knee voltage.
The device consists of a reverse biased, highly doped, p-n junction diode operating in the breakdown region.
Conventional diodes and rectifiers never operate in the breakdown region, but the Zener diode can safely be
operated at this point.

##  Working of Zener diode

As the reverse voltage applied to the Zener diode increases, it reaches the breakdown voltage at which
Zener current increases to a large value. In the breakdown region, further increase in reverse voltage will
not increase the voltage across the Zener diode, it only increases the current. Thus, a constant voltage called
Zener voltage (Vz) is maintained across the Zener diode when the supply voltage changes. Hence, it acts as
a voltage regulator.

CIRCUIT

Procedure:

##  Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

 By adjusting the rheostat, voltmeter reading is increased from 0 and in each time note the corresponding
 The experiment is continued till the microammeter shows a large deflection while the voltmeter reading
remains a constant, indicating the break down voltage.
 Plot the reverse characteristic curve by taking reverse voltage along –ve X-axis and reverse current along –
ve Y-axis.
 The break down voltage VZ is obtained from the graph as shown below.

Observations:

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Least count of voltmeter = ...........V
Zero error of voltmeter = ............V
Least count of micro-ammeter = ...........µA
Zero error of micro-ammeter = ...........µA
Trial No. Reverse Voltage (V) Reverse Current (µA)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Calculation:

The reverse characteristic is obtained by taking reverse voltage along – ve X-axis and reverse current along –ve Y-axis. As
the reverse voltage reaches a certain value, the reverse current increases to a large value, but the voltage across the diode
remains a constant. This is the break down voltage V z.

Result:
The reverse characteristic curve of the Zener diode is obtained.
The reverse breakdown voltage of the Zener diode, V = ………….V

PRECAUTIONS
1. Connections should be made neat and clean and as in the circuit diagram.
2. Zero error in measuring instruments (voltmeter and ammeter) should be corrected.
3. The key should be inserted only while taking observations, as excessive flow of current causes unnecessary
heating of the wire and the diode.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Connections may not be correct
2. The Ammeter or Voltmeter may have zero error.
3. Keeping the key inserted continuously causes excessive flow of current and may lead the damage of diode ( even
ammeter and voltmeter )

*****

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Ex. No.15 Refractive index of water using convex lens and a plane mirror
AIM:
To find the Refractive index of water using convex lens and a plane mirror
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED
Double convex lens (focal length nearly 20 cm), plane mirror (bigger in size than the aperture of the lens),
laboratory stand fixed with a pin in clamp, metre scale, plumb line, water dropper

Theory:

The combination consists of a glass convex lens (radius of curvature of both the curved surfaces are
same, R and a water plano-concave lens of same radius of curvature, R. The focal length fw of water lens
can be determined from the relation between the three focal lengths. viz. f¢, f, and fw, i.e.,

## Also, from the lens maker’s formula for a plano-concave lens

PROCEDURE
1. Place the plane mirror on the base of a rigid laboratory stand keeping its reflecting surface upwards.
2. Place the convex lens on the plane mirror.
3. Fix a sharp-edged bright pin in the clamp and place it horizontally and above the lens. Adjust the position of the
pin such that its tip B lies vertically above the optical centre of the convex lens. A plumb line and a spirit level may
be used to achieve this.
4. Shift the clamped pin gradually upward looking at the image and bring it to a height such that the tip B of the pin
exactly coincides with the tip of its image B¢. Ensure that there is no parallax between the object pin and its image.
Measure the distance OF[Fig. (a)]. For this, observe the distances of the pin from the upper and lower surfaces of the
lens and take OF = f as the average of these two distances.
5. With the help of a dropper, put a few drops of water under the lens so that the space between mirror and lens is
filled with water.

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6. Move the object pin upward and remove the parallax between the tip of the object pin and its image formed
by the lens mirror system. Measure the distance OF¢ [Fig. (b)]. Here again, as before, measure the distances of the
pin from the two surfaces of the lens and take OF¢ = f ¢ as their average.
7. Repeat the experiment and record your observations in the Table .

OBSERVATIONS
1. Mean value of distance between the two legs of the spherometer l = ...cm
2. Mean value of sagitta (bulge of the lens) h = ...cm
3. Mean value of the radius of curvature of the lens R = ...cm

CALCULATION:

RESULT
The refractive index of a given water with respect to air is =.......
.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Pin should be kept horizontal and its tip should be above the optical centre of the lens on its vertical principal axis
otherwise it will be difficult to remove the parallax.
2. The thin lens should be used so that the distance measured from its surface is nearly equal to the distance
measured from the optical centre. Still it is better to measure distance from both the surfaces and take the average for
f or f ¢.
3. Water should be gently put between the mirror and the lens surface with the help of a dropper so that it may fill up
the air space between them without disturbing the position of the lens.
SOURCES OF ERROR
1. Two surfaces of the convex lens may not have the same radius of
curvature.
2. The plane mirror may not be horizontal.

*****

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