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CONTINENT – the biggest landmass on earth.

PANGAEA – all continents came from one supercontinent according to the Continental Drift Theory.


1. Africa
2. Antartica
3. Australia
4. Europe
5. North America
6. South America
7. Asia

ASIA – asis means muddy – Agean word

asu means rising or light – Semitic word


1. Near East – lands along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea all the way to the
Persian Gulf
2. Middle East – lands from Persian Gulf to Southeast Asia.
3. Far East – region facing the Pacific Ocean include China, Japan & Korea.

Code of Hammurabi – originators of the first system of writing, statute of laws, map, Holy Bible,
Sewage System, paper and newspaper.

Statute of Shiva – birthplace of the world’s major regions. Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity,
Islam, Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto.

Ziggurat of Ur – cradle of the world’s first civilization.

Rub’al Khali – location of extraordinary landforms and water forms such as Mount Everest.

Asia – world’s largest continent with an estimated total land area 44,000,000 square kilometer.


Everest – highest peak in the world with a height of 8,850 meters; located between Nepal and Tibet.

K2 (Mt. Godwin Austen) – second highest peak in the world; located at the Karakoram Range in the
western Himalayas, between Pakistan and China.

Kanchenjunga – a mountain in India

Ararat (Buyukagri Dagi) – in Turkey

Kinabalu – in Sabah, Malaysia.


Himalayas – has a length that spans up to 2,600 kilometers; where nine of the highest mountains in the
world, including Mount Everest are located.

Karakoram – a row if mountains from northern Pakistan to Southwestern China.

Altay (Altai) – located in mid-eastern Asia, near China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan.

Ghats – two mountain ranges that form the eastern and western edges of the Deccan Plateau in India.

Zagros – a long mountain range in Iran and Iraq.


Borneo – in Southeast Asia; largest island in Asia with an area of 757,050 square kilometer, shared by
Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia.

Sumatra – part of Indonesia; second largest Island in Asia.

Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku – main islands of Japan.


Indonesia – largest archipelago in the world with an area of 1,904,569 square kilometer, has around
17,000 islands.

Japan – located in East Asia; has an area of 372,801 square kilometer; has more or less 6,500 islands.

Philippines – in Southeast Asia; has an area of 300,000 square kilometer; has around 7,100 islands.

Bahrain – in the Persian Gulf; made up of 33 islands.


Kerinci – in central Sumatra, Indonesia; tallest volcano in the country.

Tambora, Semeru, Rinjani, and Agung – in Indonesia

Fuji, On take and Unzen – in Japan

Mayon, Taal, and Pinatubo – in the Philippines


Rub’al Khali – known as the empty Quarter; biggest sand desert in the world; part of the Arabian

Gobi Desert – in northern China and southern Mongolia

Thar Desert – in northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.


Arabian Sea – in the northwest part the Pacific Ocean

Bearing Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan (East Sea), and East China Sea – in East Asia

South China Sea, West Philippine Sea, Celebes Sea and Banda Sea – in Southeast Asia

Arabian Sea, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Black Sea – in West Asia.


Gulf of Tonkin, Gulf of Thailand, and Moro Gulf – in Southeast Asia

Gulf of Oman and Gulf of Aden – in West Asia

Bay of Bengal – in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean; one of the widest bays in Asia

Maya Bay – in Thailand


Chang Jiang – known as the Yangtze River; longest river in Asia

Mekong River, Irrawaddy River, and Chao Phraya River – in Southeast Asia

Ganges River , Indus River, and Brahmaputra River – in South Asia

Tigris River and Euphrates River – in West Asia


Caspian sea – largest lake in the world, with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometer

Aral Sea – between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

Lake Balkal – in Russia; deepest lake in the world at 1,700 m deep.

Tonie Sap – in Cambodia.

Laguna De Bay – in the Philippines.

Van Lake – in Turkey.


Tibet – highest and largest plateau in the world.

Bahrain – smallest country in West Asia.

Everest – highest mountain in the world.

Sumatra – second largest island in Asia.

Boracay – one of the most exceptional white sand beaches in the world.



Climate – defined as the average weather or atmospheric condition in a particular region.


1. Tropical Rain Forest – hot and humid all year round; commonly located near the equator.
2. Tropical Savanna – dry during the cold season and wet during summer; temperature is high.

1. Mediterranean – rainy winters and warm summers.

2. Humid Subtropical – moderate precipitation.
3. Humid Continental – affected by landforms

(HIGHLAND CLIMATE) - varries according to land elevation.


1. Sub-arctic – long and extremely cold winter, very limited vegetation.

2. Tundra – cold all year round; cool summer.


1. Desert – dry areas with sparse vegetation with average rainfall of 25 cm.
2. Steppe – average rainfall of 25.4 cm up to 50.8 cm.