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2019

2019 ENGLISH FOR NURSING Junjun Muhamad Ramdani Erwin Rahayu Saputra

ENGLISH FOR NURSING

2019 ENGLISH FOR NURSING Junjun Muhamad Ramdani Erwin Rahayu Saputra

Junjun Muhamad Ramdani Erwin Rahayu Saputra

2019 ENGLISH FOR NURSING Junjun Muhamad Ramdani Erwin Rahayu Saputra
English For Nursing Handout for Nursing Student of Nursing Academy Tasikmalaya

English For Nursing Handout for Nursing Student of Nursing Academy Tasikmalaya

ENGLISH for NURSING

A Course for Nursing Students

Junjun M. Ramdani Erwin Rahayu Saputra

i

PREFACE In the name of Allah, the Almighty and merciful, the book entitled “English for

PREFACE

In the name of Allah, the Almighty and merciful, the book entitled “English for Nursing” has been completed which will be used in Nursing Academy. This course provides nursing academy students to have English skill, specifically speaking. This course also guides students to be fluent both in dialogue and monologue. They will be introduced how communicate each other in their professional context, besides, they have to be able to use good pronunciation, accurate grammar, and appropriate vocabulary during the communication. Students then will involve in discussing particular topics in relation to various contexts. Moreover, they will be introduced how to do public speaking, and practice it. This activity will enhance their critical thinking which leads them to have good speaking ability. At the end of the course, students are expected to be able to communicate both orally and written about the topics mentioned by showing the grammatical control and by reformulating them in their own words while summarizing, critizing, and disscussing ideas. The writer will be pleased to have both critiques and suggestions in order to foster this book to be better.

Tasikmalaya, July 2019 The writers

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Table of Contents

Preface

ii

Table of Contents

 

iii

 

TOPIC

OBJECTIVES

Page

Unit 1

General

Use expressions for collecting demographic data

1

Assessment

Use questions to collect current and past healthillness data

Create short conversation related to this context fluently and grammatically using good pronunciation

Unit 2

Dimension

Give communicative response to patient’s complaint

6

of Symptom

Ask the dimensions of symptoms

Create short conversation related to this context fluently and grammatically using good pronunciation

Unit 3

Patient

Use expressions for assessing the head, face and neck

9

Assessment

Create short conversation related to this context fluently and grammatically using good pronunciation

Unit 4

Checking

Communicate about implementation of checking vital signs

Give some instructions during

13

Vital Sign

iii

 

TOPIC

OBJECTIVES

Page

   

implementation of checking vital sign

 

Create short conversation related to this context fluently and grammatically using good pronunciation

Unit 5

Discharge

Give instructions and suggestions according to the patient’s health problem

Deliver a therapeutic communication

17

Instruction

Unit 6

Ideal Nurse

Know expressions of opinion

21

Expressing opinion accurately and fluently

Discuss an ideal nurse using accurate expression, appropriate vocabulary and phrases related to discussion fluently and grammatically

Unit 7

Taking

Discuss how to take care of mother using the accurate expression, appropriate vocabulary and phrases related to discussion fluently and grammatically

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Care of

Mother

Unit 8

How to

Be able to use appropriate expression used in speech,

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make

Speech

Discuss on a certain topic by using the expression, vocabulary and phrases related to discussion fluently and grammatically

Know speech approaches

make outline speech

Make public speech fluently

iv

TOPIC

OBJECTIVES

Page

and grammatically

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

68

69

v

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL ASSESSMENT

Learning Objectives After completed this chapter, students will be able to:

1. Use expressions for collecting demographic data

2. Use questions to collect current and past health‐illness data

3. Create short conversation related to this context fluently and grammatically using good pronunciation

ACTIVITY 1 Collecting Demographic Data Elements Find the meaning of these words. Useful Vocabularies:

Surname Next of kin Assess Assessment Occupation Title, etc

Surname Next of kin Assess Assessment Occupation Title, etc Here are the steps on how to

Here are the steps on how to communicate with the patients to collect the complete information.

Useful Expressions

1. Getting started Study these expressions to initiate communication Tell what you are going to do immediately.

Excuse me, May I have your identity?

It’s time for me to

I just want to

I’d like to

I’m going to

I need to

interview you assess your health condition

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2.

To interview the patient, you need to know the appropriate questions. Study and practice these useful expressions:

QUESTIONS TO ASK NAME

AGE

ADDRESS

PHONE

MARITAL STATUS

HEALTH INSURANCE

OCCUPATION AND TITLE

NEXT OF KIN REASON FOR CONTACT *)

What is your name? What is your sure name? May I have your name? Your age, please. How old are you? What is your adress? Where do you live? Do you have phone number? May I have your phone number? What is your phone number? Your phone number, please. Have you got married? Are you married? Do you have any health insurance? Like, BPJS, prudential. What do you do? What is your occupation? What is your current job? Do you have any academic title? What is your title? Who is your next of kin? Why do you decide to go to this hospital? What brings you in this hospital? Who sends you to this hospital? What makes you come to this hospital?

to this hospital? What brings you in this hospital? Who sends you to this hospital? What
to this hospital? What brings you in this hospital? Who sends you to this hospital? What
to this hospital? What brings you in this hospital? Who sends you to this hospital? What
to this hospital? What brings you in this hospital? Who sends you to this hospital? What
to this hospital? What brings you in this hospital? Who sends you to this hospital? What
to this hospital? What brings you in this hospital? Who sends you to this hospital? What
to this hospital? What brings you in this hospital? Who sends you to this hospital? What

*) It is a reason that makes you come to hospital. It can be a chief complaint, medical checkup.

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ACTIVITY 2 Pair up and Practice

Practice to make simple conversation with your partne

Then, Interview him or her to get his or her personal demographic data

him or her to get his or her personal demographic data ACTIVITY 3: a. Current-Health and

ACTIVITY 3:

a. Current-Health and Illness Status

Here are useful expression in doing the assessment to the patient

Practice with your partner

CURRENT STATUS

What seems to be the matter?

What do you think of your health?

Would you tell me about your health condition?

Sample of patient’s response:

“I’m usually healthy, have usual cold, and have to take medicine for high blood pressure.”

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b. ELIMINATION PATTERN

Would you tell me about your

How many times a day do you do your

Do you have any problem with your?

?

?

bowel movement?

waterworks?

Etc.

is the stool formed or loosed?

Is your waterworks sluggish?

ACTIVITY 4:

History of Past Health and Illness

Here are useful expressions to ask common Communicable Disease and Immunization Practice with your partner

Asking Common Communicable Disease

Nurse

: Have you ever had + (kind of disease)?

Patient

: Yes, I have/ of course/ sure or No, I haven’t

Nurse

: How old were you when you got it?

Patient

: I was about

years old

 

Nurse

: Are you allergic to

(

a certain food/medication such as shrimps,

sea foods,penicillin, antibiotic, etc.

Kinds of

:

measles, mumps, chicken pox, rubella, rheumatic, fever, diphteria,

diseases

scarlet fever, polio, tuberculosis, etc.

Asking about Immunizations

Nurse

: Have you ever been immunized against polio?

: have you ever got polio immunization?

: have you ever been imunized againts + (kind of disease)?

: have you ever got + (kind of disease) immunization?

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ACTIVITY 5: ROLE PLAY

Practice with your partner to make a conversation.

1. One of you becomes a nurse, and you assess your partner ( as a patient ) current health condition using questions listed in the previous page.

2. Another one becomes the patient, and you just answer the questions given by your partner ( a nurse).

Note: Be creative to make the conversation, and remember in making the conversation NEVER tell your friend what to say. Everything is UNPREDICTABLE in communication

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CHAPTER 2 Dimension of Symptoms

Learning Objectives After completed this chapter, students will be able to:

1. Give communicative response to patient’s complaint

2. Ask the dimensions of symptoms

3. Create short conversation related to this context fluently and grammatically using good pronunciation

ACTIVITY 1

Useful Vocabulary

Find the meaning of these words Dull Stabbing Sharp Aching Aggravating factors Alleviating factors

Sharp Aching Aggravating factors Alleviating factors Useful Expressions Study and practice the following

Useful Expressions Study and practice the following expressions with your partner

LOCATION

Where do you feel your pain?

Does it move around?

Can you show me where your pain is?

QUALITY OR CHARACTER

What is it like? Is it sharp, dull, stabbing, aching?

Do you feel ….?

What does the pain look like?

When did it last?

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SEVERITY

On a scale of 0 to 10, with ten the worst, how would you rate what you feel right now?

What was the worst it has been?

Does this interfere your usual activities? In what ways?

TIMING

When did you first notice it?

How long does it last?

How often does it happen?

SETTING

Does it occur in a particular place or under certain circumstances?

Have you taken anything for it?

Does it appear in particular time?

ACTIVITY 2 Practice this dialogue

Nurse

: Excuse me, may I check your condition?

Patient

: Yes, please.

Nurse

: Where do you feel your pain?

Patient

: Right here, I feel painful in my left chest.

Nurse

: How long do you feel it?

Patient

: A week, exactly after I played volley ball.

Nurse

: How do you feel?

Patient

: Sometimes it’s hard for me to take a breathe.

Nurse

: On a scale of 0 to 10, with ten the worst, how would you rate what

Patient

you feel right now? : I think it’s 6.

Nurse

: Sir, I think it’s serious problem. Wait here for a moment, and I’m going

Patient

to tell the doctor to check you. : Thank you very much.

Nurse

: You are welcome

ACTIVITY 3

1. Make a complete conversation to explore the dimensions of symptom with your partner. Choose the role whether you want to be a nurse or a patient, then take turn when you have finished practicing.

2. Take one case only in the next page

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Case 1

A patient with anorexia nervosa expresses:

• I don’t want to have a lot of meal

• I don’t want to be plump

My arms and legs are getting fat

I have difficulty in bowel motion

I feel nausea

I want to vomit

Food makes my stomach upset

I am afraid of being fat

Case 2

my stomach upset • I am afraid of being fat Case 2 A patient suspected with

A patient suspected with appendicitis expresses:

I feel pain around my navel

I feel pain around here (in the lower right spot of my abdomen)

I feel a sharp pain

• Don’t touch my stomach, it increases my pain

I feel feverish

I feel nausea

I vomit

I lose my appetite

I vomit frequently after meals

I have recurrent pain in my lower part of my stomach

It becomes more painful if I do the squatting bowel motion

“Speak up or you’ll be speechless”

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CHAPTER 3 PATIENT ASSESSMENT

Learning Objectives After completed this chapter, students will be able to:

Use expressions for assessing the head, face and neck Create short conversation related to this context fluently and grammatically using good pronunciation

ACTIVITY 1

Useful Vocabulary

Respiratory

Nails

Throat

Quick

Breathe

Tendon

Scoliosis

Stroke

Palm

Frown

Smile

Puff

Shrug

Flex

Bend

Nursing Notes

Inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation are examination techniques that enable the nurse to collect a broad range of physical data about patients.

1. Inspection The process of observation, a visual examination of the patient’s body parts to detect normal characteristic or significant physical signs

2. Palpation Involves the use of the sense of touch. Giving gentle pressure or deep pressure using your hand is the main activity of palpation

3. Percussion Involves tapping the body with fingertips to evaluate the size, borders, and consistency of body organs and discover fluids in body cavities.

4. Auscultation Listening to sounds produced by the body

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ACTIVITY 2 What kind of examination technique is described in the following pictures?

technique is described in the following pictures? ACTIVITY 3 What examination technique do you choose for
technique is described in the following pictures? ACTIVITY 3 What examination technique do you choose for
technique is described in the following pictures? ACTIVITY 3 What examination technique do you choose for
technique is described in the following pictures? ACTIVITY 3 What examination technique do you choose for

ACTIVITY 3 What examination technique do you choose for each case listed below.

No.

Activity

Technique

 

1

Examining patient’s respiratory

 

2

Inspecting the mouth and throat

 

3

Asking patient to stand up to find whether there is scoliosis or not

 

4

Pressing her middle finger of nondominant hand firmly against the patient’s back. With palm and fingers remaining off the skin, the tip of the middle finger of the dominant hand strikes the other, using quick, sharp stroke

 

5

Observing the color of the eyes

 

6

Observing the movement of air through the lungs

 

7

Testing deep tendon reflexes using hammer

 

8

Checking the tender areas with her hand

 

9

Pressing abdomen deeply to check the condition of underlying organ

 

10

Preparing a good lighting, then he observes the body parts

 
 

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ACTIVITY 4 Here are useful expressions when you are going to examine your patient. Practice the expression with your partner

when you are going to examine your patient. Practice the expression with your partner English for
when you are going to examine your patient. Practice the expression with your partner English for

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ACTIVITY 5 Whole class and pair work

Practice these instructions

Listen to teacher’s instruction and act them out

Then, practice these in pairs

1. Raise your eyebrows

2. Close your eyes tightly

3. Frown

4. Smile

5. Puff your cheeks

6. Shrug your shoulder

7. Flex your neck with chin toward

8. Bend your neck, with ear toward shoulder

9. Take a sip of water from this glass

ACTIVITY 6 Pair work

Make a complete conversation on acts of assessing head, face and neck

Choose the role whether you want to be a nurse or a patient, then take turn when you have finished practicing.

Use the expressions above to help you develop your communication

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CHAPTER 4 CHECKING VITAL SIGN

Learning Objectives After completed this chapter, students will be able to:

Communicate about implementation of checking vital signs

Give some instructions during implementation of checking vital sign

Create short conversation related to this context fluently and grammatically using good pronunciation

ACTIVITY 1

Useful Vocabulary Find the meaning of these words

Pulse rate Rhythm or regularity Tension Beats per minute Patient’s chart Normal pulse rhythm Bradycardia Tachycardia Bounding Thread/weak

per minute Patient’s chart Normal pulse rhythm Bradycardia Tachycardia Bounding Thread/weak English for Nursing 13
per minute Patient’s chart Normal pulse rhythm Bradycardia Tachycardia Bounding Thread/weak English for Nursing 13

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Here are useful expressions to explain the procedures, give instructions during implementation, and nurse responses

Explaining the procedures

and nurse responses Explaining the procedures Giving instructions and expressions during the

Giving instructions and expressions during the implementation

instructions and expressions during the implementation *) change the following verb into V‐ing from English for

*) change the following verb into V‐ing from

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ACTIVITY 2

The illustration below show the implementation of checking vital signs

Choose one picture then, make a conversation exchange and give appropriate instructions when you want to check patient’s vital signs according to the illustration

Take only one kind implementation of vital signs checking

according to the illustration • Take only one kind implementation of vital signs checking English for
according to the illustration • Take only one kind implementation of vital signs checking English for

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English for Nursing 16
English for Nursing 16

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CHAPTER 5 DISCHARGE INSTRUCTION

Learning Objectives After completed this chapter, students will be able to:

Give instructions and suggestions according to the patient’s health problem Deliver a therapeutic communication

ACTIVITY 1 Useful Vocabularies

Find the meaning of these words

Avoid

Numb

Contraindicated

Paralysis

Indicated

Convulsion

Suggest

Patch

Pus

Hazardous equipment

Suture

Rub

Sponge

Greasy

Splint

Rash

Swollen

Tightness

Here are useful expressions to make recommendation and prohibition

RECOMMENDATION

Pattern

Should Must Be + required essential important indicated Have to +

Had better + bare infinitive Advice Suggestion

Example

You should take the complete (entire) dose prescribed

These tablets contain antibiotic. It is required you to take the complete dose prescribed.

You’d better take your medicine regularly

You should see a doctor soon

I suggest you to drink a lot of water

PROHIBITION

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Pattern Should not Must not May not +

Should + avoid + -ing Have to + avoid + -ing Had better not + bare invinitive

Example

You should not drink this antibiotic with milk.

You should avoid drinking alcohol

ACTIVITY 2: Practice the following instruction

milk. • You should avoid drinking alcohol ACTIVITY 2: Practice the following instruction English for Nursing

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ACTIVITY 3 Give appropriate suggestion and advice SIMULATION Make a conversation between a nurse and

ACTIVITY 3 Give appropriate suggestion and advice

SIMULATION Make a conversation between a nurse and a patient. You become a nurse, and your friend becomes a patient. After you have practiced, take turn.

Situation:

A patient has just got a medical treatment in outpatient clinic. Now you have to give discharge instruction to your patient.

Steps:

1. Greet the patient; tell him/her that after getting the treatment he/she may go home. And you’ll give some advice

2. Explain the medical suggestions and advices.

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English for Nursing 20
English for Nursing 20

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CHAPTER 6

IDEAL NURSE

Learning Objectives After completed this chapter, students will be able to:

Knowing expressions of opinion

Expressing opinion accurately and fluently

Discuss an ideal nurse using accurate expression, appropriate vocabulary and phrases related to discussion fluently and grammatically

ACTIVITY 1 Discuss the following questions with your classmate and share it to the class

In your opinion, what is the professionalism of current nurse now in your society?

Do you think they become more professional? Why? Why not?

What are the challenges to be a nurse?

Do you think you are the candidates of ideal nurse? Why? Why not?

Here are useful expressions of opinions

Practice with your partner

Personal Point of View We use these words and phrases to express a personal point of view:

In my experience…

As far as I'm concerned…

Speaking for myself…

In my opinion…

Personally, I think…

I'd say that…

I'd suggest that…

I'd like to point out that…

I believe that…

What I mean is…

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General Point of View

We use these words and phrases to express a point of view that is generally thought by people:

It is thought that

Some people say that

It is considered

It is generally accepted that

Agreeing with an opinion

We use these words and phrases to agree with someone else's point of view:

Of course.

You're absolutely right.

Yes, I agree.

I think so too.

That's a good point.

Exactly.

I don't think so either.

So do I.

I'd go along with that.

That's true.

Neither do I.

I agree with you entirely.

That's just what I was thinking.

I couldn't agree more.

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Disagreeing with an opinion We use these words and phrases to disagree with someone else’s point of view:

That’s different

I don’t agree with you

However,

That’s not entirely true.

On the contrary,

I’m sorry to disagree with you, but

Yes, but don’t you think

That’s not the same thing at all.

I’m afraid that I have to disagree.

I’m not sure about that.

I must take issue with you on that.

It’s unjustifiable to say that

?

Note: these are useful information on how to use opinion

1. 'In my opinion' is the classic expression - but it's not the only one. Use moderately.

2. 'To my mind' is a common spoken form - and you can use it in writing,

too.

3. 'If you ask me' is very, very common in spoken English, and can come first or last in a sentence.

4. 'To my way of thinking' is often used with emphasis on 'my' to give a strong opinion.

5. 'In my view' is common in spoken and written English.

6. The abbreviated question '(Do you) know what I think?' is very popular and is not rude.

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ACTIVITY 2 Read the following text, discuss it in a group, and share it to your class.

Top 10 Characteristics of Successful Nurses 7/30/2013

Top 10 Characteristics of Successful Nurses – 7/30/2013 Although the physician treats the disease, the nurse

Although the physician treats the disease, the nurse is the healthcare provider that treats the patient. First and foremost, nurses assess and care for the patients’ needs, emotional responses and define the barriers to care. As patient advocates, the nurse is the coordinator of the patient’s medical care, family interactions, other healthcare providers and the physician’s orders. Although nurses practice in hospitals, skilled nursing centers, medical centers and outpatient clinics, those who have committed themselves to the service of the community continue to demonstrate similar attributes that are indicative of successful careers in nursing.

1. Empathy

The most important quality for a nurse is to embody empathy. According to the study Empathy and the Quality of Care, empathy is a multidimensional concept that enables the caregiver to identify, share emotions and provide care for the patient in distress. The basic definition of nursing is caring and empathy is at the core of nursing.

2. Detail Oriented

Nurses perform patient assessments, manage medical equipment and administer medication. The nurse’s role has a zero tolerance for error where the smallest mistake may result in a life-threatening event. Nurses provide detailed documentation and pay close attention to the transcription of physician orders. Those who are oriented to the finest details in patient care are superior in the nursing field.

3. Communication

Nurses provide care for and interact with people of various ages, multicultural backgrounds and specific needs and requirements. According to the study Magnet Environments for Professional Nursing Practice, nurses of excellence take the time to listen, understand and protect the patient’s cultural beliefs.

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4.

Intuition

The best nurses use experience, scientific knowledge, and instinct when assessing patients. Intuition in nursing is defined as the immediate understanding of a problem without the necessity of conscious thought. Nurses pick up on the smallest cues, nuances and seemingly unrelated patient statements that may render further investigation. Through intuition, superior nurses save lives and prevent further illness.

5. Physical Endurance

Maintaining physical health is a vital part of enduring the stressful and high-energy demands of the nursing profession. Nurses lift heavy patients, move weighty medical equipment, and may spend 12 hours or more on their feet during a shift. Accomplished nurses observe a healthy diet and perform regular exercise.

6. Emotional Stability

During the course of a work day, nurses need to be ready to handle difficult emergencies, be witness to human suffering, and experience stressful situations. Gifted nurses should be able to cope with these events well by using the power of their own spirituality or by accepting that life is a cycle of inevitable events.

7. Critical Thinking

Nurses must be able to obtain autonomy through critical thinking skills that arm them with the ability to respond to the constant changes and needs of a patient in their charge. As nurses build on practical knowledge, gain experience and continue educational endeavors, the intellectually disciplined process allows the nurse to recognize possible patient problems. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, critical thinking is an important quality that allows nurses to take action and make referrals.

8. Coordinator of Services

Nurses lead the allied healthcare team and coordinates care with other providers. The top nurses effectively convey the patient’s requests and condition to other members of the medical team for optimal care, time management and efficiency.

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9. Patience

For nurses in any career field or specialty, patience is an integral part of success. Great nurses understand that patience can overcome anxiety, misunderstandings and help patients and colleagues feel empowered by good decisions.

10. Dedication

Successful nurses focus on the needs of their patients and provide the best possible care under any circumstances. These dedicated nurses continue to enhance their education, become leaders in their field, and teach novice nurses in their specialty.

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CHAPTER 7 TAKING CARE OF MOTHER

Learning Objectives After completed this chapter, students will be able to:

Discuss how to take care of mother using the accurate expression, appropriate vocabulary and phrases related to discussion fluently and grammatically ACTIVITY 1:

Read the text, and share ideas with your classmates

“TAKING CARE OF MOTHER

and share ideas with your classmates “TAKING CARE OF MOTHER ” Taken from Impact Issues English

Taken from Impact Issues

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Questions to discuss:

1. What do you think of both Midori and Toshi?

2. How are their family condition?

3. What do you think the best solution of their problem?

4. How precious are your parents for you?

5. What are your plans for your parents?

parents for you? 5. What are your plans for your parents? Looking at the Issue Many

Looking at the Issue Many older parents live with their children. Can you think of the reasons for and against this arrangement?

Older parents should live with their children because

Older parents should not live with their children because

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CHAPTER 8 HOW TO MAKE SPEECH

Learning Objectives After completed this chapter, students will be able to:

Be able to use appropriate expression used in speech,

Discuss on a certain topic by using the expression, vocabulary and phrases related to discussion fluently and grammatically

Know speech approaches

make outline speech

Make public speech fluently and grammatically

ACTIVITY 1 Read these two passages, and get the point.

“THINKING ON YOUR FEET”

Of course, thinking is something we do all day long whether we are working or playing, sitting in a chair or standing on our feet. When we say “thinking on your feet” we are talking about the need to organize your ideas quickly and speak about a subject without being given advance time to prepare. This type of “thinking on your feet speech” has a name, impromptu speaking. You must organize your thoughts quickly and depend on what you already know and can think of to talk about on th spur fo the moment.

WHEN DO WE MAKE IMPROMPTU SPEECHES?

Believe it or not, we make impromptu speeches all the time! Most of our conversations with friends, parents, teachers, employers, etc. are really short “thinking on your foot” talks. We make these talks at work, home, school, parties, etc. These impromptu talks might include answering questions, giving opinions, or sharing our knowledge about many topics we discuss with people on a daily basis. So as you can see, you already have some experiences and should find that making impromptu speeches is fun and easy!

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ACTIVITY 2

Your teacher will call on different students in the class to answer the following questions. Add the examples and reasons for your opinion/ answer.

1. Do you like to travel?

2. Describe the best teacher you’ve ever had?

3. What do you look for in a friend?

4. Do you have favourite holiday?

5. What is your favourite place you have ever visited?

6. Why do people get married?

7. Do you think a woman should be a president of a country?

8. What is the best thing you like about living in Indonesia?

9. How do you feel about divorce?

10. What do you think of free sex?

11. Should women have the same right as men?

12. Do you think television can be harmful to children?

13. In your country, what is your activity in your free time?

14. Do you think learning English is important for your career?

15. Should there be laws against cigarrete smoking in public places?

16. What do you think of social media nowadays?

17. Do you have bad experiences?

18. Do you like playing games all days?

19. When is the best time to study?

20. Should the students of the unversity have part time job?

21. Who is your favourite idol?

22. Is it important to learn more than one languages?

23. Do you like hanging out with your friends?

24. Do you like spicy foods?

25. Why do women really like shopping?

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ACTIVITY 2 PREPARING FOR THE IMPROMPTU SPEECH The best preparation for an impromptu speech is to be well informed about people, places, and news events happening in your city, state, around the country, and even around the world. This type of information will give you many topics of conversation to talk about people in many different situations.

FOR HOMEWORK

The following activities will help you become better informed and able to speak about many subjects when making impromptu talks. Your teacher will assign some of these for homework and ask you to talk about them in class.

1. Watch the evening news on TV. Prepare to describe details of a news story to the class

2. Read the local newspaper. Choose a controversial issue and get ready to tell why you agree or disagree with the editor’s opinion.

3. Browse in internet about some current issues. You may go to some websites providing some hot issues and share ideas in the class.

IMPROMPTU SPEECH APPROACHES There are eleven speech approaches available which help you develop your ideas while you are making an impromptu speech. You need to practice one by one approach to make you understand and know what to do using particular approach while having speech.

1. Past Present Future Approach This approach can be used to discuss how events, issues, customs, technology, etc. one were how they have changed or improved, and how they will be in the future

EXAMPLE:

In discussing “Handphone as a tool for communication” you might organize your information under the three following headings.

I. History of handphone

II. Handphone today

III. Handphone in the future

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2. Time Sequence It can be used to describe how processes, personal experiences, events, activities, etc. occured by the hour, part of the day, week, month, year, etc. I can also be used to explain the proper order of steps to follow in completing the activity

EXAMPLE:

In speaking about “Making a Speech” you might organize your formation under the following headings:

I. Choosing a topic

II. Gathering information

III. Making an outline

IV. Presenting the speech

3. Cause Effect Sequence It can be used to discuss and describe particular problem or event and talk about the effects or results of particular thing.

EXAMPLE:

When presenting the topic “Cigarette discuss:

Smoking” you might

I. The effects of smoking on the heart

II. The effects of smoking on the lungs

III. The effects of smoking on other parts of body

4. Effect Cause Sequence It can be used to describe a particular event or problem and talk about what things caused this event or situation take a place.

EXAMPLE:

In speaking about “Drug Addiction” you might discuss reasons that people become addicted to drugs in the first place.

I. Easy availability of drugs

II. The need to escape from the pressures and tensions of work

III. Lack of education about harmful effects of drugs

5. Problem Solution Sequence It can be used to speak about a specific problem that exists in your community or in society generally. After describing the problem, you should provide the ways to solve it.

Note: The problem is not always negative situation like crime, poverty, etc. It can be daily life problem such as, Choosing a career, etc.

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EXAMPLE:

In speaking about “Choosing the College That’s Right For You” you might present the following situations:

I. Read the different college catalogues

II. Visit campuses of different colleges

III. Talk to people who attend various colleges

IV. Talk to teachers at the colleges you are considering

6. Geographical Sequence It can be used to discuss topics according to different geographical areas and locations. Your topic might be considered by city, state, country continent, or planet.

EXAMPLE:

In speaking about “Interesting Marriage Customs” you might use the following geographical sequence:

I. Marriage customs in Japan

II. Marriage customs in Saudi Arabia

III. Marriage customs in United States

7. Related Subtopic Sequence It can be used to divide a topic into different parts or sub-topics. The parts are related because they all belong to the same original topic.

EXAMPLE:

You might divide the subject of “Advertising” into the following sub-topics:

I. TV advertising

II. Magazine advertising

III. Radio advertising

8. Advantage Disadvantage Sequence It talks about both positive and negative aspects of a topic. It consists of a balanced discussion of advantages and disadvantages. To use this approach, try to be as objective and avoid giving your personal opinion.

EXAMPLE:

In speaking about “The Death Penalty”, you might delvelop two main headings:

I. Advantages of Capital Punishment

II. Disadvantages od Capital Punishment

9. Personal Opinion Approach It can be used to discuss a topic you have strong feelings about. When using the personal opinion approach you should develop it with examples and reasons which support why you feel the way you do.

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EXAMPLE:

In talking “Gambling” you might choose to present your opinion that casino gambling should not be legal. Remember, you must give the audiences the different resons.

10. Personal Experience Approach It can be used to tell a story about an experience you have related to the topic. Be sure to describe the details which will help audiences understand exactly what happened yo you or what you learned from the experiences.

11. Special Approach of your Own Choice It is one that you think of by yourself. Maybe you can come up with a completely different (but organized) way to approach your topic. Be creative and use your imagination

CHOOSING A TOPIC The first step in speechmaking is choosing a topic. This step usually becomes an obstacle faced by the students. They sometimes push themsleves to provide issues that they don’t even know. There are two broad categories of potential topics for your classroom speeches: (1) subjects you know a lot about and (2) subjects you want to know more about. Here are the explanations of each part.

TOPICS YOU KNOW A LOT ABOUT Most people speak best about subjects witch which they are most familiar. When thinking about a topic, draw on your own knowledge and experience. Everyone knows things or has done things that can be used in a speech. In this case you can think for a moment about unusual experiences you may have had or special expertise you may have acquired. By doing this step supported by approaches which have been explained previously, you can certainly make a great speech confidently.

TOPIC YOU WANT TO KNOW MORE ABOUT On the other hand, you may decide to make your speech a learning experience for yourself as well as for audience. You may choose a subject about which you already have some knowledge or expertise but not enough to prepare a speech without doing additional observation. You may even select a topic that you wantto explore for the first time. For example, you’ve been interested in free sex issue but never knew what occured around your society. This would be a perfect opportunity to observe a fascinating subject and find more facts what are currently happening around your society.

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IMPROMPTU SPEECH OUTLINE

The following is an outline of an impromptu speech by a student. It is developed variety of specific examples, about friends, and family memebers with the different addictions. It is also systematic helping you develop ideas properly and fluently.

ADDICITIONS

Introduction

I. I bet everyone in this room knows an addict! That’s right. I said addict. Before you get angry, please let me explain.

II. When we heard the word “addiction” we usually think of bad addictions like drugs or alcohol. We forget there are many other kinds of addictions. I’d now like to remind you of some.

I. Television Addictions

A. Soap Operas

B. Detective Shows

C. Football or Baseball

II. Book Addictions

A. Romance Novels

B. Mysteries

C. Science Fiction

III. Eating Addictions

A. Ice Cream

B. Chocolate

IV. Other Addictions

Body

A. Shopping (clothes, cars, antiques)

B. Hobbies (stamp collection, photography, etc.)

C. Sports (playing golf, tennis, jogging)

Conclusion

I. As you can see, you really do know someone who is an addict!

II. What kind of addict are you?

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Activity 3 GET READY TO MAKE SPEECH The following are possible impromptu speech topics. Your

Activity 3 GET READY TO MAKE SPEECH

The following are possible impromptu speech topics. Your teacher will explain any terms you don’t understand and may ask you to suggest other topics.

Impromptu Speech Topics:

Prostitution Contraception tool The Importance of Learning English for Nursing Professionalism The Importance of communication for Nurses “Where There’s a Will There’s a Way” Travel An Important Story in the News Culture Shock

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The Working Student Different Customs Dishonesty Gambling Habits Being on Time Responsibility Government Regulations Hobbies Discrimination Women’s Rights Meeting People

On the day of your speech, your presentation will be evaluated. Some of the specific aspects of this speech that your teacher may critique include:

I. Speaking Voice

A. Volume of voice (Did you speak loud enough to be easily heard?)

B. Rate of Speech (Did you speak slow enough to be clearly understood?)

II. The Speech

A. Attention-Getting Introduction

B. Clarity of Approach (Were the teacher and other students easily able to determine which of the impromptu speech approaches, as discussed in the chapter, were used?)

C. Organization of Ideas

D. Sufficient Support/Examples

E. Graceful Conclusion

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FINAL PROJECT, PUBLIC SPEAKING, GUIDELINE:

1. Make a group of 4

2. Watch the video of giving from internet

3. Identify the expression used by the speaker in the video

4. Identify the content of the video

What was explained by the speaker

Did it include opening, main topic and conclusion

5. Discuss and decide the general topic of your group, and you can choose one of the topics available in the last unit, or you can also decide other topics you are interested in.

6. Find as much as sources about the topic that your group chooses.

7. Read a lot and discuss the sources in the group

8. Decide the approach of speech you will use (everyone in the group can have different approach)

9. Individually make and outline of your speech.

10. Discuss your outline with the group members and give feedback each other.

11. Prepare to give speech in public places, practice before performance

12. GIVE SPEECH IN THE PLACES DETERMINED BY LECTURERS INDIVIDUALLY AND RECORDED

13. Every member of the group gives speech for at least 3 minutes.

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BIBILIOGRAPHY

Healthecareers.(2013). Find Your Next Nurse Job and Apply Today. Retrieved from www.healthecareers.com Lucas, Stephen E.(2009). The Art of Public Speaking. New York: Mc Graw Hill

Pratiwi, Indah D

Muhammadiyah University of Malang Rahmat, and Junjun M. Ramdani.(2013). English Speaking 3. Siliwangi University:

English for the Professional Nurse. School of Nursing

Unpublished handout

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STUDENT’S PROGRESS

NAME : CLASS : NIM : WEEKLY PROGRESS 1 2 3 4 Meeting 5 6
NAME :
CLASS :
NIM
:
WEEKLY PROGRESS
1
2
3
4
Meeting
5
6
7
8
Meeting
9
10
11
12
Meeting
13
14
15
16
Meeting

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