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Cellular telephone

Cellular concept
• Cellular telephone offers full-duplex transmissions
• Mobile telephone is a one-to-one system that permits two-
way simultaneous transmissions
• With the cellular concept, each area is further divided into
hexagonalshaped cells
• The hexagon shape was chosen because it provides the most
effective transmission by approximating a circular pattern
while eliminating gaps inherently present between adjacent
• A cell is defined by the size of its population and traffic
• Omnidirectional antennas are normally used in center-
excited cells, and sectored directional antennas are used
in edge- and corner-excited cells (omnidirectional
antennas radiate and receive signals equally well in all
• Frequency reuse is the process in which the same set of
frequencies (channels) can be allocated to more than one cell,
provided the cells are separated by sufficient distance
• Each cell base station is allocated a group of channel
frequencies that are different from those of neighboring cells
• The same group of channel frequencies may be used in
different cells without interfering with each other, provided the
two cells are sufficient distance from one another.
• The figure shows a geographic cellular radio coverage area
containing three groups of cells called clusters.
• Each cluster has seven cells in it, and
all cells are assigned the same
number of full-duplex cellular
telephone channels.
• Cells with the same letter use the
same set of channel frequencies.
• The two major kinds of interferences produced within a cellular
telephone system are cochannel interference and adjacent-
channel interference
Co-channel Interference
• When frequency reuse is implemented, several cells within a
given coverage area use the same set of frequencies.
• Two cells using the same set of frequencies are called co-
channel cells, and the interference between them is called co-
channel interference.
• To reduce co-channel interference, a certain minimum distance
must separate co-channels
• The base station in cell A of cluster 1 is transmitting on
frequency f1, and at the same time, the base station in cell
A of cluster 2 is transmitting on the same frequency.
• Although the two cells are in different clusters, they both
use the A-group of frequencies.
The mobile unit in cluster 2 is
receiving the same frequency
from two different base stations.
• Although the mobile unit is under
the control of the base station in
cluster 2, the signal from cluster 1
is received at a lower power level
as co-channel interference.
• Interference between cells is proportional not to the
distance between the two cells but rather to the
ratio of the distance to the cell’s radius.
Adjacent-Channel Interference
• Adjacent-channel interference occurs when transmissions
from adjacent channels (channels next to one another in the
frequency domain) interfere with each other.
• Adjacent-channel interference results from imperfect filters in
receivers that allow nearby frequencies to enter the receiver.
• Adjacent-channel interference is most prevalent when an
adjacent channel is transmitting very close to a mobile unit’s
receiver at the same time the mobile unit is trying to receive
transmissions from the base station on an adjacent frequency.
This is called the near-far effect and is most prevalent when a
mobile unit is receiving a weak signal from the base station.
• Using precise filtering
and making careful
channel assignments
can minimize
adjacent channel
interference in
Cell Splitting
• Cell splitting is the process of subdividing highly congested cells
into smaller cells each with their own base station and set of
channel frequencies.
• The purpose of cell splitting is to increase the channel capacity
and improve the availability and reliability of a cellular
telephone network.
• The point when a cell reaches maximum capacity occurs when
the number of subscribers wishing to place a call at any given
time equals the number of channels in the cell. This is called
the maximum traffic load of the cell
• The major drawback of cell splitting is that it results in more
base station transfers (handoffs) per call
• In a cellular telephone system, co-channel interference can be
decreased by replacing a single omnidirectional antenna with
several directional antennas, each radiating within a smaller
• These smaller areas are called sectors, and decreasing co-
channel interference while increasing capacity by using
directional antennas is called sectoring.
• A cell is normally partitioned either into three 120° or six 60°
• Sectoring improves the signal-to-interference ratio, thus
increasing the system’s capacity