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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Table Contents
List of figures ......................................................................................................................................... iii
List of tables ........................................................................................................................................... iv
Abstract................................................................................................................................................... v
Aknowladgement ................................................................................................................................... vi
CHAPTER ONE ..................................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1Back ground history ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 PROPERTIY AND USE ................................................................................................................ 2
1.2.1 Basic Pulp Properties .............................................................................................................. 2
1.2.2 Paper property ......................................................................................................................... 4
1.3 USE ............................................................................................................................................... 9
1.4 RAW MATERIAL ...................................................................................................................... 13
1.2.3The pulping properties of non-wood raw materials ................................................................. 14
CHAPTER TWO .................................................................................................................................. 17
PROBLEMSTATEMENT ..................................................................................................................... 17
CHAPTER THREE ............................................................................................................................... 18
LITERETURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................................... 18
3.1 Feasibility study/Market Assessment............................................................................................ 18
3.1.1Global market ........................................................................................................................ 18
3.1.2 Ethiopian pulp and paper market assessment ........................................................................ 19
3.2 process technology ....................................................................................................................... 21
3.3 PROCESS INNOVATION .......................................................................................................... 22
3.4 Utility Requirements .................................................................................................................... 22
3.5 operating conditions .................................................................................................................... 24
Chapter Four ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Process Technology ............................................................................................................................... 25
4.1 Mechanical .................................................................................................................................. 25
4.2 Chemical ..................................................................................................................................... 26
4.2.1 Alkaline process: ................................................................................................................... 27

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4.2.2 Acid or sulfite pulping process ............................................................................................. 28


4.3 SemichemicalOr Neutral Sulfite Semichemical(NSSC)Process ................................................... 28
4.4.Process selection and conclution ................................................................................................. 29
4.5 Requirements Of Major Process Units ......................................................................................... 30
4.5.1Barker .................................................................................................................................... 30
4.5.2 cooking equipment/digester ................................................................................................... 31
4.5.3 Bleaching equipment ............................................................................................................ 32
Single Screw Press ......................................................................................................................... 32
4.6 Process Description...................................................................................................................... 32
Chapter Five .......................................................................................................................................... 40
Material and Energy Balance ................................................................................................................. 40
5.1 Material balance .......................................................................................................................... 40
5.2 Energy balance ............................................................................................................................ 46
5.3 Design of Major Equipments........................................................................................................ 48
Chapter six ............................................................................................................................................ 52
Cost estimation and profitability analysys .............................................................................................. 52
Chapter six ............................................................................................................................................ 58
SITE SELECTION ................................................................................................................................ 58
Reference .............................................................................................................................................. 67

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List of figures
Figure 1:water consumption pattern[25]................................................................................................. 23
Figure 3:process flow diagram of pulp and paper production ................................................................. 38
Figure 4;pulping and liquor recovery process ......................................................................................... 39
Figure 5:plant lay out............................................................................................................................. 62

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List of tables
Table 1:The main application for pulp and paper [7] .............................................................................. 10
Table 2:Common pulp making terminology [8]...................................................................................... 11
Table 3:composition of fiber .................................................................................................................. 16
Table 4:paper supply tons per year ......................................................................................................... 20
Table 5:projected demand ...................................................................................................................... 21
Table 6:Modern kraft market pulp mill-steam and electricity consumption [24] ..................................... 23
Table 7:major paper making technology[29] .......................................................................................... 29
Table 8:advantages of batch or continous digesters ................................................................................ 32
Table 9:pulping process ......................................................................................................................... 33
Table 10:major equipment cost .............................................................................................................. 52
Table 11:estimation of total capital investment ...................................................................................... 54
Table 12:total production cost ................................................................................................................ 55
Table 13:major highland bamboo areas in Ethiopia[35].......................................................................... 59
Table 14:major lowland bamboo areas in Ethiopia ................................................................................. 60
Table 15:levels of factors in different countries ...................................................................................... 61
Table 16:pollution sources in producing pulp and paper[40] .................................................................. 64
Table 17:air emissions in a kraft pulp mill[41] ....................................................................................... 64

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Abstract
This project includes the design of pulp and paper production plant from raw material selection up to
site selection and including all process condition which are list in the flow diagram of pulp and paper
production plant and cost analysys and performance measurements.

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Aknowladgement
First and for most, we would like to thank the almighty and mercy GOD for giving as a blessed time
to do our project. Next, we would like to compliment our heart full salute to our lecturer called Mr
Bantelay S.who gave as this project to have a general understanding on how to design profitable
plant.

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1Back ground history

Paper is derived from the Greek word pápyros, the name for the papyrus plant. This plant grows
only on the shore lines of streams in the Middle East, like the river Nile (a river in Africa which
flows into the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt). The "paper" from the papyrus plant was first used by
the Babylonians and thereafter by the Egyptians (around 3000 B.C.). Also the Greeks and
Romans used papyrus, amongst others for contractual obligations[1].

Paper, a thin unwoven material made from milled plant fibersThe demand and use of pulp and
paper have marked the levels of civilization and development of many societies. As a result
many developed nations use plenty of pulp and paper. The demand for pulp and paper fiber
resources is largely determined by the society’s dependence on paper, paper boards and other
related products for human welfare. Paper in society is used in education, information storage,
advertising, communication, in protection, transportation and security of goods in transit;
protection of human health and sanitation in form of tissues and sanitary paper, and also used for
writing, art work, products packaging; it is commonly white[2]

Pulp technology deals with the liberation of fibers fixed in the wood or plant matrix. Paper
technology is the knowledge of how to unify the fibers to form the paper web. Wood and other
plant materials used to make pulp contain three main components (apart from water): cellulose
fibers desired for (paper making), lignin (a three dimensional polymer that binds the cellulose
fiber together) and hemi celluloses,(shorter branched carbohydrate polymers.The pulping
processes aim first and foremost to liberate the fibers from the wood matrix. In principal, this can
be achieved in two ways, either mechanically or chemically. Mechanical methods demand a lot
of electric power, but onthe other hand they make use of practically the whole wood material, i.e.
the yield of the process is high.In chemical pulping, only approximately half of the wood
becomes pulp, the other half is dissolved. In a modern chemical pulp mill, however, there is no
demand of external energy. For a chemical process to be economically feasible, it has to consist
of an efficient recovery system. Spent cooking chemicals and the energy in the dissolved organic

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material is recovered. The pulp obtained is colored, the degree of coloring depending on the
pulping process. For certain paper grades, the dark pulp has to be bleached [3].

1.2 PROPERTIY AND USE

1.2.1 Basic Pulp Properties

Basic pulp property is characterized by :[4]

Ash Content in Pulp

Ash content in pulp may consists of various chemicals used during pulping/bleaching, mineral
matter from wood or metallic matter from pipes and other machinery. It is not important
parameter of pulp.Ash is the residue left after igniting pulp at 525 0C (As per TAPPI T 211). Ash
is reported in % of residue to dry pulp basis.

Brightness of Pulp

Brightness of paper is discussed in Paper Properties. The paper brightness is mainly dictated by
pulp brightness. There are some modification in stock preparation which can alter paper
brightness to some extent such as filler, sizing, whitening agent, dying etc.

Coarseness of Pulp

This is a measure of the average weight of fiber per unit length, often reported in units of mg/m.
It is most conveniently measured using an optical analyzer. For fibers of a given average length,
it is a measure of the cross sectional area of the fiber. For a given average diameter, it is measure
of wall thickness.Coarse fibers are considered to be less conformable than fine fibers and do not
bond as readily. Coarser fibers also result in fewer fibers per mass of pulp, which has a
significant impact on sheet formation and light scattering potential.

Conductivity of Pulp

Electrical grade papers such as cable paper, condenser tissue or insulation paper etc., require
very low conductivity to electricity. The presence of metal ion more specifically iron ion
contribute to pulp conductivity The pulp used for electrical grades are washed with
demineralized water, beater or refiner use lava or other non-metallic bars and contacting surfaces
of all equipment are made of stainless steel.

Values for the conductivity of the water extract of the pulp are expressed in µS/m.

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Dirt in Pulp

Dirt content of pulp particularly of recycled pulp is important for its suitability to make fine
paper. Dirt is any foreign material in pulp. TAPPI defines dirt as foreign matter in a sheet which,
when examined by reflected, not transmitted light, has a marked contrasting color and has an
equivalent black area of 0.04 mm2 or more.

Drainage Time of Pulp

Here the drainage time of pulp is discussed in reference to market pulp and/or unrefined pulp.
The drainage time of pulp or freeness or slowness of pulp is modified to have some desired
properties in the paper, here that is not discussed.Drainage of unrefined pulp which is measured
as freeness can give an indication on :

1) Fiber Length of pulp, as long fiber pulps have more freeness compared to short fiber pulps,

2) Damage to fiber during pulping, bleaching or drying as short fibers or fines produced during
pulping operation, reduces pulp freeness,

3) Refining energy required to achieve certain slowness during stock preparation.

Dry Content of Pulp

Consistency: is the term used to describe solid content of pulp during pulp processing. For pulp
and paper maker this is the most important process parameters. All equipments are designed to
handle pulp at and up to certain consistency. Pulp consistency is roughly divided in to three
ranges:

Low Consistency: <5%

Medium Consistency: 5 - 15% High Consistency: >15%

But more preciously actual consistency for these ranges in various unit operation of papermaking
are different.

Kappa Number of Pulp

Kappa number is determination of relative hardness, bleachability or degree of delignification of


pulp. It is important parameter of unbleached pulp which is to be bleached. Low Kappa pulps are

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easier to bleach. High Kappa pulps usually require more energy in refining, but often produce
stronger paper or board (particularly with regard to tear strength).

A fully bleached pulp can have Kappa number as low as 1 and very high yield pulp may have
kappa as high as 100. Typical kappa number of some pulps.

Kappa number

Hardwood Pulp for Bleaching 14 - 20

Softwood Pulp for Bleaching 20 - 30

Wood pulp to be used Unbleached 40 -100

1.2.2 Paper property

The properties of paper is determined by the following characters [5].

1.Grammage:

• Is a weight of fiber per square meter of Paper.

• Is inversely proportional to the number of books printed. This is because the number of
sheets in the reel per ton for the low grammage paper is lager than the number of sheets
in the reel per ton for high grammage paper. So that the quantity of books printed by low
grammage paper significantly larger than the quantity of books printed by high
grammage paper.

• Is inversely proportional to its durability.

• Low grammage paper are low abrasion/scratch resistance, easily teared, easily
damaged with moisture/humid air & more susceptible to print defect due to
easily penetration of ink compared to high grammage paper.

• The unit of which is Gram/square meter i.e g/m2

• Is measured by analytical/technical balance or grammage tester.

2. Thickness

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• Is the distance between one surface and the other of a sheet of paper or board

• Directly proportional to the grammage of paper i.e thin paper are more susceptible to be
teared, easily damaged with hand moisture/ humid air, low abrasion/ scratch resistance &
low resistant to applied pressure beyond certain limit.

• Consistent thickness in every direction smoothly run in printing process & is not be the
cause of bottle neck. The following are advantage of using paper which is characterized
by uniformly distributed fiber.

• increase productivity

• increase production

• effective utilization of Available machine hour

• low scrub/reject

• increase profit

• uniform printability e.t.c

• decrease down time.

• is measured by micrometer/Caliper/

• The unit of which is mm.

• Is used to know / calculate the bulk of paper i.e Bulk (cm3/gm) = ( mean value of caliper
in mm)

Grammage (gm/cm2)

3.Tensile strength

• Is the maximum tensile force per unit width that a test piece of paper or board will with
stand before breaking in a tensile test.

• Tensile index is expressed by dividing tensile strength by grammage.

• Stretch at break: - the ratio of the increased in length of a test piece of paper or board at
the moment of maximum tensile force during a tensile test to its length before the test.

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• Paper with better tensile strength has ability to resist break during stretching in printing
process especially during loading of reel.

• Paper which have good tensile strength has the following advantage during application in
printing process / in printing press enterprise/

• Decrease down time

• Increase productivity

• Save extra cost.

• Decrease scrub/reject/wastage.

• Efficient utilization of resource.

• Is measured by schopper type tensile strength tester or digital/automatic tensile strength


tester.

• The unit of which is (Newton/N/ * m2)/gm = (Nm2)/ gm

4.Tearing strength

• Is the resistance of paper not to be teared

• Measured by manual/automatic tear tester.

• The unit of which is milli Newton (mN)

• Tear index is expressed by dividing tearing strength by grammage.

• Paper which have good tearing strength has the following advantage during application in
printing process / in printing press enterprise/

• Decrease down time

• Increase productivity

• Decrease scrub/reject/.

• Efficient utilization of resource

• Save extra cost.

• Durable when used by end user.

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5. Bursting strength of paper

• Is the maximum uniformly distributed pressure, applied at right angle to its surface that a
test piece will stand under standardized condition

• Burst index is expressed by dividing burst strength by grammage.

• Measured by manual/automatic burst tester.

• The unit of which is Kpa (kilo pascal).

• Paper with better burst strength has ability to resist the applied pressure exerted by
printing machine especially for letter press printing process type and also it has the ability
to resist the applied pressure exerted by end-user of output of printing machine during
writing by pen/pencil, fixer e.t.c

• Paper which have good bursting strength has the following advantage during application
in printing process / in printing press enterprise/

• Decrease down time

• Increase productivity

• Decrease scrub/reject/

• Efficient utilization of resource

• Save extra cost.

• Durable when used by end user

6. Cobb sizing

Is the ability of sizing chemicals added in paper production process to size the paper product to
avoid penetration of ink, water or any liquid per minute or per half minute or per half an hour.

• Is measured by cobb tester

• The unit of which is gm/m2

• Measures the weight of water/ink or any other liquid penetrated in one square
meter of paper per minute / half minute or per half an hour.

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• Larger numerical value of cobb sizing means the paper is poorly sized with the
desired chemicals so that ink/water can penetrate the paper easily and damage
printability (results print defects) as well as shorten the useful life of paper when
used by end-user compared to paper with smaller numerical value of cobb sizing
parameter.

• Paper with smaller numerical value of cobb sizing parameter has the following
advantage.

• Increase printability

• Efficient utilization of resource ( minimum ink & paper consumption)

• Effective utilization of available machine hour.

• Decrease operational down time

• Increase productivity

• Decrease reject/scrub.

• Save extra cost

• Durable when used by end-user.

7.Surface strength / wax pick test/ Denison test

• Is used to measure the adequacy of starch or any surface coating chemicals added in
paper production process. The primary function of starch / any coating material is to
improve bonding of fiber to fiber and fiber to starch at surface there by making fiber not
to be picked from surface of paper and sleep any fiber erected at the surface.

• Measured by burning wax with Bunsen burner & putting the burned wax at the surface of
paper

• Paper with the desired surface strength / high wax/Denison number has the following
advantage

• Provide better smoothness of paper

• Increase printability

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• NB: paper with excess starch/surface coating chemicals have shinny surface so
that it faces difficulties in absorbing ink

8. Porosity

• Is the air resistance of paper defined as the number of seconds required for 100ml of air
to pass through one inch of a test piece of paper

• Measured by porosity tester.

• The unit of which is sec/100ml air

• Paper with the desired porosity has the following advantage especially for ream user in
printing process.

• Machine does not suck more than single sheet of paper at a time

• Decrease operational as well as technical down time

• Does not affect machine security/safety.

• Effective utilization of available machine hour.

• Increase productivity.

9.Density of paper

Density of paper is varied depend on the paper type.density for writing paper is 731kg/m3[6]

1.3 USE

The range of possible uses of paper seems almost limitless. New ways of using it are being
devised daily. This ev Table The main applications for pulp and paper olution will continue
because paper is an expression of everyday living.

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Table 1:The main application for pulp and paper [7]

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Table 2:Common pulp making terminology [8]

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PRODUCT USES & SPECIFICATIONS:

Products proposed, Uses and Applications:

Media Kraft Paper: This is used in corrugated box manufacturing and by all the industrial
packaging units. [9]

Plain/Ribbed Kraft Paper: This is used as wrapers for books and notebooks and also in all
packaging industries.

White Poster and Colour Poster: These are consumed by the printing

presses for wall posters and also for printing tickets, vouchers, etc.

Manila Paper:used for making Envelopes.

Tea Yellow Posters and Blue Match Paper: These are low grammage papers extensively used
in packing match box and crackers.

Grey poster and grey poster superior: This is extensively used in match industry where match
boxes are manufactured in automation process. This type of match boxes can be seen in luxury
hotels, airlines etc..

papers can be broadly classified into three categories as

Kraft.Posters and Manila.

The list of product as envisaged to be manufactured under the above

mentioned three categories is given below:

1. M.G. Corugated Media Kraft Paper 80-180

2. M.G. Ribbed/Plain Kraft Paper 60-80

3. M.G. White Poster 60-70

4. M.G. Colour Poster 60-70

5. M.G. Phink Manila Paper 50-60

6. M.G. Yellow Poster 60-70

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7. Blue Match 36-40

8. Grey Poster 40-60

9. Grey Poster Superior 40-60

* GSM - Grams Per Square Metre. Weight of paper is expressed in GSM.

1.4 RAW MATERIAL

Paper making process for long has mainly used wood from tree stems that are cut, debarked,
chipped and pulped. It is interesting to note that some environment advocates have proposed the
use of non-wood fibers in paper making as a way to preserve natural forests. Both wood and non-
wood resources are currently exploited for the manufacturing of pulp, paper and soft boards [10]
.

Major non wood raw materials used by paper industry is bamboo, bagasse, waste paper and

Agricultural residue like wheat straw, rice straw, jute sticks, hemp,kenaf, grasses, seaweed and
wood fiber materials.

Apart from this, paper industry consumes large amount of chemicals likecaustic soda, sodium
sulphide, sodium carbonate, chlorine, hypochlorite, mineral acid, lime, sodium hydroxide, fuel
oil, talcum powder etc.

The major source of pulp which meets more than 80% demand is still wood from forests.But
using of wood for paper production has significant impact on environment through deforestation
which results climate change so it is required to find another alternative materials for pulp and
paper production like non wood materials which includes:

Bagasse:it is estimated that today’s 14% of paper product is from bagasse but in our country
Ethiopia, bagasse is produced in sugar factory and those sugar factory can operate below half of
their capacity and may cause shortage of raw material if a pulp and paper factory utilise this raw
material even if theiris high amount of bagasse it has plenty of application as energy source and
feed for livestock’s.

Agricultural by-products: account for 73% of the world's non-wood pulp capacity, while
natural plants such as reed and bamboo account for 18% .No significant increase can be foreseen

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in the production of pulp from agricultural by-products because of the various uses like feeds for
livestock’s and as compost additives.

Bamboo:now a days paper product from bamboo cuvers 6% of non wood pulp production .but
Ethiopia is one of the few countries in the world endowed with a vast bamboo resource base.The
country has an estimated one million hectares of natural bamboo forest, 7%of the world total and
67% of the African total [11]. Bamboo is becoming increasingly in the world since :

• It is a superior wood substitute

• It is cheap, efficient and fast growing

• It has potential for environmental protection

• It has wide ecological adaptation and

• The state of forest shrinking globally

According to Ethiopian Environment and forest research Institutes Wood Technology research
center senior researcher,SeyoumKelemeworkEthiopia’s bamboo species are more suitable for
production of textile, paper and pulp production ,apparel, among others foreign bamboo species.

Six of the regional states in Ethiopia –Amhara,Benshangul-Gumaz,Gambella,Oromia,SNNP and


Tigray have huge potentialfor bamboo caltivation among those regions
benshangulGumazcaltivates huge amount.

1.2.3The pulping properties of non-wood raw materials

• Pulping property refers to the characteristics that present in pulping process, the fiber
features and the degree of difficulty of pulping. The performance of fiber material can
be estimated by the following factors:[12]

(1)whether the fiber contents and forms are of economically viable in pulping or not;

(2) difficulty on the degree of delignification and fiber dissociation in pulping


process;

(3) the adaptability of pulping methods, and the conveniences of stock preparation;

(4) the color, degree of bleaching difficulty, drainability, and beating performance of
pulp.

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• The non-wood fiber materials have the following advantages as pulp and
papermaking raw material[13, 14].

(1) it is the fast annual growing fiber resource, and it has smaller content of lignin
than wood;

(2) non-wood pulp can be produced at low temperatures with lower dosage of
chemicals;

(3) a smaller factory can be feasible in manufacturing processes, giving a simplified


process;

(4) the beating of non-wood pulp fibers is easy to implement;

(5) from the agricultural point of view, the non-wood fiber materials pulping can
bring additional economic benefits from the food crops.

Table Chemical composition of some common fibers(% of total)

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Table 3:composition of fiber

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CHAPTER TWO

PROBLEMSTATEMENT

The increasing/growing demand for paper products in Ethiopia and the foreign exchange amount
expended for imports calls for the production of pulp and paper in the country. Finding input raw
material sources for production of pulp is of paramount importance. In Ethiopia, there is an
enormous potential for the production of bamboo following its suitable agro-ecological zones
and the availability of land and water. According to Ethiopian investment authority, the total
potential area for farming bamboois estimated to be 1million hectares

The supply of paper in Ethiopia is dominated by imported products.There are two paper-
producing factories. The paper mill uses imported pulp and waste paper as its raw
material.Ethiopian Pulp and Paper Share Company which is located at Wonjj ,This factory has a
production capacity of 8,000-10,000 tonesannual and Anmol products Ethiopian PLC has a
production capacity of 15,000TPA.The two pulp mill produces some 23,000 to 25,000 metric
tons per annum of different qualities of finished paper. Even if the two pulp mill produce this
amount of paper, It does not satisfy the demand of paper for the country in addition to that the
two factory does not produce its own pulp. All pulp used for the processis imported at an annual
cost of about US 8 million dollars.Therefore,It is true to plant pulp and paper in the country.

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CHAPTER THREE
LITERETURE REVIEW

The art of papermaking was first exported from China to Korea and Japan around 610 AD.
Arabic people have learned the papermaking technique in the 8th century from Chinese, as is
being told, from Chinese people skilled in papermaking who were captured. The Arabic people
spread the knowledge during their military campaigns in the North of Africa and the South of
Europe. The first paper manufacturing in Europe started in 1144 in Xativa (near Valencia) in
Spain. The first papermaking in countries in Europe, which were not controlled by the Arabians,
was in the 13th century in Italy and Spain, although the usage of paper was already known in
Europe since about 1100. A paper mill in Fabriano (near Ascona) in Italy existed in 1276 (and
still exists nowadays). Around this time sizing paper with animal glue was invented in Italy. The
Germans had their first paper mill in 1389, followed by the rest of Europe at the end of the 15th
century. In Belgium the first paper production was in Huy (Hoei) in 1405 and in Holland in in
Dordrecht in 1586.[15]

3.1 Feasibility study/Market Assessment

3.1.1Global market

The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest industries in the world. It is dominated by North
American, Northern European and East Asian companies. Latin America and Australasia also
have significant pulp and paper industries. Over the next few years, it isexpected that both India
and China will become key players in the industry. World production of paper and paperboard is
around 390 million tonnes and is expected to reach 490 million tonnes by 2020. The pulp and
paper industry is a large and growing portion of the world's economy[16].

North America, Asia and Europe are the dominating world regions for PPI, and accounted for 37,
24 and 25%, respectively, of the global pulp production in 2010. The pulp and paper industry is
one of the most important industries for the balance of trade in the U.S. This trade balance
increased through most of the 1990s. In 1999, exports from SIC codes 261-263 were $8.5 billion.
In recent years, however, exports have been declining and imports have been increasing.
Between 1997 and 2000, exports declined 5.5% and imports increased by more than 20%. The

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declining exports and increasing imports are partly due to a strong dollar in this period and the
recent slow down of the U.S. economy.

The U.S. industry has several advantages over the rest of the world market, including modern
mills, a highly skilled work force, a large domestic market, and an efficient transportation
infrastructure. Major export markets for pulp are Japan, Italy, Germany, Mexico, and France.
The U.S. Department of Commerce anticipates exports to grow faster than production for
domestic markets through 2004. World Trade Organization (WTO) efforts to reduce tariffs
include those on pulp and paper products; if these are successful, the U.S. industry expects pulp
and paper export rates to increase even further.

However, pulp and paper are commodities and therefore prices are vulnerable to global
competition. Countries such as Brazil, Chile, and Indonesia have built modern, advanced pulp
facilities. These countries have faster-growing trees and lower labor costs. Latin American and
European countries also are adding papermaking capacity. Furthermore, the strong value of the
dollar has made imports less expensive relative to domestically-produced goods. Because of this
increased foreign competition, imports of paper to the U.S. market are expected to increase three
percent annually.

Does paper have a future in the digital age? Ultimately, it is a question best answered by the
needs of the consumers, but based on the global demandoutlook, consumers still want paper well
into the 21st century Worlddemand for paper has doubled in the past 20 years and it is forecast to
double again by the year 2010. Therefore, despite the threat of paperless transaction,scope for
paper demand appears to be bright.Indeveloped nations it is ashigh as 152 Kgs per annum.[17]

3.1.2 Ethiopian pulp and paper market assessment

The supply of paper in Ethiopia is dominated by imported products. The paperproducing factory
in Ethiopia are Ethiopian Pulp and Paper Share Company which is located at Wonjj and Anmol
polymers. This factory has a production capacity of 8,000-10,000 tonnes, annually. Due to the
limited production capacity of the country's sole producer of paper, the country imports a large
quantity of paper from oversees as follow[18].

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Table 4:paper supply tons per year

Year Domestic Import Total

1998 7,489 20,313 27,802

1999 10,420 160,612 171,032

2000 5,143 413,432 418,565

2001 6,144 100,302 106,446

2002 7,719 32,216 39,935

2003 6,683 35,926 42,609

Average 7,266 127,132 134,398

the 1998/2003 average annual domestic production of paper was 7,266 tonnes while in the same
period 127,132 tonnes of paper have been imported which means the average total supply of
paper during the period under consideration was 134,398 tonnes per annum, of which only about
5% was locally produced. Supply of paper has shown a leap in the three years (1999-2001) and
returns back to the under 50, 000 tonnes level in 2002. Excluding the leap years, the average
annual total supply remains 36,782 tonnes with an annual growth rate of 8.8%. Applying this
annual growth rate, the current effective demand for paperis estimated at 46, 359 tones
in2004E.C.

In forecasting the demand for paper, therefore, GDP growth rate attained in 1999-2004 i.e,
3.76% is applied. The projected demand is presented in Table below:

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Table 5:projected demand

In 2009 E.C Ethiopia’s Minister of Trade and Industry GirmaBirru,who was the chief guest,
appreciated the Anmol group for choosing Ginchi to open the paperwhich have the capacityof
15000ton/yearsays,Ethiopia required 70,000 tonnes of paper per year [19].this shows that
demand growth rate is higher than expected demaned in 2009 e.c. then the 2010 E.C the demand
estimated to increased by 3.76%of 2009 E.C demand which is 70,000+3.76%*70,000=72,632

In 2011 E.C demand estimated to be 72,632+3.67% *72,632=75,363ton

3.2 process technology

The pulp and paper industry (PPI) produces pulp, paper, board and other cellulose-based
products. The main steps of the process are pulping, papermaking and paper finishing. Pulping
can be based on mechanical, semi-chemical or fully chemical methods. Wood used to make pulp
contains three main components: cellulose fibers (desired for papermaking), lignin and
hemicelluloses. In pulping, the bulk structure of the fiber source is broken down into the
constituent fibers. In chemical pulping, this is accomplished by degrading the lignin and
hemicellulose into small, water-soluble molecules which are washed away from the cellulose
fibers. Mechanical pulping methods physically tear the cellulose fibers apart. Chemical pulping
is the dominating pulping method and accounts for 70% of today’s global pulp production.
Paper-making involves several steps including making a pulp slurry, pressing and drying. The
appearance and properties of the final products are supplemented and enhanced by finishing
treatments, which can be simple processes where the reel are cut into sheets or more complex
processes, such as coating or super-calendering. [20]

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Pulp technology deals with the liberation of fibers fixed in the wood or plant matrix. Paper
technologyis the knowledge of how to unify the fibres to form the paper web. Pulp can be
converted to a number of different products with a variety of applications and there by with a
variety of product demands. Paper, as a conveyor of information is perhaps the first thing that
comes to mind. Newspapers, magazines, and books require a paper suitable for printing text and
pictures on, strong enough to endure browsing and folding and in many cases preferably able to
last for generations to come so they can take part of the information. The production of diapers
and tissue paper, the preservation for future generations is not an issue,neither the strength. For
these grades, the most important property is the pulp’s ability to absorb fluids. Strength,
however, is the main feature when it comes to paper products aimed to keepandprotect other
commodities, dry or liquid. Paper has many advantages compared to other materialscompeting
with paper for package purposes. It is obtained from a renewable raw material(wood or other
plants), the pulping and papermaking processes have low effluents to the recipientand the paper
packages are easy to recycle [21].

3.3 PROCESS INNOVATION

Innovation is currently defined as the steps and activities involved in the introduction and
deployment of new or improved techniques and methods within and between companies [22].
The OECD’s Oslo Manual distinguishes four types of innovation:

(1) product innovation in goods or services that are technologically new products or existing
products that are significantly improved;

(2) process innovation concerning technologically new or significantly improved practices,


technologies, or delivery;

(3) organizational innovation involving new or significant changes in firm structure,


management methods, or information exchange systems; and

(4) marketing innovation of new or significant changes to packaging, sales methods, or


distribution channels.

3.4 Utility Requirements

Electricity, Steam and Fuel :Fuel is required for steam generation. The steam requirement is
about 2.3 tons for one ton of paper production [23].

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Table 6:Modern kraft market pulp mill-steam and electricity consumption [24]

Water: Water is required for pulp washing, steam raising and general cleaning. 200 Kg ground
water is required per day for domestic use like cleaning and washing.[23]. In paper industry,
water is used practically at all stages. Huge quantities of water are required for low consistency
operation.100 L of water is required for 1kg of paper making.Water is now considered as one of
the valuable resource, and mills are forced to reduce their water consumption levels.

Figure 1:water consumption pattern [25]

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3.5 operating conditions

Conditions of kraft batch process:

initial / final temperature 80/170 °C

total batch time 180 min.

active alkali content 16,0 % oven dry wood

concentration of active alkali 99,8 g/l Na2O

sulfidity 24,8 %

liquor to bamboo chip ratio (3-3.5) : 1

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Chapter Four

Process Technology
Manufacturing of pulp starts with raw material preparation [26] . This includes debarking (when
wood is used as raw material), chipping, and other processes such as depithing (for example,
when bagasse is used as the raw material). Cellulosic pulp is manufactured from the raw
materials, using chemical and mechanical means. The manufacture of pulp for paper and
cardboard employs mechanical (including thermomechanical),chemimechanical, and chemical
methods.

There are mainly three modes of production of pulp:

(a) Mechanical

(b) Chemical

(c) Semi chemical

4.1 Mechanical: the primary goals of pulping are tofree fibers in wood from the lignin that binds
these fibers together, and then to suspend the fibers in water in to slurry suitable for paper
making.As the oldest form of pulping ,mechanical pulping which uses mechanical energy to
weaken and separet fibers from wood via a grinding action. The advantage to mechanical
pulping is that it produces much higher yields than chemical pulping proceses (up to97%)[27]
.However ,because this process does not dissolve lignin and because mevhanical grinding
produces short fibers, the fiber strength and age resistance of the resulting pulp are
low.consequently , most mechanical pulp is used for low grade papers such as newsprint
magazines,and catalogues mechanical pulping also requires more raw materials screening to
remove contaminants such as dirt and knots than chemical pulping processes.there are four main
types of mevhanical pulping[28].

Stone ground wood (SGW) pulping:in the SGW process,small logs are ground against artificial
bonded stones made of silcon carbide or aluminium oxide grits.the process gives a high yield,but
the fibers produced can be very short and often must be combined with expensive chemicals

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fibers to be strong enough to pass through the paper machine and subsequent coating and
printing process.

Refiner mechanical pulping(RMP):in RMP wood feed stock is ground between two grooved
discs.the process keeps the high yield advantages of the SGW process,while producing
somewhat longer fibers which greater strength.this permits lighter weight paper to be used for
printing and result in more print media per tone of feedstock.th RMP process can be used wood
feedstock other than logs,such as wood scraps and sawdust from lumber mills.

Thermomechanicalpulping(TMP):in TMP wood chips are first steamed to soften then before
being ground in the same manner as the RMP process.the TMP process generates the highest
grade mechanical pulp but it also a high energy intensity process due to its steam use . this
process can also produce a dark pulp that is more costly to bleach.despite these drawbacks,TMP
is the most common,mechanical process in use today.

Chemi-thermomechanicalpulping(CTMP):CTMP involves the application of chemicals to


wood chips prior to refiner pulping. The chemical pre-treatment of wood chips allows for less
destructive separation of fibers from the feedstocks,resulting in longer fibers, higher fiber
content,and far fewer shives . the CTMP process also produces more flexible fibers (which
provide higher sheet density, burststrength, and tensile strength)and higher pulp brightness than
TMP process.its primary drawback , like TMP ,is that it is a high energy intensity process.

The specific energy consumption in mechanical pulping is dependent on the particular pulping
process,the properties of the raw material and,to a large extent,the quality demands on the pulp
set by the end product(the freeness value).a substantial part (>90%) of the energy input to the
mechanical pulping processes is converted in to heat,some of which can be recovered.

4.2 Chemical:a method of converting wood chips in to paper pulp for use in paper making
accomplished by chemical cooking of the chips, as opposed to mechanical pulping. The purpose
of pulping is to reduce wood (or other fibrous raw material ) to individual cellulose fibers .A non
fibrous constituent of wood ,ligning,binds cellulose fiber together ,is primarly responsible for
reducing paper quality and permanence Chemical pulping methods produce high quality papers
as the chemical cooking dissolves most of the lignin and hemicelluloses present in the wood,
resulting in better separation of the cellulose fibers.there are two primary means of chemical
pulping .thus are sulphite process and sulphate process.

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the major chemical pulping processes are:

4.2.1 Alkaline process:

(i) Soda pulping process:The caustic soda pulping process has been widely used in the pulping
of non-wood raw material.The main component of the cooking liquor is NaOH, sometimes
Na2CO3, the dosage of which depends on the fiber properties. Cooking temperature is,
essentially, cooking time and alkali charge which refers to the amount of the active alkali dosage.
Generally, the alkali charge is around 16%, and the cooking temperature is 140–170°C.

The addition of anthraquinone (AQ) would provide the possibilities for the improvement of
caustic soda pulping effect. Due to the fact that AQ can accelerate the cooking rate and protect
the carbohydrates, in the same conditions of cooking, the slurry with AQ has lower kappa
number and higher yield as compared with slurry without AQ. According to relevant research,
adding AQ in Kenaf pulping process, the removal of lignin would be accelerated, the
consumption of alkali would be reduced, the kappa number of pulp would be decreased, the
whiteness of pulp would be improved, and the pulp yield and viscosity would be increased,
which declare that the slurry has better performance.

(ii)Kraft or sulfate pulping process:the process of most widely used chemical pulping system
at present.it evolved from soda processes developed in the 19 th century ,which used strong bases
(alkaline solutions) such as lye to digest wood . pulpers began adding sodium sulphate to the
soda process ,and a significantly stronger pulp was produced. Incorrectly termed the ‘sulphate’
process(it was much later that chemists discovered that the active ingredient was actually sodium
sulphide,it is perhaps mpore accurately known as the kraft process(“kraft” is the German and
Swedish word for “strength”).

The advantages of kraft pulping include not only increase pulp strength, but also a better heat
and chemical recovery system which reduces processing costs,its effectiveness in digesting
nearly every known species of tree,and the insertion in the process of bleaching processes which
increase pulp brightness . the pulp, as the name”kraft”indicates,is also much stronger than pulp
produced via other methods and the paper generates from the process runs well on high speed.To
increase pulp whiteness and brightness(unbleached kraft pulp is usually a dark brown color) and
to remove residual lignin,chemical pulps are bleached.

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4.2.2 Acid or sulfite pulping process

Sulphite process: this process cooks woods chips in sulfurous acid combined with limestone to
produce calcium bisulphate.the combination of sulfurous acid and calcium by sulphite dissolves
the lignin in the wood and librates the cellulose fibers. Sulphite pulp is soft and flexible,is
moderately strong , and used to supplement mechanical pulps(most typically in
newsprint).problems with the process(including limitations on the types of trees for which it is
suitable,strict pollution laws,and the enablity to recover some of the chemicals ejected by the
system) have resulted in new chemicals being used in the process,and the wholesale adoption of
new process.

4.3 SemichemicalOr Neutral Sulfite Semichemical(NSSC)Process

The active chemical of neutral sulfite process (NS) is Na2SO3 prepared by dissolving SO2 in
Na2CO3 solution. With buffer function, the Na2CO3 left in cooking liquor can let the pH value
of the cooking liquor keep at 7–8. It is reported that the pulping conditions of bleached wheat
straw pulp are 10–15% of Na2SO3 and cooking temperature 165°C. Compared with alkaline
pulping, the yield of neutral sulfite pulping is 8–10% higher, and the pulp is easier to bleach.

In neutral sulfite pulping process, anthraquinone (AQ) also can be used as additive, namely, NS-
AQ. The application of NS-AQ method reduces the organic content in the waste liquor, and the
yield of the slurry is higher, which indicates that neutral sulfite pulp can compete with the kraft
pulp. However, the recycling of waste liquid would reduce the removal rate of lignin, and the
yield and quality of the slurry may be reduced. As to straw raw materials, the neutral sulfite
semi-chemical pulping (NSSC) method can endow high yield pulp with the characteristics of low
kappa number and excellent opacity and strength, except the poor tearing properties.

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Table 7:major paper making technology[29]

4.4.Process selection and conclution

For bamboo pulp making, it generally adopts kraft process. The kraft process has high digester
yield, high strength, less pollution, soft fiber, and mature technology of alkali recovery.
Compared to the wood, the bamboo is easier to cook because of its composition.[30]

The paper pulper machine adopts the vertical and continuous pulp digester. In general, the cold
blow is typical choice, it not only recovery the rest heat, but also avoid the leakage of flue gas.
Besides, reduce the steam consumption and pyrolysis of pulp, improve the strength of the fiber.

In the real bamboo pulp processing, due to the dense structure of bamboo and the difficulty of air
removing in the conduit, bamboo pulp cooking require longer penetration time. Penetration time

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for raising temperature is 1.5-2h, penetration time for keeping temperature is 2-2.5h. As we all
know, there are vertical pulper and horizontal pulper. Different specifications of pulpers for
bamboo pulp making as below:

according to above specifications we conclude that vertical pulper is more applicaof bamboo
chips and using indirect heating and direct heating.

NB:The direct heat transfer is done by introducing medium pressure steam into the circulation
line with direct steam nozzles. No heat exchanger is needed due to the small amout of steam
required, and at the same time, heat exchanger cleaning or repairing is eliminated.

The indirect heat transfer is done by shell/tube heat exchanger. This allows condensate return to
the power plant and reduced evaporation load.

4.5 Requirements Of Major Process Units


4.5.1Barker

Tumble barker drum:is short and wide, having a diameter between 4 and 6 m and the length
20–40 m. The logs for tumble barking are cut to shorter lengths than the diameter of the

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drum.The direction of the logs within the drum is random, as the term tumble barking
denotes.The friction achieves the barking as logs rub against each other. The tumble drum barker
rotates slowly and the volume of the drum filled with logs can vary from 25 to 60 %. The degree
of filling influences the retention time of the logs in the drum. The retention time, and thereby
the barking efficiency, increases with increased filling up to a certain point. Too high filling
degree prevents the free movement of the logs and barking is reduced. The optimum filling
degree is about 50 %[31].

Parallel drum barkers:are narrower and longer, having a diameter of 3 to 4.5 m and the length
usually in the range of 40 to 60 m. The logs to be barked are full-length trees, the log length
exceeding the diameter of the drum barker.

Chipper:The most common chippers in use are the disc chippers. They consist of a rotating disc
with 10-16 radial arranged knives. The log is fed endwise toward the disc through a spout. The
feeding system can be either gravity feed or horizontal feed.

4.5.2 cooking equipment/digester

batch digester

Many different kinds of pressure vessels have been used for batch cooking, cylinder shaped or

spherical, stationary or rotating. The most common batch digester in use is the stationary vertical

cylinder with a conical or spherical bottom.The digester is filled with chips and cooking liquor.
The digester is warmed up by a liquor circulation system connected to a heat exchanger. Liquor
is displaced through the sieve girdle in the middle of the digester and is circulated to the top and

bottom. When desired degree of delignification is reached the digester is discharged to the blow
tank.

Continousedigester:The most widespread continuous digesters in use are tall and slim vertical
flow digesters withan average production capacity of 1000 to almost 3000 ADMT (air dry metric
ton) pulp/day.
The process is continuous, from the chip bin to pulp blow. All the operations in the
continuouspulp line are performed, one after the other, in their own specific device and
equipment.The continuous digester arrangement comes in single or two vessel configuration,

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depending onwhether the impregnation of chips by cooking chemicals is performed in a separate


vessel or inthe first part of the digesting vessel.

Table 8:advantages of batch or continous digesters

Since in the future we need to adjust our capacity we select batch digester one.

4.5.3 Bleaching equipment

Single Screw Press

Containing special structure design, Single Screw Press includes high dewatering efficiency. It
prevents slippage of pulp with low rotate speed, low power demand and low noise. It is
mechanical extrusion dewatering and it does not require installation height.

Black liquor overflow and smell can be prevented as it contains enclosure design. The applicable
pulps of single screw press are straw pulp, bamboo pulp, bagasse pulp, wood pulp, etc. 80% of
black liquor can be extracted from the pulp, drier pulp cake using our single screw press.

4.6 Process Description

1) Wood preparation
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The bark is removed from in-coming logs, and these are then chipped. Sometimes, thewood
arrives at the plant already chipped, meaning that this step is unnecessary.The bark of the tree
approximately amounts to 15 % of the tree’s dry weight. It can roughly be divided into outer and
inner bark. The outer bark is dead tissue and acts primarily as a protection for the tree. The living
inner bark transports water and nutrients to the cambium layer of the wood.the barking
requirement for defferent pulp types[32].

Table 9:pulping process

2 )Cooking

The "cooking process" is where the main part of the delignification takes place.The wood chips
are heated in a solution of NaOH and Na2S in a pressure cooker, duringwhich time a lot of the
lignin (the reinforcing susbstance that make tree cells wood hard and 'woody' rather than soft
like those of other plants) is removed from the wood. Thepressure is then released suddenly,
causing the chips to fly apart into fibres.Typically some 150 kg of NaOH and 50 kg of Na2Sare
required per tone of dry wood. This process is, like any chemical reaction, affected bytime,
temperature and concentration of chemical reactants. Time and temperature can betraded off
against each other to a certain extent, but to achieve reasonable cooking times it isnecessary to
have temperatures of about 150 - 165oC, so pressure cookers are used.However, if the
temperature is too high then the chips are delignified unevenly, so a balancemust be achieved.

The degree ofdelignification is the most important parameter for determining pulp quality, and is
normally expressed in what is called a "Kappa number". This number is directly related to the
amountof lignin still remaining in the cooked pulp.There are two different cooking systems;

• Batch

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• continuous

Batch cookingprocess :in this process chips and white liquor are charged to a pressure vessel
and are then heated with steam to a settemperature for a set time. When the correct
delignification has been achieved, the cook is"blown" (the pressure is suddenly released so that
the cooked chips disintegrate into fibres).

Continuous cooking process:in this processchips and white liquor are fed continuously to the
top of a tallpressure vessel. The chips move down the 'digester' by gravity (as a plug) to be
finally blownfrom the bottom of the vessel. The cooking time cannot be varied in this case (it is
set by theproduction rate) and only the temperature and the chemical charge can be controlled.

Many developments have taken place during the last decade to improve the 'science' of
kraftpulping. The challenge has been to remove as much of the lignin as possible with
outdegrading the cellulose and without losing too much yield. It is now well known that
theconcentrations of NaOH, Na2S and dissolved lignin during the various phases of
thedelignification are of crucial importance for the pulp strength.

3) Pulp washing

Because of the high amounts of chemicals used in the cooking wood in kraft pulping,
therecovery of the chemicals is of crucial importance. The process where the chemicals
areseparated from the cooked pulp is called pulp washing. A good removal of
chemicals(inorganic and organic) is necessary for several reasons:

• The dissolved chemicals interfere with the downstream processesing of the pulp

• The chemicals are expensive to replace

• The chemicals (especially the dissolved lignin) are detrimental to the environment

There are many types of machinery used for pulp washing. Most of them rely on displacingthe
dissolved solids (inorganic and organic) in a pulp mat by hot water, but some use pressing to
squeeze out the chemicals with the liquid. An old, but still common method is to use adrum,
covered by a wire mesh, which rotates in a diluted suspension of the fibres. The fibresform a mat
on the drum, and showers of hot water are then sprayed onto the fibre mat

4) Pulp screening

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Apart from fibres, the cooked pulp also contains partially uncooked fibre bundles and
knots.Modern cooking processes (together with good chip screening to achieve consistent
chipthickness) have good control over the delignification and produce less "rejects". Knots
andshivesare removed by passing the pulp over pulp screens equipped with fine holes or slots.

5) Bleaching

Pulp produced by the kraft process is brown. This presents no problem for certain uses, e.g.for
sack paper, most corrugated boxes, some bag paper etc. However, a major proportion of the kraft
pulp that is made is used for white or coloured papers such as writing and printingpapers, and
then the pulp needs to be bleached.

Bleaching involves removing virtually all of the lignin that still remains after cooking, as
thelignin contains the chromophoric groups which make the pulp dark. Strictly speaking,
bleaching and cooking are both delignification processes, and modern developments havetended
to blur the difference between the two processes. However, traditionally the name'bleaching' is
reserved for delignification that is taking place downstream of the cookingprocess. In practice,
there are two separate "bleaching" process steps: oxygen delignificationand final bleaching.

To measure the lignin content in pulp, a number called the "Kappa number" is used. TheKappa
number is directly proportional to the lignin content of the pulp. Pulp from thedigester has a
Kappa number of 20-35 for softwood and 15-20 for hardwood (hardwoodcontains less lignin and
can therefore be cooked to a lower Kappa number). Oxygendelignification removes about half of
the lignin remaining after the cooking process, so thatthe Kappa number of the oxygen
delignified pulp is typically 12-18 for softwood. The finalbleaching removes all remaining lignin
and decreases the Kappa number to zero.This is done in two stages. Firstly the pulp is treated
with NaOH in the presence of O2.The NaOH removes hydrogen ions from the lignin and then
the O2 breaks down thepolymer. Then, the pulp is treated with ClO2 then a mixture of NaOH,
O2 and peroxideand finally with ClO2 again to remove the remaining lignin.

In oxygen delignification, washed pulp is treated with a highly alkaline solution of sodium
hydroxide.It can significantly decrease the water pollution from the final(normally chlorine or
chlorine dioxide based) bleaching. In addition, it is an effluent freeprocess.

6) Paper making

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Paper making process consists of two stages

1. Wet Stage

2. Dry Stage

Machineries in the wet stage are generally called wet part and similarly dry stage machineries
called as dry part. In the wet part an endless wire mesh running on rolls will continuously drain
water from the pulp. Pulp enters the paper machine Head Box at a consistency of 0.5% to 1%.
Application of vacuum in the Hydrofoils positioned under the wire enables removal of water.
The pulp now forms into a wet mat. This is now lifted off and sent through a press for further
removal of water. The web is now dried over steam heated MG cylinder where the dry part
starts. The paper obtained after drying is the final product with monoglazing. The final moisture
context in paper is about 3 to 5%. Final product is slit and rewound paper core into reels and
labelled.Various grades of paper with different grammage are manufactured by adjusting the
valve and sluices at the Head Box.The plant can be run continuously for a given variety of paper
without interruption. However, to change over from one variety to other, the paper making
operation has to be interrupted depending on the changes required to be made either in pulping
stage or in stock preparation[9].

Paper machine

The paper machine is made up of a number of components with different objective.The modern

paper machines have a more compact structure and the components not as easily recognized.

Headbox:The dilute pulp slurry, ~0.6 % dry solids content, is to be evenly spread out to

form the paper web. This is carried out by the headbox, which is a pressurised flow box,

distributing the pulp stock onto the moving wire.

WireThe wire is an endless moving belt, a woven cloth, allowing the water to be drainedand
retaining the fibres.

Press section:For more efficient water removal, the paper web is couched off the wire and

onto a felt and passed between pressing rolls.

Drying section:The remaining water is removed by drying the paper on steam heated hot

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cylinders.

Calandering: Most paper grades are subjected to calandering whereby the paper web passes
through nips between iron rolls. This decreases the thickness of the paper and evens out
variations in grammage along and across the paper web. The second objective of calanderingis to
improve the surface properties of the paper, mainly to make it smoother.

Coating: Many printing papers demand a very even surface. By applying a coating mixture, the
hollows on the surface of the paper sheet are filled.

Reel:Finally, the paper web is wound onto a reel.

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Figure 2:process flow diagram of pulp and paper production

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Figure 3;pulping and liquor recovery process

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Chapter Five

Material and Energy Balance


5.1 Material balance

There are two approaches for performing material and energy balances; upstream and
downstream ways as known informally. In the upstream, the balance is started from the last unit
in the process. Final product amount, quality, yield and equipment efficiency are mainly used to
do the balance. In the downstream way, the initial raw material amount is determined to arrive at
desired production capacity. This could be possible if the overall yield of the process in tons of
product per tons of raw materials is known. Therefore, here we follow the downstream way of
calculating the unknown quantities.

According to the current demand is75,363tons in 2011 E.C. since Wonji supplies 10,000 tonns of
paper annually and anmol group supplies15,000ton per year means that the supply gap is 50,363
tons.

If our plant covers 40 % of 2011 supplied gap or unsatisfied demand,so that the capacity of the
plant will be:

Capacity=40%*50, 363tonn /yr/density of paper

We select 40% based on our resource and raw materials and we will consider future expansion
based on future demand .

The density of paper ranges from 250kg/m3 to 1500kg/m3.printing paper is about 800 kg/m3

Capacity=(40%*50,363 tonn/yr*1000kg/ton)/(800kg/m3)

Capacity=25181.5m3/yr let say 300 calendar days per year and 24hr operating time per day

Production capacity= 25181.5m3/y*1yr/300day*1day/24hr=3.5m3/hr approximately 4m3/hr

Mass of paper product=800kg/m3*4 m3/hr=3200kg/hr=3.2ton/hr

We want to plant a company which has a capacity to produce 3200kg/hr printing paper as a
result we assumed that 50% of input pulp converted in to paper.

The steam requirement is about 2.3 tons for one ton of paper production [21].

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

For 3.2 ton/hr paper production it needs 3.2*2.3 ton/hr of steam=7.35 ton/hr of steam is required
for the whole plant.

For the drier section it is estimated to use 36% of the total steam required 36%*7.35=2.65 ton/hr
of air is required.in drying section.

Wet paper sheet @200c

Steam Hot air @90oc Drier Air @ 25oc+evaporated water

Dry paper@800c

mass of wet paper= mass of dried paper+ mass of evaporated water

mass of wet paper=3.2 ton/hr+mass of evaporated water

From litreture evaporated water is estimated around 2.5%of


wetpaper[https://nptel.ac.in,lecture“fourstock preparation and paper making”][100]

Mass of wet paper=3.2ton/hr+2.5%mass of wet paper

(1-0.025)mass of wet paper=3.2ton/hr

Mass of wet paper=3.2ton/hr/(0.975)

=3.3ton/hr iswet paper

Water evaporated is equal to 2.5%3.3 ton/hr=0.0825ton/hr

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Material balance on paper machine

Pulp slurry
Paper machine
Wet paper
0.995 water
0.005 pulp 0.03 water
0.97 water removed

Water

mass of pulp slurry=mass of water + mass of wet paper………………….*

water balance

mass of pulp slurry*0.995=mass of water*0.97+mass of wet paper*0.03………..**

mass of pulp slurry=Mps

mass of water=Mw

Mass of dry pulp=Mdp

mass of wet paper=Mwp

Mps =Mw + Mwp

Mps*0.995=Mw*0.97+Mwp*0.03

Mps=Mw+3.3ton/hr

Mps*0.995=Mw*0.97+3.3*0.03

Dry Pulp balance

Mps*0.005=(1-0.03)*Mwp=0.97*3.3ton/hr=3.2ton/hr

Mps=3.2ton/hr/0.005

Mps=640.2ton/hr mass rate of pulp slurry

Mdp=0.005*Mps=3.2ton/hr
BAHIRDAR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PAGE 42
PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT
water(Mw)’

Bleached pulp (Mbp) Mps


Slurry
making Pulp slurry( 640.2 ton/hr )

tank
X(fraction of dry pulp0.5% pulp
(1-x)fraction of water99.5%water
Input=out put
Total mass balance
Mbp+Mw=Mps
Dry pulp balance
X*Mbp+0=0.5%Mps
XMbp=0.005*640.2 ton/hr=3.2ton/hr……………………*
Material balance on bleaching

Bleaching powder
Mbpow

Mp Bleaching tank
pulpfrom digester Bleached pulp(Mbp)

10%mooisture X(fraction of dry pulp

90%dry pulp (1-X)fraction of water

assume no generation accumulation and the process is steady state process

input=output

from literature 5kg of bleaching powder is required to 1 ton of pulp

ratio of pulp to bleaching powder=1ton/5kg=1000/5kg=200

mass of pulp=200*mass of bleaching powder

Mp/200=Mbpow

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

total mass balance


mass of pulp+mass of bleaching powder=mass of bleached pulp

Mp+Mbpow=Mbp
Mp+Mp/200=Mbp

201Mp=200*Mbp…………………..**
Dry pulp balance
Mp=200*X*Mbp/(0.9*201) but from equation * XMbp=3.2ton/hr

Mp=200*3.2/(0.9*201)

Mp =3.54ton/hr is mass flow of pulp from digester

Material balance on digester


Bamboo Chips

digester
White liquor Wet pulp (3.54 ton/hr)

to Black liquor evaporator

The required raw material bamboo which is feed in to digester to produce 3.54ton/hr pulp is:

Since for our production plant we select chemical which is kraft technology has a poteintial to
give 45% yield of pulp.

Yield=dry pulp/dry bamboo chips

Dry bamboo chip=dry pulp/yield but from literature a pulp from a digester contains 10%
moisture

Required bamboo chip=0.9*pulp produce/0.45=0.9*3.54ton/hr/0.45=7.1ton/hr=7100kg/hr

Inputs for digester

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

• White liquor(NaOH and NaS)


• Chips

From the given table above for vertical digester which is cooking time 4-5 hr
Chips feed for an hour is 7100kg/hr, for four hour digesting time give as:

7100kg/hr*4hr=28400 kg of dry bamboo chips.


from the literature the bath ratio (chip to liquor ratio) is 1:3-3.5 let take the maximum
The liquor needed is =raw material chips/3.5=28400kg/3.5=8115kg

The total mass feed in to digester is=mass of chips+mass of liquor


Total mass(Mt)=28400kg+8115kg=36515kg of feed

To find the volume of digester, we need to find the volume of feed i.e. volume of digester equals
to volume of feed.
Density=mass/volume,

volume=mass/density
The density of Ethiopian bamboo is estimated around731kg/m3.[33].

the density of the liquor (NaOH,NaS)(92.1g/l,50.6 g/l) respectively is much lower than the
density of thechips therefore density of mixture is equal to that of the density of chipsis equal to
731kg/m3.
Volume of feed=(mass ofchip+mass of liquor)/(density)=36515kg/731kg/m3 =49.95m3

Volume of feed=volume of digester=49.95m3this capacity round up to standared volume to 50m3


Volume of digester=50m3but we must give allowance and take 10% allowance and

volume of digester =50m3+0.1*50m3=55m3


Volume(v)=Πd2/4*h, but(h=1.5d)

d=∛(4V/1.5*3.14)=3.6m
height=1.5*3.6=5.4m

Make material balance on digester to calculate the mass flow of black liquor which enters to the
evaporator for energy recovery.

Assume the process is steady state ,no accumulation and no generation


Input=output

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Mass of chips +mass of liquor=mass of pulp + mass of black liquor


Mass of black liquor=mass of chip + mass of liquor-mass of pulp

=7100 kg /hr+(7100/3.5)kg/hr - 3540kg/hr


=5589 kg/hr of black liquor to evaporator

5.2 Energy balance


The heat of reaction determined can beused to predict batch digester conditionsand determine
control conditions. Onemodel incorporating these results wasdeveloped to determine the total
energybalance.
Wet paper @200C

Hot air @ 900C Hot air @ 25 0C

Drier

Dry paper @ 80

Assume during the drying there are no heat generation, consumption and accumulation.
Therefore, the energy balance becomes:
Ein= Eout
Moisture content of washed pulp= wet solid - dry solid)/wet solid= 0.03
Inlet temperature of wet paper = 20 = 293.15 K and Reference temperature= 00c
Moisture content of dried paper = 0.
Mass flow rate of wet paper = 3300 kg/hr
Mass flow rate of dry air = 2650kg/hr
Inlet temperature of air= 90 = 363 K
Outlet temperature of air= 25 = 298 K
Specific heat capacity of water= 4.18KJ/Kg K
Specific heat capacity of dry air= 1.005KJ/Kg K

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Specific heat capacity of dry paper = 1.2585KJ/Kg K


For the wet solid or entering to the dryer, the mass flow rate of water can be calculated as:
M water =H *wet paper=0.03*3300Kg/hr=99kg/hr
M of dried paper=(1-0.03)*3300=3201kg/hr
Energy balance on inlet air (hot air stream)
Q=MCpΔT where M=mass of dry air,Cp=specific heat capacity of dry air
T=is temperature
Q=2650*1.005(363-298)
Q=173,111.25KJ/hr of in let air
Energy balance on wet paper
Q=∑ CpiMi(Ti —T)
Q=(Mdrypulp*Cp dry pulp+M moisture*Cp of moisture)(Ti-T)
Q=(3201*1.2585+99*4.18)(353-293)
Q=266536.7KJ/hr is energy required for pulp temperature increment
The total amount of heat required for drying is equal to
QT=173,111.25KJ/hr+266536.7KJ/hr=439647.95KJ/hr

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

5.3 Design of Major Equipments


Design of digester

This is an open cylindrical vessel incorporating two bladed rotating elements that serves both to
circulate the slurry and to separate the fibre from each other. It makes the paper source become
disintegrated, transformed and well blended into fibre slurry. This unit is operated manually. It
follows:

Volume of pulper, Vr it result from its mass and density. From the above material balance we got
like

Density of chips 731kg/hr

ρNaOH= 91Kg/m3

ρNa2S=50.6 Kg/m3 density of mixture assumed as 731 since the density of liquior is mcch lower
than

Volume of feed=(mass ofchip+mass of liquor)/(density)=36515 kg/731kg/m3=49.95m3

Volume of feed 49.95m3 this capacity round up to standared volume to 50m3

Volume of digester=50m3 but we must give allowance and take 10% allowance and

volume of digester =50m3+0.1*50m3=55m3

Volume(v)=Πd2/4*h, but(h=1.5d)

d=∛(4V/1.5*3.14)=3.6m

height=1.5*3.6=5.4m

Radius of circular cylinder 3.6/2=1.8m

The total surface area of cylinder A:

A= 2*𝜋*r( h+ r)=81.4m2

Circumference of cylinder, C: C=2𝜋𝑅 =2*3.14*1.8=11.304m

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Blade Design for pulper


The blade was designed in a way that it has more mixing effect than cutting. The diameter, Da
vary from 1/2.33 DT to 1/3 DT.

From the average value, Blade diameter = 1/2.66DT, where DT (diameter of tank = 1/ 2.66*3.6m
= 1.35m)
The power required for pulping can be calculated as:
P = Np ρ N3 * Da5
But the density of white liquor can be calculated as by taking the larger densityas the density of
liquor which isthe 92.1g/l=92.1kg/m3
The power number can be calculated as: Np =P/ ρ *N3 *DA5
The power number NP can be calculated, but that can be read from Np vs. Re of the given graph.
To determine this first calculate Reynolds number: Re=(ρ *N*DA2 )/μ
Where, N = rotational speed
viscosity of the fluid which can be determined from Penny, W.R. “gride to tronble free mixers,”
chem. Eng., 77 12 , 171, 1970. At volume of the tank 7 m3, from Coulson figure 10.25
N =1150rpm
μ = 0.07 Ns/m2
Re =92.1kg/m3*1150/60 * [1.35m]2/0.07=45959.54>10,000
From Coulson figure 10.58
From power curve ,NP=6.1 for Reynolds number greater than 10,000
Then power requirement for pulping;
Power P= NP*ρ* N3* D5/(gc x 75)
Where;NP= Power number;N= Rotational speed;gc= gravitational constant; ρ=density
D=diameter of the agitator
P= (6.1 x 1000 x (1150/60)3*1.355/(9.8*75)=262030.055W=262.03KW

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Mechanical design
1.Design pressure
p =(ρ* g* h)
= 731kg/m3*9.8m/s*5.4m = 38.7kpa
For safe operation a safety factor of 10% is added in order to avoid minor constraint
Pi safety operation= 38.7kpa + 0.10 * 38.7kpa = 42.87kpa
The atmospheric pressure does not consider, because the gauge pressure is above the
atmospheric pressure which indicates there is no effect on the internal pressure.

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

2. Design temperature
The temperature of white liquor is at room temperature that is at 20 temperatures.
3. Material selection
The pulper is constructed from carbon steel, because carbon steel can survive the temperature up
to 400 and low cost.
4. Design stress
The design stress is determined from Coulson and Richardson volume 6, table 13.2 page 809 at
20 so that, the design pressure is 135N/mm2.
Minimum wall thickness determination
The minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical section can be determined as
e= PiDi/2Jf- Pi
The minimum thickness with corrosion allowance becomes:-
t= e+ 4

Thickness of reactor, t= PD/( 2fj –P) +C


Where, j is join efficiency 0.85; f stress factor at 20 0c 135N/mm2; Corrosion allowance is 4
e = (0.04257N/mm2 *3600mm)/(2*135*0.85 – 0.04257N/mm2)) + 4 = 4.67mm

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Chapter six

Cost estimation and profitability analysys

Table 10:major equipment cost

Name of standa numbe price/equipme total


Equipment Calculated rd r of nt in($) price ($)
sNize equipm
Size (m) (m) ent
2 50,000 100,000
disc stump wood
chipper

Pulp Digester 3.6 1 50,000 50,000


3.6m
1 3000 3000
Blow tank
Head box 1 8,000
8000
Vacuum Drum 2 4,000
WasherSingle (bleaching 2000
tank)
Disc Filter 1 12000 12,000
Twin Roll Press(paper 1 300,000
pressing) 300,000

sizing press 1 30,000


30,000
Air cationed hydraulic 1 4,000
head boxin wear paper 4000
machines

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

calender for paper 1 25,000 25,000


machine

Sheet cutter 1 700


700

Total 536,700

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Estimation of total investment cost

Since our plant is pulp and paper production which is categorized under solid liquid processing plant we
take the percent under this category

Direct Percent assumed (%) Cost ($) Amount(%)

Purchased equipment (E) 100 100%(E) 536,700

Installation 39 39%(E) 209,313

Instrument and control 13 13%(E) 69,771


installed
Piping and installation 31 31%(E) 166,377

Electrical installation 10 10%(E) 53670

Building process and 29 29%(E) 155,643


auxiliary
Service facilities 55 55%(E) 295,185

Yard improvement 10 10%(E) 53670

Land 6 6%(E) 32202

Total direct cost 1,572,531


Indirect cost
Engineering and Supervision 32 32%(E) 171,744
Construction Expenses 34 34%(E) 182,478
Contractors 18 18%(E) 96,606
Contingency 36 36%(E) 193,212
Total Indirect 644,040
Fixed capital Investment 2,216,571
Working capital 15% (TCI) 15%(TCI) 391,160
Investment(WC)
Total capital Investment FCI+WC=FCI/(1- 2,607,731
0.15)

Table 11:estimation of total capital investment

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Table 12:total production cost

Direct production cost Interval Assumed cost Amount


range percent(%)
(%)
Raw material 10-50 30 30%(TPC)
Operating labor(OL) 14 14 14%(FCI) 310320
Supervisor 10-25 19 19%(OL) 58961

Utilities 10-20 19 19%(TPC)


Maintenance 2-10 8 8%(FCI) 177326
Laboratory charge 10-20 15 15%(OL) 46548
Operating supply 0.5-1 0.7 0.7%(FCI) 155160
Loyalty and patent 1 1 1%(TPC)

Total direct cost

Fixed charges

Depreciation 10 10 10%(FCI) 221657

Local Tax 1-4 2 2%(FCI) 44332

Insurance 0.4-1 0.7 0.7%(FCI) 155160

Rent 8-12 10 10%(land&b 18785


uilding)
Total fixed charges

Plant Overhead 50-70 60 60%(ol+sup+ 327965


main)
General expense

Administration 2-6 5 5%(TPC)

Distribution and selling 2-20 17 17%(TPC)

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Research and development 5 5 5%(TPC)


Financing(interest) 0-10 5 5%(TCI)
Total production $82%(TPC) +$1,516,214
Total production cost=direct production cost + fixed charge + general expense + plant over head

TPC=82%TPC+1516214

(1-0.82)TPC=1516214

TPC=1516214/(1-0.82)

TPC=$8,423,412/yr.=235,855,539 Birr/year

The selling price of 1 kg writing paper in the market is around 12birr.let assume the plant
produce at 100% capacity from the starting and the selling price of 23040 ton/year paper is
calculated us

Selling price(birr/yr.)=23040ton/yr.*1000kg/ton*12 birr/kg

Annual sales =276,480,000 birr/yr.

Grose earning =annual sales –total production cost

=276,480,000 birr/yr –235,855,539birr/yr

=40,624,461birr/year

Net profit(net gross earning)=gross earning*(1-tax)

In most area of Ethiopia the income tax is taken as 0.35 to the official government

Net profit=40624461 birr /year(1-0.35)

=26,405,900 Birr/yr.

Profitability analysis
1,Rate of return (ROR) after tax
𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑓𝑖𝑡 𝟐𝟔,𝟒𝟎𝟓,𝟗𝟎𝟎 𝐁𝐢𝐫𝐫/𝐲𝐫
ROR=𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑡𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡= ∗ 100% = 36.16%
2607731∗28

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

2,payback period
The payback period of the project will be;
PBP = Fixed Capital Investment/(Net Gross Earning Cost + Annual Depreciation)
Annual Depreciation=(FCI-Salvage value)/service year( for pulp and paper is estimated around
16 year),assume salvage value is zero
𝟐𝟐𝟏𝟔𝟓𝟕𝟏∗𝟐𝟖−𝟎
D= =3,878,999.25birr/year
𝟏𝟔

PBP=2216571*28birr/year/(26405900Birr /yr+3,878,999.25birr/year)

PBP=2.05yr.

3,Net present value


This is one of method of profitabaility measurement method.

NPW=∑ 𝑐𝑎𝑠ℎ 𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑖𝑛/((1 + 𝑖)^𝑛)|tn=1


Annual cash flow=average annual profit+depreciation per year

=26,405,900birr/year+3,878,999.25birr/year
=30,284,899.25birr/year

Take interest rate 10%=0.1=i

NPW=30,284,899.25((1/(1+0.1))+(1/(1+0.1)^2)+…………………+(1/(1+0.1)^16)
NPW=30,284,899.25*7.823709
NPW=236,940,238.8birr/year
Check on NPW-TCE
236,940,238.25-(2,607,731*28)
NPW-TCE =163,923,770.8birr/year
This more posetive number shows,the business is more attractive and reasonably
profitable.

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Chapter six

SITE SELECTION
The geographical location of the final plant can have strong influence on the success of an
industrial venture. In selecting the plant site, Considerable care must be exercise, and many
different factors must be considered. Primarily, the plant should be located where the minimum
cost of production and distribution can be obtain, but other factors, such as room for expansion
and safe living conditions for plant operation as well as the surrounding community, are also
important. The following factors should be considered during selecting of a plant site:[32]

1. Raw materials availability

2. Markets

3. Energy availability

4. Climate

5. Transportation facilities

6. Water supply

7. Waste disposal

8. Labor supply

9. Taxation and legal restrictions

10. Site characteristics

11. Flood and fire protection

12. Community factors.

But for pulp and paper plant the main factors are raw material,utilities specially
water,transportation labor and climates.

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

1.Raw material
Bamboo

Table 13:major highland bamboo areas in Ethiopia[35]

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Table 14:major lowland bamboo areas in Ethiopia

2) water and Climate

From the aove bamboo resource places metema /dansha/humera has high amount of bamboo but
it is heavey to acesses water near by places and also the teamperature reaches 35-45oc this makes
the workers unconfortable.on the other hand benshangul gumuze specially in asossa has good
climate and has enough water resource.

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Table 15:levels of factors in different countries


factor Benshangul Gumuze Amhara/tigray Oromia SSNP
Asos Bamba kamas injiba Metema/dens Dides ger Gim Mes Bong
sa si hi ra ha/ sa a bi ha a
Humera valley
Raw 80 60 40 15 100 90 30 32 25 20
material(bamb
oo)
Water 70 65 70 90 30 70 60 60 65 50

Climate 90 85 90 80 25 50 60 70 70 65
Transportatio 65 60 55 70 40 30 40 35 40 50
n
Market 60 60 60 60 50 40 60 65 60 50
demand

total 435 330 410 315 245 280 25 262 260 235
0

From the above table the pulp and paper plant factory erected at benshangul gumuze spetially in asossa
or bambasi but we select asossa.

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Figure 4:plant lay out Raw


material
storage
Recrat
Administrati maintena
ion
nce
on office

toilet
tet

guards

Pulp making

Paper making Boiler house

Sales plant
and
marketi
ng

Yard improvement

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

3,environmental impact analysis

The main steps in pulp and paper manufacture are: raw material preparation, (wood debarking
and chipping), wood pulping; pulp bleaching; paper manufacturing. Pulp mills and paper mills
may exist separately or as integrated operations. Pulp manufacturing starts with raw material
preparation, which includes wood debarking, logs chipping and chips screening. In the chemical
pulping process the fibers are liberated from the wood matrix as the lignin is removed by
dissolving in the cooking liquor at a high temperature. In the kraft pulp process the active
cooking chemicals are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium sulphide(Na 2S)

As a result of the large amount of sodium hydroxide used, the pH value at the start of a cook is
between 13 and 14[36]. After cooking, pulp is washed and screened, and then is bleached[37].
The objective of pulp bleaching is to remove residual lignin remaining after cooking in order to
enhance pulp brightness. Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, peracetic acid, sodium
hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and other chemicals are used to transform lignin into a
soluble form. An alkali, such as sodium hydroxide is necessary in the bleaching process to
extract the alkali-soluble form of lignin. In modern pulp mills, oxygen is normally used in the
first stage of bleaching. The trend is to avoid the use of any kind of chlorine chemicals and
employ “Total Chlorine-Free” (TCF) bleaching [38].The use of elemental chlorine for bleaching
is not recommended. Only “Elemental Chlorine Free” (ECF) processes are acceptable, and from
an environmental perspective, TCF bleaching is preferred [39].

The environmental impact of pulp and paper manufacture results mainly from wood pulping and
pulp bleaching processes. The pollutants are represented by sulfur compounds and nitrogen
oxides that are emitted to the air, and by bleaching chlorinated and organic compounds and
nutrients that are discharged to the wastewaters.Pulp and paper manufacture need a large volume
of process water. Wastewaters are discharged at a rate of 20–100 cubic meters per ton of product,
and these are high in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, chemical
oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen and phosphorus.Wood wastes and sludge represent the most
important residues of a pulp and paper mill. These wastes are used to obtain energy by their
burning in a suitable boiler

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

Table 16:pollution sources in producing pulp and paper[40]

Table 17:air emissions in a kraft pulp mill[41]

Pollution prevention and control The most significant environmental issues are the discharge of
chlorine-based organic compounds from bleaching and of other toxic organics. The
unchlorinated material is essentially black liquor that has escaped the mill recovery
process.Some mills are approaching 100% recovery. Industry developments demonstrate that
total chlorine-free bleaching is feasible for many pulp and paper products but cannot produce
certain grades of paper. The adoption of these modern process developments, wherever feasible,
is encouraged. Pollution prevention programs should focus on reducing wastewater discharges
and on minimizing air emissions. Process recommendations may include the following [42].

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PULP AND PAPER PRODUCTION PLANT DESIGN PROJECT

a. Use energy-efficient pulping processes wherever feasible. Acceptability of less bright


products should be promoted.

b. Minimize the generation of effluents through process modifications and recycle wastewaters,
aiming for total recycling.

c. Reduce effluent volume and treatment requirements by using dry instead of wet debarking;
recover pulping chemicals by black liquor evaporation and burning of black liquor in a recovery
furnace; recover cooking chemicals by recausticizing of green liquor; use high-efficiency pulp
washing and bleaching equipments.

d. Reduce bleaching requirements by process design and operation. Use the following measures
to reduce emissions of chlorinated compounds to the environment: before bleaching, reduce the
lignin content in the pulp by extended cooking and by oxygen delignification; optimize pulp
washing prior to bleaching; use TCF or ECF bleaching systems; use oxygen, ozone, hydrogen
peroxide, peracetic acid, or enzymes as substitutes for chlorine-based bleaching chemicals;
recover and incinerate maximum material removed from pulp mill.

e. Minimize sulfur emissions to the atmosphere by using a modern low-odor black liquor
recovery boiler.

f. Minimize unplanned discharges of wastewater and black liquor, caused by equipment failures,
human error, and faulty maintenance procedures, by training operators, establishing good
operating

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Conclusion and recommendation


Conclusion
In general we conclude that starting business on production of pulp and paper production is
attractive and incurring high amount of money or becomes profitable business not only getting
profit also feeling satisfaction by providing good paper for the community by less price.this
business also good for the country development by lessen or stop importing pulp and paper.

Recommendation
As a suggestion another business man planting bamboo around the plant instead of buying.

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[21] Monica Ek,Goran Gellerstedt,Gunnar Henriksson “pulping Chemistry And technology”


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