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Santosh Shirgaonkar

egRokps eqn~ns
• /kkrw (Metals)
• /kkrwps HkkSfrd o jklk;fud xq.k/keZ
(Physical & Chemical Properties of Metals)
• v/kkrw (Non-Metals)
• v/kkrwps HkkSfrd o jklk;fud xq.k/keZ
(Physical & Chemical Properties of Non-Metals)
• /kkrwln`’k (Metalloids)
• /kkrwps fu"d"kZ.k (Extraction of Metals)

Santosh Shirgaonkar
izLrkouk
 HkkSfrd vkf.k jklk;fud xq.k/kekZP;k vk/kkjs ewynzO;kps oxhZdj.k
/kkrw] v/kkrw vkf.k /kkrwln`’; ;k rhu xVkr dsys tkrs-

 l/;k 119 ewynzO;s Kkr vkgsr-

 R;kiSdh 92 ewynzO;s fulxkZr vk<Grkr rj 27 ewynzO;s gh


iz;ksx’kkGsr r;kj dsysyh vkgsr-

 fulxkZrhy 92 ewynzO;kaiSdh lk/kkj.ki.ks 70 ewynzO;s /kkrw rj 22


ewynzO;s v/kkrw vkgs-

Santosh Shirgaonkar
/kkrw (Metals)
 T;k ewynzO;kaps v.kw bysDVªkWu xekoY;kewGs /ku vk;u r;kj djrkr R;kauk
/kkrw vls Eg.krkr-
mnk- yksg] vWY;wfefuve] rkacs] lksus] pkanh] IyWfVue b-

v/kkrw (Non-Metals)
 T;k ewynzO;kaps v.kq bysDVªkWu dekoY;kewGs _ + .k vk;u r;kj djrkr
R;kauk v/kkrw vls Eg.krkr-
mnk- gk;Mªkstu] vkWfDltu] uk;Vªkstu] Dyksfju] QkWLQjl] czksfeu b-

/kkrwln`’; (Metalloids)
 T;k ewynzO;kaps xq.k/keZ /kkrw rlsp v/kkrw lkj[ks vlrkr R;kauk /kkrwln`’;
vls Eg.krkr-
mnk- cksjkWu] flyhdkWu] tesZfuve] vklsZfud] vWfVeuh] VsY;qfjve] iksyksfuve
b-
/kkrw vkf.k v/kkrwaps HkkSfrd xq.k/keZ
1½ HkkSfrd vkoLFkk (Physical State)
 lkekU; rkiekukyk /kkrw LFkk;w:Ik vkoLFksr vk<Grkr-
viokn ¼ikjk o xWfyve½
mnk- yksg] vWY;wfefuve] rkacs] tLr b-
 lkekU; rkiekukyk v/kkrw ok;w] LFkk;w rlsp nzo:Ik vkoLFksr
vk<Grkr-
mnk- LFkk;w & dkcZu] lYQj] QkWLQjl
nzo & czksfeu
ok;w & vkWfDltu] gk;Mªkstu] uk;Vªkstu] Dyksfju] ¶yksfju

Santosh Shirgaonkar
2½ pdkdh (Lustre)
 /kkrwua k pdkdh vlrs-
 /kkrwpa k i`"BHkkx ?kklY;kuarj R;ko:u izdk’kkps ijkorZu gksrs-
 /kkrw lglk :isjh fdaok djM~;k jaxkps vlrkr- ¼viokn & lksus] rkacs½
mnk- IyWfVue] lksus] pkanh b-
 v/kkrwua k pdkdh ulrs-
 dkgh v/kkrw jaxghu rj dkgh v/kkrwua k osxosxGs jax vlrkr-
¼viokn & fgjk Lo:ikrhy dkcZu½
3½ ?kurk (Density)
 /kkrwpa h ?kurk mPp vlrs- ¼viokn & lksfMve] iksVWf’kve½
mnk- IyWfVue] lksus] pkanh b-
 v/kkrwp a h ?kurk deh vlrs- ¼viokn & fgjk Lo:ikrhy dkcZu½
4½ dkfB.;rk (Hardness)
 Ckgqrsd /kkrw dBh.k vlrkr- ¼viokn & lksfMve] iksVWf’kve½
mnk- yksg] rkacs] vWY;qfefuve b-
 v/kkrw fBlwG@e`nw vlrkr- ¼viokn & fgjk Lo:ikrhy dkcZu½

5½ m".krk ogu (Conduction of Heat)


 /kkrw m".krsps lqokgd vlrkr- dkj.k /kkrwea /khy d.kkaph jpuk [kqi
nkV vlrs-
mnk- pkanh] rkacs] vWY;qfefuve b-
 v/kkrw m".krsps nqokZgd vlrkr-

Santosh Shirgaonkar
6½ fo|qr ogu (Conduction of Electricity)
 /kkrw fotsps lqokgd vlrkr- dkj.k /kkrwea /;s eqDr bysDVªkWu vlrkr-
¼viokn & f’kls½
mnk- pkanh] lksus] rkacs] vWY;qfefuve b-
 v/kkrw fotsps nqokZgd vlrkr- ¼viokn & fgjk Lo:ikrhy dkcZu½

7½ nzo.kkad vkf.k mRdyukad (Melting Point & Boiling Point)


 /kkrwp
a k nzo.kkad vkf.k mRdyukad mPp vlrks- ¼viokn & xWfyve]
lksfMve] ikjk] iksVWf’kve½
 v/kkrwp a k nzo.kkad vkf.k mRdyukad deh vlrks-
¼viokn & dkcZupk nzo.kkad 3550 °C rj mRdyukad 3825 °C vkgs-½

Santosh Shirgaonkar
8½ rU;rk (Ductility)
 /kkrwiklwu rkj dk<rk ;srs ;k /kkrwPa ;k xw.k/kekZyk rU;rk vls Eg.krkr-
mnk- pkanh] lksus] rkacs] IyWfVue] VaxLVu b-
& ,d xzWe lksU;kiklwu nksu fd-eh- ykachph rkj r;kj djrk ;srs-
 v/kkrwiklwu rkj r;kj djrk ;sr ukgh-

9½ o/kZfu;rk (Malleability)
 /kkrwia klwu i=k r;kj djrk ;srks ;k /kkrwPa ;k xq.k/kekZyk o/kZfu;rk vls
Eg.krkr-
mnk- lksus] pkanh] vWY;qehfuve-
 v/kkrwiklwu i=k r;kj djrk ;sr ukgh-

Santosh Shirgaonkar
10½ ukne;rk (Sonorous)
 /kkrwPa ;k dBh.k i`"BHkkxkoj vk?kkr >kY;kewGs daiukrwu /ouhph fufeZrh
gksrs ;k /kkrqaP;k xq.k/kekZyk ukne;rk vls Eg.krkr-
 /kkrw ukne; vlrkr-
mnk- rkacs] yksg b-
 v/kkrw vukne; vlrkr-

11½ nzkof.k;rk (Solubility)


 /kkrw nzkodkr lglk foj?kGr ukghr-
v/kkrw dks.kR;kgh nzkodkr foj?kGw 'kdrkr- rlsp R;k nzkodkps
ckf"iHkou d:u foj?kGysyk v/kkrw iqUgk izkIr djrk ;srks-

Santosh Shirgaonkar
/kkrw vkf.k v/kkrwaps jklk;fud xq.k/keZ
1½ bysDVªkWu la:i.k (Electron Configuration)
 /kkrwPa ;k ckg~;re d{ksr lk/kkj.ki.ks 1] 2 fdaok 3 bysDVªkWu vlrkr-
/kkrwPa ;k ckg~;re d{ksr tso<s bysDVªkWu deh rso<k rks /kkrw tkLr
fØ;k’khy vlrks-
mnk- 1) Na = (2, 8, 1) 2) Mg= (2, 8, 2) 3) Al = (2, 8, 3)
 v/kkrwPa ;k ckg~;re d{ksr lk/kkj.ki.ks 5] 6 fdaok 7 bysDVªkWu vlrkr-
v/kkrwPa ;k ckg~;re d{ksr tso<s bysDVªkWu tkLr rso<k rks v/kkrw tkLr
fØ;k’khy vlrks-
mnk- 1) P = (2, 8, 5) 2) S = (2, 8, 6) 3) Cl = (2, 8, 7)

Santosh Shirgaonkar
2½ vk;ukaph fufeZrh (Formation of Ion)
 /kkrw ckg~;re d{ksrhy bysDVªkWu xeorkr vkf.k /ku izHkkfjr vk;u
r;kj djrkr- R;kaukp dWVk;u vls Eg.krkr R;keqGs /kkrw fo|qrn`"V~;k
/ku vlrkr-

mnk- 1) Na -𝑒 − 𝑁𝑎+

(2, 8, 1) (2, 8)

2) Mg -2𝑒 − 𝑀𝑔2+ (2, 8, 2)

(2, 8)

3) Al -3𝑒 − 𝐴𝑙 3+ (2, 8, 3) (2, 8)

Santosh Shirgaonkar
 v/kkrw ckg~;re d{ksrhy bysDVªkWu deorkr vkf.k _.kizHkkfjr vk;u
r;kj djrkr- R;kaukp vWuk;u vls Eg.krkr R;keqGs v/kkrw fo|qrn`"V~;k
_.k vlrkr-

mnk- 1) P +3𝑒 − 𝑃3−

(2, 8, 5) (2, 8, 8)

2) S +2𝑒 − 𝑆 2− (2, 8, 6)

(2, 8, 8)

3) Cl +𝑒 − 𝐶𝑙 + (2, 8, 7) (2, 8, 8)

Santosh Shirgaonkar
3½ vkWfDltu lkscr vfHkfØ;k (Reaction with Oxygen)
 lk/kkj.ki.ks loZ /kkrwp a h vfHkfØ;k vkWfDltulkscr gksÅu /kkrwp
a s
vkWDlkbMl~ r;kj gksrkr-
 loZ /kkrwpa h fØ;k’khyrk osxosxGh vlrs-
/kkrw $ vkWfDltu /kkrw vkWDlkbM
mnk- 4Na + O2 2Na2O
 lk/kkj.ki.ks v/kkrwp a h vfHkfØ;k vkWfDltulkscr gksÅu v/kkrwp
a s
vkWDlkbMl~ r;kj gksrkr-
v/kkrw $ vkWfDltu v/kkrw vkWDlkbM
mnk- C + O2 CO2

Santosh Shirgaonkar
4½ vkWDlkbMps Lo:i
 /kkrw lk/kkj.ki.ks vkEykjh/kehZ vkWDlkbM r;kj djrkr-
mnk- vk;uZ vkWDlkbM (Fe2O3), dWfY’kve vkWDlkbM (CaO),
lksfMve vkWDlkbM (Na2O)
viokn & vWY;qfefuve vkWDlkbM (Al2O3)] f>ad vkWDlkbM(ZnO)]
Vhu vkWDlkbM(SnO2) gs mHk;/kehZ vkWDlkbM vkgsr rj Øksfed
vkWDlkbM(CrO3) vkf.k eWaxfut gk;ikWDlkbM(Mn2O7) gs vkEy/kehZ
vkWDlkbM vkgsr-
mHk;/kehZ vkWDlkbM& dkgh /kkrwp a s vkWDlkbM mHk;/kehZ vlrkr Eg.ktsp
R;kaph vkEyka’kh vfHkfØ;k dsY;kl vkEykjhaps xq.k/keZ n’kZforkr rj
vkEykjha’kh vfHkfØ;k dsY;kl vkEykaps xq.k/keZ n’kZforkr

 v/kkrq lk/kkj.ki.ks vkEy/kehZ vkWDlkbM r;kj djrkr


mnk- dkcZu Mk;vkWDlkbM(CO2)] lYQj Mk;vkWDlkbM (SO2)

Santosh Shirgaonkar
5½ vkEykalkscr vfHkfØ;k
 /kkrwpa h vfHkfØ;k fofo/k vkEyka’kh gksmu /kkrw{kkj r;kj gksrkr vkf.k
gk;Mªkstu ok;w eqDr gksrks-
/kkrw $ vkEy {kkj $ gk;Mªkstu ok;w
mnk- 2Na + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2 ¼DyksjkbM {kkj½
Ca + H2SO4 CaSO4 + H2 ¼lYQsV {kkj½
 Lkk/kkj.ki.ks v/kkrwp
a h vfHkfØ;k vkEyka’kh >kY;kl R;kaps vkWfDlMhdj.k
?kMwu ;srs-
mnk- S + 2H2SO4 3SO2 + 2H2O
S + 6HNO3 H2SO4 + 6NO2 + 2H2O

Santosh Shirgaonkar
6½ /kkrwPa ;k vkWDlkbMlkscr vkEykph vfHkfØ;k
 /kkrwPa ;k vkWDlkbM lkscr vkEykaph vfHkfØ;k >kY;kl /kkrwp
a s {kkj vkf.k
ik.kh r;kj gksrs-
/kkrw vkWDlkbM $ vkEy {kkj $ ik.kh
mnk- CaO + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O
CaO + H2SO4 CaSO4 + H2O

7½ v/kkrwPa ;k vkWDlkbMlkscr vkEykph vfHkfØ;k


 v/kkrwaP;k vkWDlkbMlkscr vkEykjhaph vfHkfØ;k >kY;kl /kkrwp
a s {kkj
vkf.k ik.kh r;kj gksrs-
v/kkrw vkWDlkbM $ vkEykjh {kkj $ ik.kh
mnk- CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O
CaO + H2SO4 CaSO4 + H2O
Santosh Shirgaonkar
8½ {ki.k o vkWfDlMhdj.k fØ;k
 /kkrw mRre {ki.kd vlrkr dkj.k rs vkWDlkbMe/kwu vkWfDltu osxGk
djrkr ;k fØ;syk {ki.k vls Eg.krkr-

v/kkrw mRre vkWfDlMhdkjd vlrkr dkj.k rs inkFkZpk


vkWfDltulkscr la;ksx ?kMowu vkurkr- ;k fØ;syk vkWfDlMhdj.k vls
Eg.krkr-

Santosh Shirgaonkar
/kkrwp
a k vk<G
/kkrw fulxkZe/;s eqDr o la;qDr fLFkrhe/;s vk<Grkr-
eqDrfLFkrhr vk<G.kkjs /kkrw deh fØ;k’khy vlrkr] Eg.ktsp R;kaP;koj
gok o ik.kh ;kapk ifj.kke gksr ukgh- R;kaukp jkt/kkrw vlsgh Eg.krkr-

mnk- eqDr fLFkrh & lksus] pkanh] IyWVhue] rksacs vkf.k fcLeFk b-

la;qDr fLFkrh & ckWDlkbV] gsesVkbV] eWXusVkbV b-

Santosh Shirgaonkar
[kfuts
Hkwdopkr fulxZr% vk<G.kk&;k /kkrw vkf.k R;kaP;k la;qxkP;k
lkB~;kauk [kfuts vls Eg.krkr-

/kkrwds

T;k [kfutkaiklwu Qk;ns’khjfjR;k /kkrw feGrkr R;kauk /kkrwds vls


Eg.krkr-

loZ /kkrwds [kfuts vlrkr ijarw loZ [kfuts /kkrwds ulrkr-

Santosh Shirgaonkar
e`nk v’kq/nh
/kkrwdke/;s vl.kk&;k okGw] ekrh vkf.k [kMdkpk pqjk ;klkj[;k
v’kq/n nzO;kauk e`nk v’kq/nh vls Eg.krkr-

/kkrwdkaps izdkj

/kkrwdke/;s /kkrwlkscr vl.kk&;k v/kkrwaP;k lewgkuqlkj /kkrwdkaps


fofo/k izdkj iMrkr-

mnk- vkWDlkbM /kkrwds] lYQkbM /kkrwds] dkcksZusV /kkrwds] lYQsV /kkrwds


b-

Santosh Shirgaonkar
/kkrwfoKku
/kkrwfoKku Eg.kts /kkrwpa s foKku gks;- fofo/k HkkSfrd vkf.k
jklk;fud i/nrhapk okij d:u /kkrwdkiklwu /kkrwp a s fu"d"kZ.k] ifj"dj.k
vkf.k lafeJhdj.k ;kapk vH;kl dj.kk&;k foKkukP;k 'kk[ksyk /kkrwfoKku
vls Eg.krkr-
/kkrwp
a s fu"d"kZ.k dj.;kiwohZ R;kaph fØ;k’khyrk ekfgr vl.ks
vko’;d vlrs- /kkrw

tkLr fØ;k’khy e/;e fØ;k’khy deh fØ;k’khy


iksVWf’kve tLr ikjk
lksfMve Ykksg pkanh
dWfY’kve f’kls lksus
eWXusf’kve rkacs IyWVhue
vWY;qfefuve
/kkrwaps fu"d"kZ.k
 /kkrwdkaiklwu ewynzO;kP;k Lo:ikl feGfo.;kP;k izfdz;syk fu"d"kZ.k
vls Eg.krkr- R;ke/;s [kkyhy ik;&;kapk lekos’k gksrks-
1½ lagsrhdj.k (Concentration)
;ke/;s fofo/k HkkSfrd o jklk;fud i/nrhaP;k lkgk:;kus /kkrqdkae/kwu
e`nkv’kq/nh osxGh dsyh tkrs-
2½ {ki.k (Reduction)
vkWDlkbM /kkrwdkrwu vkWfDltu dk<wu Vkd.;kP;k jklk;fud izfdz;syk
{ki.k vls Eg.krkr- jklk;fud {ki.k nksu izdkjs dsys tkrs-
v½ {ki.kdkpk okij d:u & ;ke/;s {ki.kd vkWfDltucjkscj la;ksx
ikorks vkf.k vkWfDltu osxGk djrks-
c½ fo|qr vi?kVu & ;ke/;s fo|qr?kVkP;k lgk¸;kus la;qxkps vi?kVu
d:u ?kkrw feGfoyk tkrks- lYQkvM fdaok dkcsZusV /kkrwdkaps lagrhdj.k
dsY;kuarj izFke vkWDlkbMe/;s :ikarj djkos ykxrs o R;kuarj R;kaps
{ki.k d:u /kkrw feGfoyk tkrks-
R;klkBh [kkyhy izek.ks nksu i/nrhapk okij djrkr-
 Hkkt.ks (Rosting)
lYQkbM /kkrqdkpk pqjk vfrfjDr gosr rkiowu R;kps :ikarj
vkWDlkbMe/;s dj.;kP;k fdz;syk Hkkt.ks vls Eg.krkr-
mnk- 2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2
 fuLrkiu (Calcination)
dkcksZusV /kkrqdkpk pqjk vfrfjDr gospk laidZ VkGwu rkifoY;kl R;kps
:ikarj vkWDlkbMe/;s gksrs ;k fdz;syk fuLrkiu vls Eg.krkr-
mnk- 2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2
Santosh Shirgaonkar
3½ ifj"dj.k (Refining)
;ke/;s jklk;fud i/nrhpk okij d:u 'kq/n /kkrw feGfoyk tkrks-
4½ lafeJhdj.k (Alloying)
Nksu fdaok vf/kd 'kq/n /kkrw vFkok /kkrw vkf.k v/kkrw ;kaP;k lekaxh
feJ.kkyk lafeJs vls Eg.krkr- rlsp ;k izfdz;syk lafdeJhdj.k vls
Eg.krkr-

Santosh Shirgaonkar