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# Republic of the Philippines

## State Universities and Colleges

ILOILO STATE COLLEGE OF FISHERIES-SAN ENRIQUE CAMPUS
San Enrique, Iloilo

“SETS”

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (February 19, 1845 – January 6, 1918) was a German
mathematician. He created set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor
established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined
infinite and well-ordered sets, and proved that the real numbers are more numerous than the natural
numbers.

SETS- is a well-defined collection of objects, the objects are called the elements or members.

Example:

Example of Sets:

## a). A = {x l x is a positive integer less than 10}

- Set A equals the set of all x such that x is a positive integer less than 10.

A = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}

B= {d, i, r, t}

## Methods of writing sets

A. Roster Method
- Elements of the set are enumerated and separated by a comma, it is also called tabulation
method.

A = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9}

B. Rule Method
- A descriptive phrase used to describe the elements or members of the set also known as set
builder notation.

## A = {x l x is a positive integer less than 10}

Finite Set
A set with definite number of elements.

Examples:

1. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
2. B = {population of students at ISCOF-SEC}
3. D = {xIx is a positive integer less than 10.}

Infinite Set
A set with an indefinite number of elements.
Examples:
1. N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}
2. Z = {xIx is a set of integers}
3. H = {xIx is a set of molecules in earth}
Republic of the Philippines
State Universities and Colleges
ILOILO STATE COLLEGE OF FISHERIES-SAN ENRIQUE CAMPUS
San Enrique, Iloilo

Equivalent Set
Any two sets with the same number of elements.
Example:
D= {1, 3, 5}, E= {a, b, c}
Sets D and E are equivalent sets. In symbol, D ≈ E

Equal Set
Two sets with identical elements, that is, the two sets have equal number of elements and at the
same time having the same time having the same elements.
Examples:
1. E = {1, 2, 3}, F = {1, 2, 3}
E and F are equal sets. In symbol, E = F
2. A = {monitor, keyboard, cpu}, B = {cpu, keyboard, monitor}; A and B are equal sets.

Subset
A subset is a set whose elements are contained in a given reference set.
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, E = {1, 2, 3}, We say that E is a subset of A. In symbol, E ⊆ A

Proper Subset
A subset of a given set is a proper subset if it is not equal to the given set. It uses the symbol.
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {1, 3, 5}; B ⊂ A.

Improper Subset
Given a set A, an improper subset is the set itself or the null set.
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; or C = { } =Ø

Super Set
If A is a subset of B, then B is called a super subset of A.
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} B is a superset of A (B ⊇ A).

Joint Set
Any two sets with at least a common element are said to be joints sets.
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; B = {3, 4, 5, 6}
A and B are said to be joints sets.

Disjoint Sets
Two sets are said to be disjoint if they have no common element.
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
C = {6, 7, 8, 9}, A and C are said to be disjoint sets.

Null Set
The set without any element. It uses the symbol Ø or { }.
Example:
L= {xIx is the set of positive integers less than zero}

Universal Set
In general, this is the set that contains all the elements one can think of. However, in application,
a universal set may be any set used as a reference in a particular situation. Symbol for universal
set is U.
Example:
1. U = {all elements possible} - general idea
2. U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} - in a problem situation which is about the natural numbers less than
ten.
Republic of the Philippines
State Universities and Colleges
ILOILO STATE COLLEGE OF FISHERIES-SAN ENRIQUE CAMPUS
San Enrique, Iloilo

## Complement of a Given Set

Given a set, say A, the complement of A, represented by A (A prime) consists of all the elements
not found in A but are elements of the universal set in that particular situation.
Example:
Given U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} If A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} then, A’ = {2, 4, 6, 8}

Power Set
This is set of all the subsets of a given set.
Example: Determine the power set of A= {e, f}, B= {1, 2,3}
= {{e}, {f}, {e, f}, Ø}.
(B) = {{1}, {2}, {3}, {1,2}, {1,3}, {2,3}, {1,2,3}, Ø}

Operations on Sets

 Union
The union of the two sets says, A and B is that set that contains the elements in A or in B.
It uses the symbol .
A⋃B, means “A union B”.

Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 5, 8}, B = {2, 4, 7}
A⋃B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

 Intersection
The intersection of two sets A and B is the set that contains the elements common to A and B.
Symbol ⋂ is used to denote the intersection of the two sets.
A ⋂ B read as “A intersection B”.
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 5, 8}, D = {2, 4, 7}
A ⋂ B = {2}

 Difference
Difference of A and E, in symbols A – B, is the set whose elements are found in A which are not
found in B.
Example:
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7}
A - B = {2, 4, 6}

 Cartesian Product
Given sets A and B, the Cartesian product of A and B, denoted A x B and read “A cross B”, is the
set of all ordered pairs (a, b), where a is in A and b is in B.
Example:
Let A = {1, 2, 4}, B= {u, v}

A x B = {(1, u), (1, v), (2, u), (2, v), (4, u), (4, v)}

B x A = {(u, 1), (u, 2), (u, 4), (v, 1), (v, 2), (v, 4)}