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PROFESSOR: Cesar Polvorosa, Jr.


Sushi Assignment

KRUTART SHAH – N01270325
.HARJOT – N01270014
SILKY SHARMA – N01269724
VANIT KAUR – N01270693
Business Case #1: How Sushi Went Global. Foreign Policy Nov. 19, 2009

1. How and why did Sushi become Global?

Sushi is a Japanese dish consisting of small balls or rolls of vinegar-flavored cold cooked
rice served with a garnish of raw fish, vegetables, or egg.
It is consistently Japan’s most popular seafood, and demand is high throughout the year. Sushi
became global especially popular in North America, Europe and Latin America. This was
because of its rejection of red meat in favor of a more nutritious dish of the Japanese culture
rice and raw fish. The combination of these simple ingredients has changed the way people
around the world view food and tradition. Sushi has also become an element of fashion turning
them into products such as lip-gloss and nail-polish. Federation of Japan Tuna Fisheries
Cooperative (known as Nikkatsuren) launched “tuna day” providing retailers with posters and
recipe cards for recipes more complicated than "slice and serve chilled”. Sushi was growing well
in North America and it opened a Sushi bar in the elite sanctum of New York’s Harvard Club in
1972 with its headlines on the New York Times.
The main reason as to why sushi has become global is angling for new customers. As it is
known Japan remains the primary market for fresh tuna for sushi and salami. When other
countries demanded for it as a product of Japan it created new markets in their local area. This
helped the country of japan to invest more in foreign markets thus boosting their revenue and
gaining foreign buyers.

2. What are the global aspects of sushi?

When we speak of sushi the reference to the Japanese culture is obvious. With the
emergence of globalization, people have become more aware of different cultures. The flow of
influence which was earlier from west to east, with changing times has become east to west.
Cultural influence of the east towards the west has increased, sushi is the perfect example for
this. The influence of the Japanese culture in the west speaks of sophistication and upscale
cuisine. The global economic scene in the 1970s saw the emergence of Japan in
Europe, Australia, North America and Latin America; the Japanese culture was then
started to be accepted as healthy cuisine and the hearty, red-meat American diet was rejected
over rice, fish and vegetables which Japan represented. Sushi, which was most rarefied, being
the most accepted, and popular. The appeal of the high-concept aesthetics of Japanese design
all prepared the world for a sushi fad. Sushi has even become the stuff of fashion, from "sushi"
lip gloss, colored the deep red of raw tuna, to "wasabi" nail polish, a soft avocado green.
The popularity of sushi changes the way the world saw the fishing community. From
being a close-knit and proudly parochial, the sudden globalization of sushi brought fishers into

contact and often conflict with customers, governments, regulators and environmentalists
around the world.
Fishers in New England, whose traditional livelihood depended on the unfamiliar tastes
and distant markets, turned to Japan’s ability to transform tuna from trash into treasure around
the world. For fishers all over the world, the meaning of tuna — the equation of tuna with
Japanese identity — is simple: Tuna is nothing less than the samurai fish!

3. What are some cultural aspects of sushi and explain briefly.

The culture of the Japanese helped introduce sushi into Japan. Japanese people show
great pride in their heritage and they use their food as a form of expression in order to show
their cultural heritage. Sushi today is the foundation of the Japanese culture/identity and will
always exists in the Japanese lifestyle.
Globalization doesn’t necessarily homogenize cultural differences nor erase the salience
of cultural labels. Sushi made in America may differ significantly from traditional Japanese
sushi. American sushi recipes are adjusted to satisfy American tastes, which includes milder and
sweeter tastes.

4. Does sushi consumption remain as a Japanese practice? Why or why not?

No, the consumption of sushi doesn’t remain as a Japanese practice. There are certain
reasons behind it. Today the whole world enjoy the taste of sushi and make it as a part of their
cuisine. There is no doubt that Japan has made a mark in North American as uncertain
superpower, precise and delicate in its culinary tastes and become a prominent player in
everyday life of North Americans. It is so clear that sushi is becoming popular among the whole
world as sophisticated both overseas and in Japan. The sushi is adapted to new world where
tastes made by chefs shows multiple culinary influences and impacts. Without a doubt, sushi
won't just stay Japanese practice, however, the whole world will keep on enjoying it.
There is an example that explains this concept very clearly. For instance, Japan
introduced sushi to America and now the American sushi has become integral part of eating
plan for Japanese people in Japan. So, the original products and ideas of one moves from root
to another places and destinations and again return to original place with different taste and
appearance. This all happens because of globalization and upcoming advancement and
technologies. The Japanese customers have grasped the new appeal of American sushi, this all
reflects the growing confidence of Japanese consumers to ironically consume the version of
other destinations, as a sign or perhaps that the globalization processes may be becoming
sophisticated over time and exposure to all global forces.

5. Identify the institutions that were important in the spread of sushi and explain briefly.
Ladies’ Home Journal:

In 1929, the Ladies’ Home Journal introduced Japanese cooking to North American
women, but discreetly skirted the subject of raw fish and omitted any recipes using the delicate
and raw tuna fish which is sliced wafer thin and served iced with attractive garnishes which
might not sound as entirely delicious as they were in reality.
Holiday and Sunset Magazines:
By 1960s, articles on sushi began to show up in lifestyle magazines like Holiday and
Sunset. But the recipes they suggested were canapés like cooked shrimp on caraway rye bread,
rather than raw fish on rice.
New York Times and kosher sushi bar:
A decade later, however, sushi was growing in popularity throughout North America,
turning into a sign of class and educational standing. In 1972, the New York Times covered the
opening of a sushi bar in the elite sanctum of New York’s Harvard Club. Esquire explained the
fare in an article titled "Wake up Little Sushi!" Restaurant reviewers guided readers to
Manhattan’s sushi scene, including innovators like Shalom Sushi, a kosher sushi bar in SoHo.

Business Case#2 Google in Asia: Seeking Success. Economist Feb. 26, 2009.p.71

6. Why is Naver more popular than Google in South Korea?

The 35m South Koreans who use the internet every day, the nine-year-old search engine is
wildly popular, accounting for 76% of internet searches, compared with less than 3% each for
Yahoo! and Google.
 Naver pioneered the idea of presenting search results from several categories—web pages,
images, videos, books—on the same page, something that Google later adopted.
 Another popular feature is Naver's “Knowledge Search” service, launched in 2002, which
enables people to ask questions, the answers to which are served up from a database
provided by other users, due to which Naver knowledge service quickly gained popularity.
 Naver's search algorithm is built around the Korean language, which helps Naver deliver
more relevant results than Google on many occasions, since Korean syntax is quite different
from that of the English language. This in-turn caters to the interests of South Koreans.
“Yahoo! and Google have a very American, English-based search engine,” (Chae Hwi-Young,
the chief executive of NHN, Naver's parent company, 2009).
 Naver began providing different types of search results long before Google's Universal
Search appeared.
 Naver has been more of a social search engine right from the start, while Google is still
getting there.

 So, basically, Naver is Yahoo! Answers, Blogger, YouTube and Google's paid search
combined. Searchers look for necessary information by browsing different types of Naver's
search results, such as the Q &A database, News search, Blog search, etc.

7. What is the relevance of understanding cultures in the success of a business such as illustrated
by an internet businesses like Naver? Please explain briefly.
Every society has its own “cultural themes,” which have a substantial impact on how
that culture does business. In order to mark the presence in that country or region for any
business, it is critical to understand and research on the culture of that region. In the Computer
world, still users are adapted to their cultural background in regards to the kind of navigational
support because of their work efficiency, trust, user satisfaction.
South Korea has long been one of the most advanced web markets, with high internet
penetration and fast connectivity. For Example - Naver’s knowledge in, which give the new
ways in the history of Korea’s search market because not only did Naver’s “Knowledge Search”
algorithm is in the local Korean Language, which helps Naver deliver more relevant results than
Google, since Korean syntax is quite different from the English language. It enables people to
ask questions, the answers to which are served up from a database provided by other users. If
an answer is incomplete or inaccurate, it can be easily changed, Wikipedia-style, for the benefit
of others who ask the same question in future. According to Naver business mutual
understanding creates a new culture, it offers spaces where users can communicate to create
and share information it include information necessary for daily life, individual know-how, and
expert knowledge.
Mr. Chae, CEO of Naver says he plans to launch several more culturally specific search
engines, such as “Naver California”, “Naver Korean-American” or “Naver Chinese-American”.
That would be attacking Google on its home turf.

8. Is there an application to your chosen group project/company businesses from understanding

the culture in the region or country assigned to you and as shown in the success of Naver?
Please explain briefly.
Korea’s largest internet portal Naver inked an agreement to acquire France-based Xerox
Research Centre Europe (XRCE), a lab with expertise in major new technologies such as artificial
intelligence and machine learning. Naver wants to ratchet up its AI capabilities and expand its
presence in Europe, a fresh market for the Korean IT giant. The company established a separate
corporation called Naver Labs dedicated to research and development of AI and future
businesses involving AI such as autonomous driving and robotics. The company also applies AI
to existing services like search engine and translation apps. Europe also has many potential IT

start-ups specializing in sectors of AI, Internet of Things and virtual reality, which is why global
tech giants are eyeing the market

9. Can the VRIO framework be used to explain the advantage of Naver over Google? Please
explain briefly.
Yes, The VRIO framework can be used to explain the advantage of Naver over Google.
The VRIO framework stands for: Value, Rarity, Imitability and organization.
The number of indexed sites per user in Naver is less than the number of indexed sites
per user in Google. But the quality of those sites is better than those in Google. Naver prefers to
have less stuff in its index, but to make sure that stuff is real. That's why it gives priority to paid
listing, directory submissions, user generated content, Web 2.0 properties, etc.
Having rarity in a firm can lead to competitive advantage. One important thing to bear
on mind is that Naver's search algorithm is built around the Korean language, which helps
Naver deliver more relevant results than Google, since Korean syntax is quite different from
that of the English language.
Firms with valuable and rare resources, which are hard to imitate by other firms, can
gain the first-mover advantages in the market and can hence gain competitive advantage.
The Services provided by Naver can of course be imitated but the cost of imitation would be
high for the imitating company. Also other factors such as search algorithm in Korean language
and the Korean webmasters blocking google for many websites.

 Bestor, Theodore c. (November, 2009). How Sushi Went Global. Retrieved from
 Seongnam City and SHANGHAI. (February, 2009). Google in Asia Seeking success. Retrieved from
 KIM JEE-HEE. (June, 2017). Naver will buy Xerox Research Centre Europe. Retrieved from
 Krush, Alesia. Google Vs. Naver: Why Can’t Google Dominate Search in Korea?, Retrieved from
 Bonfils, Michael. (May, 2011). Search Marketing Guide to Naver, Korea’s Most Popular Search
Engine Retrieved from