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EXPERIMENT 1 MOMENT OF INERTIA AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM

Introduction:

In the most general from, torque is expressed as the cross product of the moment arm and the
applied force (Tension, T)

𝜏 = 𝑇𝑟

Where r is the moment arm, measured from the rotation axis to the point where the fore is
applied. Unit of torque is Nm.

From the Newton’s second law,

𝜏 = 𝑇𝑟 = 𝐼α

Moment of inertia, I can be determine by,

𝜏
𝐼 =
𝛼

𝜏 = 𝑇𝑟

𝑇𝑟
𝐼 =
𝛼

Unit of I is kgm2.

Objective:

To determine the moment of inertia of a rigid body

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Apparatus & Materials:

1. Hooked weight sets

2. Smart pulley

3. Rotating platform

4. 1 metre ruler

5. String

6. Stop watch

7. Blower

Procedure:

1. Apparatus were set up as shown.

2. The initial height, h of the bottom surface of the slotted weight holder to the landing
point was measured.

3. 10g of slotted weight to its holder is put to its holder. It was kept remain at the
position.

4. Switch to release the slotted weight was pressed. Stop watch was started
simultaneously.

5. The time interval for slotted weight to reach landing point. First trial, tω1 was recorded.

6. Step 1 to step 5 were repeated by adding 10g of slotted weight until mass of weight,
m=80g. The same h was used throughout the experiment.

7. The experiment was repeated by removing 10g of the slotted weight until m=10g.
Second trial (of time interval for weight to reach landing point) was recorded as tω2.
The average time taken for both trials was calculated as tωav.

8. The data was tabulated in a table.

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Results:

Mass, Time interval, t (s) Linear Tension of Angular


m (g) acceleration, string, acceleration,
2h a
tω1 tω2 tωav a=tωav2 α=𝑟
T= m(g-a)
(ms-2) (N) (s-2)

10 14.06 14.90 14.48 0.0058 0.10 0.18

20 10.10 11.43 10.77 0.0100 0.19 0.32

30 8.41 9.65 9.03 0.0143 0.29 0.45

40 7.85 6.94 7.40 0.0214 0.39 0.68

50 7.29 7.19 7.24 0.0223 0.50 0.71

60 6.59 6.41 6.50 0.0277 0.59 0.88

70 6.84 6.00 6.42 0.0284 0.68 0.90

80 6.00 6.09 6.05 0.0320 0.78 1.01

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Analysis:

Graph

Tension of String, T against Angular acceleration, α


0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4
T (N)

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

-0.1
α (s-2)

Gradient

𝑦2−𝑦1
m =𝑥2−𝑥1 kgm

0.56−0.10
=0.84−0.20 kgm

= 0.719 kgm

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Moment of Inertia

𝜏
I = 𝛼 , 𝜏 = 𝑇𝑟

𝑇𝑟 𝑇
= ,m=𝛼
𝛼

I = mr

= (0.719 kgm)(0.0315m)

I = 0.0227 kgm2

Percentage Difference between Experimental Value & Theoretical Value of Moment of


Inertia

𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒


% difference = × 100%
𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

0.0227−0.0129
= × 100%
0.0129

= 76%

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Discussion:

Based on tabulated data, a best fit line graph T vs. α is plotted. The gradient of the graph
𝑇
shows m=𝛼 . The value of gradient is 0.719 kgm.

Then, we can obtain moment of inertia, I by finding the product of gradient and radius
of disc. So, 0.0227 kgm2 is obtained. The percentage difference between experimental value
& theoretical value is 76%. From that value, we can conclude that some random error had
occurred during the experiment.

The experiment has been conducted repeatedly to reduce this error and some
weaknesses in design. Some weaknesses that make lab members to repeat the experiment is
when the string slipped out from the disc. So, the solution is by tie the string tightly to the
disc. The weight also slipped out due to loose string knot but then fixed also by tied it tightly.

We also observed that the weight also accelerates randomly during its fall. Although
the experiment was repeated many times, this randomness still happens. So, we agreed to just
use the 1st & 2nd trial readings and find the average time taken.

Conclusion:

The moment of inertia, I is 0.0227 kgm2. So, the objective of this experiment is achieved.

References:

1. Lab Manual PHY210 hand-out


2. Douglas C. Giancoli (2005), Physics: Principles with Application (6th Edition)
3. Moment of Inertia, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_of_inertia
4. Newton, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton_(unit)

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