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SKF Coupling Systems

Presented by
Sudhir Chiplunkar

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 1 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Outline

1. Discuss various bolting elements commonly used in Turbine couplings
2. Cover the pros and cons of these various bolting elements
3. Introduce SKF Supergrip Bolt & Line Boring service
4. Advantages & Global references 
5. Financial impact of our solution to NTPC

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 2 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Traditional Fitted Bolts… Have you
Witness this ??

This is perceived as
“Normal”

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 3 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Common coupling bolting Issues

 Stuck bolting, material pick‐up is common
 High Down time when coupling on critical path
 Skilled manpower required for line boring
 Reliability of scheduling is questionable because of bolting issues.
 Safety issues if “Stuck bolt”

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 4 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Brief about current coupling joints

TORQUE TRANSMISSION:
1. Friction Connection
• Large axial pre-loads generated by the bolting elements
• Pre-loads press coupling halves together to create friction forces in the contact plane (split
line)

2. Positive Connection
• Torque transferred by touching contact planes
• Usually indirectly through the bolting elements
• Often close fitted bolts are used
• These bolting elements transmit torque (in shear) by contact pressure between the bolting
elements and the bores of the coupling flange bolt holes

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 5 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
BOLTING ELEMENTS - THROUGH BOLTS

Friction couplings with through bolts are commonly used and tend to be the
Least costly. The through bolts (1) are inserted through holes (bores) in the
coupling halves and are pre‐loaded axially with nuts (2) on both ends to
create the friction connection in the contact plane.

Very few turbines has


these types of bolts i.e
Shanghai Electrical

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 6 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
BOLTING ELEMENTS - THROUGH BOLTS

The image below shows the load carrying mechanism of the flange 
couplings with through bolts. The black arrows indicate the circumferential 
loads in the coupling halves resulting from the torque to be transmitted. The 
friction forces in the contact plane are depicted as white arrows.

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 7 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Issues With Through Bolts
 NOT a rigid connection
 Local micro movements in contact plane and/or under the nuts
 Peak torques or non‐uniform loads due to differences in bolt pre‐load
 Micro movements can cause damage to contact surfaces, fretting and even 
failure
 Reliability concern
 Low initial costs, but cost from a failure or stuck bolting can be excessive

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 8 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Fitted Bolts

Fitted bolts are similar to the through bolts except that the fitted bolt fills the
bore except for a few hundredths of a millimeter. As a result, the accuracy of 
the parts and surface quality must be much higher. The fitted bolts are 
commonly tailored individually for every bore; thus the fitted bolts are initially 
more expensive than through bolts.
Almost all turbines in India has these types of bolts 

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 9 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Further Details

Theoretical perception as we 
maintain stringent tolerances on Bolt 
& Hole is that we have fitted bolts 

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 10 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
But Reality Differs

Even without considering Line boring issues, Size control … We have 
Randomly oriented clearance Bolts due to Stretching (Poisson’s Ratio )

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 11 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Effect Of this Clearance..

When the coupling is subjected to the torque, this clearance will allow for a
small slippage of the flanges. As the clearance varies between the holes,
some of the bolts will be subjected to a higher torque than others. The
flanges will be pinching the bolts on two sides of the hole. When the
Preload is released this pinch will be increased at two sharp corners of the
hole. If then an attempt to remove the bolt is made, the risk for galling and
other damages is further increased.

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 12 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
This Means..

Radial backlash is necessary for function of fitted bolts which in turn creates 
non‐uniform load distributions
Repeated micro‐movements in the connections under dynamic/ transient loads
Radial backlash can cause the fitted bolt to angle itself inside bore
Stuck bolts/studs common, often have to be destroyed to remove
No Assurance of re‐establishment of Concentric positioning of Rotors – Higher 
Run out setting time
Excessive down time, large monetary losses

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 13 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Some Test Results

Picture and chart show the impact on the flange stresses as a result of the
variation in fit between bolt and hole, going from a loose clearance fit to a tight
interference fit

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 14 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Some Test Results

With a reduction of the clearance between the bolt and hole , all the way through
a solid interference fit, stress concentrations in the bolt are clearly reduced.

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 15 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Some Test Results

The variation in clearance is also affecting the bending stresses in the bolt.
The bolt with the biggest clearance has a significantly higher stress level.

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 16 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
The Proven Solution - SKF Supergrip Bolt

Turbine
Coupling
bolts

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 17 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Perfectly In-Touch

A bolt with a tapered shank (2) is pulled into a tapered sleeve (3) by a nut
(4). The tapered sleeve expands radially creating an interference fit inside
the bore. A second nut (1) is used to axially pre‐load the coupling. The
resulting clamping force creates an additional friction connection in the
contact plane.

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 18 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Easy of Operation

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 19 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
SKF Supergrip Bolt Easy Mounting
Procedure

Mounting; 
In a fraction of time
Just a matter of a few 
minutes per bolt! 

Without risk of stuck bolts!

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 20 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
SKF Supergrip Bolt Even more Easy
Dismounting Procedure

Dismounting; 
Even lesser time to 
dismount than it took for 
mounting.
Without risk of stuck bolts!

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 21 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Line Boring services

Coupling Line Boring


• Sole focus is Line Boring
• Machine coupling bore
• Sleeve machined to recommended
tolerance

• Hydraulic bolt installed


• 2 hours per hole planning time

• Maximizes the benefits of hydraulic Two hours


coupling bolts
per hole*
• Known time frame

• Customer can effectively plane outage *or less…


schedule
2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 22 [Code]
SKF [Organisation]
Customer Benefits
• Quick Mounting/Dismounting
• High Torque  
• Runs for life of Turbine
• Easy Service
• Labour Friendly

• Reduced Downtime
• Shorter outages
• Accurate Planning

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 23 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Customers and References Wordwide

Supplied with all major turbine manufacturers: 
GE; Siemens/Westinghouse; Alstom; Ansaldo; Skoda; LMZ; 
Hitachi; MHI; Toshiba; Fuji; Shangai and Harbin Turbines; 
Installed in Power Stations Worldwide:
From 100 MW coal/oil/gas Thermal Plants to +1000 MW Nuclear Power 
Stations! 
 Total Turbines working with Supergrip bolts 
 More than 2300 ...

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 24 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Workflow

1. We collect flange details from Respective site/customer


2. We make a detail design calculation and submit it to
customer
3. Once customer agrees for techno-commercial offer we
start manufacturing
4. For most of the retrofit jobs we supply oversize sleeves
which can be machined

Sample design calculation

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 25 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]
Sample Value calculation

This calculation is for only capital overhaul, if decoupling required during AOH
additional saving guaranteed
For SGB’s CRO gets reestablished because we create dowels rather than loose fitted
bolts.
2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 26 [Code]
SKF [Organisation]
What this can deliver to NTPC

For Current Installed capacity


Unit Size < 250 MW 500 MW & ABOVE

Average time lost per unit per over haul (Hrs) 36 48

Revenue per KWH (In Rs) 3 3

Generation loss per overhaul (Crore) 2.268 7.2

Average no. of overhauls per life time of turbine 2 3

Generation loss per life of one turbine ( Crore) 4.536 21.60

No. of Units 36 48
Combined Total Revenue Loss for all turbines-
Crore
163.29 1036.8

Additional generation (Crore) 1200.096

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 27 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]

Sl
19
What this can deliver to NTPC
For New Green field projects
NTPC has ambitious plan to have 128000MW installed capacity by 2032 if we
consider current installed based & non-fossile portfolio, you are sure to add @51000
MW and majority to come from supercritical ( 70%)
Unit Size < 250 MW 660 MW & ABOVE

Average time lost per unit per over haul (Hrs) 36 48

Revenue per KWH (In Rs) 3 3

Generation loss per overhaul (Crore) 2.268 9.504


Average no. of overhauls per life time of turbine 5 5

Generation loss per life of one turbine ( Crore) 11.34 47.52


No. of Units 70 (@14700MW) 54 ( @36000)
Combined Total Revenue Loss for all turbines-
Crore
793.8 2566.08

Additional generation (Crore) 3359.88


2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 28 [Code]
SKF [Organisation]
SKF Coupling Systems

2016-02-19 ©SKF Slide 29 [Code]


SKF [Organisation]