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MERIDIAN JUNIOR COLLEGE Preliminary Examination Higher 2

H2 Physics

Paper 2

Candidate Name

This booklet contains 7 questions.

9646/2

21 September 2010

Class

1 hour 45 mins

Reg Number

Do not open this booklet until you are told to do so.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES

The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. Marks will be deducted if units are not stated where necessary or if answers are not quoted to the appropriate number of significant figures.

All working for numerical answers must be shown. You are reminded of the need for good English and clear presentation of your answers.

 Examiner’s Use Section A Q1 /15 Q2 /8 Q3 /8 Q4 /6 Q5 /8 Q6 /15 Section B Q7 /12 Deductions Total /72

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[Turn Over

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

DATA AND FORMULAE

Data speed of light in free space

permeability of free space

c

o

 permittivity of free space ε 0 elementary charge e the Planck constant h unified atomic mass constant u rest mass of electron m e rest mass of proton m p molar gas constant R the Avogadro constant N A the Boltzmann constant k gravitational constant G acceleration of free fall g Formulae uniformly accelerated motion s v 2 work done on/by a gas W hydrostatic pressure p gravitational potential displacement of particle in s.h.m. x velocity of particle in s.h.m. v resistors in series R resistors in parallel 1/R electric potential V alternating current/voltage x transmission coefficient T where k radioactive decay x decay constant

3

3.00 x 10 8 m s -1

4

x 10 -7 H m -1

8.85 x 10 -12 F m -1

=

=

=

= (1/(36 )) x 10 -9 F m -1

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

1.60 x 10 -19 C 6.63 x 10 -34 J s 1.66 x 10 -27 kg 9.11 x 10 -31 kg 1.67 x 10 -27 kg 8.31 J K -1 mol -1 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1 1.38 x 10 -23 J K -1

6.67 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg -2

=
9.81 m s -2
1
=
ut +
2 at 2
=
u 2 + 2as
=
p V
=
gh
=
-Gm/r
=
x o sin t
=
v o cos t
2
2
= ±
x
- x
o
=
R 1 + R 2 + …
1/R 1 + 1/R 2 + …
=
=
Q/4
o r
=
x o sin t
=
exp(-2kd)
8
2 m(U
E)
=
2
h
=
x o exp(- t )

0.693

=

t

1

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

Answer all the questions in the spaces provided.

1 (a)

(b)

State the Principle of Superposition.

[2]

Two sinusoidal transverse waves W 1 and W 2 , of the same type, are incident simultaneously on a point P. The amplitude of W 2 is the same as the amplitude of W 1 . The frequency of W 2 is half the frequency of W 1 .

At a certain instant (time t = 0) at P, both waves have zero displacement and then both displacements increase in the same direction.

Fig. 1.1 is a graph of displacement at P against time for wave W 1 .

(resultant
wave)

displacement (wave W 1 )

displacement (wave W 2 )

displacement

time

time

time

Fig. 1.1

Fig. 1.2

Fig. 1.3

 (i) On Fig. 1.2, sketch a graph of displacement against time for wave W 2 . [3] (ii) On Fig. 1.3, sketch a graph to show the resultant wave produced by the superposition at P of waves W 1 and W 2 . [3]

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

(iii)
The frequency of wave W 1 is 4.2 x 10 15 Hz. Determine the frequency of the
resultant wave produced by the superposition of waves W 1 and W 2 .
frequency = ………………. Hz
[2]
(iv)
Explain why it is incorrect to say that waves W 1 and W 2 are coherent.
[1]
(c)
Blue light of wavelength 485.6 nm from a star is incident normally on a diffraction
grating. The light is diffracted into a number of beams as shown in Fig. 1.4.
second order
first order
zero order
first order
second order
grating
Fig. 1.4
The angular separation of the two second order beams is 45.7 o . Calculate the
number of lines per millimeter on the grating.
Lines per millimetre = ……………….
[4]

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

 2 (a) Air near the Earth conducts electricity to a small extent. Because there is an electric field directed towards the Earth’s surface, a small electric current exists in the atmosphere. Measurements of the electric field near the Earth’s surface give an average of about 1.0 x 10 2 V m -1 . (i) Estimate the potential difference between the head and feet of an average adult. potential difference = ………………. V [1] (ii) The electric field near the Earth’s surface is as large as 1.0 x 10 2 V m -1 , explain why you do not experience an electric shock when you stand upright. …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………… … [2] (b) A photomultiplier tube is a device which has a common electrode (the photocathode) and

a number of other electrodes (the dynodes), which must be maintained at definite

potentials relative to the common electrode. A potential divider circuit may be used to supply these potentials.

Fig. 2.1 illustrates a photomultiplier tube with a photocathode and six dynodes, numbered 1 to 6. A potential divider of six resistors, each of resistance R, using a supply voltage of 1050 V, is connected to the electrodes in the tube.

photocathode

photomultiplier tube
1
2
3
4
5
6
dynodes
R
R
R
R
R
R
potential divider
1050 V

Fig. 2.1

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

 (i) For the situation where there is no electron current inside the photomultiplier tube, determine the potential difference between dynode 4 and the photocathode. p.d. between dynode 4 and the photocathode = …………………V [2] (ii) A fault develops inside the photomultiplier tube causing a short circuit between dynodes 3 and 5. Determine the new potential difference between dynode 4 and the photocathode. Explain your reasoning.

new p.d. between dynode 4 and the photocathode = ……………

V

Explanation: ………… ……………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

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[3]

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

3 From the power station, the voltage is stepped up to about 230 kV along the high voltage cables before a series of step down transformers near homes are used to reduce the voltage to 240 V at our homes. Fig. 3.1 shows the last iron-cored step down transformer before our homes with the actual turns ratio indicated. The home 240 V output has a frequency of 50 Hz is connected to a 58 resistor of a home appliance.

(a)

(b)

iron-core
home
primary coil
secondary coil

Fig. 3.1

58

Determine the number of similar turns-ratio transformers required to step down from the high voltage (230 kV) cables to the 240 V output used at homes. State one assumption made.

Assumption:

Number of transformers =

[4]

Explain the purpose of the iron core in the transformer.

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[1]

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

 (c) Determine the average power dissipated in the 58 Ω resistor of a home appliance. Average power = …………… W [2] (d) Suggest a typical household appliance with such power rating. Appliance is …………… …………… [1]

4 A p-n junction is formed between slices of p-type and n-type semiconductor material as shown in Fig. 4.1

p-type

n-type

Fig. 4.1

 (a) On Fig. 4.1, draw an arrow indicating the direction of movement of holes when the two slices are brought into contact. [1] (b) Boron is used as a dopant in one of the semiconductor slices. State and explain whether the addition of Boron creates a p-type or a n-type semiconductor.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

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[3]

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

 (c) State and explain what will happen to the depletion region when a battery is connected in as shown in Fig. 4.2. Fig. 4.2 ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… [2] 5 (a) Explain what is meant by binding energy. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… [1] (b) Calculate the binding energy of a thorium nucleus 226 90 Th. Given that rest mass of 226 90 Th = 226.0249 u rest mass of proton = 1.0073 u rest mass of neutron = 1.0087 u Binding energy = ……………… MeV [2]

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

(c)

A thorium nucleus 226 90 Th originally at rest decays and forms a radium nucleus 222

an alpha particle as shown below. The radium nucleus 222 Ra* is in an excited state.

88

Ra* and

88

226

90 Th

Given that rest mass of 226 90 Th = 226.0249 u

rest mass of

rest mass of

222 88 Ra = 222.0154 u

2 4 He = 4.0026 u

222

88

Ra* + 2 4 He

(i) Calculate the kinetic energy of the radium nucleus if the alpha particle is emitted with a kinetic energy of 2.38 MeV.

(ii)

88

Kinetic energy of Ra = …………… MeV

[3]

Ra* further undergoes a gamma decay as shown below:

222

88

Ra* 222 Ra +

88

Calculate the energy of the gamma ray.

Energy of the gamma ray = ……………… MeV

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[2]

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

6 Most Singapore buildings are built using a framework of concrete beams, slabs and columns. The concrete columns need to carry both the ultimate vertical load, N and the ultimate bending moment, M induced from the attached beam/s as shown in the 3-D pictorial diagram of Fig. 6.1. In practice, the concrete columns are reinforced with steel bars.

N
M
Beam
Column

Fig. 6.1

To design for the steel bars in such columns, design charts are available from the British Standard Structural Use of Concrete, BS8110.

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

In order to choose the correct design chart, the values of the following must match the design details:

f cu = Ultimate crushing pressure limit of concrete f y = Ultimate characteristic strength of steel bar

d

h

where d is the distance from the edge of the column to the centre of the steel bar that is

furthest from that edge and h is the larger dimension of the column

The cross section of a column is shown in Fig. 6.2:

d
h = 450 mm
32 mm
cover= 40 mm
diameter steel
bar
b = 200 mm

Fig. 6.2

Dimensions of the column are:

b = 200mm

h = 450 mm
Height of
column

Fig. 6.3

 h = 450 mm (larger dimension of the column) b = 200 mm d = distance from the edge of the column to the centre of the steel bar that is furthest from that

edge.

(a) The chosen design details for the column above are:

f cu = 50 N mm -2 f y = 460 N mm -2 cover = 40 mm (from edge of column to edge of steel bar)

Assuming that 4 numbers of 32 mm diameter steel bars are to be used. Determine the

value of d

and hence explain why Chart No. 49 is appropriate to be used.

h

Explanation:

d

h

= ………………

13

[1]

[1]

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

(b) The coordinates of the chart derived from the values of

N

bh and

M

bh

2

can be used to

100A

SC

establish the corresponding value of

bh cross-sectional area of steel bars) can be calculated. It is necessary to provide enough steel bars, with a total area more than A SC .

such that A SC (the total required

An example of reading off the

100A

SC

bh

value is:

Value of

Value of

N

bh = 32.5 N mm -2

M

bh

2

= 3.20 N mm -2

From Chart No. 49, the corresponding coordinate is marked with a cross and labelled

5 . More specifically, the

A’. This coordinate corresponds to a value of

100

A SC

4 <

bh

<

value of

100A

SC

bh

is 4.5. Using this value, A SC can then be calculated.

Based on the same design details in (a), the loads carried by the column in Fig 6.2 are:

M = Ultimate bending moment = 91.2 kN m

N = Ultimate vertical load = 2460 kN

(i) Determine the values of

N

bh and

M

bh

2

14

for the column in Fig 6.2.

N

bh

2

bh = ……………… N mm -2

M

= ……………… N mm -2

[2]

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

(ii) Using Chart No. 49, determine whether 4 steel bars of diameter 32 mm with a

(c)

(d)

total area of 3220 mm 2 is sufficient.

[4]

A young engineer designed the same column except that he used a different concrete with an ultimate crushing pressure limit, f cu of 25 N mm -2 . Compare your calculated value

of

bh in (b)(i) with this value of f cu = 25 N mm -2 . Comment what would happen to the

concrete.

N

[2]

The height of the column designed is 3.8 m. Suggest one possible problem with another 12.0 m height column of similar size subjected to a similar vertical load and bending moments.

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[1]

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

(e) The design of another column has the values of

100 A

SC

bh

= 2.0

and

M

bh

2

= 2.0 .

Using Charts No. 39 and 49, determine the percentage decrease in ultimate vertical load, N if f cu = 50 N mm -2 changes to f cu = 40 N mm -2 .

Percentage decrease of N =

16

%

[4]

Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

Section B

It is recommended that you spend about 30 minutes on this question

7 The piezoelectric effect describes an effect that converts a mechanical effect to an electrical signal or vice versa. For example, piezoelectric sensors such as quartz, silicon, manmade crystals or even flexible polymer sheets can produce electricity when squeezed, moved or bent. On the other hand, piezoelectric transducers, such as those used in speakers, rapidly change shape when subjected to an electrical current.

Many modern devices, like the Nintendo Wii remote as well as smartphones such as the Apple iPhone have tiny inbuilt piezoelectric accelerometers to help sense motion and other actions.

Compressive force

Electrical signal developed across here when piezoelectric material is compressed

Piezoelectric

sample

Although called an accelerometer, it is actually the inertial force on a known mass that is measured by the piezoelectric material when the device is moved, which is then converted into an electrical signal and interpreted accordingly.

Design an experiment using a sample of piezoelectric material to find how the strength of the electrical signal depends on how much force it is subjected to.

The equipment available includes the following, besides common apparatus found in the laboratory:

An A4 size flexible sheet of piezoelectric material (you may assume that the surfaces are conducting)

Digital Multimeters

10 slotted masses

You should draw diagrams to show the arrangement of your apparatus. In your account you should pay particular attention to

a) The equipment you would use for the investigation,

b) The procedure to be followed,

c) The control of variables,

d) Any safety precautions,

e) Any precautions that you would take to improve the accuracy of the experiment

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

Diagram:

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Preliminary Examination

Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

21 September 2010

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Meridian Junior College JC2 H2 Physics 2010

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End of Paper

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