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Monica CONDRUZ-BÃCESCU

Viorela-Valentina DIMA
Denise DONA
Virginia Mihaela DUMITRESCU
Elena TÃLMÃCIAN

AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

EDITURA UNIVERSITARÃ
Bucureºti, 2013
Colecþia FILOLOGIE

Referent ºtiinþific: Prof. univ. dr. Georgeta Ghiga


Conf. univ. dr. Antonia Enache

Redactor: Gheorghe Iovan


Tehnoredactor: Ameluþa Viºan
Coperta: Angelica Mãlãescu

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Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naþionale a României

DOI: (Digital Object Identifier): 10.5682/

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Copyright © 2013
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2
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 3

Monica Condruz-Băcescu is a lecturer in Business English and Communication at the Bucharest


University of Economic Studies (BUES). She holds a BA degree in English from the University of
Bucharest, and an MSc and a PhD degree in economics from BUES. She has authored 14 books of
Business English and economics, over 30 conference papers, and over 35 articles on Business
English, English literature, and economics. She is a member of several (inter)national professional
associations.

Viorela-Valentina Dima is a university lecturer with the Bucharest University of Economic Studies.
She holds a BA degree in Romanian and English, an MA degree in Theoretical Linguistics and a PhD
degree in Philology, all from University of Bucharest. She is an ECQA Certified Terminology Manager
and has authored approximately 50 publications (books and articles) on topics related to linguistics,
higher education, translation and terminology, and English for Special Purposes.

Denise Dona teaches Business English and Communication at the Bucharest University of Economic
Studies. She holds a BA degree in English and an MA degree in British Cultural Studies from the
University of Bucharest. She has authored two ESP course books and participated in several
(inter)national projects and conferences on themes such as cultural studies, ESP teaching and
assessing methodology, effective listening, NLP, and the development of CEFR descriptors.

Virginia Mihaela Dumitrescu is a lecturer in Business English and Communication at the Bucharest
University of Economic Studies. She holds a PhD degree in Philology from the University of
Bucharest. She translates from English and Spanish, is the co-author of university textbooks and the
author of articles on higher education, literature, literary theory/criticism, translation and cross-cultural
communication. She has delivered papers at (inter)national conferences and has taken part in
professional exchange programmes in Romania and abroad.

Elena Tălmăcian teaches Business English and Communication at the Bucharest University of
Economic Studies. She holds a BA degree in Orthodox Theology-Philology and an MA degree in
Applied Linguistics from the University of Bucharest as well as an MSc degree in English
Communication for Education and Research from BUES. She has authored several articles on the
influence of English on Romanian language, business English teaching methodology and translation,
and e-learning.

Contribuţia autoarelor la elaborarea capitolelor:


- Lector dr. Monica Condruz-Băcescu
 Unit 1: Going Global
 Grammar File 1
- Lector dr. Viorela Dima
 Unit 3: In and Out of Jobs
 Communication File 2
 Grammar File 2
- Asist. drd. Denise Dona
 Unit 5: Of Markets and Marketers
 Communication File 3
- Lector dr. Virginia Mihaela Dumitrescu
 Unit 2: Economics Roundup
 Communication File 1
- Asist. dr. Elena Tălmăcian
 Unit 4: To Manage or to Lead?
4 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

UNIT READING VOCABULARY GRAMMAR


The Cost of Globalization General economic terms Review of tenses
1
All about Globalization Computing terms
GOING GLOBAL
Page 7 Computer Operating Word formation
System

Grammar Tense review


File 1
Page 24 Passive formation
The Visible Hand Types of economy Modal verbs
2 The Government is Types of companies
ECONOMICS Flexing its Muscles in
ROUNDUP Business Degrees of competition
Page 28
Floating Facebook
Communication Note taking
File 1
Page 44 Summarizing
A Different Kind of Jobs Job adverts Infinitives and
3 Market gerunds
Employment
IN AND OUT Peripheral Employment
OF JOBS Asian Migrant Employees
Page 47 A Tale of 2 Employment
Surveys, at a Glance
Communication
File 2 Business correspondence – letters and e-mails
Page 64
How I Stopped Opposites Passive voice
4 Romanticizing Leadership
Management
TO MANAGE and Learned to Be a
collocations
OR TO LEAD? Manager
Page 73

Grammar Sequence of tenses


File 2 Direct and indirect speech
Page 86 Temporal clauses
Marketing to Generation Y Word formation Adjectives and
5 adverbs
The marketing mix
OF MARKETS AND
Comparison
MARKETERS
Page 93

Communication
File 3 Business reports
Page 116

ROLE CARDS p 119


LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS p 124
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 5

LISTENING SPEAKING TRANSLATION WRITING CASE STUDY


Managing a Around the globe Britain, Romania Summarizing McDonald's
global enterprise in quotes and and globalization everywhere
opinions

More liberty, less The business State intervention or Complex Selling patented
government forum free market? sentences drugs in emerging
Eastern European
Argumentative
markets
writing
Summarizing

How to find a job Ready for the job Thank you e-mail CV The job interview
of your dreams?
CV dos and Excerpt from Alexis Cover letter
don'ts Zorba

Female CEOs Management vs. Managerial Argumentative Cross-cultural


are breaking the leadership positions writing management
glass ceiling Cultural
influences on
management
style

Marketing A remix of the Cross-cultural Assertive Marketing across


changes marketing mix issues: Idioms and writing the ocean
puns
Funny radio Survey reports
commercials

GLOSSARY p 130
REFERENCES p 141
6 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 7

SPEAKING – AROUND THE GLOBE IN QUOTES AND OPINIONS

1. Read the following quotes that belong to famous people.


Characterize the persons using 3-4 adjectives.

“What is called capitalism is basically a system of corporate


mercantilism, with huge and largely unaccountable private tyrannies
exercising vast control over the economy, political systems, and social and
cultural life”. (Noam Chomsky – an American linguist, cognitive scientist,
historian)

“Together we can help transform the global economy


into a global community”. (Robert Alan Silverstein – an American writer,
artist, social activist)

“We must ensure that the global market is embedded in broadly


shared values and practices that reflect global social needs, and that all the
world's people share the benefits of globalization”. (Kofi Annan - Ghanaian
diplomat, 2001 Nobel peace prize)

“The globalization that characterizes today‟s economics goes


beyond or eludes the sovereignty of individual states, and thus the power of
their rulers. It is not they, but rather financial groups in control of vast
amounts of capital, who decide upon their vertiginous passage through
nations, without taking into account the serious crises they might
generate”.(Patricio Aylwin Azocar - a Chilean politician, lawyer and former
senator; the first president of Chile after democracy was restored in 1990)

“A huge part of our power came from our moral authority; the moral
issue of debts as being killers of millions of poor people around the world. I
think our power is also rooted in our intellectual power. I think there are a lot
of strong leaders around the world who have made very convincing
arguments about the weakness of corporate-led globalization and the
compelling nature of alternatives”.(John Cavanagh - American economist)
8 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

2. Discuss the following quotes on globalization.

1. “It has been said that arguing against globalization is like arguing
against the laws of gravity”. (Kofi Annan - Ghanaian diplomat, 2001
Nobel peace prize)
2. “Globalization, as defined by rich people like us, is a very nice
thing... you are talking about the Internet, you are talking about cell
phones, you are talking about computers. This doesn't affect two-
thirds of the people of the world”. (Jimmy Carter - American 39th US
president (1977-81); Nobel prize for peace in 2002)
3. “This is a very exciting time in the world of information. It's not just
that the personal computer has come along as a great tool. The
whole pace of business is moving faster. Globalization is forcing
companies to do things in new ways”. (Bill Gates - American
entrepreneur and founder of Microsoft)
4. "Globalization has in effect made the citizen disappear, and it has
reduced the state into being a mere instrument of global capital”.
(Vandana Shiva - Indian philosopher)

READING – THE COST OF GLOBALIZATION

Language notes

• globalization = the process by which businesses and organisations


grow and start to operate in countries all over the world, which has
been made easier by new technology and political developments
• glocalization = a strategy where a company is operating all around
the world but adapts its products or services and its manufacturing
methods to make them suitable for local conditions

3. Insert the following words in the text below.

boycott impoverishment rippled supply


collateral power shoddy unemployment
fringe reaping stung urging

The Cost of Globalization

When Karl Marx called for the workers of the world to unite, it seems
unlikely he had in mind an iPhone (1).................. . But suggestions for such
a campaign in the US have thrown the spotlight on possible abuses at firms
producing goods for hi-tech giant Apple, (2).................. the public to think
again about what happens at the other end of the production pipeline that leads
to its swish, minimalist stores. (3).................. by criticism, Apple boss Tim
Cook told his staff last week: "We care about every worker in our worldwide
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 9

(4).................. chain", and the company is now inspecting scores of


factories, providing the latest evidence that the public is no longer willing to
ignore the dark underbelly of world capitalism.
Before the Great Crash, critics of globalization were isolated on the loony
(5).................. : tear-gassed in Seattle and whacked with truncheons in
Prague, as the west's leaders gathered to congratulate themselves on
(6).................. the benefits of unfettered world trade.
When the Asian financial crises of the 1990s toppled governments and
forced one desperate country after another into mass (7).................. and
emergency bailouts by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the west's
leaders explained it away as a result of (8)................... governance or poor
economic management, instead of a devastating side-effect of globalization.
And even after the financial shock waves (9).................. out from the
American housing market in 2007 and caused catastrophic (10)..................
damage in countries across the globe, and the deepest world recession since the
1930s, many felt that a few tweaks to bank capital rules, and sharper teeth for
financial regulators, would fix the system.
Yet two things have derailed world leaders' attempts to get back to
business as usual. The first is that in many countries, more than four years on
from the start of the credit crisis, millions of people still wait for economic
recovery to take hold. Growth is sickly or non-existent; (11).................. is
rising; the only people who seem to escape are a tiny, super-rich elite. And the
second reason: there has been a growing chorus of discontent from far beyond
the corridors of (12).................. . From the Indignados in Spain, who have
espoused the cause of the 50% of young Spaniards now out of a job, to the
Occupy movements that have sprung up in New York, London and scores of
other cities around the world, to the villagers in Guangdong, China, protesting
against government land-grabs, many thousands of discontented citizens are
making their anger felt about the way the system has failed them.
Adapted from The Guardian

4. Find in the text synonyms for the following words.

 advantages .........................  improvement .........................


 commodities .........................  to supply .........................
 employees .........................  to surge .........................

5. Find in the text words which mean:


a) the act of giving money to a company, a foreign country, that has
very serious financial problems; (paragraph 3)
b) an economic system in which a country‟s businesses and industry
are controlled and run for profit by private owners rather than by the
government; (paragraph 1)
c) a difficult period in the economy of a country, where there is less
trade and industrial activity than usual and more people are
unemployed; (paragraph 4)
10 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

d) the process of improving or becoming strong again; (paragraph 5)


e) the activity of buying and selling or of exchanging goods or services
between people or countries; (paragraph 2)
f) the process by which businesses and organizations grow and start
to operate in countries all over the world; (paragraph 2)
g) a person or an organization that officially controls an area of
business or industry an makes sure that it is operating fairly;
(paragraph 4)
h) a company, a person that is the best, or in the first place in a
business or competition. (paragraph 5)

6. Do you know what the following acronyms mean?

GATT IMF NAFTA OPEC WTO

Language notes

political = connected with the state, government or public affairs;


connected with the different groups working in politics; interested in
or active in politics
politic = based on good judgment; prudent, wise
policy = a plan of action agreed or chosen by a political party, a
business; a principle that you believe in that influences how you
behave; a written statement of a contract of insurance
politics = the activities involved in getting and using power in public
life, and being able to influence decisions that affect a country or a
society

7. Find the missing words from the following sentences. All the
missing words are explained in the language notes above.

1. We have tried to pursue a .................. of neutrality.


2. He was a .................. prisoner.
3. He is thinking of going into .................. .
4. It seems .................. to say nothing.

8. Complete the text below with words of your own.

All about Globalization

(1).................. has become the (2).................. buzz-word of the 1990s.


National economies are undoubtedly becoming steadily more integrated as
cross-border flows of trade, (3).................. and financial capital increase.
(4).................. are buying more foreign goods, a growing number of firms now
operate across national borders, and savers are (5).................. more than ever
before in far-flung places.
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 11

One, positive view is that globalization is an unmixed blessing, with the


(6).................. to boost productivity and living standards everywhere. This is
because a globally integrated economy can lead to a better division of
(7).................. between countries, allowing low-wage countries to specialise in
labour-intensive tasks while high-wage countries use workers in more
productive ways. It will allow firms to exploit bigger (8).................. of scale.
Critics of globalization take a gloomier view. They (9).................. that
increased competition from low-wage developing countries will destroy
(10).................. and push down wages in today's rich economies. There will be
a "race to the bottom" as countries reduce wages, taxes, welfare
(11).................. and environmental controls to make themselves more
"competitive". Pressure to compete will (12).................. the ability of
governments to set their own economic (13).................. . The critics also worry
about the increased power of (14).................. markets to cause economic
havoc. Despite much loose talk about the "new" (15).................. economy,
today's international economic (16).................. is not unprecedented. The 50
years before the first world war saw large cross-border flows of goods, capital
and people. That period of globalization, like the present one, was driven by
reductions in trade (17).................. and by sharp falls in transport costs, thanks
to the development of railways and steamships. The present surge of
globalization is in a way a resumption of that previous (18).................. .
Adapted from The Economist

9. Recognize the following file formats. An extension is added to the


filename to identify the type of file.

• .pdf • .rtf • .gif • .tif • .zip


• .doc • .htm/.html • .jpg/.jpeg • .mp3 • .mpg/.mpe

10. Match the terms with the definitions.

1. sustainable a) An agreement between two countries that regulates the


development terms of trade between them.
2. trade b) Low-income and middle-income countries in which most
protection people have a lower standard of living and access to fewer
goods and services than do most people in high-income
countries.
3. total external c) Usually a numerical measure of quality of life in a country.
debt Indicators are used to illustrate progress of a country in
meeting a range of economic, social, and environmental
goals.
4. protectionism d) A situation where there are no restrictions on trade
between nations. This situation will never exist because
nations have very strict rules about trading in some items,
such as pornography, or they may ban goods for
quarantine reasons, such as meat products from countries
12 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

with outbreaks of 'mad cow' disease.


5. development e) The change in an indicator over a period of time,
indicator expressed as a percentage of the indicator at the start of
the period.
6. trade f) The amount or the number of goods that can be imported
or exported.
7. bilateral g) Protecting domestic producers by impeding or limiting the
trade importation of foreign goods and services. This is done
agreement through tariffs or quotas.
8. free trade h) A method of measuring the relative purchasing power of
different countries' currencies across the same regimen of
goods and services. Because goods and services may
cost more in one country than in another, it allows us to
make more accurate comparisons of standards of living
across countries.
9. trade i) Government grants to local producers to assist in the
liberalization production of particular crops or goods. This leads to unfair
competition and lower returns for those producers
producing the good without assistance, and rewards those
whose production processes may be inefficient.
10. growth rate j) Development that meets the needs of the people today
without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs.
11. developing k) Taxes placed by a government on imported or exported
country goods and services.
12. subsidies l)
Debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency,
goods or services. It is the sum of publicly guaranteed and
private non-guaranteed long-term debt, as well as use of
IMF credit and short-term debt.
13. import/ m) It allows people to buy goods and services that are not
export produced in their own countries. The money countries
quota receive from exports helps determine how much they can
afford to spend on imports, and how much they can borrow
from abroad.
14. purchasing n) The movement towards removing barriers that restrict the
power parity importation and exportation of goods and services between
(PPP) countries.
15. tariffs o) Restrictions on the imports of goods and services from
other countries in order to protect local producers from
overseas competition. This may be through tariffs,
subsidies and quality assurance standards, or labeling,
safety and packaging requirements.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 5
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 13

11. Choose the best answer.

1. Going global has become the economic ......... of many organizations,


according to Jonathan Elimimian, Department of Business and
Economics, Johnson C. Smith University.
a) aspiration b) destination c) fascination d) inspiration
2. It is important to be aware of the fact that the world is so technologically
complex and fast changing that it is difficult to identify the current level
of global marketing changes facing ......... economies.
a) conditional b) marginal c) parochial d) transitional
3. We already know that strategic alliances and ......... with different
countries worldwide bring new capabilities, capacities, technologies and
new strategic business ideas to these new markets.
a) affinity b) consanguinity c) fraternity d) proximity
4. Economies that are ......... global societal strategies to enter the world
market will need to recognize the importance of other countries' social
and cultural complexities.
a) embellishing b) embracing c) enacting d) entrancing
5. The ......... of globalization and constant competitive shifts have
increased the volatility of corporate posture both in domestic and global
markets.
a)immediacies b) importunities c) indelicacies d) intricacies
6. For now, the playing ......... is not equal access to global market entry
between industrialized nations and emerging economies of the world.
a) field b) ground c) pitch d) space
7. Everything in the vast ......... of globalization favors the industrialized
nations, which are wealthy, technologically advanced, creative and
determined to dominate the world market.
a) area b) arena c) stadium d) studio
8. These advanced nations are fully aware of the extra economic and
technological power they possess with technologies, information,
capabilities, access and knowledge of what the world market is ......... .
a) about b) around c) found d) none
9. Global societal strategy will be ......... to all businesses worldwide as the
world market is becoming closer due to advanced technological
infrastructures.
a) imperative b) imperious c) implicated d) implied
14 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

10. Most evolving economies will definitely find it difficult to ......... a global
market already dominated by the industrialized nations.
a) imitate b) initiate c) penetrate d) perpetrate
11. Whether it comes from an internal or external source, corporate
espionage can hit all corporates hard, especially SMEs where margins
are ......... .
a) nearest b) neatest c) thinnest d) tightest
12. Since the primary motivation behind cyber crime switched from ......... to
money, the corporate security stakes have never been higher.
a) bedlam b) hoodlum c) mayhem d) random
13. The protection of data should never be underestimated, as a recent
event involving Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs in the UK
highlights, where a CD containing confidential details of millions of
people ......... missing.
a) found b) seen c) went d) none
14. Most small and medium enterprises don't believe their company will be
targeted; if a company is not in the defence industry or the company is
relatively small, the thinking is, they aren't at risk, but this .........
common attitude can be any small business' weakness.
a) all too b) ever so c) so very d) still yet
15. The nature of a targeted attack means that it is probably going to be
aimed at your weakest spot: for example, a laptop or a worker that
secretly uses ......... file sharing programs to download videos.
a) face-to-face b) man-to-man c) one-to-one d) peer-to-peer
16. It's a struggle to keep track of the status of each computer, and many
smaller companies are trying to use complicated and hugely technical
enterprise security products that simply weren't designed with them in
mind; consequently, corporate espionage is likely to give them even
more of a ......... going forward.
a) headache b) heavy load c) lagtime d) lead weight
17. While the 'bad guys' might be getting more sophisticated in their
attacks, small businesses have typically failed to keep ......... with their
defences.
a) clear b) pace c) rank d) step
18. But not all espionage is hi-tech ......... and gadgetry.
a) prestidigitation b)sleight-of-hand c) sorcery d) wizardry
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 15

19. Small businesses urgently need to look at ways of closing up potential


......... in their network, such as tools that give them the ability to
successfully implement safe computing policies.
a) gates b) holes c) tunnels d) walls
20. Corporate spies are perfectly happy to get information from the easiest,
most overlooked sources, and more often than not, the offender is a
......... employee or someone at director level trying to set up as a
competitor or give a company's intellectual rights away to a competitor
for reward or revenge.
a) discouraged b)disenchanted c) disgruntled d) dismayed

WRITING – GLOBALIZATION CAN WORK

12. Insert the following sentences in the article below.

A. Yes, there is a manufacturing core that puts production on sites across


the globe but that creates few jobs in a country such as Britain.

B. We can retreat to our national laagers, which would be an economic


disaster, or we can build an interdependent world that works.

C. Fewer than 150,000 jobs are directly involved in the making of all those
cars and engines and the numbers have been gently falling for years as
modern production techniques transform productivity.

D. But Mac Jobs are never likely to be highly paid, high-value-added jobs.

E. What is striking, for example, in the protests in Greece, Portugal and


Ireland against the austerity packages is that they are so firmly national.

Globalization Can Work

Britain has become a hub in the global web of car and engine production.
This year, 1.4 million cars and more than 3 million engines will be produced
here, most of them for export. The research-and-development spend in the
industry is high and rising, while Tata‘s purchase of Jaguar Land Rover has
proved one of its best-ever investments, as it now produces nearly three-
quarters of the company's total profits. All considered, this is a modern
capitalist success story and if and when the economy rebalances, production of
this type will grow even further. However, all this success is accompanied by
very few new jobs. (1)………………………………
16 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

Meanwhile, McDonald‘s has announced that it will be creating another


2,500 jobs this year. Hamburger flipping creates jobs and these jobs do require
more than a modicum of skill and capacity to handle often truculent customers.
(2)……………………………… Nor will McDonald's earn Britain much in the
way of export revenue.
There's a similar pattern across the industrialised west, raising anxious
and urgent questions about whether the modern economy can create mass
employment at worthwhile wages. (3)……………………………… And there is
a modest service sector, which is either integrated with the manufacturers or, as
is the case with fast food, which provides self-standing services in its own right.
Beyond these, there's a vast web of "cream-skimming" services associated with
brokerage and agency – everything from investment banking to headhunters,
estate agents and football agents – taking a cut on some transaction or deal but
adding precious little value despite sky-high personal rewards.
Without globalization, this new economic structure and accompanying
pattern of reward would be impossible. But there is another twist: this
"enabling" globalization is itself unstable. It rests on countries such as
Germany, China, India and Japan – which do most of the producing in the
new global supply chains – building up never-ending trade surpluses, while
other countries carry deficits, with no mechanism compelling either side to
change. The banking system is then obliged to recycle the surpluses, exploiting
the many loopholes to create an unregulated shadow system, which has now
imploded. We need some counterbalancing international forces to hold
government, business and banks to account. (4)………………………………
There has not been one high-profile joint press conference, for example, of
those parties in all three countries that oppose the measures. Not even the
protesters or the trade unions make common cause. Nor has there been any
practical prospectus for what could and should be different.
If the world is to have a constructive counterbalance to globalization,
then it needs grounded social institutions that work across borders and are
likely to endure. One would be powerful transnational trade unions, committed
not to socialising the global means of production, but to insisting on worldwide
responsible capitalism. Something has to change.
(5)……………………………… There is only one option to choose.

Adapted from The Guardian

13. Summarize each paragraph of the previous article in maximum 20


words.

14. Use your paragraph summaries to produce a final summary of the


text in no more than 80 words.
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 17

LISTENING – MANAGING A GLOBAL ENTERPRISE

15. You will hear Andrea Jung, CEO of Avon, talking about her company. As
you listen, complete the transcript using up to three words.

Well, first of all, good evening everybody. It's a privilege to be here, and
thank you all for coming and joining. I grew up in a family where all we
knew about business school was Stanford. My little brother here -- one of
my favorite people in the world -- has always been the biggest
(1)…………………………………………. for the school. So it was a no
brainer on one hand to come and speak to the school, but more
importantly, just to have the opportunity to kind of share some of my
thoughts. And I also -- I did not realize I was going to be seeing one of my
other favorite people in life, Henry Groswhite, behind my brother, who was -
- he actually (2)…………………………… from Princeton for my very first job
-- was my very first boss. So I think, through the evening, you could ask him
some Q and A about what I was like. I don't know if you want to hear that
answer. But, I owe a (3)…………………………. amount -- the whole reason
I think I'm probably here. I started from the very early days. But, before we
get into some Q and A, I just thought I would give you just a
(4)………………………………….. of who I am. And I think, as you heard
before -- thank you for that wonderful introduction. And I won't go that much
into Avon. It is an interesting company. 140 something countries. Well over
ten billion dollars today with six million Avon (5)…………………………….
So I think we have more Avon representatives than the army, the air force,
and the navy combined in Brazil. And over a million-one in China. So, the
numbers are huge. But, let me just tell you one thing about myself, which I
think will start this. And that is that, I think I'm in this job ten years as of last
Wednesday. Ten years as the CEO, which my father -- he sent me an
article -- he usually doesn't do this -- that had on the cover of Business
Week that the (6)……………………………… was at that time 3.2 years.
And he sent it to me with this bit question mark like, "Are you coming home
after this?”
(listening material from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RjAfqKfWlw)

16. Listen again and cross out the extra words from each line.

A And I would say to you, first and foremost, that you know very well, I have a love
B affair with my work and my own company. I have not loved this job every single
C day, which we can talk about it. The CEO's job, after 40 public quarters, and
D particularly in the last couple of years or so, is not exactly what I would say is fun,
E but I have had a huge passion for it. And I guess I would just express myself this
F by telling you that, in a 1997, I was on a short list of, I guess, potential CEOs for the
G company. And there was a lot of visibility on it, for those of you who are men or
H women in the audience, because I think at that time there was only one or two
I woman, maybe two, Carly Fiorina and Marianne Sandler were the only two or three
J public company CEOs at that time. And so, I was in the line to become the CEO of
18 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

K the company. Company hit a sort of tough spot, and the board has been decided,
L even though they had kind of given me the nod that I would have get the job, that
M they were be going to go with one of our directors, a gentleman who had been a
N CEO and was about 52 years old. So they told me that I was not going to get the
O job, and that I could be the number two. And all the papers, the New York Times
P kind of really were all over that place, because there was this whole overwhelming
Q "Woman Passed Over: There is a whole Glass Ceiling" reaction to it, at which
R point, I got actually two other pretty big CEO job offers. So, there I was at this
S inflection point, because there I was, the big boss that I was going to work for was
T 52, so it wasn't like he was over 62 or they could tell me, "Just do this for a couple
U of years and you can get the job”. They were basically saying me, "He's here.
V You're here to support him”. And I was being offered the amount of money, the
W title, the corner office that came with some of the pretty interesting benefits.
(listening material from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RjAfqKfWlw)

READING – COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM

17. Re-arrange the following sentences to make up a text.

Computer Operating System

A. You've probably heard the phrase boot your computer, but do you know
what that means?
B. Once the operating system has started up, it manages all of the software
and hardware on the computer.
C. Operating systems usually come preloaded on any computer that you buy.
Most people use the operating system that comes with their computer, but
it is possible to upgrade or even change operating systems.
D. Most of the time, there are many different programs running at the same
time, and they all need to access your computer's Central Processing Unit
(CPU), memory, and storage.
E. An operating system is the most important software that runs on a
computer. It manages the computer's memory, processes, and all of its
software and hardware.
F. The operating system coordinates all of this to make sure that each
program gets what it needs.
G. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing
how to speak the computer's language. Without an operating system, a
computer is useless.
H. During this process, the computer does several things: runs tests to make
sure everything is working correctly, checks for new hardware and then
starts up the operating system.
I. Booting is the process that occurs when you press the power button to turn
your computer on.
Adapted from Business Week
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 19

VOCABULARY – WORD FORMATION

Language notes
VERB PREFIXES

 Prefixes used to form verbs which mean “to cause to be something”:


en-
encrypt: to put information into a special code, in order to prevent people
from looking at it without permission
up-
update: to add the most recent information to something
upload: to move data to a larger computer system from a smaller one
upgrade: to add or replace hardware or software in order to expand the
computer‟s power
 Prefixes that mean “the opposite of an action”:
un-
uninstall: to remove hardware or software from a computer system
de-
debug: to look for and remove the faults in computer software or
equipment
decompress: to return computer files to their original size after they have
been compressed (made smaller)
defragment: to reorganize data stored on disk by putting files into
contiguous order
decrypt: to change text or a message that is written in code into a form
that can be understood by anyone

18. Write sentences of your own using the verbs above.

19. Complete the table with the missing words.

Verb Activity/process Person


work

protest

globalize/-ise -
manager

assessment

employ

politician
20 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

20. Complete the sentences using words from the previous exercise.

1. According to tax ……… records, the estate was ……… at $1.4m in


2011.
2. As a result of business ………, a broad range of skills will now be
needed for professional success.
3. Our ……… assistance programme provides advice, counselling,
training and support.
4. The critical skills in sales ……… are recruiting, selecting and hiring the
best sales reps.
5. I don‟t want to get involved in office ……… .
6. ……… organised a ……… against proposed changes to their contracts.

21. Complete the following collocations with the missing letters.

a) f_ _l - ti_e / pa_t - tim_ work/ employment/ career/ profession/


occupation
b) p_r_ane_t / te_po_a_y work/ employment
c) w_ _l - p_i_ / lo_ - p_ _d work/ employment
d) fr_ _la_ce / vol_n_a_y work/ employment/ occupation
e) me_ _ca_ / le_a_ /te_ch_n_ career/ profession/ work
f) l_ _k for/se_k / fi_d work/ employment/ occupation
g) _et / ob_a_n / g_ _e sb / o_ _er sb / c_e_te / ge_e_a_e / _rov_d_
work/ employment

22. Fill in the blanks with words from the box.

crackers firewall piracy spyware viruses


cyberstalking phishing scam trojan horses worms

1. The Internet provides the right environment for ………, online


harassment, mainly in chat rooms or newsgroups.
2. Three people were found guilty of operating an insurance ……… .
3. ………, the illegal copying and distribution of copyrighted software,
information, music and video files is widespread nowadays.
4. The software can detect over 500 different ……… .
5. The growth rate of ………….. scams jumped 52% in June.
6. ……… are self-copying programs that have the capacity to move
from one computer to another without human help.
7. ……… are computer criminals who use technology to perform a
variety of crimes.
8. ……… is designed to collect information from computers for
commercial or criminal purposes.
9. To prevent crackers from breaking into your internal network and
obtaining your data, install a ……… .
10. ……… are malicious programs disguised as innocent-looking files or
embedded within legitimate software.
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 21

23. Complete the table with the plural form of the nouns.

singular plural
memorandum
alga
stratum
datum
thesis
analysis
axis
criterion
phenomenon
genie

24. Find the word family for the following:

to produce …………………………………………………………...
to trade …………………………………………………………...
to negotiate …………………………………………………………...
to evaluate ……………………………………………………………
to manage ……………………………………………………………
to lead ……………………………………………………………

GRAMMAR – REVIEW OF TENSES

25. Re-write the sentences so that they have the same meaning as the
original.

1. I didn't renew my subscription because I lost interest in the magazine's


articles.
I would have ………...........................................................................
2. He was too slow to win the race.
If he hadn‟t …………………………………………………………….....
3. I won't go to Rio unless I find a cheap flight.
If I don‟t …………………………………………………………………...
4. I never sunbathe because I get sunburt easily.
I would …………………………………………………………………….
5. She will understand you provided that you don't speak too fast.
She will understand ……………………………………………………..
6. He won't come for a drink because he's got work to do.
If he didn‟t ………………………………………………………………...
7. She's too young to get a driving licence.
She would get ……………………………………………………………
8. They lost the match because of the heavy rain.
They would have ………………………………………………………...
22 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

9. Whenever Peter and I meet, we talk about the good old times.
If Peter and ………………………………………………………………
10. Should you see Paul, tell him about the meeting.
If you ……………………………………………………………………...

26. Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

Between 1950 and 1973, Western European incomes ………….. 1


(converge) quickly towards those in the United States. Then, until the early
1990s, the incomes of more than 100 million people in the poorer southern
periphery—Greece, southern Italy, Portugal, and Spain - ……………. 2 (grow)
closer to those in advanced Europe. With the first association agreements with
Hungary and Poland in 1994, another 100 million people in Central and
Eastern Europe ………….. 3 (absorb) into the European Union, and their
incomes …………. 4 (increase) quickly. Another 100 million in the candidate
countries in Southeastern Europe already ………… 5 (benefit) from the same
aspirations and similar institutions that ………… 6 (help) almost half a billion
people achieve the highest standards of living on the planet. If European
integration ………….. 7 (continue), the 75 million people in the eastern
partnership …………. 8 (profit) in ways that are similar in scope and speed.

Adapted from The Economist

TRANSLATION – BRITAIN, ROMANIA AND GLOBALIZATION

27. Translate into Romanian.

Britain has the politics of an island. At worst, its political debate can be
parochial, even tin-eared about the world outside. Yet Britain is an outrider for
openness, standing out among large European nations for its faith in free trade,
liberalised markets and undistorted competition. In many neighbouring
countries, calls to reject free trade and embrace protectionism attract a quarter
or more of the vote. Not in Britain. Yet in island politics, the temptation to
gaze inward is never far away. Debates about capitalism dominate British
politics. The Conservative prime minister, David Cameron, his Liberal
Democrat deputy Nick Clegg, and the leader of the opposition Labour Party,
Ed Miliband, have repeatedly spoken about building a fairer economy.
Responding to voter anger, they talk of reining in bankers‘ bonuses and pay
packages for company bosses. All three agree that there is a need to curb
welfare for the work-shy. Most of all, they agree there is a desperate need to
help the ―squeezed middle‖ whose incomes stagnated even when times were
good.

Adapted from The Economist


UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 23

28. Translate into English.

România se menţ ine la mijlocul clasamentului între ţ ă rile cele mai deschise
că tre globalizare, în urma ţ ă rilor vecine Ungaria ş i Bulgaria, dar în faţ a
unor ţ ă ri precum Japonia sau China, conform indicelui de globalizare
calculat de Ernst&Young. Indicele de globalizare realizat pentru acest raport
mă soara performanţ a celor mai mari 60 de economii la nivel internaţ ional,
luând in considerare 20 de indicatori care evaluează aspecte cheie ale
integră rii transfrontaliere ale activită ţ ilor economice. Aceş ti indicatori se
inscriu în cinci categorii, respectiv deschiderea că tre activită ţ i de comerţ ,
miscă rile de capital, schimbul de idei ş i tehnologii, mobilitatea forţ ei de
muncă ş i integrarea culturală . Primele locuri sunt ocupate de Hong Kong,
Irlanda ş i Singapore, în vreme ce Venezuela, Algeria ş i Iran ocupa ultimele
trei poziţ ii. România se află la jumă tatea clasamentului, pe locul 32, imediat
după Italia ş i în faţ a Greciei, Turciei, Ucrainei sau Rusiei.

Adapted from www.business24.ro

CASE STUDY – MCDONALD’S EVERYWHERE

Brief
Established in 1955, McDonald‘s faced a problem by the early 1980s. After three
decades of rapid growth, the US fast food market was beginning to show signs of
market saturation. McDonald‘s response to the slowdown was to expand abroad
rapidly. In 1980, 28% of the chain‘s new restaurant openings were abroad; in 1986, the
figure was 40%; in 1990 it was close to 60%; and in 2010 it was over 80%. Since the
early 1980, the firm‘s foreign revenues and profits have grown at 22% a year. By 2009,
the firm had over 20.000 restaurants in 110 countries outside of the United States. They
generated $17bn of the firm‘s $31bn in revenues. And McDonald's shows no signs of
slowing down. The firm‘s plans call for the foreign expansion to continue at a rapid
rate. The firm opened 500 more restaurants in England, France and Germany. In 2007
McDonald's stated it would open 2000 restaurants per year for the foreseeable future,
the majority of them outside the United States. This includes major expansion plans for
Latin America, where the company plans to invest $2bn over the next few years.
Adapted from International Business. Competing in the Global Marketplace

TASK 1
Read the brief and answer the questions:
a) Which are the keys to the company‟s successful foreign expansion?
b) What are the problems encountered by McDonald's in other countries?
TASK 2
In groups, suggest solutions to the problems encountered by McDonald's.
TASK 3
Exchange opinions with the other groups.
24 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

GRAMMAR FILE 1: REVIEW OF TENSES


Present Simple Present Continuous
refers to facts that are always refers to actions which are in
true, habits, states progress at the moment of
speaking

1. Complete the sentences using Present Simple or Continuous.

a) …………… you …………… him tomorrow? (SEE)


b) …………… you …………… Mary? (KNOW)
c) What …………… her husband ……………? Isn‟t he a banker? (DO)
d) How often …………… you …………… him? (SEE)
e) I …………… to drive. I want to buy a car. (LEARN)
f) I hate working here. I …………… about looking for a new job. (THINK)
g) Use my desk. I …………… it at the moment. (NEED)
h) What …………… you …………… about our new brochure? (THINK)
i) How much …………... it …………... now? (COST)

Past Simple Past Continuous


refers to completed actions refers to actions in progress in
the past

2. Find the suitable verbs and complete the sentences using Past
Simple or Continuous.
a) I …………… a book when the telephone …………… .
b) She …………… too fast when the police …………… her.
c) I …………… a lot of fish while I …………… in Spain.
d) We …………… a lot of English while our American friends ……………
at our place.
e) He …………… to the radio when he …………… the news.
f) John …………… a lot of mistakes when he …………… his homework.
g) I …………… a presentation when the fire alarm …………… .

Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous


refers to recent events without refers to a state which lasts
a definite time given up to the present moment

3. Choose the best option.

a) Jane has stolen/has been stealing money from her parents for many
years.
b) What have you been doing/have you done since I left the house?
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 25

c) He has eaten/has been eating three cakes already.


d) She has waited/has been waiting outside since 2 o‟clock.
e) So far I haven‟t noticed/haven‟t been noticing anything unusual.
f) I wonder if Jane has been reaching/has reached home yet.
g) She got the new job but she has complained/has been complaining
about it ever since.
h) Mary has been learning/has learnt English for five years.

Past Perfect tenses


refer to an event in the past
which happens before another
event in the past

4.Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable tense.

a) He offered me another drink but I decided I …………… (drink) enough.


b) I didn‟t realize that I …………… (leave) my briefcase on the bus.
c) Whenever Peter found a new job, there was someone who knew that he
…………… (go) to prison.
d) I …………… (talk) on the phone for one hour when he entered the
room.
e) It ……………. (rain) for three hours when it suddenly stopped.

WILL BE GOING TO
is used to express an describes intentions or plans
immediate decision

5. Match up the sentences.

1. You‟ve turned green.


2. How does this thing work?
3. I‟ve got a headache.
4. You‟ll never finish all that work.
5. Have we solved the problem?
6. Have you seen the agenda?
7. I don‟t want to tell him.
8. Looks like Jimmy is off with stress again.

a) I think he will leave soon, don‟t you?


b) No, but we are going to visit the suppliers on Thursday.
c) I‟ll get you an aspirin.
d) I think I am going to faint.
e) I will. I am going to stay late.
f) He‟ll understand, don‟t worry about it.
g) I know. It‟s going to be a long meeting.
h) I‟ll show you.
26 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

PASSIVE VOICE
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle

TENSE SUBJECT VERB OBJECT


Present Simple A letter is written by Mary
Present Continuous A letter is being written by Mary
Past Simple A letter was written by Mary
Past Continuous A letter was being written by Mary
Past Perfect A letter had been written by Mary
Present Perfect A letter has been written by Mary
Future A letter will be written by Mary
Future Perfect A letter will have been written by Mary

6. Rephrase the following sentences in the passive voice.

a) Kate hates bees as she was once stung by one.


Being …………………………………………………………………………...
b) They must check the braking system of the plane before taking off on
such a bad weather.
The ……………………………………………………………………………..
c) They will deliver my new computer tomorrow morning.
My new ………………………………………………………………………...
d) It is considered that this British couple is the most famous in the world.
This British ………………………………………………………………….....
e) It‟s very difficult for her to pay bills monthly as she is paid annually.
Being …………………………………………………………………………...
f) Paul‟s sister promoted my brother yesterday.
My ……………………………………………………………………………....

7. Turn the following sentences into the passive. Some of them may
be transformed in two ways.

a) They described the situation to everybody in the room.


…………………………………………………………………………………..
b) The teacher gives lots of presents to her students.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
c) The owners reported the burglary to the police.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
d) My cousin lent me his car last night.
………………………………………………………………………………......
e) The teacher has just explained the new concepts to his students.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
f) Customers found this model of mobile phone to be faulty.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL 27

8. Choose the best option.

1. They were interviewing her for the job. / She …………… for the job.
a) was being interviewed
b) was interviewed
c) has been interviewed
2. Tom is writing the letter. / The letter …………… by Tom.
a) was written
b) is being written
c) has been written
3. Everyone understands English. / English …………… by everyone.
a) is understood
b) has been understood
c) was understood
4. The employees brought up this issue during the meeting. / This issue
…………… by the employees during the meeting.
a) has been brought up
b) is brought up
c) was brought up
5. The professor told him not to talk in class. / He …………… by the
professor not to talk in class.
a) has been told
b) was told
c) was being told
6. They say that women are smarter than men. / Women …………… to be
smarter than men.
a) were being said
b) were said
c) are said
7. The fire has destroyed the house. / The house …………… by the fire.
a) has been destroyed
b) was being destroyed
c) is destroyed
8. She would have told you. / You …………… by her.
a) would have been told
b) would be told
c) were being told
9. She would reject the offer. / The offer …………… by her.
a) will have been rejected
b) would be rejected
c) will be rejected
10. This surprises me. / I …………… by this.
a) would have been surprised
b) will be surprised
c) am surprised
28 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

LISTENING – MORE LIBERTY, LESS GOVERNMENT

1. Listen to the extract and answer the following questions.


(listening material from www.youtube.com/watch?v=fu0hMiBTJPo)

1. What are the 2 ways of organizing economic activity mentioned by


Milton Friedman?
2. What is the practical validity of the 2 ways of organizing economic
activity?
3. What is the analogy used by Friedman to explain the impossibility of
command economy?
4. Was the Soviet economy organized by command or voluntary
exchange? What example does Friedman use to illustrate the Soviets‟
ingenious way of “getting around the system”?
5. What does voluntary exchange have to overcome in an economy where
“the method of the market” is not the dominant one?
6. What is the argument given by Friedman against excessive command in
an economy?
7. What is Friedman‟s position on the question of government control?
8. What phrase (borrowed from Walter Lippmann) does he use to describe
the US society of the 1980‟s? What do you think he means by it?

2. Listen again and mark the following statements as True or False.

Statement True False

1. It‟s practically impossible to organize a modern society


by command.
2. Cybernetic or computing systems can be powerful
enough to enable someone at the centre to control
everybody‟s activity down to the last detail.
3. In the former Soviet Union, 1/4 of all the food came
from small private plots.
4. The role of voluntary exchange in an economy is to
counteract the dire consequences of any “excess of
attempted command”, allowing the system to operate.
5. In the 1980s, US government was failing to perform its
specific functions because it was under pressure to
perform functions beyond its areas of competence
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 29

VOCABULARY

3. Fill in the blanks with the words given in the box below.

available competition 'market economy' regulated


capitalism goods 'market reform' regulatory
centrally-planned government mixed economies state-owned
Communist control public services

There are two basic types of economy, known as (1)……………...


(or 'free-market economy') and 'planned economy' (also called 'centrally-
planned' or 'command' economy), associated with the two main economic
systems, (2).................. and socialism (or communism, in the case of
command economy); in the former, the means of producing and distributing
goods are privately owned and controlled, whereas in the latter, they are
(3).................. and controlled. Lying at the very centre of a market
economy is the self-regulating mechanism of the market, which means that
the production volume, the quality of (4).................. and services, the price
level, etc. are all determined by (5).................. and the two main market
forces of supply and demand. By contrast, a (6).................. economy is
totally directed by the state: there is tight (7).................. in all economic
areas, and no market in the real sense of the word (i.e. there is no real
competition as the state cannot compete against itself). The price and the
quality of goods, the volume of production, etc. are (8)……………... by the
government. (9)................... countries in Eastern European before 1989,
as well as North Korea and Cuba today are all extreme cases of centrally-
planned economies. Communist China is, however, an exception: due to a
unique mix of political control and (10).................. , its economy does not
strictly fall into any of the two types of economies.
Economists, however, agree that there is no such thing as a purely
'market' economy in the real world, not even in the most developed Western
economies, but (11).................. combining varying degrees of free market
and planned economy traits (some of the services, such as health care,
being provided by both the private sector and the state) – although the
expression 'market economy' is often used as a synonym for 'mixed
economy'.
The government in a mixed economy, on the one hand, has a
(12).................. role (i.e. it exerts control over the economy by enforcing
basic rules for all economic participants), and on the other hand provides
(13).................. in such areas as education, health care, etc. (as democratic
alternatives to the private ones, and based on the principle that certain
services should be (14)……………... to all citizens, regardless of their
income).
30 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

4. In a developed mixed economy, there are various company types


and degrees of competition. Match the words in the left column with
the correct definitions in the right column to identify the main
company types and degrees of competition.

A. TYPES OF COMPANIES
1. sole trader / a) A large corporation which has operations and
sole proprietor subsidiaries in several different countries, and its
headquarters in its home country.
2. partnership b) A company whose business is the production of
goods.
3. family business c) A company that buys goods from manufacturers
or wholesalers and sells them in small quantities
directly to consumers (end users), in specific
venues (e.g. a shop, a supermarket, etc.).
4. joint venture d) A large limited liability company whose shares are
quoted on the stock exchange.
5. franchise e) An association of two or more persons as co-
owners of a business enterprise who share its
profits and losses (e.g. lawyers, architects,
auditing firms, etc.).
6. multinational f) A company (also known as a “private” company)
whose owners are responsible for the debts it may
incur only to the extent of the amount they have
invested in the business in the form of shares; its
shares cannot be sold to members of the public.
7. limited liability g) A company engaged in providing a specific
company service to customers.
8. public limited h) A business which is owned and managed by
company members of the same family.
9. manufacturer i) A type of business in which one person owns all
the assets, with no other shareholders; that
person is self-employed, and has unlimited liability
(is fully responsible for the company‟s debts with
his/her personal wealth).
10. retail company j) A temporary association (or 'strategic alliance') of
two or more companies that contribute goods,
services and/or capital to a common business
enterprise, and share in its profits and losses.
11. service k) A business licensed to sell a company‟s products
company exclusively in a particular area or to operate a
business under that company‟s name.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 31

B. DEGREES OF COMPETITION
1. oligopsony a) only a few large firms making up an industry and
having control over the price.
2. monopsony b) only one producer/seller who determines the
price.
3. monopolistic c) many equal sellers (none able to exert any
competition significant control over prices, which are
determined by supply and demand) and many
similar (and therefore substitutable) products.
4. monopoly d) many small buyers who purchase similar yet not
perfectly substitutable products.
5. oligopoly e) many producers/sellers provide products that are
similar yet not perfectly substitutable, their unique
properties giving the seller some monopoly power.
6. perfect f) a market situation in which several sellers
competition compete for a single buyer who controls the
market.
7. monopsonistic g) only a few large buyers for a product/service, who
competition exert a great deal of control over the sellers and
drive down prices.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

5. Complete the underlined words with the missing letters in the


following text, which describes one preliminary step to starting a
business.

He is an entre………… Last year, he set up his own company. He didn‟t


have the necessary st………… capital, so he had to take out a l…………
from the bank. In order to get it, he had to submit a comprehensive, well-
grounded and realistic business p………… to the bank. The document had
the following structure:
1. Executive S……………(a summary of the key elements of the business plan).
2. The T…………… (Management Team Profiles & Ownership Structure, Human
Resources Requirements, Advisors)
3. Business E…………… (Industry Overview, Consumer Trends, Seasonal
Factors, Position in the Industry, Legal Issues, Competition, Use of
Technology)
4. M…………… Plan (Target Markets, The Competition. Services, Pricing
Strategy, Sales/ Distribution Plan, Advertising and Promotions Plan)
5. O…………… (Stage of Development, Quality Control, Land & Equipment
Requirements, Contingency Plans)
6. F…………… (Income Statement)
7. R…………… and C…………… (Marketing Risks, Operational Risks, H.R.
Risks, Conclusions)
32 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

6. Correct the mistakes in the following paragraphs.

1. Successful companies nowadays proud themselves not only on their


impressive turnover figures and big market shares, but also on the way
they treat their customers, suppliers, business partners, and last but not
least, their own employees, as part of their CSR politics.
2. The working conditions a company has created for its employs is a
measure of a company‟s degree of corporate social responsability,
among other things.
3. It is almost impossible to imagine a modern business office that is not
properly endowed with the necessary office supplies, ranging from
traditional lower-cost items (such as writing ustensils, paper, paper
clips, staplers, whole punchers, binders, paper/document shredders,
etc.) to more expensive state-of-the-art equipment (computers, word
processors, calculaters, printers, fax machines, photocopiers, cell
phones, etc.).
4. Apart from these, offices are also equipped with typical office furniture
pieces (chairs, cubicles, filling cabinets, and armoire desks).

READING – THE (IN)VISIBLE HAND

7. Read the text below. What famous phrase does the title suggest?

The Visible Hand

During 1900-1970, when pro-statists had the wind in their sails,


governments started off by weaving social safety nets and ended up by
nationalising huge chunks of the economy. The situation reversed over the next
thirty years, when free marketeers made a comeback: politicians like Ronald
Reagan and Margaret Thatcher started a fashion for privatising state-run
industries and pruning the welfare state.
Now the era of free-market triumphalism has come to a halt as the crisis
is engulfing most of the world. What makes the crisis of liberal capitalism even
more obvious is the rise of ―state capitalism‖, which consists in melding the
powers of the state with those of capitalism, combining the dependence on
government to promote economic growth, and the use of capitalist tools (e.g.
listing state-owned companies on the stock market, embracing globalization).
The best illustration is China (where the state, which is the biggest shareholder
in the major companies, also shapes the overall market by managing its
currency, directing money to favoured industries and working closely with
Chinese companies abroad); state capitalism is also responsible for some of the
most powerful companies in the world (e.g. Russia‘s Gazprom, China Mobile,
and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation.
Adapted from The Economist
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 33

8. Find words or phrases in the text which mean:

a) palpable/ clear evidence of the state‟s interference in an economy;


(paragraph 1)
b) people in favour of state support or interference in an economy;
(paragraph 1)
c) be in a favourable position; (paragraph 1)
d) begin; (paragraph 1)
e) large piece/part/amount of something; (paragraph 1)
f) proponents of the free market system; (paragraph 1)
g) reduce; (paragraph 1)
h) a social system built on the premise that it is primarily the government‟s
responsibility to ensure the well being of its citizens; (paragraph 1)
i) overwhelm, swallow up; (paragraph 2)
j) combine, blend; (paragraph 2)
k) regarded as a whole. (paragraph 2)

READING – THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT: FOCUS ON CHINA

9. Choose the best equivalents for the following words and phrases
used in the text below.

1. flexing its muscles (title)


a) relaxing
b) showing its ability/skill/power
c) bending over backwards

2. tightening its grip (paragraph 2)


a) showing more interest in
b) cooperating more closely with
c) controlling more strictly

3. devising (paragraph 2)
a) cancelling
b) developing
c) imposing

4. twisting (rules) (paragraph 3)


a) bending
b) ignoring
c) breaking

5. overt (paragraph 3)
a) direct
b) tough
c) ostentatious
34 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

The Government is Flexing its Muscles in Business

In the late 1990s, China closed down thousands of state-owned


enterprises, which led to massive unemployment, but the remaining SOEs,
either controlled directly by the central government or run by lower-level
authorities, are real giants.
Over the last decade, the government has been tightening its grip on a
number of 'strategic' industries (from oil and coal to telecommunications and
transport equipment) while at the same time allowing state companies to
operate in various non-strategic sectors (from textiles and papermaking to
catering). Apart from that, it has been devising market-access rules that favour
state enterprises.
Since the global financial crisis, the Chinese government has been
criticized for twisting rules in favour of SOEs and privately owned favourites.
Foreign companies complain about the overt forms of government intervention
in support of Chinese companies developing new technologies, and
discrimination against foreign competitors, especially in such 'strategic' areas as
alternative energy, low-carbon-emitting vehicles, and information technology.

Adapted from The Economist

READING – GOVERNMENT WATCHDOGS ON THE PROWL

10. Read the text below and replace the following words used in it by
more formal equivalents.

a) slow (verb, paragraph 1)


b) to have a brush with (paragraph 2)
c) to take someone to task (paragraph 2)
d) to grow (paragraph 3)
e) gaze (noun, paragraph 3)

Floating Facebook

Facebook‘s growth may be slowing in some markets. This is most


probably due to no major dissatisfaction with its services, but rather to the fact
that everybody who might wish to join the social network in those countries
has already done so. However, complaints about Facebook‘s decision to force
users to adopt the new Timeline feature could limit the network‘s penetration
and usage, and damage its ability to generate money.
In addition to that, Facebook has had occasional brushes with privacy
watchdogs. In 2011, it was taken to task by America‘s Federal Trade
Commission, which had received numerous complaints that the company was
making public data about its users that it had promised would be kept private.
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 35

Governments‘ growing concern over online privacy might lead to a wave of


legislation around the world that could make it far harder for the company to
exploit the multitude of collected data.
Facebook could also run into trouble of a different kind: if it continues to
grow, it may find itself under the gaze of antitrust regulators, as it is known
that markets where network effects are important have a tendency towards
monopoly. Google, for example, is constantly the focus of trustbusters‘
attention.

Adapted from The Economist

11. Read the text again and identify the three main objections that are
commonly brought against Facebook by users and regulators.

12. Insert the correct prepositions to complete the following


paragraphs (A-C), then read the whole text again and choose a
suitable title for it.

……………………………

A. In a mixed economy, the state provides services that cannot be left


(1)......... the public sector (such as defence, environmental protection, the
administration of justice, scientific research involving years of work with no
immediate return on investment), and takes care of people‟s needs
(2)……… the reach of market forces (e.g. through the social security
system).

B. There may be differences (3)......... western economies as regards the


degree of government control: some people may believe that there is more
government regulation in US economy than in many economies in Western
Europe. One thing is however certain: (4)......... times of economic
downturn, governments tend to increase their involvement in the economy.

C. The government in any type of economy is called (5)......... to protect


public health and safety in various ways: by banning harmful drugs, by
protecting workers (6)......... hazards on the job, by enforcing limits on
pollution, by setting minimum standards (7)......... wages and hours on the
job, by providing social security.
36 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

GRAMMAR – MODAL VERBS

13. Combine the main and subordinate clauses from the two columns
to form complex sentences.

1. He extended the deadline a) may well benefit the economy.


2. Show them the report b) lest I should forget the details.
3. They dared not tell him the truth c) so that they may see for themselves
4. However hard you may try, d) for fear he might be too shocked.
5. Now that we‟re here e) so that we might finish the project.
6. I‟ll make a note f) you‟ll never manage to persuade him.
7. More foreign investment g) we might as well do some shopping.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

14. Rephrase the underlined words using synonymous expressions


that include the modal verbs CAN, COULD, MAY, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, MUST,
NEED, SHALL, WILL, WOULD.

1. You are not allowed to park your cars in front of the building.
2. Stop smoking! You are not allowed to do that in here!
3. Perhaps some entrepreneurs are tempted to set up a “virtual” business,
but I for one would prefer a “bricks-and-mortar-organization”.
4. Facebook‟s flotation has most probably brought the social networking
giant a great deal of new capital.
5. They publicized their intention of going public, so their IPO (Initial Public
Offering) was by no means a surprise.
6. Most probably, the Investment Bank they turned to for advice did a very
good job.
7. A listed company is “public” in the sense that anyone from the public at
large is allowed to buy its shares.
8. He has resigned from the position of CEO of a MNC in order to be able
to start a family business.
9. It wasn‟t necessary for him to take out a bank loan, especially since his
own family had promised to come up with the entire start-up capital (but
he did take out a loan).
10. Hold the line, please!
11. Am I allowed to use your computer?
12. Is it all right if I bring a friend with me to the party?
13. We assure you that you will receive the goods by the end of the week.
14. She didn‟t want to make any comments.
15. Do you want me to answer the phone?
16. Employees have an obligation to carry out the manager‟s orders.
17. There was no need for you to attend the meeting (but you did).
18. Is it necessary to repeat my request?
19. Am I under any moral obligation to help him?
20. Each economic system has an obligation to address 3 basic problems:
what to produce, how to produce, how to distribute the goods.
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 37

15. Rewrite the following sentences without using modal verbs. Do


not change the meaning of the original sentences.

1. You should have informed the Sales Manager.


2. You mustn‟t/ cannot use cell phones during the flight.
3. You must be exhausted after your long ride.
4. She looks devastated, she must have heard the terrible news.
5. The negotiations should be over by 12 o‟clock.
6. This will be the document you‟re looking for.
7. Ask the secretary, she will know the exact date of the conference.
8. He may have been too busy to answer our emails.
9. He can finally speak English well!
10. Dare you contradict your boss?

SPEAKING – THE BUSINESS FORUM

16. Work in groups of three to prepare a brief oral presentation of the


benefits and possible downsides of competition in a market economy.
Use a triple perspective: from a company‟s, an employee‟s and a
customer‟s point of view. Compare your conclusions with those of other
groups.

17. In groups of three, act out a 20-minute TV debate on the various


implications of MNCs setting up subsidiaries in developing countries,
from the point of view of host countries. Use role cards A, B and C.
Start from the concrete example of Samsung - the South Korean based
company opened a subsidiary in Romania in 2010. The subsidiary has 80
employees and operates in sales and marketing.

18. Talk about the characteristics of the two main types of economy,
using key words from the following checklist.

job security private ownership, state ownership


unemployment entrepreneurs/entrepreneurship/free enterprise
state subsidies high/low quality goods and services
bankruptcy wide range of products and services
efficiency, inefficiency mergers
competition takeovers
supply and demand MNCs
profit stock market

19. How would you describe the present state of the Romanian
economy? (its degree of regulation/ deregulation, its characteristics and
performance).
38 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

TRANSLATION – STATE INTERVENTION OR FREE MARKET?

20. Read the following text and decide which of the four English
versions comes closest to the original, using the following criteria:
• faithfulness to the original;
• grammatical correctness;
• appropriate vocabulary;
• adequate style;
• naturalness.
Give arguments for your choice and identify the flaws of the other
versions.

21. Write your own (improved) version. Explain what kind of


difficulties you have encountered in translating the text. (problems in
understanding the meaning of the text? vocabulary problems? grammar
problems? using the right register and style?)

Nu întâmplă tor, adepţ ii teoriei neoclasice ş i ai neoliberalismului au


declanş at un atac furibund asupra aş a-numitului „stat al bună stă rii― în anii
1980. Actuala criză a readus în prim-plan rolul statului, dar în variantă
modificată a privatiză rii profiturilor ş i a socializă rii costurilor crizei.
Adapted from Săptămâna Financiară

A. Not accidentally, supporters of neoclassical theory and neoliberalism


started a furious attack on the so-called "welfare state" in the 1980s. The
present-day crisis has brought into focus the role of the state, but in the
modified variant of the privatisation of profits and the socialisation of the costs
of the crisis.

B. Not by accident, the supporters of the neoclassical theory and of the


neoliberalism have furiously attacked the so-called "welfare state" in the 1980s.
The actual crisis brought in the foreground the state‘s role, but in the modified
variant of privatisation of the profits and socialisation of the costs of the crisis.

C. It is no by no mere accident that supporters of neoclassical theory and


neoliberalism unleashed a furious attack on the so-called "welfare state" in the
1980s. The current crisis has once more brought to the fore the role of the state,
though in the modified form of privatising profits and socialising the costs of
the crisis.

D. It‘s no accident that supporters of neoclassical theory and neoliberalism


staged a furious attack on the so-called "welfare state" in the 1980s. Today‘s
crisis has again brought into debate the role of the state, but in the modified
form of privatised profits and socialised costs of the crisis.
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 39

22. Work in groups of four. Each of you translate one sentence into
Romanian, then put the translated fragments together. Check the
whole text for correctness. Finally, compare versions with those of
other groups, and choose the best final version using the above-
mentioned criteria.

Chile is a country that likes to think of itself as an example of free-market


efficiency in a region hamstrung by protectionism and collusion. However,
from December 2007 to March 2008, three big pharmacy chains, which
between them controlled 90% of the market, had fixed the prices of medicines.
Two of them were fined, but denied any wrongdoing, whereas the third one
accepted a smaller fine after turning whistleblower and providing evidence
against its rivals. This is surely not a one-off case, as apologists may argue:
other companies were fined for price-fixing, while others were accused of
colluding to prevent new operators entering the market.
Adapted from The Economist

23. Work in pairs. Translate the following text into English, then
compare your version with those of other pairs and choose the best
final version.

Nă scută din unele erori să vârş ite în economia mondială , criza a fă cut ca
banii să fie mai puţ ini ş i mai scumpi tocmai în momentul în care, în toată
lumea, nevoia de bani pentru dezvoltare durabilă crescuse imens. În anii de
boom a crescut nevoia de firme noi, drumuri, autostră zi, infrastructură
energetică , dar iluziile au luat-o prea mult înaintea realită ţ ilor. Bă ncile,
instituţ iile financiare, companiile de servicii au început să scoată mai mulţ i
bani din speculaţ ii decât din muncă ş i economisire, iar rezultatul a fost criza
care ne-a lovit. Investiţ iile au scă zut, multe proiecte au fost abandonate, rata
ş omajului a crescut, iar populaţ ia a început să câş tige bani mai puţ ini ş i
să fie mai prudentă .
Adapted from Săptămâna Financiară

WRITING – SENTENCE POWER

24. Join the simple sentences into a complex one without changing
the meaning.
1. China‟s economic progress has been more impressive than any burst of
economic development ever. 440 million people have risen above the
poverty line. The country has an average annual economic growth of
10%.
2. China‟s economy is expected to continue to sustain its high growth rate
and consolidate its position as a global power. To make that happen, it
needs to shift away from investment and exports towards domestic
consumption.
40 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

3. People can now communicate with each other as never before. They
have the Internet to thank for it.
4. On February 1st, 2012, Facebook announced plans for an initial public
offering. Facebook is a company owned by Mark Zuckerberg. Its IPO
will raise $5 billion, maybe more. That will be the largest flotation ever of
an internet company.
5. Kodak‟s CEO, Antonio Perez, is investing in new product lines: printers
for consumers and printing and imaging equipment for businesses. He
is betting the company‟s future on them. He has been struggling to shift
the 131-year-old company into the Digital Age since 2005.
6. Kodak is mainly preoccupied with cutting costs. That has made the
company fall behind its competitors in inkjet printers.

25. Rearrange the following sentences in a logical sequence so as to


provide a coherent dictionary definition of the “business cycle”:

A. Since W.W. II, most business cycles have lasted for 3-5 years from
peak to peak.
B. The 5 stages of the business cycle are “growth” (or “expansion”),
“peak”, “recession” (or “contraction”), “trough” and “recovery”.
C. The average duration of an expansion is 44.8 months and the average
duration of a recession is 11 months.
D. In the past, business cycles were thought to be extremely regular, with
predictable durations, but nowadays they are widely believed to be
irregular, varying in frequency, magnitude and duration.
E. As a comparison, the Great Depression (which saw a decline in
economic activity from 1929 to 1933) lasted 43 months.
F. The business cycle can be defined as the recurring and fluctuating
levels of economic activity that an economy experiences over a long
period of time.

1 2 3 4 5 6

26. Write a brief argumentative comment (150 words, 15 lines


approximately) on the following quotes from Adam Smith’s book “The
Wealth of Nations”. At the end, give your arguments for or against the
theory according to which a company‟s selfish pursuit of profit serves a
social purpose. Are there limits to pursuing one‟s own interest in business?
If the answer is yes, where do you draw the line? (You may give examples
of Romanian companies pursuing their self-interest while at the same time
contributing to the public good, or companies overstepping the line in their
pursuit of self-interest, to support your argumentation).
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 41

a) ―It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we
expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest.‖
b) "Every individual necessarily labours to render the annual revenue of the society as
great as he can. He generally neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows
how much he is promoting it ... He intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in
many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his
intention. Nor is it always the worse for society that it was no part of his intention. By
pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually
than when he really intends to promote it. I have never known much good done by
those who affected to trade for the public good."
Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776)

27. Summarize the following text in no more than 50 words using the
guidelines in Communication File 1. Compare your summary with
those of your colleagues, then choose the best summary and compare
it with the suggested summary given in italics below.

Capitalism is sometimes criticized by advocates of ―corporate social


responsibility‖ for its failure to serve the public interest: the profits made by
private companies go to shareholders, so there is nothing left for the public
good. That broader social interest can only be advanced if corporations
acknowledge their responsibility to society – to ―stakeholders‖ other than
business owners.
If we look at things from a different angle, this may not be totally true.
Companies may be seeking to make profits for their shareholders, but in doing
that, companies, without even trying, are doing good works. For strictly selfish
reasons, well-run companies will strive for excellent long-term relations with
employees, suppliers and customers, so there is no need for selfless sacrifice for
the sake of society at large.
Therefore, the selfish pursuit of profit may be said to serve a social
purpose, as pointed out by Adam Smith in ―The Wealth of Nations‖ Indeed,
the standard of living people in the West enjoy today is due to little else but the
selfish pursuit of entrepreneurs‘ own interest.
CSR supporters might argue in favour of more benevolence in the
boardroom and less self-interest. Their solution might work, but generally, as
Adam Smith noted, one should be wary of businessmen‘s benevolence. A
question to ask about such examples of corporate goodness is, ―who is
paying?‖. When public companies make generous donations to charities, such
acts of philanthropy are always done at other people‘ expense.
Adapted from The Economist)

Suggested summary: CSR supporters may unjustly criticize capitalism for


failing to serve the public interest. They recommend more corporate
benevolence, overlooking the fact that public companies do their acts of
philanthropy at other people‟s expense. According to Adam Smith,
companies contribute to society unwillingly, by pursuing their self-interest
(i.e. making a profit).
42 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

CASE STUDY – SELLING PATENTED DRUGS IN EMERGING


EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKETS
TASK 1
Read the following text and the Language notes below. Then explain the
difference between the two drug categories (generic drugs and branded,
patented drugs) using clues from the text.

Brief
Thurber & Jones, one of the world‘s leading pharmaceutical companies, is committed
to improving the quality of life by enabling people to live longer, healthier lives.
The company was formed in 1991 by the merger of Thurber Pharm and Jones LTD,
and operates in two segments:
1. Prescriptive Drugs and Vaccines;
2. Consumer Healthcare
Thurber & Jones sells most of its products to wholesale drug distributors, pharmacies,
hospitals, clinics and government purchasing entities in Western Europe and the U. S.,
and to a lesser extent, Africa and Eastern Europe. Due to its high quality products,
Thurber and Jones‘s revenue has been growing over the past decade, in spite of the
tough competition from top pharmaceutical companies such as Pfizer, Johnson &
Johnson, Baxter International, Abbott Laboratories, etc.
The company‘s biggest challenge is ensuring that its patents continue to be recognized
worldwide, so that smaller pharmaceutical firms may not reap undeserved benefits by
producing ―me too‖ versions of its products. At the same time, Thurber & Jones is
planning on doubling its exports to Eastern Europe. For the governments of those
developing countries, the main challenge is to enforce drug safety and quality
standards. The pharmaceutical industry is expected to offer drugs at preferential prices
that people in the developing world can afford.
In the past, the company was criticized for selling its patented products at over-the-top
prices, thus forcing some Eastern European countries‘ governments to encourage the
growth of the generic drugs market. At present, Thurber & Jones has to reconsider its
pricing policies and make some strategic decisions that might enable it to handle the
situation of its future exports to Eastern Europe without losing its profits. Here are
some of its options:
a) the company could approach the governments in those countries to
grant subsidies for its products so as to sell them at affordable prices;
b) the company need not negotiate with those governments directly; it
could approach WTO to negotiate the matter with them;
c) the company could explain to those governments the high R&D costs
that are necessary for making high quality branded drugs, while at the
same time trying to discourage them from supporting the
manufacture and supply of far less effective generic drugs;
d) the company could step up production of its patented drugs, so that it
may lower its prices and continue to make a profit (given that the
demand for quality drugs will always be high).
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 43

Language notes

Committed (to + -ing), adj. = willing to work very hard at something


wholesale (n.) = the business of selling goods in large quantities, usually at
low prices; antonym: retail (the sale of goods directly to consumers,
usually in small quantities)
wholesale, retail (adj.) – e.g. wholesale prices, retail prices
to ensure (v.) = to make certain that something happens; to guarantee
to assure (v.) = to make someone feel confident about something, to give
confidence
to insure (v.) = to issue an insurance policy
Note: life assurance company (Br. E.) = life insurance company (Am. E.)
over-the-top (adj.) = exaggerated, extravagant
less (adv.) = to a smaller degree
lesser (adj.) = (formal) not as great/important /large, much, etc., as - e.g. to
a lesser extent/degree; a lesser known writer; the lesser of two evils
subsidy (n.) = money paid by a government/organization to make prices
lower, to reduce the cost of producing goods, etc.
to subsidise (v.) = to grant a subsidy
affordable (adj.) = inexpensive, low-cost, low-prices, cheap, believed to be
within one‟s financial means; antonym: expensive, costly
effective (adj.) = producing the intended result; effectiveness (n.)
efficient (adj.) = acting/producing effectively without wasting resources;
efficiency (n.)

TASK 2
Work in groups of three. Analyse the above options (a-d) and decide on the
best course of action to be taken by Thurber & Jones in keeping with the
principles of market economy and its own commitment to increasing its
profits. Which option would be the most realistic? Can you think of any
other option? Compare your conclusions with those of other groups.

TASK 3
Starting from the above case study situation, discuss the need for
maintaining the smooth operation of a free market economy in the area of
pharmaceuticals by allowing the market forces to work freely,
unconstrained by too much government intervention. Finally, discuss the
proper role of government.

TASK 4
Give a short written account (in no more than 80 words) of the situation you
have discussed and the conclusions you have reached.
44 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

COMMUNICATION FILE 1
NOTE TAKING AND SUMMARIZING

NOTE TAKING is
an important skill for students and professionals, consisting in the
ability to record the information gathered from oral or written sources
in a systematic way;
a condition for writing an effective summary.

Note Taking Formats:


outlining: structuring information by using headings that include
numerals/ letters of the alphabet;
mapping: organizing information into tree structures/mind maps,
using colours, graphic elements and symbols; useful for planning,
writing essays, preparing oral presentations;
the sentence method: recording every new idea as a numbered or
bulleted line;
SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recall, Review) - taking notes
from written material as a reading comprehension method in 5
steps:

1. skim the text to note its layout, headings, subheadings ,


prominent features;

2. convert headings and sub-headings into questions about


the content of the reading, and look for answers in the
text;

3. read for gist without taking notes;

4. write down in your own words the main points and


supporting examples, and record bibliographical details;

5. repeat the first three steps to make sure you haven't


missed anything, and finalize your notes.

1. Read the text Floating Facebook in the Reading section of Unit 2,


and take notes using the SQ3R method described above.
UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP 45

SUMMARIZING is
an essential skill in everyday life which enables one to give brief
accounts / paraphrases of events/ situations/ someone‟s words, as
well a major academic and professional (business) writing skill, next
to note taking;
the basis for other types of writing (e.g. reports, business plans,
essays, etc.).

Summarizing Formats:
executive summary - a condensed version (3 -12 pages in length)
of a longer report or proposal, produced for business purposes; the
most important part of a business plan – see Unit 2, Exercise 5;
abstract: a formal summary added to a scientific paper /completed
work which should meet certain requirements concerning its size
(150-250 words) and structure;
reader’s summary/'objective' summary: a restatement (1/4 -1/3
the length of the original) of a text‟s main ideas in a CONCISE,
COHERENT, COMPLETE, and OBJECTIVE way; used by
teachers (to test students‟ understanding of a text) or by students
(to record what they have read for a specific course).

Guidelines for Effective “Objective Summary” Writing

1. Plan (gather material and organize it in order to make the drafting stage
easier):
- find the main idea in the text (you may need to read the text at least
twice);
- find the main points made in each paragraph/section;
- take notes to ensure that you have not missed an important point;
- state the main idea of the reading in one sentence (the “topic sentence”);
- summarize the point of each paragraph in one sentence;
- jot down the supporting elements the author uses to explain the main
idea.

2. Draft:
- write an introductory sentence including the author‟s name, the title, the
main idea;
- state the main points of the author‟s argumentation, using connectors
(then, however, also, moreover) to make the transition from one sentence
to another;
- use your own words; if you cite the author‟s words, use quotation marks;
- do not include your own opinions.
46 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

3. Check for accuracy:


- re-read the summary to be sure you have clearly stated the author‟s main
idea;
- check to see that you have not missed an important point;
- check to see the points are in the logical order intended by the author.

4. Revise and edit your writing:


- revise the summary for style, grammar, spelling and punctuation;
- rewrite the sentences and ideas so that they flow smoothly and clearly;
- make sure that your summary does not contain your own commentary;
- write a clean draft and proofread for copying errors;
- check the length of your summary. If the word limit has been exceeded,
reduce the word count by re-wording your sentences.

2. Write a summary of the text Floating Facebook (Unit 2) in no more


than 50 words, using the notes you have taken, and following the
Guidelines for Effective Summary Writing.

3. Decide which of the following summaries of Floating Facebook


comes closest to following the above Guidelines for Effective
Objective Summary Writing.

Summary 1:
The Economist article states that Facebook, whose expansion may be
decelerating in some regions, has been facing problems that might affect its
profits, such as: users‟ complaints about the forceful introduction of
Timeline, FTC‟s criticism of its security flaws, and the danger of coming
under the scrutiny of anti-trust regulators if it continues to expand.

Summary 2:
The Economist states that Facebook, apart from its decelerating expansion
in some regions, has been facing problems that might affect its profits, such
as: users‟ complaints about the forceful introduction of Timeline, FTC‟s
criticism of its security flaws, and the danger of coming under the scrutiny of
anti-trust regulators if it continues to grow.

Summary 3:
The Economist article “Floating Facebook” mentions three problems
threatening Facebook‟s sustainable success, apart from its decelerating
expansion in some regions: users‟ complaints about the forceful
introduction of Timeline, FTC‟s criticism of its security flaws, and the risk of
coming under the scrutiny of anti-trust regulators if it continues to grow.
47 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

LISTENING – HOW TO FIND A JOB

1. Listen to the extract and say whether the following statements are
True or False.
(listening material from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz1Il5feOxE)

Statement True False

1. The speaker is writing a book about job hunting tips.

2. It‟s easy to find a job today.

3. By searching a job only in newspapers, one may miss


employment opportunities.
4. Some companies only use local job centers to advertise
for the vacancies they have.
5. Prospective employers do not check candidates‟ social
media profiles.

2. Listen again and arrange the following ideas in the order in which
they are mentioned.

 A look on the major recruiting websites


 B put your CV online
 C appeal to little local recruitment agencies
 D send letters of application
 E be careful what you post on YouTube
 F apply directly to the companies you would like to work with
 G use social media to let people know you are looking for work
 H read the big newspapers and the local press
 I do not ignore job centers

3. Complete the list above with other ways of finding a job.

 …………………………………………………………………
 …………………………………………………………………
 …………………………………………………………………
 …………………………………………………………………
 …………………………………………………………………
48 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

SPEAKING – READY FOR THE JOB OF YOUR DREAMS?

4. Work in pairs. Use the questionnaire below to find out whether your
partner is ready to start hunting for a job.

5. Compare results with those of the other colleagues. Make a list of


all the dream jobs.

Job Hunting Questionnaire


Who are you?
1. What are your major skills? (communication, creative, organizational,
leadership, research, technical etc.)
2. How have you developed your skills? (education, work experience)
3. What are your strongest personality traits?
4. What are your weak personality traits?

What’s the job of your dreams?


5. What line of work would you like to be employed in? (industry,
department, job title)
6. What type of employment would you like to have? (full-time/ part-time,
employment/ self-employment)
7. Where can you find the job of your dreams? (location of employers)

Are you ready for the job of your dreams?


8. Do you have the right skills, education and experience for the job?
9. How will your personality influence your chances to obtain the job?
10. How will your personality influence your performance at work?

What can you do to improve your chances of getting the job of your dreams?
11. How can you acquire/ improve the necessary skills, education and
experience?
12. What personality traits should you improve on to become more
employable?
13. Do you think you will have many competitors for that job? What makes
you better?
14. What is the present situation on the labor market regarding that job?

What are the best ways of finding the job of your dreams?
15. Have you started looking for a job? Where?
16. Where else could you look?
17. Have you prepared a professional CV and Covering Letter?
18. Have you prepared and practiced for the job interview?
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 49

READING – THE JOB MARKET

6. Read the following texts and match the news extracts with the
statements below.

1. The recession in 2007-2009 seems to have less adverse effects than


those in the 1980s and early 1990s.
2. Employees have migrated from this continent for centuries.
3. At the beginning of 2013, there were signs that the Greek economy was
recovering.
4. The number of new jobs seems to contradict the unemployment figures.
5. Spanish and Italian employers had no intention of hiring more people in
2012.
6. More than 150,000 jobs were created in US in 2012.
7. The number of the economically inactive people decreased in the
second decade of the 21st century.
8. Companies and government agencies report on how many people they
employed during the month, to allow analysts to discover the number of
jobs gained or lost.
9. India has attracted millions of workers from various countries in South
Asia.
10. People who do not have a job and are not looking for one are not
considered part of the workforce.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

TEXT A: A Different Kind of Jobs Market


After all the talk about what happened in the 1980s, the labour market figures
from April 2013, for many, will have felt like another blast from the past.
Though the claimant count fell slightly, employment is down in UK - and the
wider measure of joblessness rose 70,000 in the three months from December to
February. If you look at what's driving that 70,000 rise in joblessness, the picture is a
little brighter - and a reflection of the different way that the labour market has operated
in this recession, compared with either the 1980s or early 1990s.
With joblessness rising in those recessions, the number of people who were
out of the labour market altogether - "economically inactive" - also went up. And
stayed high. People stopped looking for work and often never got another job.
This time around, inactivity did rise when the recession started, but it's since
come down dramatically, even as unemployment has stayed relatively high.
Adapted from The Economist

TEXT B: Peripheral Employment


In March 2013 Greece reported the first monthly fall in its unemployment rate
since May 2008. Although the rate stands at 26.4% for December, more than double
the euro-area average, other indicators from Greece hint at the possibility of a
turnaround in the jobs market.
50 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

In addition, the latest numbers on firms‘ hiring intentions show fewer


companies plan to fire staff and more expect to hire, according to ManpowerGroup, a
recruitment consultancy.
Ireland is in the same boat. There unemployment rates have edged down 0.4
percentage points from peak of 15.1%. Wages are adjusting and employers are more
positive, too.
In Spain and Italy, however, (ManpowerGroup do not cover Portugal) wages
have increased steadily, keeping their economies uncompetitive. Employers in both
economies remain more keen to fire and less willing to hire than they were in 2012.
Many workers on the European periphery are still waiting for a turnaround.
Adapted from The Economist

TEXT C: Asian Migrant Employees


People have been moving from the Indian subcontinent to the Persian Gulf in
search of work since long before the world had any industrial interest in
petrochemicals, or indeed, any industry whatsoever.
The biggest employer of foreign workers in the Gulf by sheer numbers (though
not by proportion) is Saudi Arabia. For a kingdom with an estimated 16m citizens, it
has succeeded in attracting some 9m registered foreign workers and at least a few
million more illegal immigrants.
No one quite knows how many people in Saudi Arabia originate from the big
three labour exporters of South Asia. India reckons it has some 1.5m citizens living
there, Pakistan claims to have similar number and about 2.5m Bangladeshis work in
the kingdom. For the latter two, Saudi Arabia is by far the biggest overseas labour
market.
Adapted from The Economist

TEXT D: A Tale of 2 Employment Surveys, at a Glance


The U.S. economy added 155,000 jobs in December 2012, slightly lower than
November's gain. At the same time, the unemployment rate remained unchanged at
7.8 percent. Why do figures seem contradictory? Because the government does one
survey to learn how many jobs were created and another survey to determine the
unemployment rate. Those surveys can sometimes produce different results.
One is called the payroll survey. It asks mostly large companies and
government agencies how many people they employed during the month, to find out
the number of jobs gained or lost. In December, the payroll survey showed that
companies added 168,000 jobs, and federal, state and local governments shed 13,000.
The other is the household survey. Government workers ask whether the
adults in a household have a job. Those who don't are asked whether they're looking
for one. If they are, they're considered unemployed. If they aren't, they're not
considered part of the work force and aren't counted as unemployed. The household
survey produces each month's unemployment rate.
Economists note that the surveys tend to even out over time. In 2012, the
payroll surveys indicated that employers added 1.84 million jobs, whereas the
household surveys showed that nearly 2.2 million more people said they had found
work.
Adapted from BusinessWeek
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 51

7. Fill in the statements below with words taken from the previous
texts.

1. ………………… issues refer to the number of employed and


unemployed people in an economy/ industry, types of jobs available for
each salaries and wages (two words, text A, paragraph 1)
2. The ………………… records the total number of people who apply for
unemployment related benefits. (two words, text A, paragraph 2)
3. The ………………… refers to the total number of people who do not
have a job but are actively involved in seeking one. (two words, text B,
paragraph 1)
4. Despite the economic crisis, UK companies‟ ………………… are slightly
rising. (two words, text B, paragraph 2)
5. To increase your chances to get a job, you‟d better visit one of the local
………………… agencies. (text B, paragraph 2)
6. A fair ………………… pays staff for working extra hours. (text C,
paragraph 2)
7. Labour mobility involves people who decide to move and work
………………… (text C, paragraph 3)
8. A ………………… is conducted to discover how many employees
company hire at a certain time. (two words, text D, paragraph 2)
9. A ………………… aims to obtain demographic information regarding
household members, including data about employment, pensions,
education, health or family income. (two words, text D, paragraph 3)
10. The term ………………… refers to all the people working or willing to
work in a certain country/ industry. (two words, text D, paragraph 3)

GRAMMAR – INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS

8. The highlighted verbs in the texts above are either infinitives (verbs +/-
TO forms) or gerunds (verbs + ING forms). Join the two halves of the
sentences below to practice the use of infinitives and gerunds.

Short infinitives
1. The coach made him a) swim, but in fact she was an expert at
swimming.
2. I would rather b) make reservations now, or else we
won‟t be able to find any hotel rooms
for our summer holiday.
3. She declared she couldn‟t c) run although he had not fully recovered.
4. They‟ll have the secretary d) accompany you to the airport.
5. We‟ d better e) go to the cinema tonight, if you don‟t
mind.

1 2 3 4 5
52 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

Long infinitives
1. They agreed a) to take the bus from.
2. The group attempted b) to postpone the meeting until
Friday morning.
3. We invited c) to meet you!
4. The tourists had no idea where d) to steal $ 1mil. from the bank last
night.
5. It‟s a pleasure e) them to join us for a toast.

1 2 3 4 5

Gerunds
1. I can‟t avoid a) moving the company
headquarters to Bulgaria.
2. The company has succeeded in b) writing reports.
3. She says she is very good at c) buying that fax machine, we
hardly ever send faxes.
4. It‟s not worth d) meeting him every morning!
5. The manager suggested e) doubling its sales figures.

1 2 3 4 5

9. Five of the sentences below are incorrect. Identify the mistakes and
correct them.

1. It was a shock to find out that she had been fired.


2. He must to go home at once.
3. While reading the report, I did not take any calls.
4. It‟s no use to call him, his mobile phone is on silent mode.
5. They kept on talking for another half an hour.
6. They are committed to improve their performance within 3 months‟ time.
7. They would like going to the seaside at the weekend.
8. Many people dislike being called by their first name.
9. He is used to get up early in the morning.
10. You should never be late for work.
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 53

VOCABULARY – JOB ADVERTS

10. Match the words in the middle with a synonym on the left and an
antonym on the right.

Synonyms Antonyms
A. acknowledgement worker 1. theoretical
B. hands on salary 2. employer
C. employee recognition 3. unfitting
D. appropriate applied 4. penalty
E. compensation suitable 5. criticism

11. Fill in the following statements with the right form of the word
given.

1. The ………………… for this job are too hard to meet for an
undergraduate. REQUIRE
2. We are looking for an active and ………………… sales representative,
to increase the company‟s profit. COMPETE
3. Shortlisted candidates will be hired for a 3-month …………………
period. TRY
4. There are plenty of online ………………… agencies. RECRUIT
5. During the first few months after receiving the job, you will go through
the ………………… or training period. INDUCT
6. Many people search for a job in the ………………… pages of local
newspapers. CLASSIFY
7. In case of work-related injury, the ………………… for this kind of job
includes coverage for medical care and rehabilitation costs.
COMPENSATE
8. Promotion will be granted provided candidates obtain favorable
………………… from their superiors. APPRAISE
9. The ………………… section of a job ad contains details on expected
candidates‟ skills, education and work experience. QUALIFY
10. An unfilled job or position is also called an …………………. OPEN

12. Label the sections below with the right heading A-F to discover the
main components of a job advertisement:

A. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS D. CONTACT DETAILS


B. JOB TITLE E. JOB RESPONSIBILITIES
C. CANDIDATE‟S PROFILE F. BENEFITS

1 2 3 4 5 6
54 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

1. ……… Junior Conference Producer

2. ………Our client is a London based International media company who runs


websites, magazines, exhibitions and high profile business conferences in over 50
countries and they're looking to train and develop a super keen, talented graduate to
become a global conference Producer.
3. ……… You will be asked to research, create and build major industry
conferences. You'll be researching markets, understanding hot business issues and
developing conference programmes and conducting high profile marketing campaigns.
They are looking for people who have the ability to identify new and
interesting business trends coupled with the drive to develop great events that business
people will want to attend.
4. ……… Candidates need to have:
• 1 to 2 years business experience ideally within marketing and sales
• a top academic degree in business
• strong project and organisation management skills
• budget skills
• fantastic communications skills both written and orally.
• entrepreneurial spirit
5. ……… So if you want the chance to succeed in international business and
work in an environment that really values and invests in their staff and you feel you
have the drive and tenacity to achieve and have a real readiness to take responsibility
for your work then apply now! You will be employed full time and receive a company
phone, a company car and a salary above the industry average.
6. ……… Send your CV and Covering Letter by May 2015 to Regan & Dean
Recruitment Ltd, London, 5th Floor. 23 Old Bond Street, London W1S 4PZ or to our
e-mail address: jobs@regananddean.com.
Adapted from Jobs.Guardian.co.uk

13. Get into groups of 4-5 students. Design your own job ad making
sure it contains all the elements in 12 above.

LISTENING – CVs

14. Listen to the extracts and provide a suitable heading for each.
(listening material from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1EgOHOscyCE,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XeuQrK_DEXk, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PeZ-
cIPGtLc)

Extract 1 ……………………………………………………………......

Extract 2 ……………………………………………………………......

Extract 3 ……………………………………………………………......
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 55

15. Listen to Extract 1 again and fill in the CV with the main sections.

Resume
1. ………
Name:
Address:
Phone number(s):
E-mail address:
2. ………
(one paragraph that immediately captures the attention of your reader and entices them
to find out more about you)
3. ………
(in reverse chronological order, include the name, location, website and dates of your
employment for each company you have worked for)
4.. ………
(in reverse chronological order, give details of your academic and professional
qualifications)
5.. ………
Computer skills
Foreign Language skills (include level of proficiency)
6.. ………
(optional)
7.. ………
(not necessary to list them on the CV, but state that details are available on request)

16. Listen to Extract 2 again and join the following statements to


discover suggestions on how to avoid CV phrases that no longer
attract recruiters’ attention.

1. Instead of just writing a) you can prove you have held a


1.
„team player‟, it is better to position of responsibility over
...
other staff.
2. Employers expect details b) you should quantify your
on „project management accomplishments (e.g. how 2.
skills‟ much have you increased the ...
company‟s sales?)
3. To prove you are „results c) give examples of past
3.
orientated‟ experience (initiatives and
...
results).
4. Use „people management d) such as whether you have
4.
skills‟ only if organized events or managed a
...
budget.
5. Being „responsible for e) give a real life example of
something‟ does not working in a team, including 5.
necessarily mean you are your role. ...
a responsible person, so
56 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

17. Listen to Extract 3 again and number the ideas below from 10 to 1
so as to make up the Top 10 Resume mistakes.

 A overly personal information


 B too much white space
 C inconsistent use of bolding, italics and Wordart
 D spelling and grammar mistakes
 E writing in paragraphs
 F use of template, lack of IT proficiency
 G overly elaborate use of fonts and pictures
 H not saying how well you did things at work
 I too much irrelevant information
 J too many jobs listed

WRITING – COVER LETTERS

18. A Cover Letter or Letter of Application is a document recruiters read to


discover details about the skills and experience of job candidates. Arrange
the following suggestions into Dos and Don’ts about cover letters.

Dos Don’ts
…………… ……………
…………… ……………
…………… ……………
…………… ……………
…………… ……………

A. start your letter with a sexist salutation such as Gentlemen, Dear Sirs
B. address your letter to a named individual, if specified on the job ad; if
not begin with Dear Sir/ Madam
C. send the same generic Cover Letter to all companies, irrespective of the
industry the are in
D. adapt your letter to the company/ industry you want to get a job with
E. highlight the way in which your personality, skills, education and
experience match the requirements in the job ad
F. simply repeat your resume
G. give concrete examples of situations in which you have gained/
developed certain skills or experience
H. use action verbs (such as „arrange‟, „clarify‟, „administer‟) and avoid
negative words (such as „no‟, „unfortunately‟, „nonetheless‟)
I. after you send the letter, sit and wait for the employer to call
J. personally sign the letter if you send it by post

Adapted from Quintcareers.com and Careerbuilder.com


UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 57

19. Examine the following cover letter plan and match the 13 sections
with the corresponding content in A-M below.

1. Sender‘s contact : ………


2. Date: ………
3. Employer‘s address: ………

4. Salutation: ………

5. Subject title: ………

6. Introduction: ………
7. Background and experience: ………
8. Job suitability: ………
9. Conclusion: ………

10. Complimentary close: ………


11. Signature: ………
12. Sender‘s full name: ………
13. Enclosures: ………

A. thank the reader for their time and ask for an interview.
B. if you know the name of the Receiver, write Dear Mr Johnson/ Dear Ms
Johnson; if you do not know their name, write Dear Sir or Madam
C. your CV (+/- references if requested)
D. your full address, phone numbers, e-mail address
E. your handwritten name
F. job title
G. the time when the letter is sent
H. highlight education and work experience that match the job being
advertised, do not repeat the CV, give details only on the aspects
relevant for the job
I. the receiver‟s name, position in the company, company name and full
address
J. emphasize the practical skills and personality traits that you possess
and are useful for the job you are applying for
K. if you began with Dear Mr Johnson/ Dear Ms Johnson, you end with
Yours sincerely; if you began with Dear Sir or Madam, you end with
Yours faithfully
L. your typed full name and title (Mr, Ms, Mrs, Miss)
M. reason for writing, job title your are interested in, date and place of job
ad publication
58 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

20. Fill in the cover letter extract below with the right words.

apply benefit expertise knowledge profitable


advertised consideration interview organization skills
background enclosed junior position

Samantha Bricks
15 Hampton Road
Bristol UK 253640

Human Resources Department


The Best Company
Northcote Road, London
579289

Dear Sir/ Madam,

I am writing to 1. ……… for the position of Contracts Manager with your


organization, as 2. ……… on your website on April 15, 20…. I am greatly
interested in this 3. ………, and believe that my qualifications, training and
employment 4. ……… make me an exceptional applicant for this position.
As my 5. ……… CV shows, I am a Master‘s student specializing in Business
Management with the University of York. The theoretical and applied 6.
……… acquired during undergraduate and Master‘s studies will help me
perform efficiently in your 7. ……….
Moreover, during university years, I have worked in the hotel industry as an
acquisitions agent and as a 8. ……… revenue manager. In these jobs, I
acquired the 9. ……… and knowledge that will allow me to identify
opportunities for development and negotiate 10. ……… contracts. Moreover,
my logistics, leadership and negotiation 11. ……… will add value to your
organization.
I look forward to an 12. ……… to discuss how my skills and expertise can 13.
……… your organization.
Thank you for your 14. ……….

Yours faithfully,

Samantha Bricks (Miss)

Adapted from Best-cover-letter-examples.com

21. Write your CV and Cover Letter for the job ad you designed in 13
above or for a Job ad given by your teacher. Read Communication File
2: Business Correspondence to discover general rules about business
writing.
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 59

TRANSLATION

22. Read the English paragraph below from a Scholarship Application


and its translations into Romanian. Choose the best Romanian
version, giving reasons for your choice.

My name is ________ , and I am applying for the ________ Scholarship. At


present, I am a senior working towards a Bachelor‘s degree in Economics with
a specialization in International Business and Economics. Despite being a full
time student, balancing two majors, and working over 30 hours a week, I also
take the initiative to enhance my education outside the classroom. I constantly
strive for excellence and am committed to making my time as an
undergraduate as productive and beneficial as possible.
Adapted from Teacherweb.com

VERSION A
Mă numesc ________ şi aplic pentru bursa ________ . În prezent, eu sunt un
student senior care urmează să obţină o diplomă de licenţă în economie, cu
specializarea în Relaţii Economice Internaţionale. În ciuda faptului că sunt
student cu normă întreagă, şi studiez pt a obţine două specializări, şi lucrez
peste 30 de ore pe săptămână, eu iau, de asemenea, iniţiativa de a îmbunătăţi
educaţia mea prin activităţi extra-curiculare. În mod constant depun eforturi
pentru a atinge excelenţa şi sunt hotărât să fac ca anii petrecuţi ca student să fie
cat mai productivi şi benefici cu putinţă.

VERSION B
Numele meu este ________ , şi doresc să îmi depun candidatura pentru bursa
________ . În prezent, studiez la o facultate de economie şi urmează să obţin o
diplomă de licenţă în economie, cu specializarea Relaţii Economice
Internaţionale. Deşi sunt student la zi, studiez pentru a obţine două specializări
şi lucrez peste 30 de ore pe săptămână, particip, de asemenea, la numeroase
activităţi extra-şcolare în încercarea de a-mi îmbunătăţi educaţia. Depun în
mod constant eforturi pentru a atinge excelenţa în tot ceea ce fac şi mă
străduiesc să imi folosesc timpul studenţiei într-un mod cât mai productiv şi
benefic cu putinţă.

VERSION C
Numele meu este ________ şi doresc să candidez pentru bursa ________ . În
prezent, sunt student în ultimul an la o facultate de economie, cu specializarea
în Afaceri Internaţionale şi Economie. Chiar dacă sunt înmatriculat într-un
program de studii cu frecvenţă, încercând să obţin două specializări, şi lucrez
peste 30 de ore pe săptămână, eu de asemenea încerc să îmi îmbunătăţesc
educaţia participând la numeroase activităţi extra-şcolare. Am în mod constant
preocuparea de a depune eforturi pentru excelenţă şi încerc să fac în aşa fel
încât timpul studenţiei să îl petrec cât mai productiv şi benefic posibil.
60 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

23. In pairs, write a fourth version to translate the Scholarship


Application above.

24. Translate into Romanian the Thank you e-mail below.

Thank you for taking the time to interview me for the Junior Programmer
Analyst position with XXX Company.
I would like to express my firm belief that I would be a perfect candidate for
this position as, in addition to my enthusiasm for performing well, I would
bring the technical and analytical skills necessary to get the job done.
I am very interested in working for you and look forward to hearing from you
once the final decisions are made regarding this position.
Please feel free to contact me at any time if further information is needed.
Adapted from Jobsearch.about.com

25. Translate into English.

- Ce meserie ai? l-am întrebat.


- Toate meseriile: ăle de se fac cu piciorul, cu mâna, cu capul, toate. Atâta ar
mai lipsi, să stea omul şi să aleagă.
- Unde-ai lucrat în ultima vreme?
- Într-o mină. Sunt un miner bun, să ştii. Mă pricep la metale, ştiu să găsesc
filoane, să deschid galerii, să cobor în puţuri, nu mi-e frică.
Abridged from Alexis Zorba by Nikos Kazantzakis, ELU, Buc. 1969

CASE STUDY – THE JOB INTERVIEW

TASK 1
Unprepared candidates make a lot of mistakes during job interviews. Rank
the following blunders from 1 – the worst to 10 – the least bad.

1. …… a) incoherent resume facts


2. …… b) bringing a drink with you
3. …… c) not knowing anything about the company
4. …… d) not being prepared to answer questions
5. …… e) dressing inappropriately
6. …… f) talking too much
7. …… g) badmouthing past employers
8. …… h) arriving late
9. …… i) using your phone during the interview
10. …… j) not paying attention to the interviewer
Adapted from Jobsearch.about.com
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 61

TASK 2
To avoid some of the mistakes in Task 1 above, read the following text and
choose a heading for each paragraph.

A. PRACTICE ANSWERING QUESTIONS F. POLISH YOUR INTERVIEW ETIQUETTE


B. GET DIRECTIONS / ARRANGE TRANSPORTATION G. PREPARE YOUR PORTFOLIO
C. FOLLOW UP H. STAY CALM
D. BODY LANGUAGE I. GET YOUR INTERVIEW OUTFIT READY
E. ANALYZE THE JOB POSTING J. RESEARCH ABOUT THE COMPANY

Successful job interviews

Do you plan to attend a job interview? Before you do, you‘d better prepare so
you can ace the interview and make a terrific impression on the interviewer.
Here are a few pieces of advice:
1. ......… Read the job ad carefully and make a list of the skills, knowledge,
professional and personal qualities that are required by the employer and are
most important for success in the job. Be ready to describe the attributes you
have that make you the perfect match for the job.
2. ......… Before you go to the interview, be sure you are well informed. Check
the company website to find out more about its line of activity, read some
online newspaper articles about the main trends in that field, as well as about
the average salary for the position you are applying for.
3. ......… Prepare answers to typical interview questions in advance and
practice interviewing with a friend or family member ahead of time. Think of
actual examples you can use to describe your skills and try to relate what you
know about the company when answering questions.
4. ......… Make sure your interview attire is neat, tidy and appropriate for the
type of firm you are interviewing with. The standard dress code is rather
conservative, so a suit and shirt/ blouse is usually fit for both men and women.
Remember to wear few jewelry items, little make-up and perfume/ aftershave,
comfortable shoes. Pay attention to your manicure (clean and neatly trimmed)
as well as your hairstyle.
5. ......… Bring a nice portfolio/ briefcase with several copies of your resume,
in case there is more than one interviewer. Include a pen and paper for note
taking.
6. ......… It's important to know where you need to go for your job interview.
Ask the person who invites you to the interview for clear directions. Check on
parking and/or public transportation so you arrive on time. On time means
five to ten minutes early.
7. ......… During the job interview try to relax and stay as calm possible. Take a
moment to regroup. Listen to the entire question before you answer and pay
attention - you will be embarrassed if you forget the question!
62 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

8. ......… Nonverbal communication is as important, or even more important,


than verbal communication. You will be evaluated as soon as you walk into
the company's lobby, not just during the interview. Establish eye contact with
your interviewer and focus on the questions. Stay relaxed, but do not laugh or
tell jokes at inappropriate times. You may lean forward a little towards the
interviewer so you appear interested and engaged. Don't lean back or slump in
your chair as you will look too casual. Keep your feet on the floor and your
back against the lower back of the chair.
9. ......… Turn off your mobile phone before you enter the building. Talking on
the phone during an interview is not only disruptive, it's rude. Remember to
avoid chewing gum or bringing coffee into the interview room.
10. ......… Always follow-up with a thank you note reiterating your interest in
the position. Send your thank you note (email is fine) within 24 hours of your
interview.
Adapted from Jobsearch.about.com

TASK 3
Rearrange the following words to obtain frequently asked questions during
interviews. Pay attention to the rules regarding question formation in
English.

Direct Questions Indirect questions

(Question word +) Auxiliary/ Modal … + (Question word +) Subject +


+ Subject + Verb + … Verb + …
e.g. e.g.
What time will the interview take Could you please tell me what time
place? the interview will take place at?
I would like to know what time the
interview will take place at.

Interviewer‟s Questions
1. describe/ you/ how/ yourself/ would
…………………………………………………………………………………….
2. years‟/ do/ in/ where/ time/ see/ you/ ten/ yourself
…………………………………………………………………………………….
3. tell me/ problems/ your/ have encountered/ job/ I would/ the major/
previous/ about/ like you/ to/ you/ in
…………………………………………………………………………………….
4. offering/ what/ we are/ attracts/ to the job/ you
…………………………………………………………………………………….
5. could/ your greatest/ so far/ describe/ achievement/ you
…………………………………………………………………………………….
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 63

6. strengths/ are/ major/ and weaknesses/ your/ what


…………………………………………………………………………………….
7. liked least/ please/ previous job/ what/ tell me/ you/ about/ your
…………………………………………………………………………………….
8. about/ what/ know/ company/ you/ do/ our
…………………………………………………………………………………….
9. much/ paid/ you/ how/ would/ to be/ like
…………………………………………………………………………………….
10. irritates/ deal with it/ other people/ what/ you/ and how/ about/ do you
…………………………………………………………………………………….

Interviewee‟s Questions
1. this position/ would/ in/ what/ working day/ a typical/ be
…………………………………………………………………………………….
2. how/ measured/ my/ be/ will/ performance
…………………………………………………………………………………….
3. career path/ know what/ for this position/ I would/ is/ the typical/ like to
…………………………………………………………………………………….
4. type/ you/ training/ what/ of/ provide/ do
…………………………………………………………………………………….
5. employees/ what/ provided with/ are/ benefits
…………………………………………………………………………………….
6. per week/ be successful/ would/ how/ be required/ many hours/ to
…………………………………………………………………………………….
7. the job/ who/ what/ the top/ is/ priority/ accepts/ of the person
…………………………………………………………………………………….
8. this position/ is/ for/ what/ compensation package/ the
…………………………………………………………………………………….
9. involve/ much travel/ this job/ how/ does
…………………………………………………………………………………….
10. the next step/ tell me/ is/ what/ could you/ the recruitment/ in/ process
…………………………………………………………………………………….

TASK 4
In pairs, hold interviews for the jobs in 13 above. Bring your CV and cover
letter. Follow the steps below and the teacher's instructions.

JOB INTERVIEW STEPS

Socializing
Interviewer‘s Questions
Candidate‘s Questions
Closing
64 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

COMMUNICATION FILE 2
BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE

GENERAL RULES FOR BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE

1. Label the paragraphs below with the right heading A-G to discover
the seven quality characteristics of effective writing.

A. CONCRETE
B. CORRECT
C. CLEAR
D. CONCISE
E. CONVERSATIONAL
F. COMPLETE
G. CONSTRUCTIVE

The Seven Cs of Effective Writing

1. ……… - write so that the reader can understand. Use language, words and
phrases that the recipient is familiar with. Connect your ideas in a logical
manner to form well-structured paragraphs.
2. ……… - plan your letter so that it helps you achieve the purpose you have in
mind. Include all the necessary details that the reader may need to know before
deciding to perform the action you desire.
3. ……… - keep letters short and to the point. Time is money.
4. ……… - use facts and figures if possible. For instance, mention the name of
the product/ order/ account number etc. the letter is about.
5. ……… - use words and phrases that set a positive tone. This way, you are
more likely to get the reader on your side.
6. ……… - use direct style to make yourself understood. Do not mistake
‗directness‘ for ‗carelessness‘ or ‗impoliteness‘!
7. ……… - draft and re-draft your letter to make sure that it contains no
mistakes at all. Use spelling and grammar checking tools and ask a colleague to
read your message as well. If correspondence contains mistakes, they will
diminish your credibility and that of your company.
Adapted from Muckian, M. & J. Woods – Business Letter Handbook. How to Write
Effective Letters and Memos for Every Business Situation, Adams Media, Avon,
Massachusetts, 1996
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 65

2. Study the following table with the main characteristics of formal and
informal discourse and choose the right option to complete the
sentences below.

1. Thank you for your letter of April 10. ……… delighted to see that our
products have attracted your interest.
a) We are b) We‟re
2. ……… that we have to cancel the shipment due to unexpected events.
You will be reimbursed in maximum 3 months‟ time.
a) We regret to inform you b) I‟m sorry
3. ……… to discover the cause of the malfunctioning.
a) I‟ve investigated b) Investigation has been made
4. We are writing to inform you that, ………adverse weather conditions,
consignment no. 5678/JLK has safely arrived.
a) despite b) even though
5. Our company would like to ……… ergonomic office chairs from you. We
hereby place an order for 100 Model XYZ grey chairs. We expect the
delivery within two weeks‟ time.
a) buy b) purchase

Characteristics Formal discourse Informal discourse

word origin Latin Anglo-Saxon


use of voice passive voice active voice
pronouns first person plural (or first person singular –
avoid it by using the writer
passives) you – the reader
avoid „you‟ when
referring to the reader
verbs no phrasal verbs, use plenty of phrasal verbs
equivalents (enter) (come in)
conjunctions frequent use little use

contractions and little use frequent use (I‟m,


abbreviations only standard ones they‟ve etc.)
(PLC, LTD etc.)
sentence length medium to long short sentences
sentences
language formulaic (we regret to direct (I‟m sorry that …,
inform you that…, if you need…)
should you need more
details, …)
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 66

3. Find the formal equivalents of the following common verbs. Use a


dictionary, if necessary.

Phrasal Verb Equivalents Phrasal Verb Equivalents


1. ask sb. out …………………… 6. get in touch ……………………
2. carry out …………………… 7. put up with ……………………
3. check out …………………… 8. back up ……………………
4. find out …………………… 9. call sb. back ……………………
5. get …………………… 10. get over sth. ……………………

4. Join the two parts to obtain formal expressions often used in


business correspondence.

1. We would be grateful if a) please do not hesitate to contact me.


2. Should you have any other b) receive a copy of your latest sales
queries, brochure.
3. We are pleased to enclose a copy c) at your earliest convenience.
of
4. Thank you, in advance, d) to confirm our meeting.
5. Because we value your business e) in which you enquired about our new
range of products.
6. We would like to f) a long and fruitful partnership.
7. I look forward to hearing from you g) our catalogue, as requested.
8. Thank you for your e-mail of 14 h) you could send us a catalogue and
March an updated price-list.
9. I would welcome the opportunity of i) for your time.
an interview
10. We are looking forward to j) we are prepared to offer you 20%
discount off your next order with us.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

5. There are 5 grammatical mistakes in the following message. Correct


them.

We extend our bests wishes to you on your fifteen anniversary of service with
the XYZ Corporation. Over the years we enjoyed your dedication and
enthusiasm for your job.
As a sign of our appreciation for you‘re hard work, we invite you and your wife
to attend the XYZ Corporation's annual awards banquet next month. You will
receive your complimentary tickets in the mail.
We wish you lots of success for much years to come.
Adapted from WriteExpress.com
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 67

6. Read the following quote from Samuel Butler, an English novelist.


Restate it in your own words and explain the connection with
business correspondence.

“We are not won by arguments that we can analyse but by tone and
temper, by the manner which is the man itself.” Samuel Butler
Retrieved from Brainyquote.com

7. Fill in with the right type of business correspondence.

Adjustment Confirmation Invitation Reference


Application Congratulation Offer Resignation
Complaint Enquiry Order Thank you

1. After I was promoted, I received …………………… letters from all my


former colleagues.
2. All application files must contain a …………………… letter from one of
the candidates‟ former employers.
3. In the …………………, the Bank explained that it would not return my
money since it was not responsible for the theft from my current
account.
4. After the event, the PR Officers wrote a …………………… e-mail to
each participant.
5. All unsolicited mail …………………… usually get into the Spam folder.
6. We are going to buy furniture for the new office in Bangladesh from
local firms. We have already shortlisted 5 of them to receive our
……………………about their products.
7. I am writing this …………………… to announce you that Order no.
4875/ March 15 has not been supplied correctly.
8. What a blunder! The CEO has not been sent a formal ……………………
to the Annual Charity Ball that the company is organizing tonight!
9. We are sending you this …………………… since we would like to
receive 100 brooches of the XYZ type to offer our female employees on
March 8.
10. She had been unhappy about the difficult working conditions for quite
some time before she decided to write the …………………… and send
it to her boss.
11. We have just sent our guest speaker a …………………… letter with all
the details we have agreed upon (the length of his stay, the day and
time interval for his speech, accommodation and flight reservation etc.).
12. To apply for the opening, please send your CV and ……………………
letter to the following address: hr@jobsforyou.com.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
68 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

BUSINESS LETTERS

8. Examine the following business letter format, reinserting the


missing elements.

Letter head: company name and full address (including town, area code,
1.
country, tel. no., A. …… address)

References: indicate what the letter refers to


2. (e.g. the B. …… of an order or an account,
the name of a vacant position)

Date: to avoid C. ……, write the month in full


3.
(e.g. April 10, 2015 or 10 April 2015)

Receiver’s address: name, D. …… in the company, company name and full


4.
address
Attention line: list the reader‘s name and/ or position (e.g. For the attention of the
5. Human Resources Manager)

Salutation: if you E. …… the name of the Receiver, write Dear Mr Blacksmith/


6.
Dear Ms Blueberry; if you do not know their name, write Dear Sir or Madam

7. Subject title: draw the reader‘s attention to the F. …… of the letter (e.g Problems
with bank account number ……)

8. Introduction: G. …… the topic, reminding the reader of any previous contact/


discussion on this topic.
9. Body paragraphs: give H. ……on the topic you are writing about
Conclusion: I. …… the most important point of the letter and highlight
10. confidence in future profitable cooperation between the sender and the receiver

Complimentary close: if you began with Dear Mr Blacksmith/ Dear Ms Blueberry,


11. you end with Yours sincerely; if you began with Dear Sir or Madam, you end with
Yours faithfully

12. Signature: the writer‘s J. …… name

Sender’s full name and position: the writer‘s K. …… full name, title (Mr, Ms,
13.
Mrs, Miss) and position in the company

14. Enclosures: list L. …… documents being sent in the same envelope as the letter

additional details know summarize


announce e-mail number topic
confusion handwritten position typed
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 69

9. Read the following letter of Invitation and answer the questions


below it.

The National Paralympic Committee, Romania


Str. Vasile Conta, 16, sector 2, 020954, Bucuresti
Tel./Fax: 021- 317.08.13, Website: http://www.npc.org.ro/

15 October 20…

Dear Mr. Mattheus,

You are cordially invited to join a special Benefit Ball for The National
Paralympic Committee of Romania. The gala event will begin at 8:00 p.m., on
Saturday, 26 January 20…, in the Aro Palace Hotel Ballroom, Braşov.

The funds raised on the occasion of the Benefit Ball will be used to purchase
special wheelchairs for the sportsmen from the Braşov Wheelchair Basketball
Team that will participate in the 20… Paralympic Games.

You can contribute to these efforts by purchasing a ticket to the benefit


performance. The cost of the tickets is 300 RON per person.

Enclosed is a mail order form for your tickets. Please specify the number of
tickets you desire and enclose a copy of the proof of payment for the
appropriate amount. If you cannot attend but would still like to make a
donation, we will gratefully receive it in one of the bank accounts whose
numbers are specified on our website.

We are looking forward to your reply to the following e-mail address:


benefitball@npc.ro.

Yours sincerely,

Alina Iacobescu (Ms)


Event co-ordinator

Enclosures: Mail Order Form

Adapted from WriteExpress.com and Antena1.ro/News

1. What is the invitation for?


2. Where will the event take place?
3. How much does a ticket cost?
4. What will the money raised be used for?
5. If the reader cannot attend the event, can he/ she still contribute to the
cause? If yes, how?
70 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

BUSINESS E-MAILS

10. Arrange the suggestions below into Dos and Don’ts about
business e-mails.

A. create a professional e-mail address for yourself (e.g.


firstname.lastname@xmail.com)
B. write „Hello‟/ „Important‟/ „Read immediately‟ as your subject line
C. write a long message with detailed information about each topic
D. use CAPITAL LETTERS to emphasize the main points
E. use numbers and bullet points to make the message clear to the reader
F. include just one main subject per e-mail
G. use a lot of different fonts and colours
H. avoid personal information that you do not want anyone else to know
I. use acronyms and smileys
J. make it clear who you are and why you are writing

Dos Don’ts

…………… ……………
…………… ……………
…………… ……………
…………… ……………
…………… ……………

11. Turn the Don’ts above into Dos.

Model:
Write „Hello‟/ „Important‟/ „Read immediately‟ as your subject line
Write an informative subject line, which announces the topic of the e-mail

1. ……………………………………………………………………………………

2. ……………………………………………………………………………………

3. ……………………………………………………………………………………

4. ……………………………………………………………………………………
UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS 71

12. Examine the following e-mail format and match the 10 sections
with the corresponding content in A-J below:

1. FROM: ………
2. TO: ………
3. SUBJECT: ………
4. ATTACHMENTS: ………
5. Salutation: ………
6. Introduction: ………
7. Body paragraphs: ………
8. Conclusion: ………
9. Complimentary close: ………
10. Sender’s full name and position: ………

A. summarize the most important point of the letter and highlight


confidence in future profitable cooperation between sender and receiver
B. list the documents accompanying the e-mail
C. reader‟s e-mail address
D. announce the topic, reminding the reader of any previous contact/
discussion on this topic.
E. write a meaningful subject line, closely connected to the topic of the e-
mail
F. the writer‟s full name, title (Mr, Ms, Mrs, Miss) and position in the
company, e-mail address
G. sender‟s e-mail address
H. if you began with Dear Mr Blacksmith/ Dear Ms Blueberry, you end with
Yours sincerely; if you do began with Dear Sir or Madam, you end with
Yours faithfully
I. give details on the topic you are writing about, use either paragraphs or
bullets and numbers
J. if you know the name of the Receiver, write Dear Mr Blacksmith/ Dear
Ms Blueberry; if you do not know their name, write Dear Sir or Madam

13. Compare the e-mail format in 12 with the business letter format in
8 above and make a list of the similarities and differences between the
two types of correspondence.

Aspect Business Business Both


Letter E-mail
 header
 salutation and complimentary close
 body of the message
 closing and signatures
 additional documents
72 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

14. Read the confirmation e-mail written in response to the letter in 9


above and say whether the statements below are True or False.

Statement True False

1. The writer has declined the invitation to the Ball.

2. The writer has attached proof of his absence from the


country at the time of the event.
3. There were 4 tickets booked for the event.

4. The writer will bring family members to the event.

5. The writer is sure that his acquaintances will not be


interested in attending the event

FROM: l.mattheus@gmail.com
TO: benefitball@npc.ro
SUBJECT: Benefit Ball – 26 January 20…
ATTACHMENTS: scanned receipt.jpeg, mail order form.doc

Dear Ms Iacobescu,

I am honoured to have been invited to the Benefit Ball for The National
Paralympic Committee of Romania, to be held on 26 January 20….

I will be attending the event accompanied by my wife and two of our closest
friends. You will find attached a copy of the proof of payment for 4 tickets.

Since it is our firm belief that events like this support Romanian sportsmen
train and qualify for international competitions, we will also make it known to
our acquaintances.

We are looking forward to seeing you in the Aro Palace Hotel Ballroom,
Braşov.

Yours sincerely,
Lothar Mattheus

15. Write an E-mail in response to the letter in 9 above, rejecting the


invitation (indicate the reason why you cannot attend the event).
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 73

SPEAKING – MANAGEMENT VS. LEADERSHIP

1. Comment upon the following quotation.


„Good management is the art of making problems so interesting and their
solutions so constructive that everyone wants to get to work and deal with
them.‟
(Paul Hawken, an environmentalist and entrepreneur, in Natural Capitalism)

2. Which of the following descriptions refers to management (M) and


which to leadership (L) or both?

1. setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow


2. primarily concentrating on individual personal behaviour
relationships with others
3. controlling or directing people/resources in a group according to
principles or values that have already been established
4. producing a degree of predictability and order
5. planning and allocating work, recruiting staff, controlling costs and
budgets, and establishing effective communication systems
6. producing useful change

3. Look at the pictures below and say what you would associate them
with: management (M) or leadership (L).

Picture A Picture B

Picture C Picture D
74 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

READING – BOTH LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT ARE


CRUCIAL

4. Read the text below and insert the following sentences in the text.
There is one extra sentence.

A. Some years ago, management was the more inclusive term and
included leadership
B. Success still depends on execution, controls and boundaries, systems,
processes, and continuity.
C. What makes Roy unusual is that when he founded his firm a dozen
years ago, he realized he knew nothing about business.
D. I'm really good at innovation and pointing out new directions
E. Focus on whatever is required of you to make your people productive.
F. To survive and succeed, all groups and businesses must
simultaneously change in some ways and remain the same in others.
G. Roy is a master craftsman who owns a small business that makes
custom wood furniture.

How I Stopped Romanticizing Leadership


and Learned to Be a Manager

(1)……………………………… After making some cutbacks in 2009,


his little company still employs three fine woodworkers, an office
supervisor/customer service rep, and an apprentice.
What he's learned in the past few years is that, as he says, "I'm a leader,
not a manager. (2)……………………………… When business was good, I
could get other people to do all that while I was out designing new pieces or
installations for customers, but now I have to do more of it."
Management vs. leadership — it's a distinction we all hear over and
over these days. It says management focuses on getting work done on time, on
budget, and on target — in other words, steady execution and control — while
leadership focuses on change and innovation.
(3)……………………………… - along with motivating, planning,
communicating, organizing and the like. Then in the late 1980s and early
1990s, the perception took hold that the U.S. was in danger of falling behind
innovative competitors (Japan, in particular) because traditional management
as practiced by U.S. businesses didn't promote change and innovation. The
solution was leadership, which was singled out as the ability to do exactly that.
Most writers about leadership then and now explicitly note the
continuing importance of management. (4)………………………………
Without all that, leadership only produces dreams. Nonetheless, being a leader
has taken on a shiny, romantic aura these days while management has been
given an undertone of grubby practicality. Leaders are superior beings who
inspire the rest of us to greatness while managers are dull business functionaries
obsessed with budgets, schedules, policies, and procedures. Roy considers
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 75

himself an artisan, a creator of beauty in wood, and seeing himself as a leader


fits easily with that self-perception. But making sure the bills go out on time,
keeping the machines working, and dealing with the employee who cuts
corners and doesn't meet customer specifications aren't nearly so romantic.
Both leadership and management are crucial, and it doesn't help those
responsible for the work of others to romanticize one and devalue the other.
(5)……………………………… They must execute and innovate, stay the
course and foster change. Yes, the guidance, group skills, and mindsets
required for serious change and innovation differ from those needed for
continuity and steady execution. But that only means those in charge must be
able to act as both change agent and steward of continuity, manager and
leader, as the situation requires. To idealize leadership and demean
management only makes that challenge even harder.
To avoid all the positive and negative connotations around "leadership"
and "management" today, we often use the term "boss".
If you're a boss, think of yourself as the one responsible for the work of
others, the one who must manage and lead as necessary, without favoring one
over the other. (6)……………………………… Roy may say, "I'm not a
manager," but the survival of his business probably owes as much to his
management skills as it does his leadership talents.

Adapted from businessinsider.com

5. Write a short summary of the text (5 lines).

6. Re-read the text and find words which mean the following:

a) to indicate, direct attention to (paragraph 2) .......................


b) to choose, select (paragraph 4) .......................
c) dominated (paragraph 5) .......................
d) a person's view of himself/herself (paragraph 5) .......................
e) to do something the cheapest or easiest way .......................
(paragraph 5)
f) to think about something in a way which is not at all .......................
realistic (paragraph 6)
g) to cause something to be thought less impressive or .......................
less deserving of respect (paragraph 6)
h) someone's general attitudes and the way they typically .......................
think about things (paragraph 6)
i) to manage, administer (paragraph 6) .......................
j) to make people have less respect for someone or .......................
something (paragraph 6)
76 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

VOCABULARY – OPPOSITES

7. The previous text contains several phrasal verbs. Provide antonyms


for the phrasal verbs below.

focus on ≠
take hold ≠
fall behind ≠
single out ≠
take on ≠

8. Fill in the following statements with the phrasal verbs from above.

1. The report …………… the European Union, saying it implemented


border control measures “that put the lives of migrants and asylum-
seekers at risk”.
2. In 2008, as the global financial crisis ……………., prices were rising at
an annual rate of about 5%.
3. They should spend less time and money lobbying for new regulations,
and ……………. providing innovative services that make piracy
unattractive.
4. By law, employers in Germany and France cannot unreasonably
…………… an employee‟s request for a part-time or nonstandard
schedule.
5. European banks …………… a global 3.4% increase in IT spending, to
$118.6bn in 2013, as retail banks turn to improving customer
satisfaction.

9. The following adjectives refer to some positive qualities of good


managers. Provide their opposites.

approachable ......................... intelligent .........................


articulate ......................... loyal .........................
assertive ......................... patient .........................
committed ......................... practical .........................
communicative ......................... rational .........................
competitive ......................... reactive .........................
consistent ......................... reliable .........................
co-operative ......................... sensitive .........................
discreet ......................... skilled .........................
honest ......................... supportive .........................
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 77

GRAMMAR – PASSIVE VOICE

10. Choose the right passive forms.

1. Three of the top five companies …...... now ……… by foreign investors.
a) are controlled
b) have been controlled
c) will have been controlled
2. The job of managing money needs ……... to an independent institution.
a) to had been
b) to be delegated
c) to have been delegated
3. Sales in stores which ……… open for at least a year rose by eight per
cent in the 12 weeks to 5 January.
a) will had been
b) have been
c) will have been
4. Sebastian James, the firm's chief executive, denied that the figures
……… by the collapse of its biggest rival, Comet, in December.
a) had been boosted
b) will have been boosted
c) were boosted
5. The Ubuntu operating system ……… to run on smartphones.
a) was adapted
b) have been
c) has been adapted
6. Phones running the software ……… at the Consumer Electronics Show
(CES) in Las Vegas next week.
a) are showcased
b) will be showcased
c) will have been showcased

11. Fill in the phrases below with the right passive form of the verbs.

1. Much of Microsoft's revenue growth …………… by an increase in


spending on sales and marketing. EAT UP
2. The sales figures for the new tablet computer …………… by the
company yet. NOT RELEASE
3. Meanwhile Phones4U has announced that its own mobile service
…………… the following month. LAUNCH
4. Despite the 2012 fourth-quarter fall, some analysts ….. broadly
………… with the numbers. SATISFY
5. LifeMobile, as the service …………… , will be available from
Phones4U's High Street shops as well as Currys and PC World stores.
KNOW
78 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

6. The amount of money which …………… on new facilities, research and


development by Intel is about £13bn. SPEND
7. We are making good progress in our restructuring plans, which
…………… to put the business on a better financial footing. DESIGN
8. This huge £10bn investment …………… at a time when the PC market
will continue to decline. MAKE
9. Dixons conceded that its profit margins …………… during the reporting
period, but attributed this to a change in the mix of products that
customers were buying. SQUEEZE
10. Star Tribune's owner …………… to write off much of the value of its
investment. FORCE

LISTENING – FEMALE CEOS ARE BREAKING THE GLASS


CEILING

12. Listen to the extract and find out whether the statements below are
true or false.
(listening material from http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=EpjKEZ_K6Wc)

Statement True False

1. Women who run the Nations‟ largest companies the


sixteen female CEOs are far out earning their male
counterparts.
2. Women earned 40% more than men in 2009.

3. Women workers as a whole earn 79% of the wages


earned by men.
4. Studies have shown that most women are far more
aggressive in negotiations than men.
5. More than a half of the male volunteers in the ABC
news behavior lab asked for less money for their time
participating in the study.
6. The boards running the top public companies can‟t
afford to be seen as short changing women while the
world looks on.
7. Female CEOs at smaller companies who are less high
profiled make about the same money as their male
counterparts.
8. The super sixteen female CEOs isn‟t quite the norm yet.

13. Correct the false statements above.

14. Listen again and explain the 'glass ceiling' phenomenon


mentioned in the title.
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 79

VOCABULARY – MANAGEMENT COLLOCATIONS

15. The management collocations listed below refer to various


management types used in today's corporate world. Match them with
their definitions.

1. democratic a) the manager allows his subordinates and staff to


get involved in decision-making process.
2. autocratic b) places an emphasis on getting a very specific job
done
3. participative c) its fundamental precept is that the most
successful leaders are the ones who can adapt
their style to a given situation.
4. laissez-faire d) focuses on the basic management process of
controlling, organizing, and short-term planning
and employees achieve organizational objectives
through rewards and punishment
5. charismatic e) the manager delegates power to his subordinates
for carrying out the decision-making process.
6. situational f) managers look out for the welfare of their
employees and provide nurturing environments to
maximize their productivity
7. transformational g) The guidance provided to an organization by one
or more individuals seen as heroic or inspiring
and who have therefore been granted the
organizational power to make dramatic changes
and extract extraordinary performance levels from
its staff (e.g. a business manager could be
enlisted to orchestrate a turnaround or launch a
new product line).
8. bureaucratic h) the leader gets the tasks done completely by his
staff, without involving much in the work.
9. task-oriented i) is based on clearly defined hierarchical levels and
roles in order to maintain efficiency and
effectiveness and emphasizes procedures and
regulations regardless of their usefulness in
changing environments
10. transactional j) the manager is completely responsible for making
decisions all by himself.
11. relation- k) involves proactive adjustments to company vision
oriented or direction and the subsequent management of
those moves

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
80 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

16. Answer the following question: “Which management type do you


think is preferred by employees?” Discuss.

17. Choose the right word partner.

1. In today's global corporate marketplace it is imperative to have rapid


access to the best available ……… management talent.
a) local b) global c) senior
2. Leadership and culture play a critical role in the success and
effectiveness of management ……… systems within organizations.
a) risk b) style c) control
3. Robert Kelly was fired because his 'abrasive' management .........
lowered employees‟ morale.
a) committee b) style c) system
4. Building the business largely means building the management ……… .
a) network b) control c) team
5. This is where good ……… management would have helped.
a) team b) risk c) senior
6. ……… management can, and should, facilitate company-wide dialogue
to determine which risks are acceptable and how much risk is
appropriate based on potential returns.
a) risk b) global c) style

SPEAKING – CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON MANAGEMENT STYLE

18. In pairs, discuss the following statement: “In most cases local
culture plays an important role in management around the world”
(http://www.moveoneinc.com).

19. Use the nationality/ country words in the box to complete the
following management style descriptions.

American German Japanese the United Arab


China Italian Russian Emirates

1. The ............. boss - especially the 'big boss' - is expected to issue direct
instructions for subordinates to follow.
2. The ………… manager who gives dictatorial instructions without
reference to the thoughts and ideas of subordinates will probably find
many of those instructions ignored or even actively obstructed.
3. In ……….. employees do what the boss tells them to do but no more.
4. In ……… it would be considered disrespectful, for subordinates to
question any of their superiors' decisions.
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 81

5. ………….. management style can be described as individualistic in


approach, in so far as managers are accountable for the decisions
made within their areas of responsibility.
6. People from cultures where managers are expected to develop a closer,
more intimate ambience can see the ……….. manager-subordinate
relationship as distant and cold.
7. The higher a ............ manager rises within an organization, the more
important it is that he appears unassuming and not ambitious.
8. ............. managers are often described as being enthusiastic, creative
and dynamic, their weak point seems to be team working ability.

20. Link the cultural styles in exercise 19 with the management types
in exercise 15.

TRANSLATION – MANAGERIAL POSITIONS

21. Read the English text below and its translation into Romanian.
Identify 10 mistakes in the Romanian version and underline them.

The inability to make a big splash, and mount a serious attack on


Apple/Android domination, is bad news for Microsoft especially because we
now know that traditional PC sales are well into decline. Despite the big Win8
launch and promotion, holiday PC sales declined over 3% compared to 2011 as
journalists reported customers found ―no compelling reason to upgrade‖.
Looking deeper, for the 4th quarter PC sales declined by almost 5%.
Both groups no longer expect a rebound in PC shipments, as they believe
homes will no longer have more than 1 PC due to mobile device penetration, a
market where Surface and Win8 phones have failed to make a significant
impact or move beyond a tiny market share.
Abridged from www.forbes.com

Incapacitatea de a face o stropire mare, şi de a face un atac grav asupra


dominaţiei Apple / Android, este o veste proastă pentru Microsoft mai ales că
acum ştim că vânză rile tradiţionale de PC-uri sunt într-un declin considerabil.
În ciuda marii lansă ri şi promovă ri a lui Win8, vânză rile de PC-uri de
vacanţ ă au scă zut cu peste 3%, comparativ cu 2011, astfel cum au raportat
jurnaliştii că clienţii nu au gă sit „nici un motiv connvingă tor pentru a face
upgrade‖.
Că utând mai adânc, vânză rile de PC-uri din al patrulea trimestru au
scă zut cu aproape 5%. Niciun grup nu mai aşteaptă o revenire a transferurilor
de PC-uri, deoarece ele cred că o locuinţă nu va mai avea mai mult de un PC
datorită penetră rii aparatului mobil, o piaţă unde telefoanele Surface şi Win8
nu au reuşit să facă un impact semnificativ sau să se mute dincolo de o cotă
de piaţă mică .
82 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

22. Re-write the Romanian version, correcting the mistakes.

23. Translate into Romanian.

Female Managers Lift Microsoft Germany

In most cases, the rules of professional life are tailored to men whose
wives stay at home to run the household and raise their children. For instance,
the notion that it should be possible to send an employee anywhere at any time
is incompatible with the double burden women face.
At Microsoft, the new way of thinking begins at the bottom. The
company gives preferential treatment in the hiring process to women with the
same qualifications as men applying for the same positions, and women
already make up 28 percent of the company's 2,200 employees. At Microsoft,
each employee receives a performance review twice a year, and employees also
evaluate their supervisors. Supervisors, in turn, are asked to pay special
attention to recruiting new female employees and to consider female
candidates when filling existing positions.
Adapted from businessweek.com

24. Translate into English.

Din criză în criză

Companiile româneş ti întâmpină dificultă ţ i în identificarea ş i


atragerea angajaţ ilor cu potenţ ial. Dar care sunt motivele pentru care
departamentele de resurse umane din companii nu reuş esc să întregească
echipele cu angajaţ i vedeta? Potrivit raportului realizat de ManpowerGroup
Romania, lipsa candidaţ ilor disponibili din piaţ a este cea mai importantă
problemă .
Urmează apoi lipsa califică rilor tehnice, lipsa experienţ ei, lipsa
califică rilor de comunicare, candidaţ i care solicită un nivel salarial mai mare
decât oferta, lipsa candidatilor dispuş i să accepte poziţ ii part-time ş i poziţ ia
geografică nefavorabilă . ―De obicei poziţ iile de management de top sunt cele
mai dificil de acoperit, pentru că , pe lângă experienţ a specifică ş i
competenţ ele intelectuale că utate, la acest nivel sunt foarte importante
personalitatea ş i valorile individuale‖.
Adapted from revistabiz.ro

WRITING – WHAT MAKES A GOOD MANAGER?

25. A good manager always contributes to the bottom line of the company
by ensuring that the task assigned to an employee is successfully
completed. So, how does he or she achieve this objective? Match the
following paragraphs with their suitable headings to find out.
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 83

A. Handling people
B. Assessment skills
C. Rewarding employees
D. Communication is the key
E. Empowering people
F. Conflict resolution
1. ………: A good manager always communicates the business objectives to
the employees. This allows them to see how their department and personal
objectives support and contribute to the bigger picture.
2. ………: A good manager also needs to be able to evaluate their subordinates
skills, knowledge and abilities. This gives them the ability to assign tasks and
responsibilities to the appropriate team member so department objectives can
be achieved successfully.
3. ………: Good managers must encourage their subordinates to take
ownership of the task assigned to them. Delegation is an art. Good managers
must plan well, so as to know what to delegate and whom to delegate and how
much time should be allocated for the person who will be performing this task.
4. ………: Good managers often get the most from their employees. They
always orient their teams to the existing or changing processes, provide job
information and align performance expectations to the job allocated; Great
managers handle people with grace and ease, caring for them and encouraging
them to achieve their goals.
5. ………: A team/organization comprises of people who come from various
mind sets and different backgrounds. Conflict resolution through smart
interpersonal skills is a very important role to be played by a manager.
6. ………: A good manger always highlights an employee‘s achievement to the
top management and helps his recognition program in place.
Adapted from www.deccanherald.com

26. Give reasons for or against one of the following statements. Write
about 50-80 words.

1. “Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership


determines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall.”
(Stephen R. Covey, American businessman and management-expert)
2. “So much of what we call management consists in making it difficult for
people to work.” (Peter Drucker, Austrian-born American management
consultant, educator, and author)
3. “If you are the master be sometimes blind, if you are the servant be
sometimes deaf.” (Buckminster Fuller, American designer, author,
inventor)
84 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

4. “The conventional definition of management is getting work done


through people, but real management is developing people through
work.” (Agha Hasan Abedi, Indian banker and philanthropist)
5. “Lots of folks confuse bad management with destiny.” (Kin Hubbard,
American cartoonist, humorist, and journalist)

CASE STUDY – CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT

TASK 1
Listen to the extract and answer the following questions.
(listening material from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-wxCH287Ws)

1. Which are the challenges faced by multi-cultural team managers


nowadays?
2. What does four-point strategy stand for?
3. Which are the most commonly used methods to deal with multi-cultural
teams?
4. What should a manager do regarding the employees coming from “shy”
cultures?
6. Which are the advantages of working with a multi-cultural team?

TASK 2
Read the following text and choose a heading for each paragraph.

A. LONG TERM ORIENTATION


B. MASCULINITY VS. FEMININITY
C. POWER DISTANCE
D. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX
E. INDIVIDUALISM

Hofstede's Model of Organization Culture


According to Hofstede there are majorly five factors which influence the culture of the
workplace.
1. ………
Organization A
The power was distributed equally among all irrespective of their designations. Every
individual regardless of his level in the hierarchy enjoyed equal benefits and rights.
Organization B
In organization B the superiors enjoyed a special treatment from the management and
the team leaders were delegated more responsibilities as compared to the team
members.
It is about differences in the work culture as per the power delegated to the employees.
There are some organizations which believe in appointing team leaders or team
managers who are responsible for their respective teams and have the challenge of
extracting the best out of the members.
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 85

However in some organizations, every employee gets an equal treatment from the
management and has to take ownership of his/her own work.
2. ………
This refers to the effect of differences in male and female values on the culture of the
organization. Organizations where male employees dominate their female counterparts
will follow different policies as compared to organizations where females have a major
say in the decision making process of the organization. Male employees would be more
aggressive as compared to the females who would be more caring and softhearted. The
female employees are never assigned something which requires late sittings or frequent
travellings.
3. ………
There are some organizations which strongly rely on team work. Here individuals with
a common interest come together and work in unison as a team. These organizations
believe that the output is always more when individuals exchange their ideas, discuss
things among themselves to come out with innovative ideas.
However certain organizations follow a culture where individuals do not believe in
working as a single unit and prefer working individually.
4. ………
It refers to a culture where employees know how to respond to unusual and unforeseen
circumstances. It deals with the tolerance level of the employees in both comfortable
and uncomfortable situations. Organizations try hard to avoid such situations and also
prepare the employees to adjust well in all conditions.
5. ………
There are some organizations which focus on long term relationship with the
employees. In such organizations people have a steady approach and strive hard to live
up to the expectations of the management. On the contrary, some organizations have
employees who are concerned only with their profits and targets and leave as and when
they get a better opportunity.
Adapted from http://www.managementstudyguide.com

TASK 3
Get into pairs. You represent a multinational software company based in
Romania, Bucharest. There are two eligible employees (a German and a
Romanian one) in your company for a project manager vacancy. You are
having a discussion in order to decide who of the two will be promoted.
Follow the Steps indicated by your teacher.

TASK 4
Compare your reasons and final decision with those of the other pairs.

TASK 5
Write an e-mail in which you announce the team about their new project
manager explaining the reason why that particular employee was selected
and announcing the follow-up actions.
86 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

GRAMMAR FILE 2: SEQUENCE OF TENSES

Sequence of Tenses (SOT) is based on the principle that the


tense of the verb in the main clause influences the tense of the verb in
the subordinate clause.
eg: John says he will come as soon as possible
PRESENT FUTURE
John said he would come as soon as possible.
PAST FUTURE IN THE PAST (would + infinitive)

SOT applies in the following contexts:


Indirect Speech
Temporal Clauses
After as if, if only, it is time and wish
Conditional Clauses

Indirect Speech
Indirect Speech or Reported Speech „retells‟ a Speaker‟s words.

eg: DIRECT SPEECH: “They will open a new tennis court at the end of the
week.”
INDIRECT SPEECH: Although 2 weeks ago it was announced that the
officials would open a new tennis court at the end of the week, the
inauguration has not yet taken place.

SOT rules apply in Indirect Speech when the reporting verb is in the past.

SOT rules do not apply in Indirect Speech when:


the reporting verb is in the present:
DIRECT SPEECH: “I‟ll be home at 5 pm.”
INDIRECT SPEECH: He says he will be home at 5 pm.
the situation described is still going on or will take place at the
moment of the reporting
DIRECT SPEECH: “The auditor will come on Tuesday to review the
company‟s financial statements.” (spoken on Thursday, February
2nd)
INDIRECT SPEECH: He said the auditor will come on Tuesday to review
the company‟s financial statements. (reported on Friday, February
3rd)
INDIRECT SPEECH: He said the auditor would come on Tuesday to
review the company‟s financial statements, but the inspection was
postponed. (reported on Wednesday, February 8th)
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 87

the situation described is a general truth


DIRECT SPEECH: “The earth is round.”
INDIRECT SPEECH: He said the earth is round.

When reporting someone‟s words, there are several changes that take
place:
the use of a reporting verb
tense changes
changes of time adverbials
changes of adverbials of place

REPORTING VERBS

Verb + that clause: eg: “I was wrong”.


admit, agree, decide, >>> He admitted that he had been
deny, explain, insist, wrong.
promise, recommend,
say, suggest, tell

Verb + Infinitive: eg: “Shall I call a taxi?”


agree, decide, offer, >>> He offered to call a taxi.
promise, refuse,
threaten

Verb + Accusative + eg: “Will you accompany me to the


Infinitive: advise, theatre tonight?”
encourage, invite, >>> She invited her colleague to the
remind, warn theatre that night.

Verb + ING: deny, eg: “I haven’t stolen the laptop!”


recommend, suggest >>> He denied stealing the laptop.

Verb + preposition + eg: “I am sorry for being late.”


ING: apologize, insist >>> She apologized for being late.

Verb + Accusative + eg: “Congratulations for your


preposition + ING: promotion!”
accuse, blame, >>> Everyone congratulated her for
congratulate getting the promotion.
88 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

1. Join the parts to form reported statements.

1. The receptionist a) their rooms were being cleaned at that moment.


told the guests
that
2. Her colleagues b) getting an immediate answer on the fraud issue.
advised her to
3. The manager c) the higher performance of the new equipment
agreed to was due to a secret improvement in the cooling
system.
4. The d) finance their investment plan.
spokesperson
explained that
5. The journalists e) submit her proposal to the boss.
insisted on

1 2 3 4 5

2. Put the following statements into Indirect Speech using the given
reporting verbs.
Model: I will not lend you any money! REFUSE
He refused to lend money to his colleague.

1. 1. I‟ll be at the airport on time! PROMISE


2. 2. If you keep arriving late, you will lose your job! THREATEN
3. If you work hard, you'll be accepted at a good university. ENCOURAGE
4. 4. I suggest we hire both candidates for a trial period. RECOMMEND
5. 5. The traffic was awful, so I missed the plane. BLAME

TENSE CHANGES

Direct Speech Indirect Speech


Present tense simple Past tense simple
“I am at the office.” She said she was at the office.
Present tense continuous Past tense continuous
“I am writing a report.” She said she was writing a
report.
Present perfect simple Past perfect simple
“I have written 5 pages.” She said she had written 5
pages.
Present tense continuous Past perfect continuous
“I have been writing for 3 She said she had been writing
hours.” for 3 hours.
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 89

Past tense simple Past perfect simple


“I worked in France last year.” She said she had worked in
France the year before.
Past tense continuous Past perfect continuous
“I was speaking on the She said she had been
phone.” speaking on the phone.
Past perfect simple Past perfect simple
“I had already started the She had already started the
meeting.” meeting.
Past tense continuous Past perfect continuous
“I had been interviewing She said she had been
candidates all morning.” interviewing candidates all
morning.
will would
“The manager will come She told me that the manager
tomorrow at 7am.” would come at 7 am the next
day.
may might / was allowed to/ was
“May I use this computer?” permitted to
She asked whether she was
allowed to use that computer.
can could
“I can‟t type as fast as I want.” She said she couldn‟t type as
fast as she wanted.
must had to
“You must deliver the project She said we had to deliver the
in 2 weeks‟ time!” project in 2 weeks‟ time.

3. Choose the right variant to fill in the reported statements below.

1. In April, the conference organizers confessed they …………… cancel


some of the arrangements because of the tight budget.
a) have to b) had to c) are to
2. Our colleague phoned to say that he was on his way to work but he
would be late as he …………… caught in a traffic jam.
a) was b) is c) were
3. They complained that they were tired because they …………… by
plane for more than 6 hours.
a) have travelled b) have been travelling c) had been travelling
4. The secretaries were reprimanded for not answering the phone, but
they said they could not do it as they …………… the reports.
a) were typing b) are typing c) would be typing
5. I was told that the guest …………… at the airport at 5pm and I was to
greet her.
a) will arrive b) would arrive c) had arrived
90 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

6. He admitted that he …………… that the documents kept disappearing,


but he had not taken any measures to prevent this from happening.
a) noticed b) had noticed c) has noticed
7. She confessed that she …………… to Birmingham on a regular basis
the year before.
a). drives b) would drive c) drove
8. When asked what he was doing, the intern said that he …………… data
for the sales presentation to be delivered at the end of the week.
a) was gathering b) had been gathering c) would be gathering
9. Everyone was expecting the auditor – he …………… arrive at any
moment.
a) can b) must c) could
10. They were not sure whether she ……………access the intranet or not,
so they phoned to check.
a) was allowed to b) may c) have to

4. Find one mistake in each sentence below and correct it.

1. She admitted that she has told the press about the new formula.
2. The customer complains that he couldn‟t install the new patch, although
he had performed all the right steps.
3. The team explained that they worked for several hours before they
could solve the problem.
4. They denied that they must observe an agreement to co-promote their
products.
5. She wanted to know whether she may take a few days off.

ADVERBIALS OF TIME AND PLACE

Direct Speech Indirect Speech


now/ at this moment then/ at that moment
today that day
this week that week
these months those months
tomorrow the next day/ the following day
the day after tomorrow in two days‟ time/ after two days
next week the next week
yesterday the day before/ the previous day
2 days ago 2 days before
last week/ month/ year the previous week/ month/ year
a week/ month/ year ago
here there
UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD 91

5. Fill in with the missing word.

1. They admitted that, at …………… particular moment, nobody was in the


office.
2. The supplier promised to deliver the goods …………… 2 weeks‟ time.
3. The sales representatives required more space for the exhibition that
would take place …………… next month.
4. The …………… day, the committee decided to allocate more resources
for research.
5. A week ……………, nobody had any idea who the new boss would be.

6. Put the words in order to form reported questions.


Model:
when/ entered/ the Manager‟s/ last/ the officer/ me/ asked/ had/ I/ office
The officer asked me when I had entered the Manager‟s office last.

1. had/ on the stock/ They/ whether/ any more cars/ enquired/ we


2. what time/ The secretary/ would be/ wanted/ for a meeting/ to know/
available/ I
3. the delivery/ asked/ would cost/ The caller/ how much
4. her subordinates/ the next day/ asked/ their CVs/ Advertising Manager/
to bring/ The new
5. yet/ demanded/ why/ had not arrived/ The customer/ his merchandise/
to know

7. Turn the above questions into Direct Speech.

1. …………………………………………………………………
2. …………………………………………………………………
3. …………………………………………………………………
4. …………………………………………………………………
5. …………………………………………………………………

8. Provide answers to the questions above, using the words given


below.

1. 150 cars: …………………………………………………………………


2. 10.30am: …………………………………………………………………
3. free of charge:…………………………………………………………………
4. yes: …………………………………………………………………
5. storm: …………………………………………………………………

9. Turn the following sentences into Indirect Speech.

1. “I have been working in Advertising since I graduated from the


University.”
92 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

2. “They have just received a significant fine because they haven‟t paid
their taxes for years.”
3. “Could you please stop smoking?”
4. “I‟ll finish the report tomorrow afternoon.”
5. “Can I take the red car for a test drive?”

Temporal Clauses
Temporal clauses describe the time when a certain activity happens.
They are introduced by: as, after, as soon as, before, till, until,
when, whenever, while etc.
eg: She called her mother as soon as she arrived home.

Sequence of Tenses applies when the tense of the main clause is


future. In this case, the tense in the temporal clause is NEVER future.
Instead, present tenses are used:

Main Clause Temporal Clause

eg: We will arrange a meeting when the manager returns from China.
FUTURE PRESENT
He will be reviewing the candidates‟ files while she is asking them
questions.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
I will go on holiday after I have finished all my exams
FUTURE PRESENT PERFECT

10. Fill in with the PRESENT or FUTURE form of the verb given.

1. As soon as the auditors …………… their report, we will see what


measures are to be taken so as to avoid bankruptcy. FINISH
2. While she is typing the letter, I …………… the phone. ANSWER
3. We will use you services whenever we …………… to travel again in the
future. NEED
4. We will call you an hour before the delegates …………… so that you
can pick them up from the airport on time. ARRIVE
5. We will not be able to say whether the machines have to be recalled
until we …………… all the complaints regarding this model. ANALYZE

11. Finish the following statements in an appropriate manner.

1. When the internet is down …………………………………………………… .


2. Before they launch the new application ……………………………………. .
3. While we are conducting the market research……………………………... .
4. Till the investigation ends ………………………………………………….… .
5. After I get the promotion ……………………………………………………... .
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 93

VOCABULARY – WORD FORMATION

1. Look at the following list of words. Say which of them are nouns
(N), verbs (V) or both (N/V).

call carry deal value tactic plan


cater collect deliver variation tangible position
combine communicate demand variety tap product
connect consumer design venture target profit
control convince develop vision transfer promotion
create customer differentiate voice trend prospect

N V N/V
......................... ........................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................
........................... .......................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................
........................... ........................... ...........................

2. Complete the word families below. Include words that are formed
with prefixes (e.g. intangible, reposition, uncontrolled)

Verb Noun Adjective Adverb


collect
connect
consume
convince
create
develop
differ
product
profit
value
variation
market
94 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

3. Look at three incomplete statements related to marketing made by


using one key word from each column in exercise 1. Complete them
by choosing the missing word from the corresponding column. Make
grammatical changes if necessary.

1. Marketers manage to control consumer demand through a variety of


t......... of promotion.
2. An innovative marketing campaign caters to customers who can
d......... between a visionary and a trendy product.
3. Success in marketing calls for the c......... that to develop you have to
venture towards tangible prospects.

4. Look again at the words in exercise 1 and choose one from each
column to finish the sentence below. Use three verbs and three nouns
in total and insert any structure words (i.e. prepositions, articles,
conjunctions) that you consider necessary.

The role of marketing is to ..............................................................................

LISTENING – MARKETING CHANGES

5. Listen to the first extract from a speech given by marketing expert


Philip Kotler. As you listen, circle the words he uses from exercise 1
to define marketing. After listening, write down his definition.
(listening material from www.londonbusinessforum.com)

6. Compare and contrast Kotler's definition with the completed


sentence from exercise 4.

7. Listen to the second extract and say whether these statements are
True or False.

Statement True False

1. Previously, the task of the marketing people was to sell


whatever the company had produced.
2. Only the scientists within the company were involved in
product management.
3. Nowadays, P&G scientists inside work together with
twice as many scientists outside.
4. In the old days, a competitor like Unilever was expected
to know about what P&G was doing.
5. P&G found an Italian device that helped them solve the
Pringle printing problem.
6. Product management is now allowing open innovation.
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 95

8. Read the following incorrect transcript fragments. Underline the


mistakes and the parts that do not make sense.

1. The brand inspires everything you do, that way yet act when your
approach then when you reach customers.
2. The formula was this: i'm going after your mind and going after your
heart; i want mein share, and i want hardship.
3. Is civic, is carrying and we one of the appreciated because we care
about the shape of the world.
4. Creating an emotional relationship it's more than limited to the person
zone measuring of his or her regal.
5. You think you're doing customer management if you are socially have a
database of customers and your reaching them through direct mail in
online you may also?
6. We want to get their help, to get the customers helped in creating
products, we want to call create with the customer our products and we
want even call create art advertising.

9. Listen to the third extract for the right version and correct the
mistakes. Why do you think subtitles sometimes contain such
mistakes?

10. Listen again to the whole speech and answer these questions:
1. What are the three main components of marketing mentioned by
Kotler?
2. How have they changed?
3. How can marketers really meet customers beyond the database?

VOCABULARY – THE FOUR 'P'S OF THE MARKETING MIX

11. Use the words in the box to label the stages of a typical product
life cycle. Discuss what happens to a product at the end of its life
cycle.

decline development growth launch maturity saturation


SALES

1 2 3 4 5 6
TIME
96 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

12. Find the fourteen words that collocate with 'product' (either before
or after) in the grid below. Search them up, down, forward and
backward.

T Q Y R E C A L L E I B X S CONSUMER
N O I L O F T R O P W H R A DAIRY
E O N S N K M T K O F F Q S FINISHED
M M X N N D A C Z M I X G L HOUSEHOLD
E K M G L W N Q E G N A R Y LINE
C D H J A Y G L W D I S A M MIX
A W G N I N O I T I S O P P PACKAGE
L A V P A C K A G E H H K G PLACEMENT
P R U N K P D R E L E A S E PORTFOLIO
D H O U S E H O L D D L B M POSITIONING
O L I N E P O T Y H H H J H RANGE
W M Z C O N S U M E R C J W RELEASE
J A J E D A I R Y S G M F T RECALL
L M C I Y N E L P M A S F J SAMPLE

13. Use ten of the words above to fill the spaces in the following
sentences.

1. All the .................. products that are not sold by the sell-by date must
be withdrawn because they turn sour and can really endanger
customers' health.
2. Toyota issued a product .................. on 185,000 vehicles sold
worldwide due to a faulty computer system in the power steering.
3. VCRs are a good example of .................. products that have become
obsolete.
4. Many .................. products such as bleach, conditioners or detergents
can harm children, pets and the environment if not used or stored
correctly.
5. The goal of product .................. is to keep the product on top of the
customers' minds when they are considering a purchase.
6. The Palo Alto factory assembles the .................. product.
7. Product .................. is spoiling the cookery TV show.
8. Coca Cola's main priority is to develop their product .................. by
introducing new products to offer greater choice.
9. Nestlé has an extensive product .................. targeted at many different
segments of the market.
10. They have a separate product .................. for baby foods, cereals,
confectionery, culinary foods, and pet care products.
14. Match the pricing strategies listed in the table below with their
explanations.
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 97

1. bundle pricing a) using a price higher than the competitors' to


indicate exclusiveness
2. captive product b) setting an artificially low price to gain market
pricing share, after which the price is increased
3. competition pricing c) keeping costs to a minimum in order to
establish low prices
4. economy pricing d) charging a high price for a new product before
other competitors enter the market and
lowering it later
5. mark-up pricing e) negligibly lowering a price to influence
consumers emotionally
6. optional pricing f) charging a high price where the consumer
cannot choose a competitive product
7. penetration pricing g) combining several products in the same
package to get rid of old stock
8. premium pricing h) deriving a price by adding a predetermined
percentage to the cost of the product
9. psychological i) using the price of a competing product as a
pricing benchmark rather than considering costs or
demand
10. skimming j) setting a low price for the basic product but
charging much more for additions or
accessories

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

15. Complete the dialogue below with words and phrases related to
price from the box.

break even factory gate overheads retail slash


distribution going rate price war selling up-market
fee margin production sensitivity wholesale

A: Let's talk prices. What would be a good (1).................. price for our
product?
B: Well, if we keep our (2)................... down and reduce the
(3).................. costs to a minimum, we could start with a
(4).................. price of $20. If we add the (5).................. costs to
that, we could get to, let's say, $22 for the (6).................. price and
$25 further down the distribution channel for the recommended
(7).................. price.
A: Is that the (8).................. on the market for similar products?
B: It is. But all our competitors are targeting only the lower end of the
market, where there is a high price (9).................. . We want to go
(10).................. as well.
98 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

A: In that case, we can increase the (11).................. to what? 40%?


B: Even higher. But anyway, with the sales volume we expect, at 40%
we could (12).................. in one year only.
A: And then what? Do we (13).................. prices?
B: No! That would start a (14).................. . Besides, we will still need
money to pay the lawyer's (15).................. .

16. Put the informal price mentions into the right category.

Expensive 1. It was a real bargain. Cheap


2. I paid through the nose for it.
3. It cost me an arm and a leg.
4. I bought it for a song.
5. It cost me a bomb.
6. I paid the earth for it.
7. It was chicken feed.
8. It cost me a pretty penny.
9. It was dirt cheap.
10. I got it for peanuts.
11. It cost me a packet.
12. I paid a king's ransom for it.
13. It was highway robbery.
14. It cost a fortune.
15. They were practically giving it away.

17. Complete each space in the texts about distribution systems


below with a word formed from the words in capitals.

No more middleman
Dell started out as a direct seller, first using a mail-order system,
and then taking advantage of the internet to develop an online
(1).................. platform. Well before use of the internet went SELL
mainstream, Dell had begun integrating online order status
updates and technical support into their customer-facing
(2).................. . By 1997, Dell‘s internet sales reached an OPERATE
average of $4 million per day. While most other PCs were sold
(3).................. and pre-assembled in retail stores, Dell offered CONFIGURATION
superior customer (4).................. in system configuration at a CHOOSE
deeply discounted price, due to the cost savings associated with
cutting out the (5).................. . This move away from the MIDDLE
traditional distribution model for PC sales played a large role in
Dell‘s formidable early (6).................. . Additionally, an GROW
important side-benefit of the internet-based direct sales model
was that it (7).................. a wealth of market data the GENERATION
company used to efficiently forecast demand trends and carry
out effective (8).................. strategies. SEGMENT
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 99

Adding more marketing channels


How many marketing channels should a company use to
distribute its products and services? Starbucks Coffee Company
shows that the (9).................. the number of channels, the HEIGHT
greater the company‘s market coverage and sales growth are.
Starbucks started with only one channel, (10).................. NAME
company-owned stores that were staffed carefully and operated
profitably. Later they (11).................. operations in other FRANCHISER
venues: airports, bookstores, and college campuses. The company
recently signed a licensing (12).................. with a food chain to AGREE
open coffee bars in its supermarkets, where other Starbucks
products are sold along with coffee. (13).................. more ADDITION
channels creates rapid growth. But at least two problems can
arise. First, product or service quality may suffer because the
company gained market (14).................. at the expense COVER
of market control. Secondly, the company may encounter
(15).................. problems of channel conflict. So, whatever the GROWTH
number of market channels a company uses, it must integrate
them to (16).................. an efficient supply system. ACHIEVEMENT

Both texts adapted from www.maRSdd.com

18. Rearrange the letters to obtain different promotion tools. Underline


the terms you do not know and look them up in the Glossary.

1. ryfle f............... 11. T-riths vinsagiterd T....................


2. enbarn b.............. 12. spanpewer verdat n....................
3. puncoo c.............. 13. efer pesmal f.....................
4. beefier f............... 14. windsach droab s.....................
5. oldbilrab b.............. 15. mitreeper gendirviats p....................
6. shropnisnops s.............. 16. credit liam d....................
7. OBGFO B............. 17. reef figt f.....................
8. micromecla c............. 18. topin-of-leas plaidys p....................
9. fleatle l.............. 19. treenint ravingdetis i......................
10. chorbeur b............. 20. drow fo uhtom w....................

19. Put the promotion tools above into the right category.

Above-the- Below-the-
line line
advertising advertising
100 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

• above-the-line advertising (ATL) = advertising through mass


media
• below-the-line advertising (BTL) = non-media advertising
• through-the-line advertising (TTL) = an integrated approach to
advertising, that combines ATL with BTL
a.k.a. multi-channel / blended / holistic / 360 degree branding

Can you give more examples of TTL?

SPEAKING – A REMIX OF THE MARKETING MIX

20. Look at the products in the photograph below and discuss at what
stage of their life cycles each of them is, giving arguments for your
opinion.

21. In small groups, choose one product from the photograph above
and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the pricing
strategies listed in 14 to market that product. Decide on the best
pricing strategy combination and present your decision to the other
groups.

22. In pairs, choose three of the promotion tools listed in 18 and place
them on the scales below. Brainstorm three more advantages and/or
disadvantages for each and present them to the other pairs.

Low ____________________________________________________ High


COST
Low ___________________________________________________ High
COVERAGE
Low ___________________________________________________ High
VISIBILITY
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 101

23. Listen to five radio commercials. Can you guess what is being
advertised before the punch line? Discuss what makes these
commercials effective.
(listening material from www.radioheardhere.com)

Commercial 1 ……………………………………………………………......

Commercial 2 ……………………………………………………………......

Commercial 3 ……………………………………………………………......

Commercial 4 ……………………………………………………………......

Commercial 5 ……………………………………………………………......

TRANSLATION – CROSS-CULTURAL ISSUES: IDIOMS AND PUNS

24. Read the following statements and identify the phrases that are
difficult to translate into Romanian. Why do they raise problems?

A. A sea change is occurring within businesses, as social media rises up


the agendas of chief executives and is no longer an afterthought left to
the attention of a wet-behind-the-ears graduate trainee.
Adapted from www.marketingmagazine.co.uk

B. Brand websites used to gain SEO brownie points by link building in


volume, but links from poor quality sites and content just won't cut the
mustard anymore – these days it's about quality of links, not quantity.
Adapted from www.theguardian.com

C. There is no silver bullet for brands, but it is certain the days of having
young „digital natives‟ timorously trying to explain the benefits of social
media to a board of old luddites is rapidly becoming an unnecessary
exercise.
Adapted from www.marketingmagazine.co.uk

25. In pairs, choose one of the above fragments and translate it into
Romanian. Make sure there is at least another pair in your study group
working on the same fragment.

26. Make one larger group for each fragment. Read and discuss the
poorly translated version provided by the teacher. Then compare it
with your own versions and write a final translation together.
102 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

27. Look at the following Romanian slogans and identify the play upon
words that makes them effective.

1. "Aliatul organismului rezistent" (Actimel)


2. "Vitamine pentru premiantul tău" (Actival Junior)
3. "Încasează şocurile fără palpitaţii!" (Aspacardin)
4. "Loveşte alergia în plin!" (Claritine)
5. "Cafea cu suflet" (Doncafe)
6. "Un radio de milioane de români" (Europa FM)
7. "O revistă pentru sufletul tău" (Felicia)
8. "Puterea alintaromei" (Jacobs)
9. "Frumusetea este o stare de bine" (Nivea)
10. "Te prinde!" (ProCinema)
11. "Nu te lasă la greu" (Rexona)
12. "Transpiraţia strică reputaţia" (Rexona)
13. "Să auzim de bine" (Romtelecom)
14. "Eternul feminin" (Sensiblu)
15. "Apropiere fără limite" (Winterfresh)

28. In small groups, choose three slogans to translate into English.


Keep the original pun, if possible, or make a new one. Then present
your slogans to the other groups and vote for the best pun.

READING – MARKETING TO GENERATION Y

29. You are going to read an article about Generation Y and its
relationship with marketing. Before reading, try to answer the
following questions:
1. What is Generation Y?
2. What is Generation Y like?
3. What is the effect of marketing on Generation Y?
4. What is the effect of Generation Y on marketing?
5. What other 'generations' do you know?

30. Read the introduction and use words from the text to replace the
highlighted words in the sentences below.

Generation Y: What Every Marketer Needs to Know


The emergence of Generation Y - defined as those born in early 1980s up to the
early 2000s - presents marketers with many challenges. This market segment, also
frequently called Millennials, spans a broad range of life-stages, from those just starting
secondary school to those with spouses, kids and mortgages. They are not, therefore, a
homogeneous whole - but have been shaped by the same socio-economic trends. They
share similar traits, habits and values - all of which marketers need to grasp fully in
their branding strategy.
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 103

1. The leading tour operator arranges holidays to a wide range of


destinations.
2. Communication has changed greatly with the appearance of new
technologies.
3. We cannot understand all the implications of the internet revolution.
4. The option of a bank loan guaranteed with property is no longer
appealing.
5. His career covers nearly 30 years in the advertising industry.
6. All employees are invited to bring their wives/husbands to the
company picnic.
7. Consumer profiles are associated with particular characteristics.
8. The company is split into three regional offices, but they work as a
single unit.

31. Continue reading in pairs. Student A reads about culture and


values while Student B reads about aspirations and consumption.
Extract the necessary information from the text to complete the
reading notes below in your own words. Then exchange this
information with your partner.

STUDENT A
Culture Values
The cultural values and interests of Younger Millennials have never
Generation Y are intertwined with the rise of witnessed boom times and their attitudes
the digital media culture. According to a have been shaped by the worldwide
large international study carried out by downturn. A US survey of 14 to 17-year
Telefónica, Millenials are defined by their old Millennials carried out by MTV
ubiquitous use of technology and belief that showed that more than three quarters
education in technology will ensure future worry about the negative impact the
personal success. Generation Y could also be economy will have on their future. Only
termed the smartphone generation - 76 per 51 per cent agreed with the statement,
cent of Millennials own smart phones "If I want to do something, no one is
globally - as reflected in their media channel going to stop me," a marked drop from
preferences. The internet, including social 71 per cent in 2010. The majority - 60
media, was seen as the best source of per cent - believes they will be worse off
entertainment by 64 per cent - crushing print than their parents and the same number
magazines and newspapers, with a mere feel "very stressed" about getting into a
three per cent. The internet also trounced TV good high school or college.
and print for credible news coverage.
Main idea: ................................................ Main idea:
Generation Y traits / habits: ................................................
............................................................ Generation Y traits / habits:
............................................................ ....................................................
Supporting examples / statistics: ....................................................
............................................................ Supporting examples / statistics:
............................................................ ....................................................
Source: .................................................... ....................................................
Source: ............................................
104 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

5 STUDENT B
Aspirations Consumption
According to research from Ashridge Generation Y is far more aware of
Business School, graduates entering the marketing and advertising than previous
workplace are an academically talented generations - and with this commercial
bunch but have very high expectations - 32 awareness comes scepticism about the
per cent are unhappy with the nature of advertising. This means they
performance of their boss and half plan to may not respond to traditional marketing
move into another job within two years. methods in the same way as previous
Strongly motivated by money, status and generations. If they feel they're being
the prospect of career advancement, they "marketed to", they are likely to switch
also value a high degree of freedom and off. For instance, luxury brands are in
autonomy in how they carry out their danger of losing a generation of
work. A work life balance is important to customers who see "luxury" as a purely
them and they do not accept the culture of marketing concept, says planner Lauren
"long hours" embraced by Generation X - Took. Additionally, brand preferences
those born between the early 1960s and evolve through different Generation Y
early 1980s. life-stages, with brands that are more
family-focused increasingly coming to
the fore for those in the 25 and above age
brackets.
Main idea: .............................................. Main idea: .............................................
Generation Y traits / habits: Generation Y traits / habits:
.......................................................... ........................................................
.......................................................... ........................................................
Supporting examples / statistics: Supporting examples / statistics:
.......................................................... ........................................................
.......................................................... ........................................................
Source: .................................................. Source: .................................................

32. Read the conclusion and correct the statements below if


necessary.

So what is the answer for brands? "Be authentic," says TBCH representative.
"Everything your brand does should be justified by a reason beyond making a load of
cash. Apple thrives because they believe in doing things differently, and challenging
the status quo. Starbucks has built its brand around the motto that everyone should
have a "third place" to escape to. Neither of these brands are campaigning for drastic
social change. They are, however, telling Generation Y they really care about
something. Something more than making money."
Adapted from www.themarketer.co.uk

1. Brands should be genuine.


2. Brands should justly try only to earn good money.
3. Apple is not very successful because they are indifferent.
4. Apple likes to make changes.
5. Brands should advocate for major social transformations.

33. Now answer the questions in 29 in more detail.


UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 105

GRAMMAR – ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Adjectives and adverbs are descriptive words which are


used to modify / add detail to a sentence.

ADJECTIVES
• are placed before nouns or after verbs that refer to the senses
(appear, feel, look, smell, sound, taste, etc.)
e.g. She is a hard-working student. / It smells horrible.
• can be formed from nouns and verbs with suffixes (-able, -al, -ary, -
ent, -ful, -ible, -ic, - ical, -ish, -less, -like, -ly, -ory, -ous, -some, -y, etc.)

34. Write the adjectives made from the following words.

energy ..................... hesitate ..................... responsibility .....................

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES
are formed with
• present participles (long-standing debt, short-lasting friendship)
• past participles (self-employed plumber, moon-lit night)
• cardinal numbers + nouns (two-day course, five-star hotel)
• prefixes and suffixes (non-stop surveillance, foolproof software)
• well, badly, ill, poorly (well-paid boss, poorly-paid assistant)

35. Rewrite the following using a compound adjective.

1. He bought a car with two doors. - He bought a ........................... car.


2. The watch can be used under water. - It is a .............................. watch.
3. I really deserve this holiday. - This is a ........................... holiday.
4. I learn languages by myself. - I am a ........................... learner.
5. The embargo that lasted so long ruined the economy. - The
........................... embargo ruined the economy.

ADVERBS
can indicate
• manner (how): fast, slowly • frequency (how often): usually,
seldom, occasionally, always
• place (where): outside, nearby
• degree (to what extent): rather,
• time (when): today, now absolutely, quite, fairly, extremely
106 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

- Adverbs of manner are usually formed by


ADVERBS
adding -ly to the adjective
are used to describe
- Adverbs of frequency are usually placed after
• verbs the auxiliary verb / before the main verb
• adjectives
- Adverbs of degree usually go before the words
• nouns
they modify
• sentences
• other adverbs - Adverbs of emphasis can be placed at the
beginning of a sentence or in the same position
as adverbs of frequency

36. Look at the following examples of adverbs selected from the


previous article and match them to their uses below.
a) frequently called Millennials
b) to grasp fully
c) 76 per cent of Millennials own smart phones globally
d) Younger Millennials have never witnessed
e) an academically talented bunch
f) Strongly motivated by money
g) Generation Y is far more aware of marketing than previous generations
h) a purely marketing concept
i) Additionally, brand preferences evolve
j) brands that are more family-focused increasingly coming to the fore
k) doing things differently
l) they really care

1. two adverbs of manner ............


2. an adverb of place ............
3. two adverbs of frequency ............
4. two adverbs of degree ............
5. an adverb of emphasis ............
6. two adjectives modified by an adverb ............
7. a noun modified by an adverb ............
8. a sentence modified by an adverb ............

37. Look again at the examples in 36 and say which give essential
information (cannot be left out) and which indicate the speaker's
attitude (could be left out).

38. Cross out the incorrect words in the following sentences.


1. I did bad/badly on my English exam.
2. She feels bad/badly about losing the money.
3. He wanted bad/badly to go home because he felt sick/sickly.
4. I hope you get good/well soon.
5. I did good/well in the interview.
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 107

6. The perfume smells very good/very well.


7. The cafeteria is near/nearly the entrance.
8. He near/nearly lost his job because of the indiscretion.
9. I have been studying Russian for sometime/some time/sometimes.
10. I will finish the project sometime/some time/sometimes soon.
11. Sometime/ some time/ sometimes, I go to work on foot.

REGULAR COMPARISON
ADJECTIVES Positive Comparative Superlative
one-syllable small smaller (than) the smallest (of/in)
big bigger( than) the biggest (of/in)
two-syllable clever cleverer the cleverest (of/in)
happy happier the happiest (of/in)
more than two difficult more difficult (than) the most difficult (of/in)
syllables
ADVERBS Positive Comparative Superlative
one-syllable fast faster (than) the fastest (of/in)
two-syllable early earlier (than) the earliest of/in)
compounds from quickly more quickly (than) the most quickly (of/in)
adjectives

39. Correct the following sentences.


1. Advertising encourages women to be more thin.
2. He drove quicklier than ever.
3. This is the most easy thing to do.
4. It's more easier said than done.
5. The GM left earlyer then the president.

IRREGULAR COMPARISON
Positive Comparative Superlative
bad/badly/ill worse worst
good/well better best
little less least
many/much more most
far farther (distance) farthest
further furthest
old older oldest
elder (family members) eldest

40. Finish these sentences.


1. The most ..................................... for me is ..............................................
2. The least ..................................... for me is ..............................................
3. In my opinion, ..................................... is worse .......................................
4. I think ....................................... is less .....................................................
5. The more I ......................................., the more ........................................
108 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

OTHER TYPES OF COMPARISON


• as ... as • not as / so / such / ... as
He is as blind as a bat. It's not such hard work as they say.
• such + ... as + (pro)noun / • the same ... + as + (pro)noun +
clause clause
They have never faced such hard He shows the same confidence as
times as these before. her.
• (modifier) + less + positive • (modifier) + the least + positive
adjective + than adjective + of/in
These figures are (far) less She was (by far) the least
promising than those of last year. enthusiastic of all.
• the + comparative ... the + • comparative + and +
comparative comparative
The more often you practise, the The news is becoming more and
better you become. more interesting.
• comparing countable nouns • comparing uncountable nouns
There are fewer opportunities now. They spend less money on R&D.
They don't have as many branches They don't pay as much attention to
as we do. customers as we do.

41. Use the adjectives and adverbs in the box to complete the
opinions of KPMG experts about the evolution of the converged
lifestyle (i.e. the way consumers interact with technology).

accurately increasingly significant


ample largely somewhat ubiquitous
clearly many massive strong and sustainable
dramatic most the bigger
ever more important much more the biggest
far-reaching non-traditional
few numerous

1. While the PC is (1)........................ not dead, there is (2)........................


evidence that consumers are gravitating towards (3)........................
devices, each with their own benefits and drawbacks.
2. While (4).................. banks have launched mobile banking services,
(5).................. are ready for the change that mobile payments will bring.
3. The emergence of alternatives to television signals a (6)........................
shift in consumer behaviour that may have (7)........................
implications for video service providers.
4. Cloud has already become (8)........................ in the consumer
technology environment.
5. Privacy and security are becoming (9)........................ to consumers
given the rise of mobile payments and commerce.
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 109

6. The Asian-led technology revolution will have a (10)........................


impact on the global market and will (11)........................ influence the
future design and sales of new technology products.
7. Building a (12)....................... revenue stream continues to be
(13)....................... challenge for (14)........................ content providers.
8. With more consumers starting to watch TV through (15)........................
channels, content-providers will need to go through (16)........................
experimentation.
9. Those companies that can (17)........................ track and manage their
customer information are (18)........................ looking to monetize their
data assets by sharing their findings with others.
10. It will be interesting to see what (19)........................ players like
Facebook and Amazon will do with the (20)........................ customer
information at their disposal.
Adapted from the KPMG Converged Lifestyle Report

VOCABULARY – DESCRIBING TRENDS AND STATISTICS

Language notes

A. VERBS OF CHANGE
RISE - ROSE - RISEN FALL - FELL - FALLEN
Profit rose (considerably) last month. Customer numbers fell (rapidly) last year.
Sales have risen (significantly) lately. Interest has fallen (slightly) since 2007.
but but
There was a considerable rise in There was a rapid fall in customer
profit last month. numbers last year.
There has been a significant rise in There has been a slight fall in interest
sales lately. since 2007.

42. Market reports use many other verbs to describe change. Group the
following verbs according to the type of change they describe. Give
the corresponding nouns as well.

advance drop jump plunge slide


climb ease leap rally slip
crash escalate level off rebound slump
decline expand lose recover soar
dip fluctuate pick up rocket stabilize
drift gain plummet sink take off
110 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

B. PREPOSITIONS
43. The following report extract has been left without any
prepositions. Insert them correctly paying attention to context.

The culmination (1)...... the shopping experience — payment — is an


area where consumers want it their way. Globally, immediate payment is
preferred (2)...... 77% (3)...... transactions, (4)...... a balanced preference
(5)...... cash (39%) and debit cards or electronic transfer (38%): only 20%
prefer to pay (6)...... credit card.
The preference (7)...... cash varies markedly (8)...... regions: globally,
it is preferred (9)...... 39% but that figure rises (10)...... 51% (11)...... Eastern
Europe and 61% (12)...... the Middle East, falling (13)...... 26% (14)......
Australia and Western Europe and (15)...... a low (16)...... 24% (17)...... the
US.
Cash is very much a young person‘s preference: (18)...... all regions,
the tendency to pay (19)...... cash reduces (20)...... age. (21)...... Australia,
cash is preferred (22)...... 34% (23)...... 15-(24)...... -29 year olds but (25)......
23% (26)...... the (27)......-50s; (28)...... India, the breakdown is 54%
(29)...... 42%, which is similar (30)...... the Middle East.

Adapted from Ernst & Young This time it's personal: from consumer to co-creator report

C. DISCOURSE MARKERS
44. Group the following logical connectors by their function.
although consequently in addition to since
apart from despite in spite of still
as due to moreover therefore
as a consequence even so nevertheless thus
as a result even though nonetheless what is more
because (of) for this reason owing to whereas
besides furthermore on the grounds that while
but however seeing that yet

a) to express cause c) to add more points


b) to express effect d) to make contrasting points
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 111

45. Use some of the connectors above to complete the sentences.

1. Consumers seem to be more and more reliant on a range of


technologies that perform important – ............... often overlapping –
tasks.
2. ............... consumers are slowly becoming accustomed to the negatives
of technology such as spam and viruses, they are also keen to benefit
from the convenience and immediacy that comes with mobile devices.
3. Landlines clearly continue to be relevant for traditional reasons such as
reliability and security. ............... , they are also commonly seen as the
catalyst to new broadband-based services such as IPTV and streamed
video services.
Adapted from the KPMG Converged Lifestyle Report

WRITING – SURVEY REPORTS

46. Look at the bar chart and write five sentences to interpret the data
using different types of adjective / adverb comparison.

Source: www.epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu

1. ..................................................................................................................
2. ..................................................................................................................
3. ..................................................................................................................
4. ..................................................................................................................
5. ..................................................................................................................
112 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

47. Add five different adverbs to the following text wherever possible
to make it:
a) softer / more ambiguous / more diplomatic
b) stronger / more emphatic / more assertive

The way consumers interact with technology is changing. In every market and
customer segment, our survey shows that consumers are looking to new
technologies and devices to help them get what they want. Whether they are
buying goods on their mobile phones or keeping up with friends on social
networks, consumers are focused on attaining the right mix of technologies to
enable their converging lifestyles.
Adapted from the KPMG 2011 Converged Lifestyle Report

48. Combine the pieces of information into one formal and coherent
paragraph that has a topic sentence and two or three supporting
sentences. Use different discourse markers following the model.

Model:
- Some believe landlines are outdated.
- Data shows that consumers still keep landlines.
- people with landlines around the world - 81%
- highest number of landlines: Asia Pacific - 83%
- lowest number of landlines: Europe, the Middle East and Africa - 76%
- 4% fall from last year
- landline used for internet connection - 52%
- landline used for IPTV - 12%

While some may believe that the traditional landline telephone is a


thing of the past, data shows that consumers are still committed to
maintaining their landline connections. Globally, over three quarters of
respondents indicated that they have a landline, with the highest
concentration found in Asia Pacific (83 percent) and the lowest (76 percent)
in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA). That being said, global rates
did fall slightly overall from last year indicating the changing use of landlines
in many regions. For example, half of the respondents reported that they
maintained their landline as a means of accessing the internet, while more
than 10 percent also saw their landline as a channel for new services such
as IPTV.
Adapted from the KPMG Converged Lifestyle Report

- the PC is not dead


- mobile devices are eating into the PC domain
- PC used for online shopping - 88%
- PC used for internet browsing - 86%
- PC used for email - 84%
- switch from PC to mobile devices since 2006 survey: news / information -
20%, instant messaging / chat - 26%, social networking - 18%
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 113

49. The table below shows the proportion of marketing innovative


enterprises by implementation type in the European Union between 2008
and 2010. Write a short report (between 150 and 200 words) describing
the information given in the table. Remember to:
1. write an introductory sentence, describing the purpose of the table and
trying to use your own words (avoid lifting full phrases from the
requirement);
2. note the main features only (avoid presenting all the details);
3. make comparisons and contrasts (avoid linear interpretations and
sequencing);
4. present the information coherently using discourse markers (avoid
writing sentences that are not clearly connected);
5. use a wide range of vocabulary (avoid repeating the same verbs /
nouns / adverbs / adjectives);
6. group the information into paragraphs if necessary using a topic
sentence and at least one supporting sentence (avoid writing one-
sentence paragraphs);
7. write a concluding sentence, referring strictly to the data (avoid giving
any personal opinions, comments or interpretations)

Source: www.epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
114 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

CASE STUDY – MARKETING ACROSS THE OCEAN

Brief

TICK-TOCK
You work in the Marketing
department of a British company
named Timekeepers, which has
• black or white
just developed a new product - a
• case diameter - 55 mm
mid-range smart watch. The • changeable colour bands
market potential is high • 220X176 display
particularly with the young • average battery life - 5 days
generations, who may not afford • waterproof
similar upmarket products from • dustproof
Sony, Samsung, Apple, Google or • Android-based
Microsoft. However, Timekeepers • Bluetooth pairing
would like to address other • Basic functions: vibrate, receive
customer segments as well, and it notifications, calendar reminder
intends to market the smart watch • Optional: downloadable apps, give
directions, retrieve product
both in Europe and in the USA in
information, send texts, track
the same time. Your role is to
fitness activities, camera, FM
study the existing information radio
and decide on the appropriate • production cost: basic model -
marketing campaign. 20₤, fully-enhanced model - 30₤

Generation
Generation Y Generation X Baby Boomers
characteristics
Year of birth 1980-present 1965-1979 1946-1964
Optimistic Pragmatic Pragmatic
Realistic Practical Idealistic
Personality Live for now Used to change Workaholics
Want lifestyle Seek work/life Like stability
balance balance Starting to retire
Attitude to future Future is open Future is closing Future is now
Attitude to Technologically Technologically
Willing to learn
technology superior savvy
Preferred Texting, mobile E-mail, IM and E-mail, phones and
communication phones and IM mobile phones face to face
% of internet using
30% 23% 22%
population

TASK 1
Divide into three groups, one for each generation: Generation Y,
Generation X, and Baby Boomers. In your groups, study the product
features and the generation characteristics, and decide which features
would most appeal to your target consumers and what message you could
build around that.
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 115

TASK 2
Bearing in mind the production costs and the target markets, discuss
pricing strategy and find an answer to these questions:
1. Would you use the same pricing policy for both markets or not?
2. What would be the best pricing policy/policies?
3. What would be the best starting retail price(s) for your target
generation?
For reference, Sony SmartWatch price range now is ₤70-105 ($85-160),

TASK 3
Discuss the cultural differences and similarities between Americans and
Europeans and decide which would be more effective:
- a single advertising campaign targeting both American and European
audiences;
- a double advertising campaign targeting American and European
audiences separately.
Also take into consideration aspects like cost, time, convenience, etc.

TASK 4
Study the data about consumer trust in advertising in Europe and the US
and decide on the best types of advertising you could use for your target
generation.

TASK 5
Write the advertising copy.

TASK 6
Present your decisions and your advertising copy to the other generation
groups.
116 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

COMMUNICATION FILE 3
BUSINESS REPORTS

1. Insert the following words in the gapped sentence below to obtain a


definition of business reports.

achieve information organisation


audience objective presentation
helping organised specific

A business report is an _______________ _______________ of


_______________ to a _______________ _______________ for the
purpose of _______________ an _______________ _______________
an _______________.
(Bowman & Branchaw, 1988)

2. Look at the following list of documents and tick all those that can
represent a report.
e-mail ... / essay ... / financial statement ... / government enquiry ... /
letter ... / marketing plan ... / memo ... / minutes ... / product survey ... /
proposal ... / summary ... / travel expense form ... /

REPORTS
can be
• short (from half a page) • long (hundreds of pages)
• informal • formal
• routine • special
• public • private
OR
• with words only • with words and statistics
• informative (organises and • analytical (organises and
analyses particular analyses particular information
information) + makes recommendations)
but
whatever their shapes and sizes,
they must be
 ACCURATE  READABLE
 CLEAR  RELEVANT
 COMPLETE  SIMPLE
 CONCISE  STRUCTURED
UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS 117

3. Answer these questions for the case of FORMAL reports.

Should you use... Yes No

1. separate sections?
2. headings and subheadings?
3. bullets and numbers?
4. longer, cohesive paragraphs?
5. shorter, concise paragraphs?
6. present tenses?
7. past tenses?
8. personal pronouns?
9. the passive voice?
10. linking words?

4. Complete the report layout example and guidelines with words from
below.
To:
From:
This should be clear and (1)..................
concise Date:

State the purpose and content


of your report; indicate the (2)....................
(3).................... (how the
information was found)
1. Current (4).................... Penetration
1.1 Romania
Present your 1.1.1 Bucharest
(5).................... about each 1.1.2 Other areas
aspect in the main body, and 2. Possible (6).................... Strategies
analyse the information as 2.1 Online
well. Record both positive and 2.1.2 Internet shopping options
negative points of each aspect 2.1.3 Social (7)....................
in the same paragraph. 2.2 Television
2.1.1 Product placement
2.1.2 Celebrity (8)....................
2.1.3 Sponsorship
Summarize the key points and (9)....................
state your opinion
Make suggestions (10)....................

conclusion expansion introduction media recommendations


endorsements findings market methodology subject
118 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

USEFUL LANGUAGE

To begin To end
The purpose of this report is to... To conclude...
The aim of this report is to... To sum up...
The intention of this report is to... In conclusion...
As requested, this is a report On the whole...
concerning/regarding... On the basis of the points
This report presents / examines / mentioned above...
evaluates / analyses / outlines... We recommend...
This report contains information I suggest...
gathered / compiled / obtained from... My recommendation is...

5. In pairs, prepare a marketing report about a local product / service


that you are familiar with but is not heavily promoted. Based on your
report, the 'Marketing Manager' will decide on a future course of
action. Follow the layout presented in 4 and complete it with relevant
and specific information. Write about 300 words.
ROLE CARDS 119

ROLE CARDS

UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP - SPEAKING

CARD A
You are the moderator of a TV debate on the presence of MNCs in
Romania.
Invite your guests to discuss the economic implications of Samsung
Romania, as well as the general advantages and disadvantages of
MNCs setting up subsidiaries in developing countries such as
Romania.
At the end of the debate, draw the conclusions on the basis of the
opinions expressed by the guests.

CARD B
You are the Sales Manager of the Romanian subsidiary of Samsung.
Highlight the benefits of foreign investment, giving as many arguments
as possible in favour of MNCs setting up subsidiaries in Romania,
e.g.:
creating work places (where host country nationals are paid higher-
than-prevailing wages);
developing the local infrastructure;
bringing along know-how, new technology, management and
technical skills;
training the local workforce;
bringing along Western organizational culture;
stimulating the general economic development (an economic effect
of foreign investment);
contributing to the development of poor regions of Romania.

CARD C
You are an economic analyst.
After acknowledging the economic benefits of the much needed
foreign investment in Romania, analyse the negative aspects that may
emerge as a consequence of MNCs operating in Romania, such as:
limiting competition by taking over weaker Romanian
companies or by unfair practices;
repatriating profits, hence the risk of destabilizing; Romania‟s
currency;
exploiting the cheap Romanian labour.
120 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS - CASE STUDY

TASK 4
JOB INTERVIEW STEPS
Socialising – greet, introduce yourself, shake hands, take a seat
Interviewer‘s Questions
- skills, education, experience,
- personality
- motivation
- suitability for the job
- expectations regarding the position
- etc.
Candidate‘s Questions
- day-to-day responsibilities and schedule
- training and career opportunities
- compensation package
Closing – the next step in the recruitment process, saying goodbye

Interviewers read candidates‟ CVs and Cover Letters, interview them and
make notes using the Interviewer‟s Checklist below.

Interviewer’s Checklist

Candidate‘s name:

Knowledge about the company and industry: …………………….

Suitability for the job:


- skills: …………………………………………………………..
- education: ……………………………………………………..
- experience: ……………………………………………………..
- personality: ……………………………………………………..
- motivation: ……………………………………………………..
- expectations regarding the position : …………………………
……………………………………………………….
- weak points: …………………………………………………….

Behaviour and body language: ……………………………………..

Recommendation:
- do not hire: ……………………………………………………..
- hire for trial period: ……………………………………………
- hire permanently: ………………………………………………
ROLE CARDS 121

Interviewees give their CVs and Cover Letters to the interviewers, answer
the latter‟s questions, ask their own questions and leave. After that they use
the Interviewee‟s Checklist below to assess their chances of getting the
interview.

Interviewee’s Checklist

Interviewer‘s name and contact:

Knowledge about the company and industry: …………………….

Suitability for the job:


- skills: …………………………………………………………..
- education: ……………………………………………………..
- experience: ……………………………………………………..
- personality: ……………………………………………………..
- motivation: ……………………………………………………..
- expectations regarding the position : …………………………
……………………………………………………….
- weak points: …………………………………………………….

Behaviour and body language: ……………………………………..

Expectations:
- do not hire: ……………………………………………………..
- hire for trial period: ……………………………………………
- hire permanently: ………………………………………………

To improve for further interviews: …..………………………………..


……………………………………..……………………………………..

UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD? - CASE STUDY

TASK 3
Work in pairs. You represent a multinational software company based in
Romania, Bucharest. Among the employees of various nationalities
(Romanian, German, Japanese and Lebanese) there are two eligible
employees (a German and a Japanese one) in your company for a Project
Manager vacancy. You are having a discussion to decide who of the two
should be promoted. Follow the Steps indicated by your teacher.
122 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

DISCUSSION STEPS
1. Socializing

2. Each student (A - General Manager and B - Human Resource Manager)


makes a choice between the two eligible employees (Adelaide Dietmar and
Takahashi Aiko) and bring his/ her arguments in favor of his/ her choice, in
terms of:
- the employee‘s experience and dedication
- the employee‘s availability
- cross-cultural awareness
- the employee‘s potential and vision

3. Each student asks and answers questions to find out more information
about each eligible employee.

4. The two students finally choose one of the two employees and establish
follow up actions such as: eventual training sessions, setting targets, measuring
performance, asking for the multi-cultural team‘s feedback on their new
project manager etc.

5. Closing

TASK 5

E-MAIL

Dear project team,

I’m writing to announce you that Adelaide Dietmar / Takahashi Aiko


was chosen to be promoted to the project manager position for the
following reasons:
a.
b.
c.
The follow up actions will be:
a.
b.
c.
We hope you will all cooperate very well.
Sincerely,

Tudor Marcian
General Manager of SoftwareSystems
17 Berthelot Street
Bucharest, Romania
ROLE CARDS 123

UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS - TRANSLATION

A. O mare schimbare are loc în cadrul întreprinderilor, ca social media se


ridica agendele de directori executivi şi nu mai este un gând ulterior a
plecat în atenţia unui absolvent umed din spatele urechilor stagiar.
Translated with Google Translate

B. Site-uri de marca folosit pentru a obţine SEO brownie puncte de link


building în volum, dar link-uri de la site-uri de proastă calitate şi de
conţinut pur şi simplu nu va reduce muştar mai - aceste zile este vorba
despre calitatea de link-uri, nu cantitatea.
Translated with Google Translate

C. Nu există nici un glont de argint pentru branduri, dar este sigur de zile
de a avea tinerilor "nativi digitali" timorat încearcă să explice beneficiile
social media pentru o placa de Luddites vechi devine rapid un exerciţiu
inutil.
Translated with Google Translate
124 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS1

arise arose arisen


awake awoke awoken
be was (1st / 3rd person been
singular)/were (2nd /
3rd person singular/
plural)
bear bore borne/ born
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet/ betted bet/ betted
bid bid/ bade bid/ bidden
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burnt/ burned burnt/ burned
burst burst burst
bust bust / busted (esp. Am. bust / busted (esp. Am.
E.) E.)
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come

1
Note that some verbs may have double forms (regular and irregular) in both British and
American English (with a preference for the older, irregular forms in Br. E.), whereas
others have clearly separate forms in the two varieties of English (mostly irregular in Br. E.
and regular in Am. E.).
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 125

cost cost cost


creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
dive dived / dove (Am. E.) dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt/ dreamed dreamt/ dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt/ dwelled dwelt/ dwelled
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade/forbad forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
forego forewent foregone
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
get got got/ gotten (Am. E.)
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung/ hanged hung/ hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
126 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

hurt hurt hurt


inlay inlaid inlaid
input inputted/ input input/ inputted
interbreed interbred interbred
interweave interwove interwoven
keep kept kept
kneel knelt/kneeled (Am. E.) knelt/kneeled (Am. E.)
knit knitted/ knit knitted/ knit
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned/ (esp. Br. E.) leaned/ (esp. Br. E.)
leant leant
leap leapt/ leaped (Am. E.) leapt/ leaped (Am. E.)
learn learnt/ learned learnt/ learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit/ lighted lit/ lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mishear misheard misheard
mislay mislaid mislaid
mislead misled misled
misread misread misread
misspell misspelt/ misspelled misspelt/ misspelled
mistake mistook mistaken
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
mow mowed mown/ mowed
offset offset offset
outbid outbid outbid
outdo outdid outdone
overbid overbid overbid
overcome overcame overcome
overdo overdid overdone
overdraw overdrew overdrawn
overeat overate overeaten
overhear overheard overheard
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 127

oversee oversaw overseen


oversleep overslept overslept
overthrow overthrew overthrown
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
plead pleaded/ pled (esp. Am. pleaded/ pled (esp. Am.
E) E)
prepay prepaid prepaid
proofread proofread proofread
prove proved proved/ proven (Am.
E.)
put put put
quit quitted/ quit quitted/ quit
read read read
repay repaid repaid
rethink rethought rethought
rewrite rewrote rewritten
rid rid/ ridded rid/ ridded
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawn/ sawed
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn/ sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved/ shaven
shear sheared shorn/ sheared
shed shed shed
shine shone/ shined shone/ shined
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
128 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

sink sank/ sunk sunk


sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
sling slung slung
slit slit slit
smell smelt (esp. Br. E)/ smelt (esp. Br. E)/
smelled (esp. Am. E.) smelled (esp. Am. E.)
sow sowed sown/ sowed
speak spoke spoken
speed sped/ speeded sped/ speeded
spell spelt (esp. Br. E)/ / spelt (esp. Br. E)/ /
spelled (esp. Am. E.) spelled (esp. Am. E.)
spellbind spellbound spellbound
spend spent spent
spill spilt/ spilled (Am. E.) spilt/ spilled (Am. E.)
spin spun/ span spun
spit spat/spit (Am. E.) spat/ spit ( Am. E.)
split split split
spoil spoiled/ spoilt spoiled/ spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprang/ sprung (Am. sprung
E.)
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank/ stunk stunk
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove/ strived striven/ strived
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen/ swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 129

think thought thought


thrive throve thriven
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden/ trod
underbid underbid underbid
undercut undercut undercut
underfeed underfed underfed
undergo underwent undergone
underlie underlay underlain
undersell undersold undersold
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
underwrite underwrote underwritten
undo undid undone
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
wake woke/ waked woken/ waked
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
wed wedded/ wed wedded / wed
weep wept wept
wet wetted/ wet wetted/ wet
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
REFERENCES 130

GLOSSARY2

UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL

bailout (n.) = the act of giving money to a company, a foreign country, that has very serious
financial problems
bilateral trade agreement (n.) = an agreement between two countries that regulates the
terms of trade between them
capitalism (n.) = an economic system in which a country’s businesses and industry are
controlled and run for profit by private owners rather than by the government
developing country (n.) = low-income and middle-income countries in which most people
have a lower standard of living and access to fewer goods and services than do
most people in high-income countries
development indicator (n.) = usually a numerical measure of quality of life in a country.
Indicators are used to illustrate progress of a country in meeting a range of
economic, social, and environmental goals
free trade(n.) = a situation where there are no restrictions on trade between nations. This
situation will never exist because nations have very strict rules about trading in
some items, such as pornography, or they may ban goods for quarantine reasons,
such as meat products from countries with outbreaks of 'mad cow' disease
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (n.) = an international organization set
up to reduce restrictions on trading between its members. It was replaced in 1995
by the WTO
globalization (n.) = the process by which businesses and organisations grow and start to
operate in countries all over the world, which has been made easier by new
technology and political developments
glocalization (n.) = a strategy where a company is operating all around the world but
adapts its products or services and its manufacturing methods to make them
suitable for local conditions
growth trade (n.) = the change (increase, decrease, or no change) in an indicator over a
period of time, expressed as a percentage of the indicator at the start of the period
import/export quota (n.) = the amount or the number of goods that can be imported or
exported
International Monetary Fund (IMF) (n.) = an organization within the United Nations which
encourages trade and economic development. It lends money to countries that are
having economic problems and sometimes tells governments to change their
economic policies
leader (n.) = a company, a person that is the best, or in the first place in a business or
competition
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (n.) = an arrangement by Canada,
Mexico and the US to encourage trade between them by reducing import taxes
Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (n.) = an organization of
countries that produce and sell oil, which controls the amount of oil produced in

2
n.=noun, v.=verb, adj.=adjective, adv.=adverb
GLOSSARY 131

order to make sure that there is enough to meet needs, and to keep the price at a
suitable level
protectionism (n.) = protecting domestic producers by impeding or limiting the importation
of foreign goods and services. This is done through tariffs or quotas
purchasing power parity (PPP) (n.) = a method of measuring the relative purchasing
power of different countries' currencies across the same regimen of goods and
services. Because goods and services may cost more in one country than in
another, it allows us to make more accurate comparisons of standards of living
across countries
recession (n.) = a difficult period in the economy of a country, where there is less trade and
industrial activity than usual and more people are unemployed
recovery (n.) = the process of improving or becoming strong again
regulator (n.) = a person or an organization that officially controls an area of business or
industry an makes sure that it is operating fairly
subsidy (n.) = government grants to local producers to assist in the production of particular
crops or goods. This leads to unfair competition and lower returns for those
producers producing the good without assistance, and rewards those whose
production processes may be inefficient
sustainable development (n.) = development that meets the needs of the people today
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
tariff (n.) = taxes placed by a government on imported or exported goods and services
total external debt (n.) = debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods
or services. It is the sum of publicly guaranteed and private non-guaranteed long-
term debt, as well as use of IMF credit and short-term debt
trade (n.) = the activity of buying and selling or of exchanging goods or services between
people or countries
trade liberalisation (n.) = the movement towards removing barriers that restrict the
importation and exportation of goods and services between countries
trade protection (n.) = restrictions on the imports of goods and services from other
countries in order to protect local producers from overseas competition. This may
be through tariffs, subsidies and quality assurance standards, or labeling, safety
and packaging requirements
World Trade Organization (WTO) (n.) = an international organization, formed in 1995, that
encourages and controls international trade and economic development

UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP

affordable (n.) = inexpensive, low-cost, low-priced, cheap, believed to be within one’s


financial means
bankrupt (adj.) = having been legally declared financially insolvent.
bankruptcy (n.) = the state of being bankrupt
centrally-planned economy (command economy) (n.) = a type of economy in which the
means of producing and distributing goods are state-owned and controlled, and
the price and the quality of goods, the volume of production, etc. are regulated by
the government.
132 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

CEO (n.) = the highest ranking officer in the company (usually a member of the board of
directors), whose responsibility is to set the major goals of the company and
ensure that they are met
collusion (n.) = a secret agreement between two or more parties for a fraudulent, illegal, or
deceitful purpose.
economic (adj.) = of or relating to the science of economics
economical (adj.) = prudent and thrifty in management; not wasteful or extravagant
effective (adj.) = producing the intended result
efficient (adj.) = producing effectively with a minimum of waste, expense, or unnecessary
effort; characterized by a high ratio of output to input
float (v.) = to offer (stock, bond issues) for sale on the stock market
flotation (n.) = the launching or financing of a commercial enterprise by bond or share
issues
franchise (n.) = a business licensed to sell a company’s products exclusively in a particular
area or to operate a business under that company’s name
free marketeer (n.) = proponent of the free market system
IPO (Initial Public Offering) (n.) = a corporation's first offer to sell stock to the public
“invisible hand” (n.) = a metaphor coined by Adam Smith (1723-1790), the father of
modern economics, to convey the idea of the self-regulating nature of the market
generic drug (n.) = a drug unprotected by a patent, and sold either under the
nonproprietary name of its active ingredients, or under a descriptive name (not a
brand name)
headquarters (n.) = the administrative headquarters of an organization
joint venture (n.) = a temporary association (a strategic alliance) of two or more companies
that contribute goods, services and/ or capital to a common business enterprise,
and share in its profits and losses
liability (n.) = legal and financial responsibility; (pl. liabilities) the financial obligations
entered in the balance sheet of a business enterprise
limited liability company (n.) = a company whose owners are responsible for the debts it
may incur only to the extent of the amount they have invested in the business in
the form of shares, and whose shares cannot be sold to members of the public
macroeconomics (n.) = the branch of economics that studies the overall working of a
national economy
market economy (free-market economy) (n.) = a type of economy which has at it centre
the self-regulating mechanism of the market, which means that the production
volume, the quality of goods and services, the price level, etc. are all determined
by competition and the two main market forces of supply and demand
merger (n.) = the union of two or more commercial interests or corporations
microeconomics (n.) = the branch of economics that studies the economy of consumers,
households or individual firms.
mixed economy (n.) = a type of economy that combines varying degrees of free market
and planned economy traits (some of the services, such as education, health
care, being provided by both the private sector and the state).
monopoly (n.) = a market situation in which there is only one producer/ seller for a certain
product, who determines the price
GLOSSARY 133

monopolistic competition (n.) = a market situation in which there are many producers/
sellers, which provide products that are similar yet not perfectly substitutable,
their unique properties giving the seller some monopoly power
monopsony (n.) = a market situation in which several sellers compete for a single buyer
who controls the market
monopsonistic competition (n.) = a market situation in which there are many small buyers
who purchase similar yet not perfectly substitutable products.
multinational/ multinational corporation (MNC) (n.) = a large corporation which has
operations and subsidiaries in several different countries, but has its
headquarters in its home country.
oligopoly (n.) = a market situation in which there are only a few large firms making up an
industry and having control over the price
oligopsony (n.) = a market situation in which there are only a few large buyers for
a product/ service, who exert a great deal of control over the sellers and drive
down prices.
over-the-top (adj.) = (Br. E., informal) exaggerated, extravagant
partnership (n.) = an association of two or more persons (e.g. lawyers, architects,
accountants, etc.) as co-owners of a business enterprise who share its profits
and losses
patent (n.) = a document granting an inventor sole rights to an invention
perfect competition (n.) = an ideal market situation in which there are many equal sellers
(none able to exert any significant control over prices, which are determined by
supply and demand) and many similar (and therefore substitutable) products
protectionism (n.) = a governmental policy of imposing duties or quotas on imports in order
to protect home industries from overseas competition
public limited company (n.) = a large limited liability company whose shares are quoted
on the stock exchange
recession (n.) = a state of economic decline; a widespread decline in the GDP,
employment and trade lasting from six months to one year
regulate (v.) = to run or control according to rules, principles, or laws; to bring into
conformity with rules or principles
retail company (n.) = a company that buys goods from manufacturers or wholesalers and
sells them in small quantities directly to consumers (end users), in specific
venues (e.g. a shop, a supermarket, etc.)
revenue (n.) = the income made by a business through its day to day working activities,
such as product sales or payment for a completed service
share (n.) = each of the equal parts into which the capital stock of a company is divided.
shareholder (stockholder, shareowner) (n.) = someone who holds shares of stock in a
corporation
sole trader/ sole proprietor (n.) = a type of business in which one person owns all the
assets, with no other shareholders; that person is self-employed, and has
unlimited liability
start-up (n.) = a business or an undertaking that has been set up recently
stock market/ stock exchange (n.) = the market for the sale and purchase of securities
such as stocks and bonds
134 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

subsidiary (n.) = a business organization that is controlled by another company (usually


called a parent company or holding company) which owns more than half of its
stock
subsidy (n.) = a financial aid supplied by a government to industry, for reasons of public
welfare (to make prices lower, to reduce the cost of producing goods) or a grant
paid by a government to an enterprise that benefits the public
takeover (n.) = the acquisition of a company done by purchasing a controlling percentage of
its stock
unemployed (adj.) = not engaged in a gainful occupation, not having a job
unemployment (n.) = the state of being unemployed or not having a job.
welfare state (n.) = a social system built on the principle that it is primarily the government’s
responsibility to ensure its citizens’ well-being
wellbeing (well-being) (n.) = a contented state of being happy, healthy and prosperous
wholesale (n.) = the business of selling goods in large quantities, in bulk, usually at low
prices; the opposite of “retail”

UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS

academic degree (n.) = a college or university diploma conferred by a college or university


for satisfactory completion of a course of study (Bachelor’s, Master’s, Doctoral
program)
accomplishment (n.) = Something completed successfully, after a lot of effort
acknowledgement (n.) = admitting or accepting that something is true; the act of publicly
thanking someone for something they have done
acquaintances (n.) = people you know, but who are not a close friend
applicant (n.) = someone who has formally asked, usually in writing, for a job, scholarship,
internship etc.
apply for (v.) = make a formal request, usually written, for something such as a job, a
scholarship etc.
appraise (v.) = evaluate, officially judge how successful, effective, or valuable something is
appraisal (n.) = a statement or opinion judging the quality of the worker's work and how well
they do their job
attire/ outfit (n.) = clothes (formal)
attribute (n.) = characteristic, quality or feature
badmouth (v.) = criticize
be based in (v.) = have the headquarters or the main office in
benefits (n.) = extra money or other advantages that you get as part of your job or from
insurance
career days (n.) = recruitment events focusing on a particular industry, for example: Career
Days in IT bring together companies and candidates from the IT field
career path (n.) = the growth of the employee in an organization, the series of jobs he/she
may have as part of his/her career or line of work
casual (adj.) = relaxed and not worried, or seeming not to care about something; not formal
Claimant Count (n.) = records the number of people claiming unemployment related
benefits.
classifieds (n.) = advertisements published in newspapers
GLOSSARY 135

compensation (n.) = the money someone is paid for doing their job (American English);
money paid to someone for injuries, loss, or damages
compensation package (n.) = direct and indirect benefits an employer gives an employee:
some direct benefits are: salary, bonuses, commissions, while indirect benefits
are represented by insurance, pension plans, vacations
competitive (adj.) = determined to be more successful than other people or businesses;
good quality products that are cheaper than similar products
complimentary close (n.) = the polite words or phrase that come immediately before the
signature on note, letter, or correspondence
cover letter/ letter of application (n.) = a letter sent with a candidate’s resume to provide
additional information on his/her skills, experience and interests in a certain job
CV/ Resume (n.) = a list of a job applicant's work experience, education and skills
disruptive (adj.) = something that causes problems and interrupts an activity
drive (n.) = the desire and determination to succeed; the effort to achieve something
economically inactive (adj.) = people who do not have a job, have not actively sought work
in the last month and/or are not available to start work in the near future.
employable (adj.) = having the right knowledge, skills and experience that would make one
capable of getting a job
employee (n.) = worker
employer (n.) = a person, or organization that employs people:
enclosure (n.) = a document that is put inside an envelope with a letter
entrepreneurship (n.) = the capacity and willingness to develop , organize and manage a
business
expertise (n.) = Skill or knowledge in a particular area
fire (v.) = to force someone to leave their job, to dismiss
follow up (v.) = to increase one’s chances of success of by further action
full-time (adj.) = employed for a standard number of hours of working time
employment (n.) = the state of having a job
employment survey (n.) = research conducted with the aim of finding out how many people
have a job in a certain country/ region at a certain time
hands on (adj.) = practical, applied
hire (v.) = to give someone a job
household survey (n.) = research conducted with the aim of finding out how many people
have a job in a certain household (family, house) at a certain time
induction (n.) = initial training for someone who has just become part of an organization
industry (n.) = a specific branch of manufacture and trade
job center (n.) = recruitment agency
job fair (n.) = recruitment event bringing together candidates and employers from various
industries
job hunting (n.) = the act of actively looking for a job
job requirements (n.) = skills, knowledge and experience candidates are demanded to
have
keen (adj.) = enthusiastic, interested, intellectually quick
laborforce/ workforce (n.) = The people employed or seeking employment in a specific
project or activity
labor market/ jobs market (n.) = the market in which workers compete for jobs and
employers compete for workers
136 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

labor migration (n.) = movement of people from one region/ country to another for the
purpose of employment
medical care (n.) = professional treatment for illness or injury
networking (n.) = communication with/ meeting other people involved in the same kind of
work, to share information, support each other
opening (n.) = a job that is available
overseas (adj.) = in a foreign country that is across the sea
part-time (adj.) = employed for less than the standard number of hours of working time
payroll survey (n.) = research conducted with the aim of finding out how many people have
a job in a certain organization at a certain time
personal statement/ personal profile (n.) = an introductory paragraph at the beginning of
your CV containing a short summary of your background and career plans
postings (n.) = a public notice, especially one advertising a job (American English)
promotion (n.) = a move to a more important job or position in a company or organization;
an activity intended to help sell a product
qualifications (n.) = skills, knowledge or experience that makes a candidate suitable for a
particular job or position, usually attested by means of a certificate
recruitment (n.) = the selection of candidates to work in a company, organization etc.
recruitment agency/ consultancy (n.) = a that works for organizations to find people for
jobs when the organizations need them
referee (n.) = people who can provide information about your character and abilities
references (n.) = letters from people who can provide information about your character and
abilities
rehabilitation (n.) = treatment meant to facilitate the process of recovery from injury, illness,
or disease; renovate a building or area
salary (n.) = money that employees receive as payment from the organization they work for,
usually paid to them every month
salutation (n.) = a polite word or phrase used at the beginning of a letter or speech
scholarship (n.) = an amount of money that is given to someone by an educational
organization to help pay for their education
self-employment (n.) = A situation in which an individual works for himself or herself
instead of working for an employee
senior student (n.) = last year student; used in opposition with freshman (first year student),
sophomore (second year student), junior (third year student)
seniority (n.) = The state of being older or higher in rank than others
shortlist (n.) = the list of job applicants that have passed the initial CV review process
social media (n.) = forms of electronic communication through which users create online
communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content
suitability (n.) = appropriateness
trial period (n.) = a period of time for testing or assessment of products/ services or
people’s suitability for a particular purpose
undergraduate (n.) = a student in a university who has not received a bachelor's degree yet
unemployed (adj.) = not having a job
unemployment/ joblessness (n.) = a situation where someone of working age is not able
to get a job but would like to
unemployment rate (n.) = The percentage of the total labor force that is does not have a
job but is actively seeking employment and willing to work
GLOSSARY 137

vacancy (n.) = a job that is available


wages (n.) = money that employees receive as payment according to the number of hours,
days, or weeks that they work

UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD?

appoint (v.) = formally choose someone for a job or official position


articulate (adj.) = able to express their thoughts and ideas easily and well
assertive (adj.) = someone who states their needs and opinions clearly, so that people take
notice
assign (v.) = give someone a piece of work to do
autocratic management (n.) = the manager is completely responsible for making decisions
all by himself
boost (v.) = cause something to increase, improve, or be more successful
bottom line (n.) = a company's net earnings, net income or earnings per share (EPS); any
actions that may increase/decrease net earnings or a company's overall profit.
boundary (n.) = an imaginary line that separates it from other areas, border, frontier
bureaucratic management (n.) = is based on clearly defined hierarchical levels and roles in
order to maintain efficiency and effectiveness and emphasizes procedures and
regulations regardless of their usefulness in changing environments
charismatic management (n.) = The guidance provided to an organization by one or more
individuals seen as heroic or inspiring and who have therefore been granted the
organizational power to make dramatic changes and extract extraordinary
performance levels from its staff. For example, a business manager imbued with
charismatic leadership could be enlisted to orchestrate a turnaround or launch a
new product line.
conventional (adj.) = someone who has behavior or opinions that are ordinary and normal
counterpart (n.) = another person or thing that has a similar function or position in a
different place
cutback (n.) = a reduction that is made in something
demean (v.) = make people have less respect for someone or something
democratic management (n.) = the manager delegates power to his subordinates for
carrying out the decision-making process
eat up (v.) = use money, time, or resources or consume them in great quantities
enforce (v.) = make sure that a law or a rule is obeyed, usually by punishing people who
do not obey it
fall behind (v.) = not make progress or move forward as fast as other people
foster (v.) = help something such as an activity or idea to develop
glass ceiling (n.) = Invisible but real barrier through which the next stage or level of
advancement can be seen, but cannot be reached by a section of qualified and
deserving employees. Such barriers exist due to implicit prejudice on the basis of
age, ethnicity, political or religious affiliation, and/or sex. Although generally illegal,
such practices prevalent in most countries.
grubby (adj.) = not completely honest or respectable
highlight (v.) = emphasize a point or problem or make you think about it
138 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

laissez-faire management (n.) = the leader gets the tasks done completely by his staff,
without involving much in the work
mindset (n.) = somebody’s general attitudes and the way they typically think about things
participative management (n.) = the manager allows his subordinates and staff to get
involved in decision-making process
relation-oriented management (n.) = managers look out for the welfare of their employees
and provide nurturing environments to maximize their productivity
revenue (n.) = money that a company, organization, or government receives from people
romanticize (v.) = think or talk about someone or something in a way which is not at all
realistic and which makes them seem better than they really are
single out (v.) = choose someone and give them special attention or treatment
situational management (n.) = its fundamental precept is that the most successful leaders
are the ones who can adapt their style to a given situation
take hold (v.) = gain complete control or influence over a person or thing
take on (v.) = accept a job or responsibility, especially a difficult one; develop a new
appearance or quality
task-oriented management (n.) = places an emphasis on getting a very specific job done
transactional management (n.) = focuses on the basic management process of controlling,
organizing, and short-term planning and employees achieve organizational
objectives through rewards and punishment
transformational management (n.) = involves proactive adjustments to company vision or
direction and the subsequent management of those moves
vacancy (n.) = a job or position which has not been filled

UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS

above-the-line advertising (n.) = advertising through mass media


age bracket (n.) = the people between two particular ages, considered as a group
bargain (n.) = something bought cheaply or for less than the usual price
below-the-line advertising (n.) = non-media advertising
billboard (n.) = large outdoor panel used for advertising
BOGOF (n.) = Buy One Get One Free; a promotion method which involves buying one item
and getting another one free
break even (v.) = to neither make a profit nor lose money
bundle pricing (n.) = combining several products in the same package to get rid of old
stock
captive product pricing (n.) = charging a high price where the consumer cannot choose a
competitive product
competition pricing (n.) = using the price of a competing product as a benchmark rather
than considering costs or demand
confectionery products (n.) = sweets, chocolates, etc.
consumer products (n.) = items purchased by consumers for personal use
dairy products (n.) = milk, butter, cheese, etc.
demand (n.) = the need or desire that people have for particular goods and services
distribution channel (n.) = the path through which goods and services travel from
manufacturer to consumer
GLOSSARY 139

downmarket (adj.) = cheap and not of very good quality, designed for or used by people
who do not have a lot of money
economy pricing (n.) = keeping costs to a minimum in order to establish low prices
endorsement (n.) = using a famous person to recommend a product
factory gate price (n.) = the price distributors pay to the producer for goods
fee (n.) = an amount of money paid to a professional person (lawyer, architect, etc.) for their
work
finished product (n.) = fully and properly made or completed product
forecast (v.) = to say what is likely to happen in the future, based on current information
freebie (n.) = a promotional item which is given free
going rate (n.) = the usual amount paid or received for a product or service
household products (n.) = items used within a household
leaflet (n.) = a small book advertising something
margin (n.) = the difference between what it costs a business to buy or produce something
and what they sell it for; an additional amount of money included in the price
mark-up pricing (n.) = deriving a price by adding a predetermined percentage to the cost of
the product
marketing mix (n.) = combination of techniques used to market a brand
obsolete (adj.) = no longer useful because something newer and better has been invented
optional pricing (n.) = setting a low price for the basic product but charging much more for
additions or accessories
overheads (n.) = the regular costs of running a business, such as rent, electricity, etc.
penetration pricing (n.) = setting an artificially low price to gain market share, after which
the price is increased
perimeter advertising (n.) = advertising around the playing area at sports grounds
point-of-sale display (n.) = promotion method which involves advertising in the actual shop
premium pricing (n.) = using a price higher than the competitors' to indicate exclusiveness
price sensitivity (n.) = change in demand for a product resulting from price changes
price war (n.) = a situation in which several companies reduce the prices of what they sell,
because they are all trying to get the most customers
product line (n.) = a group of related products manufactured by a single company
product mix (n.) = the total number of product lines that a company offers to its customers
product placement (n.) = a promotion method which consists in including a product or a
reference to it in a TV/radio programme
product portfolio (n.) = the total number of product lines that a company offers to its
customers
product positioning (n.) = the special orientation of a product towards a particular target
group of consumers
product recall (n.) = a notice issued by a manufacturer to customers who have bought a
faulty product asking them to bring it back for a repair, replacement or refund.
prospect (n.) = potential buyer of a product
psychological pricing (n.) = negligibly lowering a price to influence consumers emotionally
retail (n.) = the sale of goods in shops to customers, for their own use and not for selling to
anyone else
sample (n.) = a small amount of a product that people can try in order to find out what it is
like
140 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

sandwich board (n.) = two boards with advertisements on them that hang in front and
behind someone who is paid to walk around in pubic
sell-by date (n.) = the date stamped on a product, after which it should not be sold
skimming (n.) = charging a high price for a new product before other competitors enter the
market and lowering it later
slash (v.) = to greatly reduce prices
target market (n.) = the customer group or segment a product is aimed at
through-the-line advertising (n.) = an integrated approach to advertising that combines
above-the-line with below-the-line advertising
trounce (v.) = to defeat someone completely
ubiquitous (adj.) = seeming to be everywhere
upmarket (adj.) = expensive and of very good quality, designed for or used by people who
have a lot of money
wholesale (n.) = the sale of goods in large quantities at low prices to other businesses,
rather than to the general public
word of mouth (n.) = free publicity as happy consumers spread the word about the
products they like
REFERENCES 141

REFERENCES
UNIT 1: GOING GLOBAL
+ Grammar File 1: Tense review. Passive formation

Books
Dubicka, Iwonna, O’Keeffe Margaret, Market Leader Advanced Business English, Longman,
England, 2006
Esteras, Remacha Santiago, Fabre, Marco Elena, Professional English in Use. For
Computers and the Internet, Cambridge University Press, 2010
Hill, W.L. Charles, International Business. Competing in the global marketplace, McGraw-Hill
Irwin, New York, 2002
Hoffman, W. Michael, Moore Mills, Jennifer, Business Ethics: Readings and Cases in
Corporate Morality, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2004
Jackall, Robert, Moral Mazes: The World of Corporate Managers, Oxford University Press,
New York, 1998
MacKenzie, Ian, Professional English in Use. Finance, Cambridge University Press, 2007
Mishkin, S. Frederic, Eakins, G. Stanley, Financial Markets and Institutions, Addison Wesley
Longman, USA, 2005
Pratten, Julie, Absolute Financial English. English for Finance and Accounting, Delta
Publishing, England, 2010
Tonya, Trappe, Tullis, Graham, Intelligent Business (intermediate business english),
Longman, England, 2005
Tonya, Trappe, Tullis Graham, Intelligent Business (upper intermediate business english),
Longman, England, 2006
Vince, Michael, Advanced Language Practice, Heinemann, Oxford, 1994

Dictionaries
Longman Business English Dictionary, Longman, 2000
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2005
Oxford Business English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2006

Webpages
Business Week
The Economist
Wall Street Journal
The Guardian
www.marketingteacher.com
www.knowledgestorm.com
www.businessenglishonline.net
www.xtec.es/~ogodoy/sac/index.htm
www.business24.ro
www.schroeder-inc.com/casestudy.html
www.youtube.com
www.poverty.org.uk/73/index.shtml
www.carnegiecouncil.org
142 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

www.eslflow.com/describinggraphstables.html
http://writefix.com
www.zf.ro
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank

UNIT 2: ECONOMICS ROUNDUP


+ Communication File 1: Note taking. Summarizing
Books
Cotton, David, International Business Topics, Thomas Nelson and Sons Limited, 1989
Dubicka, Iwonna; O’Keeffee, Margaret, Market Leader, Advanced Business English
Coursebook, Pearson Logman 2007
Dumitrescu, M., Dona, D., Condruz-Bacescu, M., Marin, V., English for Students of
Cybernetics. Mind your Steps to Success, Part I, Editura Uranus, 2010
Emmerson, P. Business English Handbook Advanced, Macmillan 2007
Emmerson, P. Business Grammar Builder, Macmillan Education, 2010
MacKenzie, Ian, English for Busieness Studies, CUP, 1997
Palmer, F. R., Mood and Modality, Cambridge Univ. Press, second edition, 2001.
Smith, Adam, The Wealth of Nations (1776), Oxford University Press, 1998
Trappe, Tonya, Tullis, Graham, Intelligent Business, Upper Intermediate, Pearson Education
Ltd., 2007
Tomoşoiu, Nora, Ghid practic de gramatică engleză, Ed. Petrion, 2004.
Vince, Michael, Advanced Language Practice, Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2003

Dictionaries
XXX Business Dictionary - http://businessdictionary.com/
XXX Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, CUP, 2006
XXX Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Pearson Education Limited, 2003
XXX Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2007
Macmillan Dictionary - http://www.macmillandictionary.com/
Oxford Dictionary of Business, Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 3rd ed., 2001
http://thesaurus.com/

Webpages
www.economist.com
www.sfin.ro
http://www.investopedia.com

“More Liberty, Less Government” - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fu0hMiBTJPo


http://www.sfin.ro/articol_15290/economia_si_criza_mondiala_intre_pozitiv_si_normativ*.ht
ml#ixzz1sWVuy8f3
http://www.sfin.ro/articol_24812/banii_nu_vin_niciodata_dupa_nevoi.html

UNIT 3: IN AND OUT OF JOBS


+ Communication File 2: Business correspondence
Grammar File 2: Sequence of tenses. Direct and indirect speech. Temporal clauses
REFERENCES 143

Books
Amos, J.A. Handling Tough Job Interviews: Be Prepared, Perform Well, Get the Job, How
To Books Ltd, 2nd ed., 2004
Ashley, A. A Handbook of Commercial Correspondence, Oxford University Press, 8th
impression, 1998
Benne, M. A Guide to Good Business Communication, How To Books Ltd, 2009
Bowman, J. Don’t Take the Last Donut. New Rules for Business Etiquette, Career Press,
2007
Emmerson, P. Business Grammar Builder, Macmillan Education, 2010
Emmerson, P. E-mail English: Includes Phrase Bank of Useful Expressions, Edumond,
2004
English, L.M. & L. Sarah. Business across Cultures. Effective Communication Strategies,
Longman, 1995
Fry, R. 101 Great Answers to the Toughest Interview Questions: Sixth Edition, Open Road
Media, 2012
Ghiga, G. Aspects of Business Communication, Cavaliotti, 2002
Hewings, M. Advanced Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2nd ed.,
2005
Knowles, J. A Cultural History of the English Language, Arnold UK, 4th impression, 1999,
Chapter 8 The Language of Learned and Polite Persons, pp. 107-121
Lees, J. Job Interviews: Top Answers to Tough Questions, McGraw-Hill International, 3rd
ed., 2012
Lougheed, L. Business correspondence. A Guide to Everyday Writing. Intermediate,
Pearson Education Inc., 2nd ed., 2003
McDermott, J. & A. Reed. Top Answers to 121 Job Interview Questions, Anson Reed
Limited, 2006
Muckian, M. & J. Woods – Business Letter Handbook. How to Write Effective Letters and
Memos for Every Business Situation, Adams Media, Avon, Massachusetts, 1996
Schuman, N. The Job Interview Phrase Book: The Things to Say to Get You the Job You
Want, Adams Media, 2009
Segrin, J.L & E. Coleman The AMA Handbook of Business Letters. American Management
Association, 3rd ed., 2002
Side, R. & G. Wellman. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency.
With Key. Schülerbuch., Longman, 2001
Swiney, S. English for Business Communication, Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed., 2003
Talbot, F. How to Write Effective Business English, Kogan Page, 2009

Dictionaries
Business Dictionary - http://businessdictionary.com/
The Free Dictionary: Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - www.thefreedictionary.com
http://www.investorwords.com
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English - http://www.ldoceonline.com/
Macmillan Dictionary - http://www.macmillandictionary.com/
Merriam-Webster - http://www.merriam-webster.com/
Oxford Dictionary of Business, Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 3rd ed., 2001
http://thesaurus.com/
144 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

Webpages
http://a1.ro/News
www.bbc.co.uk/news
http://www.best-cover-letter-examples.com/
http://www.brainyquote.com/
www.businessweek.com
http://www.careerbuilder.com
www.economist.com
http://jobsearch.about.com/
http://jobs.guardian.co.uk/
http://www.quintcareers.com/
http://teacherweb.com/
http://writeexpress.com/

“How to Find a Job” - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jz1Il5feOxE


“Basic elements of your CV” - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1EgOHOscyCE
“Phrases to avoid on your CV” - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XeuQrK_DEXk
“Top 10 resume mistakes” - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PeZ-cIPGtLc

UNIT 4: TO MANAGE OR TO LEAD?

Dictionaries
Collins COBUILD Advanced Learner’s English Dictionary on CD-ROM, 2006

Webpages
http://www.goodreads.com
http://www.addingvalue.se
http://www.businessinsider.com
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/management-styles.html
www.worldbusinessculture.com
http://adevarul.ro
http://www.businessdictionary.com
www.deccanherald.com
http://revistabiz.ro
http://businessweek.com
http://www.forbes.com
http://www.youtube.com
http://www.bbc.co.uk
http://www.startribune.com
http://www.managementstudyguide.com
http://www.worldbusinessculture.com
http://bizshifts-trends.com
http://www.investopedia.com
http://thepinstripedsuit.com
http://www.leadershippost.com
http://www.authorstream.com
REFERENCES 145

UNIT 5: OF MARKETS AND MARKETERS


+ Communication File 3: Business reports

Books
Duckworth, Michael, Business Grammar Practice, Oxford University Press, 2009
Dumitrescu, M., Dona, D., Condruz-Bacescu, M., Marin, V., English for Students of
Cybernetics. Mind Your Steps to Success, Part 2, Ed. Uranus, 2006
Emmerson, Paul, Business English Handbook Advanced, Macmillan, 2007
Evans, Virginia, CPE Use of English Examination Practice, Express Publishing, 1998
Evans, Virginia, Successful Writing Proficiency, Express Publishing, 1998
Farrall, C., Lindsley, M., Professional English in Use: Marketing, Cambridge University
Press, 2008
Geffner, Andrea B., ESL Guide to American Business English, Barron's Educational Series
Inc., USA, 1998
McCarthy, M., McCarten, J., Clark, D., Clark, R., Grammar for Business, Cambridge
University Press, 2009
Moore, Julie, Common Mistakes at IELTS Advanced and how to Avoid Them, Cambridge
University Press, 2010
Naunton, Jon, Head for Business Upper-intermediate Student's Book, Oxford University
Press, 2009
Sweeney, Simon, Test Your Business English: Marketing, Pearson Education Limited, 2002

Dictionaries
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Pearson Education Limited, 2003
www.macmillandictionary.com
www.businessdictionary.com
www.marketingpower.com

Webpages
http://www.epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/This_time_it_is_personal_-
_from_consumer_to_co-creator_2012/$FILE/Consumer%20barometer_V9a.pdf
http://www.investopedia.com
http://www.kpmg.com/Global/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/consumers-and-
convergence/Pages/theconvergedlifestyle.aspx
http://www.londonbusinessforum.com/play/167
http://www.marketingcharts.com
http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk
http://www.marsdd.com/entrepreneurs-toolkit/articles
http://www.radioheardhere.com/funnyradioads.html
http://sloganeambalate.blogspot.ro/2009/01/slogane-de-la-a-la-z.html
http://www.theguardian.com/media-network/media-network-blog/2013/may/10/google-
content-marketing-seo
146 AHEAD IN BUSINESS ENGLISH

http://www.themarketer.co.uk/analysis/features/generation-y-what-every-marketer-needs-to-
know/#sthash.kWUR4Qhc.dpuf
http://tools.atozteacherstuff.com

Photo credits: www.facebook.com/media/set, www.engadget.com


Clipart credits: www.brightedge.com, www.clker.com