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AIAA Aviation 16-20 June 2014, Atlanta, GA 6th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference

AIAA 2014-3046

Investigation of the Impact Behaviour of Ice Particles

Tobias Hauk * Airbus Group Innovations, Munich, 81663, Germany

Ilia Roisman and Cameron Tropea Technische Universität Darmstadt, Center of Smart Interfaces, Darmstadt, 64287, Germany

In this study, the impact behaviour of irregular and spherical ice particles on a solid surface was investigated. The ice particles were accelerated within the Icing and Contamination Research Facility (iCORE) by an ejection module using compressed air. The impact velocity of the particles was varied between 1 m/s and 74 m/s. The maximum dimension of the particles ranged from several microns up to 1.6 mm. The impact target consisted of a tiltable aluminium surface and impact angles of 30° and 90° were set. The impact process was recorded by a high-speed camera. Based on the observations, four different fragmentation cases were defined. Fragmentation models for the description of the deformation of the particle and the development of lateral cracks within the particle on impact are presented. The velocity up to which no particle fragmentation occurs and the maximum velocity up to which only minor fragmentation occurs were defined based on the experimental results.

Nomenclature

a

a res

AGARD

b

c

CPI

CRYSTAL FACE

D

E

EHWG

HAIC

iCORE

IWC

K c , K Ic

KWAJEX

l cr

LBA

LWC

MT

p

R

t

t max

=

radius of the impression

=

maximum residual impression radius

=

Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development

=

distance of particle centre from wall

=

speed of sound

=

Cloud Particle Imager

=

Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment

=

diameter

=

Young’s modulus

=

Engine Harmonization Working Group

=

High Altitude Ice Crystals

=

Icing and Contamination Research Facility

=

ice water content

=

fracture toughness

=

Kwajalein Experiment

=

length of lateral crack

=

Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment

=

liquid water content

=

Megha-Tropiques

=

pressure

=

radius

=

time

=

total duration of impact

* PhD student, IW-MSSE, 85521 Ottobrunn, Tobias.Hauk@eads.net, AIAA Member Senior scientist, Alarich-Weiss Str. 10, Darmstadt, Germany, roisman@sla.tu-darmstadt.de, not an AIAA member Professor, Alarich-Weiss Str. 10, Darmstadt, Germany, ctropea@sla.tu-darmstadt.de, AIAA member

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Copyright © 2014 by Tobias Hauk, EADS Deutschland GmbH; Cameron Tropea, Technische Universität Darmstadt. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission.

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T

=

temperature

TAT

=

total air temperature

TWC

=

total water content

u

=

instantaneous velocity

U

=

impact velocity

U c1

=

first critical velocity of particle breakup

U crack

=

particle breakup velocity

U I

=

interface velocity

v

=

velocity

Y

=

yield stress

α, β

=

empirical coefficient

δ

=

dimensionless displacement

 

̇

=

rate of strain

η

=

dimensionless attrition propensity parameter

θ

=

impact angle

ν

=

Poisson’s ratio

ρ

=

density

φ

=

relative volume of the fragmented part

 

Subscripts

0

=

initial

attr

=

attrition

i

=

particle

I

=

interface

max

=

maximum

res

=

residual

w

=

wall

 

I.

Introduction

Up to date, more than 100 jet engine powerloss events of commercial aircraft at an altitude of more than 22.000 ft in the vicinity of deep convective clouds have been reported. According to the Engine Harmonization Working Group (EHWG) and Mason et al. 1 , it is assumed that these events can be traced back to a new form of icing, called “glaciated icing”, which is caused by the ingestion of large amounts of ice particles of up to 8 grams per cubic meter of ice water content. This assumption is underlined by the fact that above 22.000 ft, it is generally assumed that supercooled liquid water is no more present. Most of these events occurred at northern and southern latitudes of less than 40° where air with relatively high humidity can be transported by deep updrafts high into the atmosphere. Ice particles which are in the flowpath of a jet engine enter the engine’s front part where bouncing and fragmentation on the cold inlet, fan and spinner can occur. Further downstream, part of the ice particles enter the engine core and reach the first compressor stages, where an ambient and surface temperature above freezing is present. In this region, as discussed by Mason et al. 2 , the ice particles (partially) melt and mixed-phase conditions are generated. On impact with compressor parts, a liquid film can be formed which allows further incoming ice particles to stick on these wetted surfaces. The following accretion of ice on these surfaces, whose temperature was initially higher than 0 °C, is made possible by the cooling of the like by further ice particles. Due to the reduced aerodynamic performance of the engine and ice shedding in the compressor, powerloss and damage to engine parts can occur. The European HAIC project is devoted to the investigation of glaciated and mixed-phase icing conditions which can have serious effects on aircraft engine and probe performance. The project, which started in 2012 and lasts for four years, will contribute to further enhancement of international flight safety. Among other topics, HAIC focuses on the not yet fully understood and complex physical phenomena related to glaciated icing conditions, which are important for the modelling and simulation of icing processes in an engine environment. This includes fundamental research on the impact behaviour of ice particles, which is the main topic of this paper. In the next chapters, an experimental test apparatus is presented which allows the investigation of the impact behaviour of irregular and spherical ice particles. Impacts of irregular particles, whose diameters range from several microns up to few millimetres, and the impact of spherical particles with diameters of several hundreds of microns

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can be investigated. The ambient temperature (-30 °C < T < 30 °C), impact velocity (up to 90 m/s) and impact angle (30° θ ≤ 90°) can be varied. Data based on more than 200 impact events are shown. Moreover, a model which describes the bouncing fragmentation threshold of ice particles is presented.

II. Literature Review

A. Shapes of Ice Particles in Deep Convective Clouds

Data about ice particles in deep convective clouds have been collected during several measurement campaigns in the last 15 years, e.g. the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment (LBA) in Brazil, the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL FACE) project in the US, the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) on the Marshall Islands and the Megha-Tropiques (MT) project over West Africa and the Indian Ocean. As a result, it was shown that ice particles may occur in the form of irregular shapes, aggregates and more pristine crystals (e.g. plates, columns, etc.). Regarding their size, the maximum dimension of different ice particles can vary between several microns and a few millimetres. Exemplary ice particles are shown in Fig. 1 in three size ranges, which were recorded by the Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) probe on August 22 nd , 1999 during KWAJEX. The samples were taken on heights between approx. 7 km and 11.2 km in close proximity to deep updrafts. In the smallest size range, the particles appear rather spherical. In the intermediate and large size ranges, rimed ice particles and aggregates can be seen.

Figure 1 (right). Examples of particles vs. altitude (km) and temperature (°C) imaged in three size ranges (<100, 400 600, >800 µm) by CPI probe on August 22 nd , 1999 from Heymsfield et al. 3 . Magnification between different size ranges is not the same.

B. Studies on Ice Particle Impact in the Past

not the same. B. Studies on Ice Particle Impact in the Past Hail impact on aircraft

Hail impact on aircraft structures and jet engines are a serious threat for aviation safety. For this reason, hail particle impact has been investigated in several studies. Guégan et al. 4 used a dropweight technique to measure the critical impact velocity for ice fragmentation which seperates the post-impact state of the ice ball in a non-altered and altered state. The altered state includes the cracked and fragmented state. The ice ball diameters ranged from 12.9 to 42 mm. The impact velocity was varied between 1 and 5 m/s and three different impact angles were considered (45°, 70° and 90°). The AGARD model 5 was applied which assumes that the altered state is observed if the kinetic energy is higher than a certain value of the deformation energy. This model depends on one parameter which was successfully determined from the tests for several conditions. Higa et al. 6 investigated the impact of ice spheres with diametes ranging from 2.8 to 72 mm on ice blocks. The authors observed that the onset velocity of fracturing, ranging from 0.23 to 1.24 m/s, decreases with increasing particle diameter. Moreover, Guégan et al. 7 shot ice balls on a glass plate with a gas gun to investigate the kinematics of post-impact ice fragments. The ice ball diameters ranged from 6.2 to 27.5 mm. The impact velocities were between 60 and 200 m/s, a range where always catastrophic fragmentation occurred. Four different impact angles were chosen (20°, 45°, 67°, and 90°). It was observed that the angle between the fragments’ velocity vectors and the surface was smaller than 2° at these impact conditions. Furthermore, the velocity of the centre of the fragments was as large as the tangential velocity of the ice ball before the impact. About 20 years ago, Pan and Render 8-12 made several studies on hail impact on flat plates, rotating spinners, and fans. Ice balls with diameters of 12.7 and 19 mm, impact velocities between 102 and 175 m/s and several impact angles were considered. Pan and Render found out that the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is commonly applied

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for representing particle size distributions generated by grinding, milling and crushing processes, can be applied to describe the post-impact particle size and velocity distributions. The distributions showed no measurable difference for impacts on the flat plate, the stationary spinner, and the rotating spinner. However, the distributions strongly depended on the impact position for the rotating fan case. Moreover, it was shown that the surface temperature did not have a significant influence on these distributions. Ice particle bouncing and breakup prior to detection should be considered for the development of various in- flight measurement instruments, like LWC or TWC sensors, to guarantee adequate accuracy of measurement data. Impacts on aircraft probes of natural ice particles with diameters ranging from several microns to hundreds of microns have been analysed by Vidaurre and Hallett 13 . The authors applied the ratio of kinetic energy to surface energy as a criterion to characterise the threshold at which ice particle fragmentation starts. They concluded that the same criterion for drops is applicable to ice particles and that breakup plays an important role for the in-flight measurement of LWC and TWC. Particle bouncing on LWC and TWC probes were investigated by Emery et al. 14 and Isaac et al. 15 to better interprete the indicated IWC and TWC values. As a result, it was assumed that the actual IWC and TWC were underestimated and that further effort was nedded for the quantification of the influence of particle bouncing on the measurement of these values.

To the authorsknowledge, no experimental investigations of the impact behaviour of small spherical and irregular ice particles with diameters of less than 6 mm are known where the impact velocity is varied within a wide range and where a sequence of several pictures, which show the impact process in detail, is obtained. However, natural ice particles, which can be ingested by jet engines and impact on engine parts, have diameters ranging from some microns up to few millimetres and can have various impact velocities. In order to expand the knowledge of the impact behaviour of small ice particles, including the bouncing fragmentation threshold, the laboratory and theoretical study described in this paper was undertaken.

A. Experimental Apparatus

III. Experimental Method

The impact tests are conducted within the Icing and Contamination Research Facility (iCORE) 16 at Airbus Group Innovations in Munich, Germany (Fig. 2). iCORE allows the control of the ambient temperature within the test section during the impact tests and can be equipped with an ejection module to accelerate particles. Amongst others, studies of the impact behaviour of fruit flies have been done in iCORE in the past 17 .

fruit flies have been done in iCORE in the past 1 7 . Figure 2. The

Figure 2. The icing and contamination research facility (iCORE) at Airbus Group Innovations, Munich, Germany

In Fig. 3, an overall view of the experimental impact apparatus is shown. The apparatus mainly consists of an ejection module placed in front of the test section of iCORE, a high-speed camera system next to its transparent test section, a Dedocool cold light source, a total air temperature (TAT) probe, and an impact zone.

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The ejection module (Fig. 4) uses cold compressed air to accelerate the ice particles in a tube. The tube’s exit ends approx. 20 mm upstream of the impact zone. The air pressure in the ejection module is controlled by a pressure regulator to set the impact velocity continuously between few m/s and up to 90 m/s. The valve of the ejection device can be opened via a push button. The impact zone consists of a polished aluminium surface (2.0 mm x 1.4 mm). A heating mat is located underneath the aluminium which can be used to heat up the impact surface. The surface temperature can be obtained from a thermocouple which is in thermal contact with it. A Navitar 12X Zoom objective is mounted to a Phantom v611 high-speed camera allowing a side view of the impact zone. Opposite to the camera, a Dedocool cold light source is used for illumination. The TAT probe measures the ambient temperature within the test section. The impact surface can be tilted to control the impact angle.

Figure 3. Overall view of the experimental apparatus including the ejection module, the high-speed camera,
Figure 3. Overall view of the experimental apparatus including the ejection module, the high-speed camera,
the cold light source, the total air temperature (TAT) probe, and the impact zone
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17, 2015 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.2014-3046 B. Test Procedure and Conditions Figure 4. The ejection

B. Test Procedure and Conditions

Figure 4. The ejection module

The impact zone is tilted to control the impact angle of the ice particles. The fan of iCORE is set at idle, which corresponds to a flow velocity of approx. 5 m/s, and the power of the heat exchanger is controlled. This is how the temperature within iCORE is set. Grinded ice particles with irregular shape and grown on a chest freezer’s wall at an ambient temperature of approx. -25 °C are placed in the ejection module. The air pressure in the ejection module is set depending on the intended impact velocity. The push button is pressed and the high-speed video recording is started simultaneously. The expanding compressed air accelerates the particles and their impact on the surface can be recorded and analysed. Ice spheres, which are used alternatively to irregular particles, are made on a superhydrophobic metal plate. First, irregular ice particles of different sizes are dispersed on the superhydrophobic plate at room temperature. Upon melting of the ice particles, small water droplets with an almost spherical shape form on the surface. At last, the plate with the droplets is placed in a chest freezer and after several minutes the frozen droplets can be collected from the plate with a cold brush. In the experiments presented in this paper, the ambient temperature and the surface temperature were between -10 and -20°C. Impacts of irregular and spherical particles were investigated. Impact velocities ranging from 1 up to 74 m/s were observed. The impact angle was set to either 30° or 90°. The uncertainty of the maximum velocity was ± 2 %. The resolution of the pictures varied between 5.9 and 16.7 µm/pixel. The uncertainty of the maximum dimension ranged from ± 2 up to ± 7 pixels.

C. Observations of Particle Impacts

In total, 238 impact events were analysed. In more than 80 % of the impact events, no significant particle rotation was observed before impact (v tangential /v translation << 1). On impact, if the particle was either irregular or showed major or catastrophic fragmentation, at least part of the fragments started to rotate significantly. In case of the spheres, which showed no or minor fragmentation, the particles or fragments showed rotational movements after impact in 3 out of 4 cases. In between 30 and 40 % of the cases where fragmentation was present, small ice fragments stuck to the surface after impact. It was estimated that the volume of these leftovers was at most few percent of the total volume of the original ice particles. Based on the observations, four different fragmentation cases are defined:

- No fragmentation

- Minor fragmentation

- Major fragmentation

- Catastrophic fragmentation.

In the latter three cases, small fragments can stick to the surface. Examples for the four different cases are given in the following.

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No Fragmentation

The no fragmentationcase represents bouncing where no fragments (including fragments sticking to the surface) are observed. Figure 5 shows two sequences of particle bouncing. The upper six pictures (Fig. 5a) show an irregular particle with a maximum dimension of approx. 200 µm and an impact velocity of 6.9 m/s. Significant particle rotation takes place after the impact. Figure 5b shows a spherical particle with a diameter of approx. 1200 µm and an impact velocity of 1.3 m/s. No post-impact rotation takes place.

(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Figure 5. No fragmentationcase impacts of an irregular (top sequence) and spherical particle (bottom sequence). Time step between single pictures of top sequence: 59.6 µs (bottom sequence: 119.2 µs).

Minor Fragmentation

In case of minor fragmentation, small fragments are observed. Up to 20 volume per cent of the original particle are shattered into fragments. Figure 6a shows the impact of an irregular ice particle with a maximum dimension of approx. 300 µm and an impact velocity of 26 m/s. A small ice leftover, stemming from the original particle, can be observed on the surface after impact. The sphere in Fig. 6b has a diameter of approx. 1134 µm and a velocity of 5.1 m/s. Significant particle rotation is observed in both cases after impact.

(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Figure 6. “Minor fragmentation” case impacts of an irregular (top sequence) and spherical particle (bottom sequence). Time step between single pictures of top sequence: 14.9 µs (bottom sequence: 75 µs).

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Major Fragmentation

Major fragmentationoccurs if between 20 and 50 volume percent of the original particle are lost due to fragmentation. In Fig. 7a, the maximum dimension is approx. 284 µm and the impact velocity is 36 m/s. A small leftover on the surface can be observed. In Fig. 7b, an almost spherical particle is shown which is nearly split in half upon impact. Particle diameter is approx. 436 µm and impact velocity is 11 m/s. In both cases, significant post- impact particle rotation takes place.

(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Figure 7. “Major fragmentationcase impacts of an irregular (top sequence) and spherical particle (bottom sequence). The particle of interest is marked with a red dot in the top sequence. Time step between single pictures of top and bottom sequence: 14.9 µs.

Catastrophic Fragmentation

In case of catastrophic fragmentation, more than half of the volume of the original particle is lost by fragmentation and several fragments are generated. In the extreme case, the particle shatters into many small fragments (e.g. compare with Guégan et al. 7 ). In Fig. 8a, an irregular particle with a maximum dimension of approx. 362 µm and an impact velocity of 48 m/s fragments into several small particles. A small leftover sticks to the surface at the impact location. In Fig. 8b, a spherical particle with a diameter of approx. 956 µm impacts at a velocity of 36 m/s.

(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Figure 8. “Catastrophic fragmentation” case impacts of an irregular (top sequence) and spherical particle (bottom sequence). Time step between single pictures of top and bottom sequence: 14.9 µs.

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Due to the limited resolution and magnification as well as shadowing by other ice particles, and the fact that there is only one view of the impact process available, the classification of the impacts is not always clearly attributable to one of the four fragmentation classes.

IV. Theoretical Model of Particle Collision and Fragmentation

A. Initial Moment of Particle Collision

A particle impacts with the velocity onto a dry solid stationary substrate. Collision generates compression

waves in the particle and the wall regions propagating with the speed of sound of the material. The pressures and

at the initial moment in the compressed regions, respectively of the particle and wall, are obtained using the

simplified Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions, valid for impact velocities much smaller than the speed of sound in

the media:

(

)

(1)

where and c denote the density and the speed of sound, respectively, subscript is related to the particle and to the wall. denotes the interface velocity. The interface velocity can be found from the condition of equality of the pressures and :

 

.

(2)

The instantaneous pressure in the compressed regions of the particle and the wall is:

 

.

(3)

Therefore, the first critical velocity of particle breakup can be estimated by equating particle material:

to the yield stress

of the

 

.

(4)

In case of a perfectly rigid wall:

.

(5)

Table 1: Material properties of ice and other relevant materials

Material property of ice

Value

Source

Young’s modulus: E

9.38 GPa

 

Poisson’s ratio:

0.33

Tippmann et al. 18

Density

917 kg/m 3

Quasi-static yield strength, hail

5.2 MPa

 

Fracture toughness

 

Liu and Miller 19

Speed of sound, 0°C

3838

m/s

Vogt et al. 20

Speed of sound glass

5300

m/s

http://www.classltd.com

Density glass

24002800 kg/m 3

http://hypertextbook.com/

Speed of sound aluminium

6380

m/s

http://www.elcometer.com

Density aluminium

2700

kg/m³

http://periodictable.com/

In the case of an ice particle impacting onto a glass target, as in the experiments of Guégan et al. 4 , the critical

velocity (Eq. (4)), using the material properties listed in Table 1, is m/s. As shown in Fig. 9, this velocity agrees well with the critical velocity of failure of relatively large spherical hail particles.

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10 Guégan et al. (2011) AGARD (1995) 8 6 Y theory = 10 MPa 4
10
Guégan et al. (2011)
AGARD (1995)
8
6
Y theory = 10 MPa
4
2
Y theory = 5.2 MPa
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
V failure , m/s

Diameter, mm

Fig. 9. Failure velocity for relatively large spherical ice particles. Experimental data from AGARD 5 and Guégan et al. 4 in comparison with the yielding velocity (Eq. (4)).

It should be noted that an impact velocity higher than the yielding velocity, defined in Eq. (4), is only the necessary condition for plastic deformation of ice, but is not a sufficient condition for breakup of the ice particle. Our experiments show that the critical velocities for breakup of sub millimeter particles is usually much higher than the yielding velocity. In order to model the fragmentation of such small particles, the mechanism of plastic deformation of ice and the propagation of cracks have to be considered. Moreover, it is known that the properties of small particles can vary with time. In our experiments, we estimate the yield stress of the ice particles from the minimum velocity at which particle attrition was observed.

20 15 10 5 Lower bound for the velocity of attrition 0 0 200 400
20
15
10
5
Lower bound for
the velocity of attrition
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
U 0 , m/s

D 0 , m

30 25 20 15 10 5 Estimation using Eq. (4) Data from Tippmann et al.
30
25
20
15
10
5
Estimation using Eq. (4)
Data from Tippmann et al. (2013)
0
1 10
100
1000
10000
100000
Y, MPa

. -1

,

s

Fig. 10. Estimation of the lower bound for the velocity of attrition from the particle impact experiments (left) and

evaluation of the yield stress

as a function of the strain rate

̇ (right).

In Fig. 10, the values of the yield stress are estimated from the lower bound for the velocity of particle

attrition. is the impact velocity component vertical to the surface and is the diameter of an equivalent sphere which has the same projected cross section area as the observed particle. The rate of strain is estimated as

̇ . Comparison with the experimental data from Tippmann et al. 18 shows good agreement within our experimental accuracy.

B. Deformation of a Rigid-Plastic Particle Impacting onto a Perfectly Rigid Wall

Consider an impact with a velocity of a particle of radius onto a perfectly rigid wall. Impact of a particle onto a rigid wall is analogous to an impact of a long plastic rod, as discussed in Taylor 21 , who described the rod deformation by a propagating plastic wave where the pressure is equal to the yield stress . The rod consists of a rear part, which moves as rigid body, and a stationary plastic region near the wall. The rod deformation occurs at the wave front.

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Such type of model for the description of a spherical particle is applied. The theory 21 can be significantly

simplified for small impact velocities (much smaller than , which is 75 - 160 m/s for ice). In this case, the

thickness of the plastic region is much smaller than the particle diameter and the velocity of its expansion is much smaller than the particle impact velocity. The shape of the deforming particle can be approximated by a truncated sphere.

( ) is its instantaneous velocity.

( ) is the dimensionless displacement of the particle centre after the first instant of impact, scaled by the initial particle radius. For small deformations, the radius of the impression and the volume of the rear solid part of the particle can be approximated as:

(

)

(

)

is the distance of the particle centre from the wall and

,

(

).

 

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(

)

is:

 

(10)

The equation of motion of the particle is determined by the axial particle momentum:

,

which has to be solved with the initial conditions:

The solution of the equation:

(

)

,

at

,

is obtained by the use of Eq. (6). The maximum centre displacement

by the use of Eq. (6). The maximum centre displacement √ √ with the help of

with the help of Eqs. (6), (9) and (10) yield:

√ (
(

)

,

corresponding to

.

Therefore, the expressions for the residual maximum impression radius

impact

after collision and the total duration of

.

(11)

The impression radius and the material properties of the particle determine the fracture of the ice particle caused by the crack development. The mechanism of the formation of the lateral cracks in the ice particle will be considered in the next subsection.

C. Development of the Lateral Cracks in the Ice Particle

The deformation of the particle in the plastic zone can also lead to damage in the rear part of the particle. It is known that the ice particle impact causes a development of an expanding cracked zone ahead of the plastic wave 18,22 . This phenomenon leads to particle attrition 23 . Assuming that the ice behaves like semi-brittle material during the impact load, the propagation of radial and lateral cracks in the particle can be described by results from Evans and Wilshaw 24 and Ghadiri and Zhang 25 . The length of the lateral crack is estimated as:

,

(12)

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where

after particle impact using the expression for the maximum radius of impression in Eq. (12) determined in Eq. (11). This yields:

is the fracture toughness. We can predict the length of the lateral cracks

is the radius of impression and

.

(13)

For the breakup criterion, we can take the condition at which the crack length is of the value comparable with the initial particle diameter, which, with the help of Eq. (13), yields the expression for the particle breakup velocity

:

(14)

We can also estimate the relative volume of the fragmented part 25 of the particle , assuming its thickness to be proportional to the impression radius and the length to be equal to the crack length. In combination with Eqs. 11 and 13 this yields:

where

is the dimensionless attrition propensity parameter derived by Ghadiri and Zhang 25 .

(15)

V. Results and Discussion

Equation (14) for the critical velocity of the ice particle cracking yields , where is determined only by the material properties of the particle. The level of the particle damage is determined by the dimensionless attrition propensity parameter . The impact velocity typical for a definite level of the ice particle damage is thus , where is another material parameter. In the present analysis, both and parameters are assumed constant. In Fig. 11, the maps of ice particle breakup are shown, based on the present experiments. The maps allow to estimate two characteristic velocities for ice particles:

The maximum velocity at which no particle breakup is possible:

with

.

The maximum velocity at which only minor breakup is observed:

with

.

It should be noted that particle breakup is a statistical process and it can happen at velocities below and

velocity agrees well with the

experimental results of Guégan et al. 4 on the critical breakup velocity of large ice spheres of much larger diameters between 12.9 and 42 mm.

, as shown in Fig. 11. Moreoever, it is interesting, that the estimated

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25 Experiments, no breakup - 2/3 D 0 20 15  = 0.046 m 5/3
25
Experiments, no breakup
- 2/3
D
0
20
15
 = 0.046 m 5/3 /s
10
5
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
U 0 , m/s

D 0 , m

70 Experiments No breakup 60 Minor breakup -1/2 50  D 0 40  =
70
Experiments
No breakup
60
Minor breakup
-1/2
50
 D
0
40
 = 0.45 m 3/2 /s
30
20
10
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
U 0 , m/s

D 0 , m

Fig. 11. Maps of ice particle breakup. Estimation of the maximum velocity of no-breakup (left) and maximum velocity of minor breakup (right).

IV.

Conclusions

A test apparatus was presented which allows the investigation of the impact of spherical and irregular ice particles on a tiltable aluminium surface. Impact tests with impact velocities ranging from 1 m/s up to 74 m/s were conducted using an ejection module within the Icing and Contamination Research Facility (iCORE). Maximum ice particle dimension varied between several microns up to 1.6 mm. Based on the observations of over 200 particle impacts, four different fragmentation cases were defined, namely no, minor, major, and catastrophic fragmentation. The yield stress of ice was estimated from the lower bound for the velocity of particle attrition and the results showed good agreement with other experimental data. A model allowing the calculation of the critical velocity for ice particle cracking and of the impact velocity typical for a definite level of ice particle damage was presented, where α and β are material parameters. Based on the experiments, α was determined as , defining the maximum velocity at which no particle fragmentation occurs. Also, β was determined as , defining the maximum velocity at which minor fragmentation occurs. It was observed that ice particle fragmentation can also occur below due to the fact that ice particle fragmentation is a statistical process which strongly depends on the structure of ice and also on the history of how ice was formed.

Acknowledgments

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° ACP2-GA-2012-314314.

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