Sei sulla pagina 1di 33






























A solenoid is an electromagnet formed from a wire that carries current.

Electromagnets have magnetic fields created from currents. The wire of a solenoid
is often formed into a helical coil, and a piece of metal such as iron is often
inserted inside. When a solenoid is bent into the shape of a circle or doughnut, it is
called a toroid.

A toroid is a coil of insulated or enameled wire wound on a donut-

shaped form made of powdered iron. A toroid is used as an inductor in
electronic circuits, especially at low frequencies where comparatively large
inductances are necessary.

A toroid has more inductance , for a given number of turns, than a

solenoid witha core of the same material and similar size. This makes it
possible to construct high-inductance coils of reasonable physical size and
mass. Toroidal coils of a given inductance can carry more current than
solenoidal coils of similar size, because larger-diameter wires can be used, and
the total amount of wire is less, reducing the resistance .

In a toroid, all the magnetic flux is contained in the

core material. This is because the core has no ends from which flux might leak
off. The confinement of the flux prevents external magnetic fields from
affecting the behavior of the toroid, and also prevents the magnetic field in the
toroid from affecting other components in a circuit.

Toroid is a hollow circular ring (like a medu vadai) on which a large number of
turns of a wire are wound.
The above figure represents a toroid wound with a wire carrying a current I.
Consider path 1, by symmetry , if there is any field at all in this region, it will be
tangent to the path at all point and will equal the product will equal the
product of B and the circumference d = 2pr of the path. The current through the
path however is zero and hence from Ampere's law the field B must be zero.

Similarly, if there is any field at path 3, it will also be tangent to the path at all
points. Each turn of the winding passes twice through the area bounded by this
path, carrying equal currents in opposite directions. The net current though the area
is therefore zero and hence B = 0 at all points of the path.


The field of the toroidal solenoid is therefore confined wholly to the space
enclosed by the windings.

If we consider path 2, a circle of radius r, again by symmetry the field is tangent to

the path and

Each turn of the winding passes once through the area bounded by path 2 and total
current through the area is NI, where N is the total number of turns in the

Using Ampere's law

If the radial thickness of the core is small, field is almost constant across the

Here 2pr circumferential length of to the toroid.


A toroid has a magnetic field inside of itself that forms a series of concentric
circles. Outside of it, the field is zero. The strength of this magnetic field depends
on the number of coils the toroid has on its body. The field is not uniform, because
the field is stronger near the inner part of the ring than it is nearer the outer part.
This means that if r is the radius of the transformer, the magnetic field decreases as
r becomes larger.


Toroids are valuable because, like all solenoids, they are inductors. Inductors can
induce or cause currents to be created in nearby coils. They were invented in
August 1831 by English physicist Michael Faraday. It was Faraday who
discovered that a changing magnetic field can induce a voltage in a nearby wire,
and this is called Faraday's Law of Induction. Toroids also have what is known as
self-inductance, which is a type of resistance. The toroid resists or fights changes
to its own current, whether it is to make it larger or smaller. The strength of the
self-inductance depends on the toroid's number of coils and AC source.

Disadvantages and Advantages

Toroids have some disadvantages over regular solenoids. They are harder to wind
and also to tune. However, they are more efficient at producing needed
inductances. For the same inductance as a regular solenoid, a toroid requires fewer
turns, and can be made smaller in size. Another advantage is that since the
magnetic field is confined to the inside, toroids and toroidal transformers can be
placed near other electronic components without concern about unwanted
inductive interactions.

Some of the advantages of toroids are:

High inductance for the physical space occupied.

No interaction or coupling with adjacent components (unlike air wound and other

Various permeabilities are available.

Exceptional Q values when wound correctly and optimum core and windings

Wide range of diameters and thicknesses.

Relatively low cost ,Often simple to mount or secure mechanically.

Some of the disadvantages of toroids are:

Nearly impossible to introduce variable tuning of the inductance.

Subject to some thermal drift.


Toroids are used in telecommunications, medical devices, musical instruments,

amplifiers, ballasts and more. A tokamak is a nuclear fusion device that uses a
magnetic field to confine plasma. A plasma is a gas that contains free electrons and
ions, and only appears at high temperatures. The confinement of the plasma in a
tokamak is done with the use of a toroid.

Toroidal Transformers

Transformers are made from a pair of solenoids wrapped around a metal core that
is usually a ferrite. Toroidal transformers are two coils wrapped around a metal,
such as a ferrite or silicon steel, that is doughnut shaped. The coils are either
wrapped in different areas or placed one over the other. They are preferred for RF
or radio frequency transformers, where they are used to increase or decrease
voltages from power sources, and to isolate different parts in a circuit. RF
transformers are also used for impedance matching, which means they help
connect input and output parts of different circuits.

Toroid News
Electron spiral toroid - Electron Power Systems, Inc. of Acton, Massachusetts,
United States, claims to have developed a technology for maintaining small stable
plasma toroids called electron spiral toroids ( ESTs) which remain stable in Earth's
atmosphere without the use of any special magnetic fields. They claim..

Toroid Terror - Toroid Terror was the 1997 game for the FIRST Robotics
Competition The playing field is a carpeted, hexagon-shaped area with a central
goal. Around the perimeter of the field are three stations for human players, who
work with remote controlled robots on the field to score points. At the start of..

Toroidal ring model - The toroidal ring model, known originally as the ' Parson
Magneton' or ' magnetic electron', is also known as the ' plasmoid ring', ' vortex
ring', or ' helicon ring'. This physical model for elementary electrons and protons
was first proposed by Alfred Lauck Parson in 1915. Instead..

Versatile Toroidal Facility - The Versatile Toroidal Facility ( VTF) is a research

group within the Physics Research Division of the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion
Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The VTF is a laboratory
focused on studying the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection. For this purpose
the group..

Toroidal cores

Toroidal coils are electrical components that consist of a donut-shaped metallic

core that is has a conducting metal wire looped or coiled around it in order to form
an inductor. An inductor stores electrical energy through the production of a
magnetic field and introduces that stored energy flow into the metallic core. The
most common material used to form conductive metal wire is copper, while the
metallic core is typically manufactured using materials such as solid iron, solid
steel or powdered iron due to their ferromagnetic capabilities. Toroidal coils offer
both a higher inductance and a higher "Q" factor, which refers to the quality factor,
a measurement of the efficiency of the coil's inductive reactance to its resistance at
a set frequency, than solenoid coils. Able to be used for a wide range of
applications, toroidal coils are necessary components in industries such as: power
generation, for use in power transformers, current transformers and more;
electronics, for use in energy meters for testing of radio equipment and more; and
industrial manufacturing, for use in instrument transformers, high-frequency coils
and switched-mode power supply (SMPS) transformers for power supply control.

Toroidal coils are easily distinguished from the various other types of electric coils
because of their unique design. Instead of having a cylindrical core, toroidal coils
have a donut-shaped core that the wire is wrapped around in very small coils. With
a smaller number of turns required, the toroidal coil is able to provide a closed
magnetic path. This means that the magnetic flux of the coil is primarily confined
to the coil's core, thus preventing the energy provided from being absorbed by any
objects in close proximity to the coil. As a result, toroidal coils are pretty much
able to serve as a self-shield and do not require external shielding unlike many
other types of electric coils. The magnetic flux of the toroidal coils is occurs as a
result of an alternating current (AC) flowing through the coil. An alternating
current varies from a direct current (DC) in that the current flow will periodically
change direction, whereas as a direct current maintains one singular direction of
current flow. In addition, the magnetic flux of the coil changes in proportion to
changes in the current. Toroidal coils can be manufactured with or without a base,
and when manufactured with a base may be mounted either horizontally or

Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core, which, depending on

operating frequency, is made from a long strip of silicon steel or permalloy wound
into a coil, powdered iron, or ferrite.[62] A strip construction ensures that the grain
boundaries are optimally aligned, improving the transformer's efficiency by
reducing the core's reluctance. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in
the construction of an E-I core.[35] The cross-section of the ring is usually square or
rectangular, but more expensive cores with circular cross-sections are also
available. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover
the entire surface of the core. This minimizes the length of wire needed, and also
provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating
electromagnetic interference.

Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated E-I types for a
similar power level. Other advantages compared to E-I types, include smaller size
(about half), lower weight (about half), less mechanical hum (making them
superior in audio amplifiers), lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth), low
off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits), single-bolt
mounting, and greater choice of shapes. The main disadvantages are higher cost
and limited power capacity (see "Classification" above). Because of the lack of a
residual gap in the magnetic path, toroidal transformers also tend to exhibit higher
inrush current, compared to laminated E-I types.

Ferrite toroidal cores are used at higher frequencies, typically between a few tens
of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz, to reduce losses, physical size, and weight
of switch-mode power supplies. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is
the higher labor cost of winding. This is because it is necessary to pass the entire
length of a coil winding through the core aperture each time a single turn is added
to the coil. As a consequence, toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings
of a few kVA. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of
a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open, then inserting a bobbin containing
primary and secondary windings.

Magnetic Field of Toroid

Finding the magnetic field inside

a toroid is a good example of the
power of Ampere's law. The
current enclosed by the dashed
line is just the number of loops
times the current in each loop.
Amperes law then gives the
magnetic field by

The toroid is a useful device used

in everything from tape heads to
Magnetic field = permeability x turn density x current

Toroid Detail
All of the loops of wire which make up a toroid
contribute magnetic field in the same direction
inside the toroid. The sense of the magnetic field is
that given by the right hand rule, and a more
detailed visualization of the field of each loop can
be obtained by examinine the field of a single
current loop.

Toroidal inductors and transformers

Several small toroidal inductors. The A small toroidal

major scale is in inches. transformer.

Toroidal inductors and transformers are electronic components, typically

consisting of a circular ring-shaped magnetic core of iron powder, ferrite, or
other material around which wire is coiled to make an inductor. Toroidal coils
are used in a broad range of applications, such as high-frequency coils and
transformers. Toroidal inductors can have higher Q factors and higher
inductance than similarly constructed solenoid coils. This is due largely to the
smaller number of turns required when the core provides a closed magnetic
path. The magnetic flux in a high permeability toroid is largely confined to the
core; the confinement reduces the energy that can be absorbed by nearby
objects, so toroidal cores offer some self-shielding.

In the geometry of torus-shaped magnetic fields, the poloidal flux direction

threads the "donut hole" in the center of the torus, while the toroidal flux
direction is parallel the core of the torus.

Total B Field Confinement by Toroidal Inductors

Fig. Coordinate system. The

Z axis is the nominal axis of
symmetry. The X axis
chosen arbitrarily to line up
with the starting point of the
winding. ρ is called the
radial direction. θ is called Fig. An axially symmetric toroidal inductor
the circumferential with no circumferential current.

In some circumstance, the current in the winding of a toroidal inductor

contributes only to the B field inside the windings and makes no contribution to
the magnetic B field outside of the windings. The absence of circumferential
current [1] (please refer to figure 1 of this section for definition of directions) and
the axially symmetric layout of the conductors and magnetic materials [1][2][3] are
sufficient conditions for total internal confinement of the B field. (Some authors
prefer to use the H field). Because of the symmetry, the lines of B flux must
form circles of constant intensity centered on the axis of symmetry. The only
lines of B flux that encircle any current are those that are inside the toroidal
winding. Therefore, from Ampere's circuital law, the intensity of the B field
must be zero outside the windings.[3]

Fig.3 Toroidal inductor with circumferential current

Figure 3 of this section shows the most common toroidal winding. It fails both
requirements for total B field confinement. Looking out from the axis,
sometimes the winding is on the inside of the core and sometimes it is on the
outside of the core. It is not axially symmetric in the near region. However, at
points a distance of several times the winding spacing, the toroid does look
symmetric[4]. There is still the problem of the circumferential current. No matter
how many times the winding encircles the core and no matter how thin the wire,
this toroidal inductor will function as a one coil loop in the plane of the toroid.
This winding will also produce and be susceptible to an E field in the plane of
the inductor.

Figures 4-6 show different ways to neutralize the circumferential current.

Figure 4 is the simplest and has the advantage that the return wire can be added
after the inductor is bought or built.
Fig. 4. Circumferential
current countered with a Fig. 6. Circumferential
return wire. The wire is Fig. 5. Circumferential current countered with a
white and runs between current countered with a split return winding.
the outer rim of the return winding.
inductor and the outer
portion of the winding.

E Field in the Plane of the Toroid

Fig. 8. Voltage distribtion with

Fig. 7. Simple toroid and the E-field return winding. +/- 100 Volt
produced. +/- 100 Volt excitation
assumed. excitation assumed.

There will be a distribution of potential along the winding. This can lead to an
E-Field in the plane of the toroid and also a susceptibility to an E field in the
plane of the toroid as shown in figure 7. This can be mitigated by using a return
winding as shown on figure 8. With this winding, each place the winding
crosses itself, the two parts will be at equal and opposite polarity which
substantially reduces the E field generated in the plane.

A toroidal coil carries an electric current symbolized by several little red

spheres in motion. A green arrow shows the direction of magnetic field inside
the coil. In a second movie, current direction is reversed

Toroidal Transformer

A toroid is a doughnut-shaped object whose surface is a torus. Its annular shape is

generated by revolving a circle around an axis external to the circle.

A coil of insulated wire in a doughnut shape (usually with a core of iron or similar
metal) is an example of a toroidal object. These are used as inductors in circuits
such as low frequency transmitters and receivers because they possess higher
inductance and carry greater current than similarly constructed solenoids. They are
also used as transformers in main power supplies. Toroidal coils reduce resistance,
due to the larger diameter and smaller number of windings. The magnetic flux in a
toroid is confined to the core, preventing its energy from being absorbed by nearby

In the geometry of torus-shaped magnetic fields,

the poloidal flux direction threads the "donut hole"
in the center of the torus, while the toroidal flux
direction is parallel the core of the torus.

Advantages of Toroidal Power Transformers

Toroidal transformers offer many advantages over standard laminated power
transformers. Toroidals provide quiet, efficient operation with very low stray
magnetic fields. Their small size and weight support a package that is easy to
design into any application.

The Toroidal Core

At the heart of the toroidal is a highly efficient donut shaped core. To construct the
core, grain-oriented silicon-iron is slit to form a ribbon of steel which is then
wound, like a very tight clock spring. The result is a core in which all of the
molecules are aligned with the direction of flux. Molecules not aligned with the
flux direction increase a core's reluctance (the capacity for opposing magnetic
induction), degrading performance to the level of common steel when the
molecules are 90 degrees out of phase. EI laminated cores, which are stamped from
grain-oriented Si-Fe, may have as much as 40% of the total core area perpendicular
to the ideal grain direction, with another 40% acting only as a return flux path. This
more efficient use of the core material in a toroidal can result in a size and weight
reduction of up to 50% (depending on power rating), allowing the design engineer
to innovate by exploiting the toroidal's small size, low weight, ease of mounting,
and flexible dimensions.


Since toroidal cores are constructed of a continuously wound ribbon, there is

virtually no air gap. The windings are evenly wrapped over the entire core
allowing the transformer to operate at a higher flux density than in standard
transformers. Toroidal transformers can operate at 1.6 to 1.8 Tesla (16,000 to
18,000 Gauss) while EI cores are limited to 1.2 to 1.4 Tesla (12,000 to 14,000
Gauss). The magnetic flux of the windings is oriented in the same direction as the
grain-oriented core, thus achieving very high electrical efficiencies. Efficiency is a
measure of a transformer's ability to deliver the input power to the load. Efficiency
is expressed as a percent by:

% = ( PO / PI ) x 100

where; PO = Output power, PI = Input power, % = Efficiency

Also, standby losses are greatly reduced under no-load operation due to the lower
magnetizing currents required by the toroidal core.

Stray Magnetic Fields

The primary cause of leakage flux from any transformer is the air gap. Ideally, a
magnetic circuit should have no air gap. In traditional transformers with EI
laminations stacked to form the core, the air gap at the junction of the I and the E is
the source of most of the leakage flux. This flux strays into the surroundings due to
the high reluctance of the air and the concentration of flux in the laminations. For
the same reasons, mounting holes and grooves in the laminations also cause a
small amount of leakage flux. The tape wound cut-C core is an improvement; but
there is still an large air gap causing unwanted stray flux. Since toroidal cores are
wound from a continuous ribbon of steel, stray fields from air gaps are eliminated.

In addition, the windings of the toroidal transformer uniformly encase the core in
copper. This results in a natural magnetic screening effect which, in combination
with the elimination of the air gap, results in an 8:1 reduction of radiated magnetic
field over an equivalent rated EI transformer. The windings covering the solid ring
core also help reduce magnetostriction -- the main source of acoustic "hum" in
standard transformers. Audible noise can be reduced even further by varnish
impregnating the toroidal core and/or the copper windings.

Duty Cycle

Significant reductions in transformer size and weight may be realized in many

cases where the transformer is loaded intermittently. In such cases, the load is on
(tON) for only a small portion of the total period (tCYCLE). The period is much shorter
than the thermal time constant of the transformer. To calculate the nominal power
rating (VA) of the transformer use the following equation:


where; tCYCLE = tON + tOFF


The regulation (percentage of voltage drop) may be expressed with the following

% Regulation = [( VNL - VFL ) / VFL ] x 100

VNL = Open circuit, no load voltage

VFL = Full load voltage

Common values for regulation are around 5%. However, regulation can be
adjusted to conform to most requirements. Regulation is inversely proportional to
efficiency, physical size, and cost, and is directly proportional to temperature rise.
All these factors should be taken into consideration when the regulation spec is

Size Considerations

While the cross-sectional area of the toroidal core must be held constant, the height
and diameter may be varied to meet package constraints. The functional optimum
ratio of diameter to height is 2:1. A 3:1 ratio may be used in applications where a
very low profile is required. And if a minimum footprint is required an aspect ratio
of 1.5:1 could be considered. The only physical restrictions on the size of a toroidal
transformer are the limitations of the winding machinery. A minimum center hole
must be maintained in order to permit the insertion of the winding magazine, for
application of the wire and insulation.

Temperature Considerations

Operating temperature is an important safety factor which must be considered. It is

common to see a 60C to 70C rise above ambient at rated power. Heat generated by
the power transformer is due to the sum of the copper and, to a lesser extent, the
core losses. Since copper has a positive temperature coefficient, its resistance
increases with temperature. As the temperature of the coil rises, the DC resistance
of the windings also increases, resulting in a self heating cycle. Temperature rise
can be reduced by increasing both the diameter of the winding wire and the size of
the transformer. However this is at the expense of increased costs. Tabtronics
transformers utilize UL recognized insulation systems for Class B (130C)
operation. Temperature rise will also depend on where and how the transformer is
mounted and how well it is cooled. When higher temperature ratings are needed,
we offer UL recognized systems to Class F (155C) and Class H(180C).

Custom Toroidal Power Transformers

At Tabtronics, Inc., we provide custom solutions to all your electromagnetic

requirements. We know that you need more than a prepackaged transformer for
your unique application. That is why we are committed to providing individualized
attention to your needs. Call our experienced technical sales department to discuss
all the options available in toroidal mounting, leads, terminations, and safety
protection and recognition.
Theoretical Size, Weight, and No-load Losses for Toroidal Power Transformers

Nominal Power Copper Losses Core Losses (W) O.D. (in) Height (in) Weight (lb)
(VA)1 (W)2

15 (18) 3.0 0.20 2.5 1.3 0.7

30 (36) 5.8 0.25 3.0 1.5 1.1

50 (60) 8.6 0.45 3.2 1.4 1.6

80 (95) 12.0 0.60 3.9 1.5 2.2

120 (145) 16.0 0.90 3.9 1.9 3.0

160 (190) 19.0 1.20 4.5 1.7 3.8

225 (270) 20.0 1.40 4.5 2.0 4.9

300 (360) 22.0 1.70 4.6 2.6 5.7

400 (480) 27.0 2.00 5.4 2.0 6.5

500 (600) 31.0 2.40 5.4 2.4 8.0

625 (750) 36.0 3.10 5.5 3.2 9.5

800 (960) 45.0 3.80 6.4 2.7 13.0

990 (1200) 45.0 4.70 6.4 3.0 16.0

1100 (1320) 45.0 6.50 6.4 3.3 17.0

1300 (1560) 60.0 5.70 8.0 2.6 20.0

1600 (1920) 62.0 7.10 8.0 3.0 23.0


Silicon Steel Toroid Transformers

Three Phase Toroidal Transformers

High Frequency Transformers

Three Phase Toroidal Transformers

Torodial Transformer

Lt Current Transformers

Toroidal Transformers For Din Rail Mounting

Mini Open Wound Toroidal Transformers


Magnetic Power Generator
A new focus of interest now falls in the development of free energy generator
known as the magnetic power generator. This system is able to produce more
energy than it needs to run by itself, which results in free energy. It can be
manufactured easily and capable of producing sufficient energy to support the
entire house.

While solar power systems are preferable in locations that have an extensive
amount of sunlight and while home windmills are popular at areas with constant
flow of wind, the greatest benefit of a magnetic power generator is that you it can
function in all weather, in all temperature, does not take up any substantial amount
of space and is completely clean and totally free.

Many other benefits of a magnetic generator include:

o Ease of use
o Cheap to build and cheaper to run.
o Slashes your electrical bills significantly.
o Completely safe for you and your family.

The magnetic power generator harnesses this magnetic force to create continual
motion. The generator, once started, runs on by itself and whilst the magnets
maintain their polarity, the system will never stop.

If you are concern about how much electrical power is required to be generated for
your house - A house of two adults and two children living on all the normal
modern appliances that a home generally has including a computer, washing
machine, tumble dryer, hot water geyser etc, then you are likely to be able to
reduce your electrical bills by up to 40%.

It is speculated that in the same way that solar power systems have become more
accepted by the general population, so will magnetic energy and within the next
ten years, energy companies will be implementing these systems in many houses
around the world. Why wait till the energy companies to catch on when you can be
doing it for yourself, cheap and easy.

Photoelastic and analytical investigation of stress in toroidal

magnetic field coils
A series of two-dimensional photoelastic stress analyses on circular and oval
toroidal magnetic field coils for fusion reactors were made. The circumferential
variation of the coil's magnetic force was simulated by applying different pressures
to sixteen segmented regions of the inner surface of the models. Isochromatics and
isoclinics were measured at selected points on the loaded model in a transmission
polariscope using a microphotometer. Separate principal stresses were obtained
using the combination of photoelastic information and isopachic data measured
from the solution of Laplace's equation by the electrical analog method. Analysis
of the same coil geometries, loadings, and boundary conditions were made using
the finite element method. General agreement between theory and experiment was
realized. From this investigation several variations of coil geometry and methods
of support were evaluated. Based upon this experiment, suggestions for optimum
structural design of toroidal field coils are presented.

Toroidal functions in electrostatics

A method employing the use of toroidal functions is introduced for calculating the
scalar potential and the electric field from a charged conducting ring. This method
is an alternative to the well-known elliptic integral formulation and is usually
easier to formulate than the elliptic integral solution.

A method employing the use of toroidal functions is introduced for calculating the
scalar potential and the electric field from a charged conducting ring. This method
is an alternative to the well-known elliptic integral formulation and is usually
easier to formulate than the elliptic integral solution.

Toroidal power transmission

In a toroidal transmission, wherein power transmission rollers are supported

rotatably on pivotable support brackets, the pivot movement of adjacent support
brackets is coupled via driver elements which are mounted to the support brackets
for pivoting therewith and are arranged axially adjacent to one another and formed
by a single component.
Toroidal Chokes
Toroidal choke coil The present invention relates to a toroidal choke coil,
comprising a base, a ferromagnetic core, winding wires around the core, and
protrusions of the base, the winding wire having its ends fastened thereto.

Toroidal Lens

A lens, suitable for automotive applications, for use with a light source is
provided. The lens has a main body defining a cross sectional shape with a
curved side and a straight side. The main body is formed by rotating the cross
sectional shape about an axis of revolution located outside the main body. The
axis of revolution is parallel to the straight side of the cross section and passes
through a focal point defined by the curved side.

Toroid Core and Ferrite Bead Winding

Ferrite beads are torid cores. This page contains some general information about
winding torroidal cores.

With a torroidal core, whether it is used in an inductor or transformer, every time a

wire passes through the hole in the core, it counts as one turn. If you want to make
more than one turn, then you have to pass the wire through the core in the same
direction each time.

Refer to the picture above. To make a 6 turn inductor, pass the wire through the
hole 6 times. If you want to make a 6 turn inductor with a center tap, wind 3 turns,
pull the wire away from the core a hold out a loop with one finger, and make turn
number 4 by passing the wire through the hole. Twist the loop of wire you had held
out with your finger, then make turns number 5 and 6 by passing the wire through
the hole. Every time you pass the wire through the hole, it must be in the same


The wire used for the inductor or transformer depends upon the application. Often
enameled magnet wire is used. Regardless of the type of wire used, in the vast
majority of cases it will be an insulated wire, and the insulation will have to be
removed. Some enamel coatings such as Beldon Beldsol will melt away when
heated with a sufficiently hot soldering iron, but one tradeoff is that these coatings,
in my experience, tend of be softer and scratch more easily, which could affect

Other coatings such as Heavy Polythermaleze is very scratch resistant, but needs to
be scraped away before soldering. I use an X-ACTO knife-like tool (A C.K.S.
Cutter G-400) to scrape away the enamel, being careful not to nick the wire
because stress builds at the nicks and the wire can easily break off at the nick.

An example of a tapped RF inductor. The wire here Beldon 8055 #30 AWG Single
Beldsol. The wires were tinned with a hot soldering iron and no scraping was
necessary. This core is a good candidate for Beldsol coated wires because its edges
are smooth and it is coated to make it easy for the wire to slip around the edges as
it is pulled through, thus less likely to scrape the insulation. For RF inductors, the
more evenly the turns are spaced around the core, the better.


Integrating energy storage into an electric power system has long been recognized
as a way to maximize a utility's generation and/or transmission capacity. Electric
power can be stored during off-peak periods and then recovered during high-peak
conditions to offset the need for larger generation or expanded transmission
capacity. In Japan, load-leveling or diurnal usage of stored energy is currently
accomplished at pumped-storage installations, which are considered to be fairly
inefficient, having only ~70% turn-around efficiency. Also, Japan's river system,
highly dense settlement, and expensive real estate do not favor construction of
additional pumped-storage facilities. The Japanese have thus been exploring
alternative storage technologies, including SMES and flywheels. As discussed
earlier, SMES research in Japan has been underway since the early 1970s, with
many prototypes built and tested under actual "utility" conditions.

Japan's International Superconductivity Technology Center (ISTEC) conducted a

three-year feasibility study starting in 1988 on electric power apparatus, including
SMES, under a program sponsored by MITI's Agency of Natural Resources and
Energy. As part of this study, the Subcommittee on Energy Storage recommended
in 1989 the detailed design using available technology of a small-scale SMES, with
either a solenoid or toroidal field configuration, that would be consistent with
future R&D efforts (Katsuya 1990). This SMES program, much like Super-GM,
did not mandate using HTS materials; thus, LTS conductors such as Nb-Ti and
Nb3Sn were the primary choice. Demonstration of a small-scale SMES, whose size
is closely related to that needed for power system stabilization, would also address
many major technical issues facing the large-scale diurnal storage SMES, such as
ac losses, power conditioning, and refrigeration. ISTEC's initial SMES effort was
followed by a six-year program started in 1991 to implement the construction and
test of a small-scale SMES pilot plant at a 100 kWh/20 MW rating. This ISTEC
program, also sponsored by MITI's Agency of Natural Resources and Energy,
involves Toshiba as the primary magnet manufacturer, the Electric Power
Development Corporation providing power conditioning, and various utilities led
by Chubu Electric with additional support from Tohoko and Kyushu Electric
Power Companies (Kamiyama 1994).

The design approach for the 100 kWh/20 MW system, shown in Fig. 2.5, is a
toroidal magnet with an outside diameter for the cryostat of ~12 m (Kamiyama
1994). A half-size prototype coil was constructed by Toshiba and had been
recently tested at the time of the WTEC trip to Japan. The test coil used a forced-
flow Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductor and demonstrated 20 kA at 2.8 T, which is
the rated current for the basic design.

This design employs two toroidal coils, inner and outer, in such a way that the
inner coil creates a void in the magnetic field generated by the outer coil. This
allows for a low field region in which the plasma can become homogenized. Any
path leading out of the low field region requires the plasma to move in the
direction of increasing magnetic field. The inner coil also provides the field
otherwise generated by plasma current in a tokamak, so there is no need to induce
a current in the plasma. Since the inner coil is submerged in the plasma, the turns
of the coil are spaced out so that the field generated shields the inner coil from the
plasma. Single particle simulations were conducted on this design that show
particles being confined for long periods of time. Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD)
simulations will be warranted if there is significant interest in this design.

1. Introduction

Tokamak style fusion reactors have been the dominant type in plasma physics
experiments. Many of the disruptions and drifts that plague this type of reactor
tend to flow in the direction of decreasing magnetic field. Since the magnetic field
is stronger nearer to the center of the tokamak, disruptions and drifts cause plasma
to flow away from the center. A feature of the tokamak used to combat this effect
is to have a current flowing within the plasma so that the magnetic field lines twist
so that the drifts are averaged as sections of plasma spend some time close to the
center and some time far from it. Since drifts and disruptions tend to flow in the
direction of decreasing magnetic field, some confinement schemes have been
suggested to keep the plasma in a low field region so that the plasma would have to
move through a higher field region to escape the device. This design employs two
toroidal coils (See Figure 1), inner and outer, in such a way that the inner coil
creates a void in the magnetic field generated by the outer coil. This allows for a
low field region in which the plasma can become homogenized. Any path leading
out of the low field region requires the plasma to move in the direction of
increasing magnetic field (See Figure 2). The inner coil also provides the field
otherwise generated by plasma current in a tokamak, so there is no need to induce
a current in the plasma. Since the inner coil is submerged in the plasma, the turns
of the coil are spaced out so that the field generated shields the inner coil from the
Figure : Top View Internal/External Coils
Figure :Perspective View
Figure :Magnetic Field Magnitude at the Midplane
Figure : Magnetic Surfaces at the Midplane

2. Single Particle Simulations

A minimum requirement of the design is that individual charged particles are
confined within the reactor and don’t interact with reactor components for long
periods of time. Simulations were conducted by tracing the path that a charged
particle would take within this field configuration (See Figure 4). The Ion shown in
Figure 4 is a deuterium ion at 20keV kinetic energy. Please note the particles can
get around the inner coil into the high field region as indicated by the path going
off the image to the right. Notice that the path is a double line, which means that
the particle returns along the same path back into the low field region. Tracing the
particle over a long period of time (>2 seconds) shows that it doesn’t leave the

Figure : The Simulated Path of an Ion within the Reactor

3. Future Work
Ultimately MHD simulations will be needed to validate the merit of the design. In
addition to determining the quality of the confinement, the ratio of plasma pressure
to magnetic pressure (ß) needs to be determined from simulation. Short of this, it’s
possible that a scale model can be tested on lower temperature plasmas. A support
system (or levitation system) for the inner coil will need to be developed. The
supports may need to be magnetically shielded since they will have to pass through
a region containing plasma. It’s possible the plasma density will be low enough on
the inner edge of the inner coil (where the magnetic field is highest) for supports to
be placed there without having to divert the plasma with magnetic shielding or