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VYDEHI SCHOOL OF EXCELLENCE

STUDY MATERIAL
MONTH: NOVEMBER
CLASS: VII

ENGLISH
The Guide (LONG READING) NOTES

1. Character sketch of ROSIE

Rosie is from temple dance‘s family. Her caste is considered very low in the society. This basic element plays
very major role in developing the character of her. From childhood, by the blessing of her aunt she is educated
well. She had completed M.A. in Economics. To elevate her social status, she had married to Marco. But she
has great passion and enthusiasm for dance which Marco lacks. Rosie is unhappy with her marriage. She thinks
that Marco is not the perfect husband for her. She then takes help of Raju and pursues her passion for dance
and later when she establishes herself as a great dancer she changes her name to Nalini. After sometime her
passion for dance ceases.

Her base of marriage was to uplift her social class. Thus it never was intended to fulfil her mental needs. Rosie
at large is not a typical or ordinary Indian woman. (First she had completed M.A. which is, in the novel‘s
time‘s context very big achievement. Secondly she devises her plan to accomplish her goal as a great dancer.
At the end she gets all she wants. She learns her dance and also rescues herself from unhappy marriage. She
never returns to Marco till the end of the novel. This is enough to say that she was never happy with her
marriage.

2. SYMBOLS

In any literary work symbols plays a greater role. In modern world writers seems more tended to depict the
characters as symbols. This not only gives comprehensive details of the purpose of the work but also widens
the scope of a literary work. Following are some important symbols in the novel -The Guide

a. Guide:

At the very first glance of the novel or even by the title we can guess that the main symbol of the novel is
guide. When anyone goes on the travel, he needs someone to direct him. Raju represent the guide who gives us
the knowledge about the tour of our life. The problems, joys, sorrows and happiness are concisely depicted in
Raju‘s life. When a man forgets all his greed, lust and connects himself to the welfare of humanity then he
becomes the Mahatma.

b. Woman as destructor:

In ancient Hindu and Buddhist philosophy woman is considered as main obstacle in Moksha (in Hinduism) and
Nirvana (in Buddhism). This ancient philosophy is also depicted properly. The beauty of the woman is said as
a destructive power which creates devastation in man‘s life.

c.An Aristocratic Life:

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This novel represents the life of a couple who is from aristocracy. They are Rosie and Marco. The novel is
written in 1958. The Guide was written while R. K. Narayan was visiting the United States in 1958 on the
Rockefeller Fellowship. At that time new aristocrats were emerging. And on the novel we can see the imprint
of western open thoughts.

d.Ruined Temple:

At the end Raju lives in a ruined temple when he becomes a Mahatma. This ruined temple also signifies his
ruined life. Like the temple he is also left alone by all other people.

e. Rosie as Modern Woman:

In the novel Rosie represent the face of modern women. After the independence woman empowerment and
woman education was held as most vital thing to be done. Many women were still uneducated thus they often
stick to the stereotypical role of the woman in the society as well as in the family. Rosie symbolizes a revolt
against these typical concepts

CREATIVE WRITING

LETTER WRITING- INFORMAL

1. Your cousin is a brilliant student but he is not keeping good health because he avoids homemade food
and is very fond of eating outside. Write a letter telling him/her about the harmful effects of junk food
and advising him/her to maintain good health is not more than 100 words. You are Arpit/Arpita of C-8,
Lawrence Road, New Delhi.

C-8. Lawrence Road


New Delhi
14th July 2019

Dear Sunita,
I am hale and hearty here and I hope to be the same from you. In your letter, you talked about your standing
worries about not keeping good health. You have also pointed out that most of the time of the day you are
away from home. I remember you generally avoid homemade food and you are very fond of eating outside.
Their lies your carelessness about your health. The homemade food which is always good for health but you
avoid it. The outside food you enjoy the most but it is not good for your health. It‘s quality, its preparation, the
material used, arc all substandard because the seller‘s profits are rated high. Sub quality food will, of course,
harm your body. You can‘t keep fit. My sincere advice to you is to avoid eating outside food. Always eat
homemade food. Carry your lunch with you. 1 guarantee you will develop sound health. Please convey my
compliments to uncle and aunt and love to Pooja.

Yours truly,
Arpitaa

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2. Write a letter to your friend Rudra inviting him to spend the summer vacation at your place in Mumbai. You
are Sakshi/ Saksham. Do not exceed 120-150 words.
129, Navyug Apartments
Pitampura
Delhi-110034
March 01, 2019
Dear Rudra,
It‘s been a while since I‘ve heard from you. Where have you been? I hope this letter finds you in the best of
your health.
As summers are approaching, I was thinking if we could spend the summer break together at my place in
Mumbai. I will introduce you to all my friends and close relatives. I will give you a city tour as well. We will
spend some quality time in the afternoons near the sea shore. To add cherry on the cake, the weather here is
very pleasant during those days due to sea winds.
I am excited even at the thought of you and I spending the summer together after so long. I have to tell you a
lot of things and expect the same from you. Give my regards to aunty and uncle!
Hope to see you soon.
Yours lovingly
Sakshi/Saksham
DIARY WRITING

1. Today you visited a zoo which made you sad about the plight of the caged animals. So you decided to write
a diary entry about your feelings. Write the entry in about 100-120 words about your feelings.

Tuesday, October 10, 2019 9 pm

Today our class teacher took us to a zoo. I was quite excited about the trip because I love animals. However, it
turned out to be one of the saddest experiences of my life.

We saw many birds and animals in the zoo. Alas! They didn‘t look happy in their cages. There were colorful
parrots and lovebirds. They looked sad in their small enclosures. I am sure they miss the blue skies. The plight
of the lion, tiger and leopard was not much better either. They were kept inside tiny cages. They are well-fed
and they also receive medical attention whenever they show signs of illness. Yet, they looked tired and
unhealthy. I guess that is a result of their sedentary life. They get absolutely no opportunities to walk or run.
They pace their small cages up and down looking restive and angry.

I am not saying that zoos are bad. They do protect many endangered species. Still it hurts me to see wild
animals caged for our entertainment. I know I can‘t do anything for them but I can‘t help feeling bad for them.
I don‘t think I will visit a zoo again.

Ameya

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2. Write a diary entry about how you enjoyed your birthday celebration in about 100-120.

Saturday, 9th September, 2017 8 pm

I turned 14 yesterday and my parents made sure that it was a memorable experience. They threw a huge
birthday party. All of my friends and relatives had been invited. While the party was supposed to start at 6 pm,
my friends started arriving in the afternoon itself. I wore a lovely pink frock which my mother had bought for
me. Everyone congratulated me on my dress and I felt like a princess.

The party began with me cutting the huge chocolate cake. The cake was so large that we all had plenty to eat.
Some of my friends sang and some of them danced. I also hit the dance floor. Once the singing and dancing
was over, we ate dinner. My mother had made sure that all my favourite dishes were included in the menu. It
was well-past midnight when the party ended. Everybody gave me nice gifts and wished me happy birthday. I
felt so happy and grateful.

Smrithi

HINDI

1.ऄनुच्छेद लेखन - पराधीनता


मनुष्य के ललए पराधीनता ऄलभशाप के समान है। पराधीन व्यलि स्वप्न में भी सुख का ऄनुभव नहीं कर सकता है। समस्त भोग-
लवलास व भौलतक सुखों के रहते हुए भी यदद वह स्वतंत्र नहीं है तो ईसके ललए यह सब व्यर्थ है। पराधीन मनुष्य की वही लस्र्लत
होती है जो दकसी पपजड़ें में बंद पक्षी की होती है लजसे खाने-पीने की समस्त सामग्री ईपलब्ध है पंरतु वह ईड़ने के ललए स्वतंत्र
नहीं है I पराधीनता के ददथ को भारत और भारतवालसयों से ऄलधक कौन समझ सकता है लजन्हें सैकड़ों वषों तक ऄंग्रेजी सरकार के
ऄधीन रहना पड़ा। स्वतंत्रता के महत्व को वह व्यलि पूर्थ रूप से समझ सकता है जो कभी पराधीन रहा है। हमारी स्वतंत्रता भी
ईतनी ही महत्वपूर्थ है। आस स्वतंत्रता के ललए दकतने वषों तक लोगों ने संघषथ दकया, दकतने ही ऄमर शहीदों ने देश को स्वतंत्र
कराने के ललए हँसते-हँसते ऄपने प्रार्ों का बललदान दे ददया। ऄपनी लनजता और ऄलस्तत्व को भुलाकर ददखावे और बाह्य
अंडबर को प्रार्लमकता देना भी पराधीनता का ही एक रूप है। लनःसंदह े पराधीनता व्यलि को ही नहीं ऄलपतु पूरे समाज और
राष्ट्र को पतन की ओर ले जाती है।
हमारे देश के ललए आससे ऄलधक दुभाथग्यपूर्थ बात और क्या हो सकती है दक हम सैंकड़ों वषों की परतंत्रता के बाद लमली अजादी के
महत्व को भुला बैठे हैं। देश के सभी क्षेत्रों मे व्याप्त भ्रष्टाचार, लूटमार, कालाबाजारी, अदद को ऄपनाकर हम स्वतंत्रता के महत्व
को भुला रहे हैं। यह ईन शहदों और ऄमर सेनालनयों के बललदान व कु बाथलनयों का लतरस्कार ही होगा। ऄतः हम सभी देशवालसयों
के महत्व को समझें और प्रयास करें दक हमें पुनः पराधीनता का सामना न करना पड़े।

2. ऄनुच्छेद लेखन - सादा जीवन ईच्च लवचार


वास्तव में लवचारों की ईच्चता भी जीवन की सादगी का ही एक प्रकार और रूप है। लजनके लवचार ईच्च होते हैं, वह लोग हमेशा
ऄच्छे कायों में लगे रहते हैं। । ऐसा करते समय ईन्हें बाहरी तड़क-भड़क करने का न तो ध्यान रहता है और न ही समय रहा करता
है। ईनका लवचार और कमथ, बलकक सारा जीवन व्यवहार के स्तर पर सादगी का प्रलतरूप बनकर रह जाया करता है। राष्ट्रलपता
महात्मा गांधी का कमथमय जीवन ईदाहरर्स्वरूप ललया और देखा जा सकता है। वह जो कर गए हैं, संसार के आलतहास में अज
तक ऄन्य कोइ भी ऐसा नहीं कर सका, ईनका व्यलित्व सादगी का साक्षत ईदाहरर् र्ा। सादा जीवन से ऄर्थ के वल तड़क-भड़क
से दूर रहना या सादे वस्त्र धारर् कर लेना ही नहीं है बलकक ईसका ऄर्थ लवचार और कमथ में भी सादगी हो। महात्मा गांधी का
चरखा चलाना, गुरु नानक देव का खेती-बाड़ी करना, संत कबीर का कपड़ा बुनना, भगवान श्री कृ ष्र् का गाय चराना वास्तव में
लवचार और कमथ की सादगी की ईच्चता का प्रकट करना ही है। सादगी और लवचारों की ईच्चता ही जीवन को, समाज को, देश और
राष्ट्र को महान एवं सफल बनाया करती है। सभी जालतयों, धमों के महान नेता स्वयं तो सादगी और ईच्च लवचारों के ईदाहरर्,
अदशथ रहे हैं सार् ही ईन्होंने ऄपने ऄनुयालययों (follower) को भी सादगी से ही रहने का ईपदेश ददया। ऄतः यदद हम भी

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ऄपना, ऄपने घर पररवार, समाज, देश और राष्ट्र का वास्तलवक प्रगलत चाहते हैं तो हमें भी सादा जीवन ईच्च लवचार का ईलचत
पालन करना चालहए।
3 ऄनुच्छेद लेखन -मीठी बोली का महत्त्व
'वार्ी' ही मनुष्य को ऄलप्रय व लप्रय बनाती है। यदद मनुष्य मीठी वार्ी बोले, तो वह सबका प्यारा बन जाता है और ईसमें ऄनेक
गुर् होते हुए भी यदद ईसकी बोली मीठी नहीं है, तो ईसे कोइ पसंद नहीं करता। आस तथ्य को कोयल और कौए के ईदाहरर् द्वारा
सबसे भली प्रकार से समझा जा सकता है। दोनों देखने में समान होते हैं, परं तु कौए की ककथ श अवाज और कोयल की मधुर बोली
दोनों की ऄलग-ऄलग पहचान बनाती है, आसललए कौअ सबको ऄलप्रय और कोयल सबको लप्रय लगती है।
''कौए की ककथ श अवाज और कोयल की मधुर वार्ी सुन।
सभी जान जाते हैं, दोनों के गुर्।।''
मनुष्य ऄपनी मधुर वार्ी से शत्रु को भी ऄपना बना सकता है। ऐसा व्यलि समाज में बहुत अदर पाता है। लवद्वानों व कलवयों ने
भी मधुर वचन को औषलध के समान कहा है। मधुर बोली सुनने वाले व बोलने वाले दोनों के मन को शांलत लमलती है। आससे
समाज में प्रेम व भाइचारे का वातावरर् बनता है। ऄतः सभी को मीठी बोली बोलनी चालहए तर्ा ऄहंकार व क्रोध का त्याग
करना चालहए।
4: ऄनुच्छेद लेखन - पररश्रम ही सफलता की कुं जी है
दकसी जापानी दाशथलनक ने एक बार कहा र्ा दक हार्ों की ईं गललयों के सहारे एक ददन हम सारे संसार पर लवजय प्राप्त कर लेंगे।
जापानवालसयों ने अज आस कर्न को सत्य करके ददखा ददया है। ऄमेररका जैसे ईन्नत और समृद्ध देश भी अज जापान की तुलना
में लपछड़ चुके हैं। पूछा जा सकता है दक आस सबका कारर् क्या है ? कारर् हर जापानी की रात-ददन लनरं तर कायथरत रहने वाली
ईं गललयों में लछपा हुअ है। ईं गललयों में लछपा वह कारर् है ‗पररश्रम‘। जी हां, पररश्रम ही लद्वतीय लवश्वयुद्ध में मार खाकर भी
अज लवश्व का सरताज बन जाने वाले जापान की सफलता का रहस्य और कारर् है। लवश्व में जो ऄन्य राष्ट्र भी सब प्रकार से
ईन्नलत और लवकास करना चाहते हैं, ईनके पास भी मात्र एक ही कुं जी है सफलता का ताला खोलने की और ईस कुं जी का नाम है
लगातार पररश्रम। पररश्रम के बल पर छोटा-बड़ा हर व्यलि आलच्छत वस्तुएँ पा सकता है, ईन्नलत और लवकास के ईच्च लशखर पर
पहुंच सकता है। पररश्रम का ऄन्य कोइ लवककप या जोड़-तोड़ नहीं है। हमारे असपास ऐसे लोगों के ईदाहरर् लबखरे पड़े हैं,
लजन्होंने एकदम सामान्य स्तर पर कायथ शुरू करके लगातार पररश्रम द्वारा ईसका लवस्तार बड़े-बड़े कारखानों के रूप में दकया।
पररश्रम और लवश्वास रखने वाले, साधनों की कमी का रोना कभी नहीं रोया करते। लगातार पररश्रम करके वे सभी प्रकार के
साधन स्वयं प्राप्त कर ललया करते हैं। ऄतः हर ईस व्यलि को अज से ही पररश्रम पूवथक जीना अरं भ कर देना चालहए जो दक
वास्तव में ईन्नलत के लशखर पर पहुंचना चाहता है। लनरं तर पररश्रम करते रहने से सभी कु छ संभव बनाया जा सकता है।

WORKSHEET (समास)
बहुव्रीलह समास

लवष को धारर् करने वाला


लवषधर एकदन्त – एक दंत है लजसके (गर्ेश
—साँप

अठ ऄध्यायोँ वाला
ऄष्टाध्यायी नीलकण्ठ नीला है कण्ठ लजनका(लशव
—पालर्लन कृ त व्याकरर्

चक्र धारर् करने वाला पीत (पीले) है ँ वस्त्र लजसके


चक्रधर पीताम्बर
—श्रीकृ ष्र् —लवष्र्ु

वह ऋतु लजसमेँ पत्ते झड़ते है ँ कलप (वानरोँ) का इश्वर है जो


पतझड़ कपीश्वर
—बसंत —हनुमान

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दीघथ है ँ बाहु लजसके वीर्ा है लजसके पालर् मेँ
दीघथबाहु वीर्ापालर्
—लवष्र्ु —सरस्वती

एक पलत का व्रत लेने वाली


पलतव्रता देवराज देवोँ का राजा है जो—आन्र
—वह स्त्री

लतरं गा तीन रं गो वाला—राष्ट्रध्वज हलधर हल को धारर् करने वाला-बलराम

शलश को धारर् करने वाला


ऄंशुमाली ऄंशु है माला लजसकी—सूयथ शलशधर
—लशव

महात्मा महान् है अत्मा लजसकी—ऋलष दशमुख दस है ँ मुख लजसके —रावर्

वक्रतुण्ड वक्र है तुण्ड लजसकी—गर्ेश चक्रपालर् चक्र है लजसके पालर् मेँ- लवष्र्ु

ददगम्बर ददशाएँ ही है ँ वस्त्र लजसके —लशव पंचानन पाँच है ँ अनन लजसके —लशव

पद्म (कमल) है असन लजसका


घनश्याम जो घन के समान श्याम है(कृ ष्र्) पद्मासन
—लक्ष्मी

महान् है जो वीर—हनुमान व लगरर को धारर् करने वाला


महावीर लगररधर –
भगवान महावीर —श्रीकृ ष्र्

लोक का नायक है जो— वसु (धन, रत्न) को धारर् करती है


लोकनायक वसुंधरा –
जयप्रकाशनारायर् जो—धरती

महान् है जो काव्य—रामायर्, तीन है ँ लोचन (अँख)ेँ लजसके


महाकाव्य – लत्रलोचन –
महाभारत अदद —लशव

5. ऄनुच्छेद लेखन - पयथटन का मह्त्त्तव


पयथटन यालन घूमना, बस घूमने के ललए घूमना, अनंद प्रालप्त के ललए घूमना, लजज्ञासा समाधान के ललए घूमना। ऐसे पयथटन में सुख
ही सुख है। ऐसा पयथटन रोजाना की र्का देने वाली पचताओं को दूर करता है। पयथटन से हमें देश-लवदेश के खान-पान, रहन-सहन
तर्ा सभ्यता-संस्कृ लत की जानकारी लमलती है। पयथटन से हमारे मन के ऄंधलवश्वास टूटते हैं, पूवथ धारर्ाएं समाप्त होती हैं। हमें यह
लवश्वास होता है दक -" लवश्व भर में रहने वाले हम सभी मनुष्य मूल रूप से एक ही हैं। " राष्ट्रीय एकता बढ़ाने में पयथटन का बहुत
बड़ा योगदान है। वतथमान समय में पयथटन एक बहुत बड़े ईद्योग का रूप धारर् कर चुका है। लहमाचल प्रदेश, जम्मू-कश्मीर एवं
ईत्तराखंड जैसे पवथतीय स्र्लों की ऄर्थव्यवस्र्ा पयथटन पर ही अधाररत है। अज पयथटन सुलवधापूर्थ हो गया है। प्रायः सभी प्रलसद्ध
स्र्लों पर होटलों, भोजनालयों, लवश्राम गृहों, मनोरं जन स्र्लों एवं यातायात के साधनों की भरमार हो गयी है। कु छ पयथटन स्र्ल
प्राकृ लतक सौंदयथ के ललए लवख्यात हैं तो कु छ का एक ऄलग ही धार्ममक महत्त्व है। कु छ पयथटन स्र्ान ऐलतहालसक महत्त्व है। कु छ
पयथटन स्र्ल वैज्ञालनक, सांस्कृ लतक ऄन्य महत्त्व रखते हैं। आनमें से प्राकृ लतक सौंदयथ तर्ा धार्ममक महत्त्व के पयथटन स्र्लों पर
सवाथलधक भीड़ रहती हैं।

6
6 .ऄनुच्छेद लेखन -अधुलनक युग में संचार के साधन
संचार मानव की प्रगलत के ललए ऄलत महत्वपूर्थ है । यह लवश्व के एक देश में बैठे लोगों को दूसरे देशों से जोड़ता है । आसका प्रमुख
श्रेय संचार के अधुलनक साधनों को जाता है । प्राचीन काल में एक स्र्ान से दूसरे स्र्ान तक संदश े भेजने के ललए ‗दूत‘ भेजे जाते
र्े जो प्राय: अवागमन के ललए घोड़ों अदद का प्रयोग करते र्े । पलक्षयों द्वारा संदश े भेजने के भी ऄनेक ईदाहरर् लमलते हैं । तार
की खोज के सार् ही संचार के क्षेत्र में क्रांलत का प्रारं भ हो गया । आसके द्वारा एक स्र्ान से दूसरे स्र्ान तक ‗आलेक्रॉलनक‘ यंत्रों
की सहायता से तार के माध्यम से संकेत प्रेलषत दकए जाने लगे । आसके पश्चात् ‗दूरभाष‘ के अलवष्कार ने तो संचार जगत में
हलचल ही मचा दी । ‗इ-मेल‘ के माध्यम से लवश्व के दकसी भी कोने में बैठे व्यलि से हम संपकथ स्र्ालपत कर सकते हैं । सबसे
महत्वपर्थ बात यह है दक आसमें होने वाला खचथ बहुत कम है । दूरभाष द्वारा स्र्ानीय बातचीत में ईपभोिा को जो खचथ देना
पड़ता है ईतने ही खचथ में इ-मेल द्वारा लवदेशों में बैठे व्यलि को संदश े भेजे जा सकते हैं । ‗इ-मेल‘ के माध्यम से एक संदश े को
हजारों लोगों को एक सार् भेजा जा सकता है । आस प्रकार हम देखते हैं दक ‗इ-मेल‘ ने लवश्व संचार के क्षेत्र को दकतना लवस्तृत कर
ददया हैं I

कमथधारय समास – लजस समास मेँ ईत्तरपद प्रधान हो तर्ा पहला पद लवशेषर् ऄर्वा ईपमान (लजसके द्वारा ईपमा दी जाए) हो
और दूसरा पद लवशेष्य ऄर्वा ईपमेय (लजसके द्वारा तुलना की जाए) हो, ईसे कमथधारय समास कहते है।ँ जैस-े
1.महाराज – महान् है जो राजा 2.महापुरुष – महान् है जो पुरुष 3.नीलाकाश – नीला है जो अकाश
4, महाकलव – महान् है जो कलव 5.महर्मष – महान् है जो ऋलष 6.महासंयोग – महान है जो संयोग
7.महात्मा – महान् है जो अत्मा 8.परमात्मा – परम है जो अत्मा 9.नीलगाय – नीली है जो गाय
10.नीलकमल – नीला है जो कमल

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MATHEMATICS
CHAPTER 8: COMPARING QUANTITIES
I.NCERT SOLUTIONS

EXERCISE- 8.1:
QUESTION 1:
Calculate the ratio:
(i) Rs10 to 50 paise (ii) 10kg to 500g
(iii) 60m to 20cm (iv) 20days to 50 hours
Solution;
(i) Rs.10 to 50 paise
=> 10 x 100 = 1000 paise (Since, Rs.1 = 100 paise)
Thus, the ratio = 1000/50 = 20 : 1
(ii) 10kg to 500g
10 x 1000= 10000g (Since 1kg is 1000g)
Thus, the ratio = 10000/500 = 20 : 1
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(iii) 60m to 20cm
60 x 100 = 6000cm (Since 1m = 100cm)
Thus, the ratio =6000/20 = 300 : 1
(iv) 20 days to 50 hours
20 x 24 = 480 hours
Thus, the ratio = 480/50 = 48 : 5

QUESTION 2:
A computer lab has 2 computers for every 4 students. For 20 students how many computers will be required?
Solution;
Given,
4 students = 2 computers
1 student requires = 2/4 computers.
Therefore, 20 students require = (2/4) x 20 = 10 computers.

QUESTION 3:
Mizoram has a population of 10 lakh and Sikkim has a population of 6 lakh. Area of Mizoram is 21,000
km2 and the area of Sikkim is 7000 km2.
(i) Find the number of people per km2 in both the states.
(ii) Which state has a lesser population?
Solution;
(i) People per km2 = Population/ Area
In Mizoram = 1000000/21000 = 47.61 ≃48 people/km2
In Sikkim = 600000/7000 = 85.71 ≃ 86 people/km2
(ii) Sikkim has a lesser population.

EXERCISE- 8.2
QUESTION 1:
Convert the given fractional numbers to percent:
(a) 1/3 (b)6/5 (c)4/25 (d)3/7
Solution;
(a) 1/3 = (1/3) x 100% = 100/3 = 33.33%
(b) 6/5 = (6/5) x 100% = 6 x 20 = 120%
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(c) 4/25 = (4/25) x 100% = 16%
(d) 2/7 = (2/7) x 100% = 28.57%

QUESTION 2:
Express the given decimal numbers in percentages.
(a) 0.31 (b)0.03 (c)19.62 (d)0.007
Solutions;
(a) 0.31 = (31/100) x 100% = 31%
(b) 0.03 = (3/100) x 100% = 3%
(c) 19.62 = (1962/100) x 100% = 1962%
(d) 0.007 = (7/1000) x 100% = 0.7%

QUESTION 3:
Find what part of the following figures is colored; also find the percentage of the colored part.
Solutions;
(i) Colored part = 1/4
Therefore, percentage of the colored portion = (1/4) x 100% = 25%
(ii) Colored portion = 3/5
Therefore, percentage of the colored portion = (3/5) x 100 =60%
(iii) Colored portion = (3/8) x 100% = 37.5%

QUESTION 4:
Calculate :
(a) 15% of 450 (b) 2% of 2 hour
(c) 10% of ₹2600 (d) 50% of 5 kg
Solutions;
(a) 15% of 450 = (15/100) x 450 = 67.5
(b) 2% of 2 hours= 2% of (2×3600) secs (Since 1 hour = 60 x 60 secs)
= (2/100) x 7200 =144secs.
(c) 10% of Rs.2600 = (10/100) x 2600
=Rs.260
(d) 50% of 5kg = 50% of (5000g) (Since 1kg = 1000g)

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= (50/100) x 5000
= 2500 g or 2.5kg

QUESTION 5:
Calculate the total quantity if:
(a) 5% of it is 100
(b) 10% of it is ₹1060
(c) 20% of it is 800 km
(d) 90% of it is 18 minutes
(e) 9% of it is 60 liters
Solutions;
let the total quantity be Y in all above cases,
(a)5% of Y = 100
=> (5/100) x Y =100
=> Y=(100×100)/5 =2000
(b)10% of Y = 1060
=> (10/100) x Y = 1060
=> Y = (1060 x 100)/10 = Rs.10600
(c)20% of Y = 800
=> (20/100) x Y = 800
=> Y = (800 x 100)/20 = 4000km
(d) 90% of Y = 18min
=> (90/100) x Y = 18
=> Y=(18 x 100)/90 =20mins.
(e) 9% of Y = 60
=> (9/100) x Y = 60
=> Y = (60 x 100)/9 =666.66liters.

QUESTION 6:
Convert the following percentages to fractions , simplest fractions and decimal numbers:
(a)20% (b)25% (c)5% (d)120%
Solution;

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Percentage Fractions Simplest Fraction Decimal Numbers.

20% 20/100 1/5 0.2

25% 25/100 1/4 0.25

5% 5/100 1/20 0.05

120% 120/100 6/5 1.2

QUESTION 7:
12000 voters constituted a constituency, out of which 80% voted. What percentage and number of voters did
not vote?
Solution;
Given,
Total no. of voters = 12000
Percentage who voted = 80%
Thus, percentage who did not vote = 100 -80 = 20%
Therefore, the number of people who did not vote = 20% of 12000
= (20/100) x 12000 = 2400

QUESTION 8:
Sanjay saves Rs.5000 every month, if this is 20% of his salary. What is his monthly salary?
Solution;
Let Sanjay‘s salary be Y
Now, 20% of Y = 5000
(20/100) x Y = 5000
Y = Rs.25000
Therefore, Sanjay‘s salary is Rs.25000
QUESTION 9:
A localdota team played 10 matches in a season. If they won 40% of their matches, in how many matches do
they win?
Solution;
Given,
Number of matches played by the dota2 team =10

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Percentage of matches won = 40%
Therefore, total matches they were victorious in = 40% of 10
= (40/100) x 10
=4.

EXERCISE- 8.3
QUESTION 1:
What is the profit and the loss for the following transaction. Also find what is the profit percentage and the loss
percentage in the cases given:
(i) Gardening shears were bought for Rs 250 and were sold for Rs 325
(ii) A refrigerator was bought for Rs 12,000 and sold for Rs 13,500
(iii) A cupboard was bought for Rs 2,500 and sold for Rs 3,000.
(iv) A shirt was bought for Rs 250 and sold for Rs 150
Solution;
(i)the cost price of the gardening shears: Rs 250
The selling price of the gardening shears: Rs 325
Since, SP> CP therefore here it is a profit.
Therefore profit = SP – CP = Rs 325 – Rs 250
= Rs 75
Now profit % = profitC.P×100
= 75250×100= %
Therefore, Profit = Rs 75 and Profit % = 30%

(ii) Cost prince of refrigerator = Rs 12,000


Selling price of Refrigerator = Rs 13,500
Since, S.P > C.P Therefore, it is a profit.
Therefore, Profit = SP – CP = Rs 13500 – Rs 12000 = Rs 1500
Now profit % = profitC.P×100
= 150012000×100 = 12.5%
Therefore, Profit = Rs 1,500 and Profit % = 12.5 %
(iii) Cost price of cupboard = Rs 2500
Selling price of cupboard = Rs 3,000
Since, SP> CP, Therefore it is a profit.
Profit = SP – CP = Rs 3,000 – Rs 2,500 = Rs 500
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150012000×100
= 5002500×100 =20%
Therefore, Profit = 500 and profit % = 20%
(iv) Cost price of shirt = Rs 250
Selling price of shirt = Rs 150
Since CP > SP, therefore here it is a loss.
Therefore Loss = CP – SP = Rs 250 – Rs 150
= Rs 100
Now loss % = LossC.P×100
= 100250×100 = 40%
Therefore, Loss = Rs 100 and Loss% = 40%
QUESTION 2:
Convert the following ratio to its percentages:
(i) 3 : 1
(ii) 2 : 3 : 5
(iii) 1 : 4
(iv) 1 : 2 : 5
Solution;
(i)3 : 1
Total part = 3 + 1 = 4
Therefore, Fractional part = 34:14
=> Percentage of parts = 34×100:14×100
=> Percentage of parts = 75 % : 25 %
(ii)2 : 3 : 5
Total part = 2 + 3 + 5 = 10
Therefore, Fractional part = 210:310:510
=> Percentage of parts = 210×100:310×100:510×100
=> Percentage of parts = 20 % : 30 % : 50 %
(iii)1 : 4
Total part = 1 + 4 = 5
Therefore, Fractional part = 15:45
=> Percentage of parts = 15×100:45×100
=> Percentage of parts = 20% : 80%
(iv)1 : 2 : 5
Total part = 1 + 2 + 5 = 8
Therefore, Fractional part = 18:28:58
=> Percentage of parts = 18×100:28×100:58×100
=> Percentage of parts = 12.5 % : 25 % : 62.5 %
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QUESTION 3:
The population of a city decreased from 25,000 to 24,500. Find the decrease in percentage.
Solution;
The decrease in population of a city is from 25,000 to 24,500.
Population Decreased = 25000 – 24500 = 500
Decreased percentage = PopulationDecreasedOriginalPopulation×100
= 50025000×100 = 2 %
Hence, the percentage of decrease in the population is 2 %.
QUESTION 4:
Reah and Reuben bought a caravan for Rs. 3,50,000. The next year, the price raised to Rs 3,70,000. What is
the percentage of price increased?
Solution;
Increased in price of the caravan from Rs 3, 50,000 to 3, 70,000
Amount change = Rs 3, 70,000 – Rs 3, 50,000 = Rs 20,000
Therefore, Increased percentage = AmountofchangeOriginalAmount×100
20000350000×100=557 %
Hence, The percentage of price increased is 557 %

QUESTION 5:
Harismitha bought a T.V for Rs 10,000 and sold it at a profit of 20%. How much money did she get for it?
Solution;
The cost price of T.V = Rs 10000
Profit percent = 20%
Now, Profit = Profit % of CP
= 20100×10000
= Rs 2000
Selling price = CP + Profit = Rs 10000 + Rs 2000 = Rs 12000
She gets Rs 12000 on selling the T.V
QUESTION 6:
Nancy sold a washing machine for Rs 13500. She Lost 20% in the bargain. What is the price that she bought
the washing machine for?
Solution;
Selling price of washing machine= Rs 13,500
Loss percent = 20%
Let the cost price of washing machine be Rs x

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Since, Loss = Loss % of CP
=> Loss = 20 % of Rs x = 20100×x=x5
Therefore, SP = CP – Loss
=>13500=x−x5=>13500=4x5=>x=13500×54=Rs16,875
Hence, The cost price of washing machine is Rs 16,875.
QUESTION 7:
(a) Chalk contains Calcium, Carbon and Oxygen in the ratio 10: 3 : 12. Find the percentage of carbon in
chalk.
(b) If in a stick of chalk, Carbon is 3g, what is the weight of the chalk stick?
Solution;
(a) Given ratio = 10 : 3 : 12
Total part = 10 + 3 + 12 = 25
Part of carbon = 325
Percentage of Carbon part in Chalk = 325 x 100 = 12 %
(b) Quality of Carbon in chalk stick = 3g
Let the weight of chalk be x g.
Then, 12 % of x = 3
=> 12100 x X = 3
=> x = 3×10012 = 25g
Hence, the weight of chalk stick is 25g.
QUESTION 8:
Amulya buys a book for Rs 275 and sells it at a loss of 15% . How much does she sell it for?
Solution;
The cost of a book = Rs 275
Loss percentage = 15 %
Loss = Loss % of CP = 15 % of 275
= 15100×275 = Rs 41.25
Therefore, SP = CP – Loss = 275 – 41.25 = Rs 233.75
Hence, Amulya sold the book for Rs 233.75
QUESTION 9:
Find the amount to be paid at the end of 3 years in the following cases:
(i ) Principal = Rs 1200 at 12 % p. a
(ii) Principal = Rs 7500 at 5 % p. a
Solution;
(i) Here, Principal (p) = 1200

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Rate ( r ) = 12 % p a
Time ( T ) = 3 years
Simple interest=P×R×T100=1200×12×3100
=432
Now, Amount = Principal + Simple Interest
= Rs 1200 + Rs 432
= Rs 1632
(ii) Here, Principal (p) = 7500
Rate ( r ) = 5 % p a
Time ( T ) = 3 years
Simpleinterest=P×R×T100=7500×5×3100
= 1125
Now, Amount = Principal + Simple Interest
= Rs 7500 + Rs 1125
= Rs 8625
QUESTION 10:
What rate gives Rs 280 as interest on a sum on Rs 56,000 in 2 years?
Solution;
Here, Principal (P ) = Rs 56000
Simple Interest (SI ) = Rs 280
Time ( T) = 2 yrs
Simple interest = P×R×T100
=> 280 = 56000×R×2100
=> R = 280×10056000×2
=> Hence, the rate of interest on sum is 0.25%
QUESTION 11:
If Deepak gives an interest of Rs 45 for one year at 9% rate per annum. What is the sum he has borrowed from
Nancy?
Solution;
Simple Interest = Rs 45
Rate (R ) = 9%
Time ( T) = 1 year
Simple interest = P×R×T100
=> 45 = P×9×1100
=> P = 45×1009
=> P = Rs 500
Hence, she had borrowed Rs 500.
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II. WORKSHEET:

1. Verify whether the ratios are in proportion or not:


a) 5:6 and 21∕2 :3
b) 2/3 : 4/7 and 3/5 :2/7
2. Among 2:4, 6:10 and 9:20, which of the ratio to equivalent to 3:5?
3. Divide 2600 in the ratio of 3:5.
4. A certain sum of money doubles itself in 10 years. In how many years will it be triple itself?
5. Find the sum of money which gives amount of interest as Rs.4640 at 8% simple interest per annum at
the end of 2 years.
6. In a library, 4 tables accommodate 10 students. How many tables will be required for 85 students?

III. HOMEWORK:

7. A shopkeeper sells ten notebooks for Rs.135. Find the price of 16 notebooks.
8. Mira gets 95, 72, 85, 88 and 61 marks out of 100 in Mathematics, English, Hindi, Science and Social
science respectively. Express the marks in fraction and in percentage.
9. Rs.6000 is borrowed at 8% interest p.a. Find the simple interest and amount to be paid after 3 years.

CHAPTER 3: DATA HANDLING


I. NCERT SOLUTIONS

Exercise 3.1
Question 1:
The following table represents the heights of ten students. Calculate the range of heights.
Answer:

S. No. Name Height (in feet)

1. Aditi 4.6

2. Vipul 4.8

3. Sangam 4.5

4. Manish 4.8

5. Sakhshi 4.1

6. Parul 4.7

7. Ayushi 4.9

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8. Manoj 4.8

9. Akash 5.2

10. Rahul 5.4

Range = Highest height – Lowest height = 5.4 – 4.1 = 1.3 feet.


Question 2:
Organize the following marks in a class test, in a tabular form:
5, 4, 7, 2, 6, 4, 7, 8, 9, 2, 1, 4, 2, 9, 1, 3, 4, 8, 7, 6.
a) Find the number which is the highest.
b) Find the number which is the lowest.
c) Find the range of marks.
d) Find the arithmetic mean.
Answer:

S. No. Marks Frequency


(No. of students)

1. 1 2

2. 2 3

3. 3 1

4. 4 4

5. 5 1

6. 6 2

7. 7 3

8. 8 2

9. 9 2

a) Highest number = 9.
b) Lowest number = 1.
c) Range = 9 – 1 = 8.
d) Arithmetic mean = 5+4+7+2+6+4+7+8+9+2+1+4+2+9+1+3+4+8+7+622=9922=4.5
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Question 3:
Calculate the mean of the first five whole numbers.
Answer:
The first five whole numbers are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.
Therfore,
Mean = Sum of number/Total numbers = (0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4)/5 = 10/5 = 2.
Thus, the mean of first five whole numbers is 5.
Question 4:
A cricketer scores the following runs in eight innings: 58, 56, 89, 69, 76, 78, 44, 90. Calculate the mean score.
Answer:
Number of innings = 8
Mean 0f score = Sum of score/Number of innings = (58 + 56 + 89 + 69 + 76 + 78 + 44 + 90)/8
= 560/8 = 70.
Thus, the mean score is 70.
Question 5:
The score of each player in four games is shown in the following table:

Player Game 1 Game 2 Game 3 Game 4

X 15 25 12 8

Y 0 8 4 6

Z 9 11 Did not play 10

Now,
a) Calculate the mean to determine X‘s average number of points scored per game.
b) To calculate the mean of points per game for Z, we will divide by 3 or 4? Why?
c) Calculate the mean of Y.
d) Who performed the best?
Answer:
a) Mean of player X = Sum of scores by X/No. of games played by X
= (15 + 25 + 12 + 8)/4 = 60/4 = 15
b) We will divide by 3 as player Z played only three games.
c) Mean of player Y = Sum of scores by Y/No. of games played by Y

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= (0 + 8 + 4 + 6)/4 = 18/4 = 4.5
d) Mean of player X = 15
Mean of player Y = 4.5
Mean of player Z = Sum of scores by Z/No. of games played by Z
= (9 + 11 + 10)/3 = 30/3 = 10
Player A has the highest mean. Therefore, A performed the best.
Question 6:
A group of students scored 45, 48, 49, 50, 47, 35, 41, 32, 22 and 42 (out of 50) in a science test. Find:
a) the highest and lowest marks obtained by the students.
b) range of the marks obtained.
c) mean marks obtained by the group.
Answer:
a) Highest marks obtained by the student = 50
Lowest marks obtained by the student = 22
b) Range of the marks obtained = 50 – 22 = 28
c) Mean of obtained marks = Sum of marks/Total number of marks
= (45 + 48 + 49 + 50 + 47 + 35 + 41 + 32 + 22 + 42)/10
= 411/10 = 41.1
Thus, the mean mark obtained by the group of student is 41.1.
Question 7:
During the six consecutive years the enrolment in a school was as follows:
1449, 1454, 1419, 2539, 2509, 2630
Find the mean.
Answer:
Mean enrolment = Sum of numbers of enrolment/Total number of enrolment
= (1449 + 1454 + 1419 + 2539 + 2509 + 2630)/6
= 12000/6 = 2000
Therefore, the mean enrolment of the school is 2,000.
Question 8:
The following table shows the rainfall (in mm) in a city of 7 days:

Day Mon Tue Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun

Rainfall 0.0 12.3 2.5 0.0 19.5 5.5 4.5


(in mm)

20
Find:
a) range of the rainfall.
b) mean rainfall for the week
c) on how many days was the rainfall less than the mean rainfall?
Answer:
a) Range of the rainfall = Highest rainfall – Lowest rainfall = 19.5 – 0.0 = 19.5 mm
b) Mean rainfall = Sum of rainfall recorded/Total number of days
= (0.0 + 12.3 + 2.5 + 0.0 + 19.5 + 5.5 + 4.5)/7
= 6.32 mm
c) 5 days, i.e., Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday, Sunday rainfalls were less than the mean rainfall.
Question 9:
The height of 10 boys (in cm) was as follows:
130, 150, 145, 165, 150, 143, 146, 123, 128, 136
a) Find the height of the tallest boy.
b) Find the height of the shortest boy.
c) Calculate the range of data.
d) Calculate the mean height of the boys.
e) How many boys have heights more than the mean height?
Answer:
a) Height of the tallest boy = 165 cm
b) Height of the shortest boy = 123 cm
c) Range = 165 – 123 = 42 cm
d) Mean height = Sum of the heights of the boys/Total number of boys
= (130 + 150 + 145 + 165 + 150 + 143 + 146 + 123 + 128 + 136)/10
= 1416/10 = 141.6 cm
e) Six boys have heights more than the mean height.
Exercise 3.2
Q1 : The scores of 15 students (out of 35) of 15 students in Science test is as follows:
20, 26, 24, 21, 10, 21, 16, 11, 6, 17, 26, 21, 25, 13, 21
Find median and mode of this data and check if they are same.
Answer:
Scores of 15 students in mathematics test are
20, 26, 24, 21, 10, 21, 16, 11, 6, 17, 26, 21, 25, 13, 21

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Arranging these scores in an ascending order,
6, 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, 20, 21, 21, 21, 21, 24, 25, 26, 26
Mode of a certain data is the value of observation which repeats itself for the most number of times.
Median of a certain data is the observation which occurs in the middle when the data is sorted in an ascending
order or descending order.
There are totally 15 values given in the question. Therefore 8th observation is the median of the given data.
Hence, median = 21
For mode, we observe that 21 repeat 4 times (i.e., maximum number of times).
So, mode of the given data = 21
Yes, both mode and median are same.
Q2. The runs scored by 11 players in a cricket match are as follows:
7, 16, 121, 51, 101, 81, 11, 16, 9, 11, 16
Find the median, mean and mode of the above data and check if the three are same.
Answer:
The runs scored by the 11 players are
7, 16, 121, 51, 101, 81, 11, 16, 9, 11, 16
Arranging the scores in an ascending order,
7, 9, 11, 11, 16, 16, 16, 51, 81, 101, 121
Mean = 7+9+11+11+16+16+16+81+101+12111=35.36
Mode of a certain data is the value of the observation which repeats itself for the most number of times.
Median of a certain data is the observation which occurs in the middle when the data is sorted in an ascending
order or descending order.
There are totally 11 values given in the question. Therefore, the 6th observation is the median of this data.
Median = 16
For mode, we observe that 16 repeat 3 times (i.e., maximum number of times).
So, mode of the given data = 16
We can understand from the above results that median, mode and mean are not the same.
Q3. 15 students in a class weigh (in kg):
39, 43, 36, 38, 46, 51, 33, 44, 44, 41, 37, 39, 44, 39, 48
(i) Determine the median and mode of the above data.
(ii) How many modes are there?
Answer:
The weights given (in kg) are

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39, 43, 36, 38, 46, 51, 33, 44, 44, 41, 37, 39, 44, 39, 48
Arranging the given weights in ascending order,
33, 36, 37, 38, 39, 39, 39, 41, 43, 44, 44, 44, 46, 48, 51
Mode of a certain data is the value of observation which repeats itself for the most number of times.
Median of a certain data is the observation which occurs in the middle when the data is sorted in an ascending
order or descending order.
There are totally 15 values given in the question. Therefore 8th observation is the median of this data.
Hence, median = 41
For mode, we observe that both 44 and 39 repeat 3 times.
So, mode of the given data = 44 and 39.
Therefore, there are 2 modes in the above given question.
Q4: Calculate the mode and median of the following data:
14, 16, 11, 13, 13, 14, 19, 13, 12.
Answer:
Rearranging the given data in ascending order:
11, 12, 13, 13, 13, 14, 14, 16, 19
Mode = 13
Median = 13
Q5. Which of the below-given statements are true? Justify your answer:
(i) One of the numbers is always the mode of the data.
(ii) One of the numbers is the mean of the data.
(iii) One of the numbers is always the median of the data.
(iv) The data 7, 5, 4, 9, 10, 13, 14, 10 has its mean value as 9.
Ans:
(i) True
Mode of a certain data is the value of the observation, which repeats itself for the most number of times.
Therefore, it is one of the observations given in the data.
(ii) False
Mean may or may not be one of the numbers in the data.
(iii) True
Median of a certain data is the observation which occurs in the middle when the data is sorted in an ascending
order or descending order.
(iv) True

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Mean = 7+5+4+9+10+13+14+108=9
Exercise 3.3
Q1. Make use of the given bar graph to answer the questions below:
(a) Which is the least popular pet?
(b) How many students own hamsters?
Answer:
(a) Rabbits are the least popular pet.
(b) 5 students own hamsters .
Q2.Study the bar graph which represents the number of books sold by a store in 5 years. Then answer the
given questions.
(i) How many books were sold in 1993, 1991 and 1989?
(ii) In which years were approximately 225 and 475 books sold?
(iii) In which year was the least amount of books sold?
(iv) Explain how you estimated the number of books sold in 1991.
Answer:
(i) Number of books sold in : 1993 = 600, 1991 = 300 and 1989 =180.
(ii) Approximately 225 book were sold in the year 1992 and 475 books were sold in 1990.
(iii) In 1989 the least amount of books were sold.
(iv) By studying the graph we can see that in 1991 300 books were sold.
Q3. Given below is a data of the number of children in six different classes. Represent the data on a bar
graph.

Class Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth

No. of 135 120 95 100 90 80


children

(a) How is the scale chosen ?


(b) Which classes have the largest and the smallest number of children?
(c) Calculate the ratio of class ten to class six.
Answer:
(a) Scale : 1unit = 25 children.
(b) Class 5 have the largest number of students, while class 10 has the smallest number of students.
(c) Ratio = (No. of class 10 students)/ (no. of class 6 students)
= 100/120 = 5/6

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Question 4:
The performance of a student in two terms is given. Draw a double bar graph by choosing appropriate scale
and answer the following question:

Subject English Hindi Maths Science S. Science

1st term 67 72 88 81 73
(M.M. = 100 )

2nd term 70 65 95 85 75
(M.M. = 100)

a) In which subject, the child improved his performance the most?


b) In which subject, the child‘s improvement is least?
c) Has the performance gone down in any subject?
Answer:
The given data is represented in a bar graph:
Difference of marks of first term and second term
English = 3
Hindi = -7
Maths = 7
Science = 4

1. Science = 2
2. a) Maths.
3. b) S. Science.
4. c) Yes, Hindi.

Question 5:
A survey of a colony was done. The data are as following:

Favourite Cricket Basket Ball Swimming Hockey Athletics


Sport

Watching 1240 470 510 423 250

Participating 620 320 320 250 105

a) Draw a double bar graph choosing an appropriate scale. What do you get from the bar graph?
b) Which sport is most popular?
c) Which is more preferred, watching or participating in sports?

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Answer:
The given data is represented in a bar graph:
a) The bar graph represents the number of persons who are watching and participating in their favourite sports.
b) Cricket is more popular.
c) Watching sports is more preferred.
Question 6:
Minimum and maximum temperatures of various cities are calculated. The data are as following:

City Ahmedabad Amritsar Bangalore Chennai Delhi Jaipur Jammu Mumbai

Max. 38oC 37oC 28oC 36oC 38oC 39oC 41oC 32oC

Min. 29oC 26oC 21oC 27oC 28oC 29oC 26oC 27oC

Plot a double bar graph using the date and answer the following:
a) Which city has the largest difference in the minimum and maximum temperature?
b) Which are the hottest city and the coldest city?
c) Name two cities where maximum temperature of one was less than the minimum temperature of the order.
d) Name the city which has the least difference between its minimum and the maximum temperature.
Answer:
The given data is represented in a bar graph:
a) Jammu has the largest difference in temperature i.e.,
Maximum temperature = 41oC and
Minimum temperature = 26oC.
Difference = 41oC – 26oC = 15oC
b) Jammu is the hottest city due to maximum temperature is high and Bangalore is the coldest city due to
maximum temperature is low.
c) Maximum temperature of Bangalore is 28oC
Minimum temperature of two cities whose minimum temperature is higher than the maximum temperature of
Bangalore are Ahmedabad and Jaipur where the minimum temperature is 29oC
d) Mumbai has the least difference in temperature i.e.,
Maximum temperature = 32oC and
Minimum temperature = 27oC
Difference = 32oC – 27oC = 5oC
Exercise 3.4

26
Q1. State whether the following events are: certain to happen, can happen but not certain or impossible.
(i) Tomorrow will be sunny.
(ii)A tossed coin will land and stand on its edge.
(iii) Monday will follow Sunday.
(iv ) Sun will rise from the south.
(v) You will read this line again.
Answer:
(i) Can happen but not certain.
(ii) Can happen but not certain.
(iii) Certain to happen.
(iv) Impossible.
(v) Certain to happen.
Q2. There are 7 balls in a bag with numbers from 1 to 7 marked on them.
(i)What is the probability of drawing a ball numbered 2?
(ii) What is the probability of drawing a ball numbered 8?
Total number of balls = 7
(i) Number of balls numbered 2 = 1
Therefore, the probability of drawing a ball numbered 2 = 1/7
(ii) Number of balls numbered 8 = 0
Therefore, the probability of drawing a ball numbered 8 = 0/7
= 0.
Q3. In a football match, a coin is tossed to decide which team starts. What is the probability that your team
won’t start? Assuming head starts and your team has chosen tails.
A coin has two sides; head and tail.
Thus, the probability of getting tails = 1/2
II. WORKSHEET:

1. In a survey of a housing colony, the number of trees in each house was recorded as given below. Find its
mode. 1,3,3,2,2,4,5,1,1,2,1,2,6,4,3,1,2,2,2,4,1,3,1,2,2,4,5,1,2,3,2,2,3,6,4,3,2,2,5.
2. The mean of 2x+3, 3x+4, x+7, x-3 and 4x-7 is 14. Find x.
3. What is the probability of getting an even number less than 5 when a die is thrown.
4. Tina plays tennis for 4 hours on Monday, 3 hours on Tuesday, 3 hours on Wednesday and 2 hours on
Thursday. How many hours a day does she play on an average?
5. If a letter is chosen at random from the English alphabet, what is the probability that it is a vowel?

27
6. The mean weight of 6 boys is 48kg. If the actual weight of 5 boys are 51kg, 49kg, 43kg, 52kg and 46kg,
find the weight of the 6th boy.

7. The following table gives the height of 40 boys. Find their median height (in cm).

Height(in cm) 135 128 140 139 143


Number of boys 6 8 9 7 10

III. HOMEWORK:

1. The following data gives the total marks (out of 500) obtained by six students of a particular class.
Represent the data as a bar graph.

Students Ashraf Vijay Karan Mithun Shilpa shreya


Marks obtained 480 500 385 440 445 360
2. A survey of 100 boys showed that 37 liked action movies, 26 liked science fiction movies, 11 liked comedy
movies, and the rest did not like to watch movies. Of these boys, if a boy is chosen at random, what is the
probability that he likes (i) comedy movies (ii) no movies?
3. The annual income of a family for 5 years is given in the following table.

Years 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


Annual income(in k) 100 120 140 170 200 230
i. Draw a bar graph for the given data.
ii. Calculate the mean.

SCIENCE
CHAPTER-6
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

I. CHAPTER AT A GLANCE:

The sun rises, the night turns into a day, the seasons change, the leaves shed, flowers bloom and living
beings grow! Every day, we see a number of changes happening around us. Change is inevitable. It takes
place all the time and everywhere. However, changes differ from one another in a number of aspects.
Some changes are fast, others are slow. Some of them are temporary, others are permanent. Some are
periodic, others are non-periodic. Some are natural, others are man-made. Some are reversible, others are
irreversible. On the larger front, a change may be categorized into a chemical or a physical change
depending on how the properties of a subject alter when it undergoes the change.
Physical Changes
 Physical Properties of a substance are those characteristic of a substance that describes its physical
nature.
 For Example colour, density, shape, size and volume are some physical properties.

28
 Physical Change is a change which occurs when there is an alteration in the physical properties of a
substance.
 The physical change does not result in the formation of any new substance but can alter the shape and
size of the existing substance.

Physical Properties

Physical Changes
Chemical Changes
 The chemical property of a substance is those characteristic of a substance that describes its chemical
nature.
 For Example toxicity of a substance or how a substance reacts with other substances is its chemical
property.
 A chemical change or chemical reaction is any change in the chemical properties of a substance.
 Whenever a substance undergoes a chemical change, a new substance is formed.
 Examples of Chemical Changes:
29
o Rusting of iron occurs when iron gets in contact with moisture
o When a magnesium ribbon is burnt it radiates white light and converts into ashes
o Formation of Medicines
o Extracting of iron from the iron ore
o Formation of plastic

Chemical Properties
A chemical change is always accompanied by any one or all of the following way:
 Radiation or absorption of heat
 Production of sound
 Change in the colour of the substance
 Change in the smell of the substance
 Formation of a gas
 Formation of a solid as residue

Change in Property Example

Burning of a substance such as coal, wood or candle results in production


of heat and hence is a chemical change.
Radiation or absorption of heat
Similarly, melting of ice results in absorption of heat and therefore it is a
chemical change.
Bursting of fireworks is a chemical change. It results in production of
Production of sound
sound, heat, radiation as well as gas.
Raw fruits and vegetables when cut and left in open air start acquiring
Change in the colour of the brown color due to a chemical change.
substance Similarly, rusting of iron results in change of color of iron to reddish
brown is also a chemical change.
When antacids are mixed in water bubbles are formed indicating the
Formation of a gas
production of a gas and therefore it is a chemical change.

Change in the smell of the When food gets spoiled, it produces foul smell. This is because of a
substance chemical change in food.

30
Rotten eggs often produce a bad odour due to production of sulphur.

Two liquids combine with each other and form a solid called precipitate.
Formation of Solids For Example, shells of animals are precipitates formed by chemical
changes.

Chemical Changes
Rusting of Iron
When the iron comes in contact with oxygen and water, reacts and forms a red colored substance over
it. It is called Rust.

Formation of Rust
How to prevent rusting of iron
 By applying paint on iron objects so that they cannot come in contact with oxygen and moisture in the
environment
 Galvanization of iron which means applying a layer of zinc or chromium metals on the iron
Crystallization
It is a process of obtaining crystals of a pure substance from its solution. For Example, we can obtain
the crystals of copper sulphate by boiling copper sulphate solution.

31
Crystallization of Copper Sulphate

II. TEXT BOOK EXERCISES:

Question1. Classify the changes involved in the following processes as physical or chemical
changes:
(a) Photosynthesis
(b) Dissolving sugar in water
(c) Burning of coal
(d) Melting of wax
(e) Beating aluminium to make aluminium foil
(f) Digestion of food

Solution1:
Processes Types of Changes
Photosynthesis Chemical change
Dissolving sugar in
Physical change
water
Burning of coal Chemical change
Melting of wax Physical change
Beating aluminium to
Physical change
make aluminium foil
Digestion of food Chemical change

Question2. State whether the following statements are true or false. In case a statement is false,
write the corrected statement in your notebook.
(a) Cutting a log of wood into pieces is a chemical change. (True/False)
(b) Formation of manure from leaves is a physical change. (True/False)
(c) Iron pipes coated with zinc do not get rusted easily. (True/False)
(d) Iron and rust are the same substances. (True/False)
(e) Condensation of steam is not a chemical change. (True/False)
Solution2:
32
(a) Cutting a log of wood into pieces is a chemical change. (False)
(b) Formation of manure from leaves is a physical change. (False)
(c) Iron pipes coated with zinc do not get rusted easily. (True)
(d) Iron and rust are the same substances. (False)
(e) Condensation of steam is not a chemical change. (True)

Question3. Fill in the blanks in the following statements:


(a) When carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, it turns milky due to the formation of
_________.
(b) The chemical name of baking soda is _________.
(c) Two methods by which rusting of iron can be prevented are _________ and _________.
(d) Changes in which only _________ properties of a substance change are called physical changes.
(e) Changes in which new substances are formed are called _________ changes.
Solution3:
(a) calcium carbonate.
(b) sodium hydrogen carbonate.
(c) galvanization.
(d) physical
(e) Chemical
Question4. When baking soda is mixed with lemon juice, bubbles are formed with the evolution of a
gas. What type of change is it? Explain.
Solution4:
The bubbles are basically due to the formation of carbon dioxide gas. On mixing baking soda with lemon
juice, they react with each other to form carbon dioxide (and other products).

Question5. When a candle burns, both physical and chemical changes take place.
Identify these changes. Give another example of a familiar process in which both the chemical and
physical changes take place.
Solution5:
• Melting of wax: Physical Change
• Burning of wax: Chemical Change
Digestion of food is another example, in the process; food is physically broken down into smaller pieces
by chewing & also chemically broken down by enzymes in the saliva & acid in the stomach.

Question6. How would you show that setting of curd is a chemical change?
Solution6:
We can get milk (original substance) back from curd; also the new substance (curd) has different chemical
properties, taste, smell etc.

Question7. Explain why burning of wood and cutting it into small pieces are considered as two
different types of changes.
Solution7:
When we cut wood only its shape and size is changed and no new substance is formed. But, when we burn
wood, a new substance is formed.

Question8. Describe how crystals of copper sulphate are prepared.


Solution8:
Crystallization is the process by which we can obtain crystals of copper sulphate. In this process, a few
drops of dilute sulphuric acid is added to water. The water is then boiled & as it starts boiling, copper
33
sulphate powder is added with stirring. The powder must be added on till the solution becomes saturated.
Afterwards, it is filtered into a china dish and allowed to cool, undisturbed. After some time the crystals of
copper sulphate separate out.

Question9. Explain how painting of an iron gate prevents it from rusting.


Solution9:
Rusting of iron happens when it comes in contact with air and moisture. By painting the iron gate, we
basically we are preventing the contact of water and air from iron.

Question10. Explain why rusting of iron objects is faster in coastal areas than in deserts.
Solution10:
The presence of moisture in the air promotes rusting of iron. The quantity of moisture in coastal areas is
quite high, as compared to deserts, where moisture content in the air is very low.

Question11. The gas we use in the kitchen is called liquified petroleum gas (LPG). In the cylinder it
exist as a liquid. When it comes out from the cylinder it becomes a gas (Change – A) then it burns
(Change – B). The following statements pertain to these changes. Choose the correct one.
(i) Process – A is a chemical change.
(ii) Process – B is a chemical change.
(iii) Both processes A and B are chemical changes.
(iv) None of these processes is a chemical change.
Solution11:
Option (ii) is correct.

Question12. Anaerobic bacteria digest animal waste and produce biogas (Change – A).
The biogas is then burnt as fuel (Change – B). The following statements pertain to these changes.
Choose the correct one.
(i) Process – A is a chemical change.
(ii) Process – B is a chemical change.
(iii) Both processes A and B are chemical changes.
(iv) None of these processes is a chemical change.
Solution12:
Option (iii) is correct.

III. WORKSHEET:
Impure copper sulphate powder can be purified by the process of:
a) Galvanization b) Crystallization c) Evaporation d) Sublimation
2. Anaerobic bacteria digest animal waste and produce biogas (Change A). The biogas is then burnt as
fuel (Change B). The following statements pertain to these changes. Choose the correct one.
a) A is a chemical change whereas B is a physical change
b) B is a chemical change whereas A is a physical change
c) Both A and B are physical changes
d) Both A and B are chemical changes
3. The chemical name of baking soda is …………..
4. Some substances can be obtained in pure state from their solutions by ………….
5. Write a word equation to represent the process of rusting of iron. Also write the chemical symbols
and formulae of all substances involved.

34
6. What is stainless steel? How is stainless steel made? State an important property of stainless steel.
7. When electricity is passed through water, then a change V occurs which leads to the formation of
two gases W and X. On the other hand, when water is heated strongly, then a change Y takes place
leading to the formation of gas Z.
a. what are the gases (i). W (ii) X and (iii) Z
b. what type of change is (i) V and (ii) Y

IV. HOMEWORK
1. Explain why, rusting of iron objects is faster in coastal areas than in deserts.
2. What happens when magnesium ribbon is burned in air? Write a word equation for this process.
Name the type of change which takes place.
3. When a grey colored object made of metal A is lifted exposed to damp air for a considerable time, it
gets colored with a red-brown flaky coting by the process called B which eats up the whole object
gradually. It is said the presence of C and D is necessary for this process to take place. If this object
is galvanized by metal E, then the process B does not occur.
(a). Name the metal A of which the object is made.
(b). Name the process B
(c). What are (i) C, and (ii) D
(d). Name the metal E
CHAPTER-14
ELECTRIC CURRENT AND ITS EFFECTS

I. CHAPTER AT A GLANCE:
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
o This electric charge is carried by moving electrons (charge carriers) in a wire.
o Electric current is measured as rate of flow of charge.
o The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the Ampere (A).
o Electric current is measured using a device called an Ammeter.
o Electric current is denoted by symbol I.
o In past, it was considered that the current is the flow of protons from positive battery terminal to
negative battery terminal through the circuit.
o Later it was discovered that the current is the flow of electrons from negative battery terminal to
positive battery terminal through the circuit.
As a convention, current is still considered to flow from positive terminal to
negative

35
 An electronic component can be an element of an electric circuit that helps in its functioning.
 The electric circuit allows electricity to flow through it and is used to provide electricity for various
purposes such as running electric motors, providing electricity to a bulb or a fan, generating heat.
 A battery is defined as a combination of two or more cells. In a battery, the negative terminal of one cell is
connected to the positive terminal of the next cell and so on. .
 Batteries are used in several devices such as toys, remote control, torches and transistors.

Batteries

Drawing an Electric Circuit Diagram

An electric circuit and its circuit diagram

 An electric circuit can be drawn on a paper with the help of the symbols that are used for representing the
electronic components. Such a representation of an electric circuit using its symbols is called an Electric
Circuit Diagram.

 The electric circuit diagram consists of a key that acts as a switch for the circuit. The key can be placed
anywhere in the circuit.

36
 Open Circuit - When the key is switched off or opened the circuit is said to be an open circuit as it is
incomplete.

 Closed Circuit - When the key is switched on or closed the circuit is said to be a closed circuit as it is
complete.

 The electric circuit shown here consists of a bulb. The bulb has a wire present inside it called
the Filament. When the electric current passes through the filament it closed. The filament breaks when the
bulb gets fused.
What happens when the filament of a bulb breaks?

A light bulb

When the filament of a bulb breaks the circuit of the bulb becomes incomplete. Hence the bulb does not glow
as it does not receive any electricity.

The Heating Effect of Electric Current


When an electric current pass through a wire the wire gets heated up. This is known as the heating effect of
electric current.
The heat that is produced in the wire depends upon the following factors:
 the material of the wire
 the length of the wire
 the thickness of the wire
Many appliances work on the heating effect of electric current such as:
 electric heater
 electric iron
 electric stove
 geysers
 electric coffee maker
 toaster
 hair dryer
37
Appliances that work on the heating effect of electric current
All these elements produce a high amount of heat when electricity passes through them. However, this amount
can change depending upon the requirements of the device. This is so because they contain a coil of wire
known as an element.
Depending upon the amount of heat required by such appliance‘s different types, sizes and length of wire are
used in them. Some virus can break down or melt as they get heated.
Production of Light in a Bulb due to the Heating Effect of Electric Current

Glowing filament of Electric Bulb


The filament of a bulb is a coiled wire that gets hot when electricity is passed through it. This makes the
filament glow and as a result, light is produced from the bulb.
What is an electric fuse?

Different types of Fuses


 An electric fuse is a device that is used to prevent the damage that can be caused by an excess of electric
current. According to the heating effect of the electric current, a wire becomes hot as current is passed
through it. However, if an excess of current is passed through a wire it can melt or break.

38
 The electric fuse consists of a wire which is made up of a metal or an alloy which has a low melting point.
As a result, the wire breaks down easily as high current passes through it. As the wire breaks the circuit of
the fuse opens and hence no for the current passes through it.
 This can prevent a short circuit for fire due to high electric current.
 Different types of fuses are used for different devices and some are also available for houses as well.
How can excessive current pass through a circuit?
Reasons why excessive current can pass through a circuit:
 Sometimes we connect different devices to the same socket which results in drawing of more current from
that socket. As a result, the load on the circuit increases and it can lead to a short circuit or fire.
 When the insulation of wires gets torn away, the wires can come in contact with each other which cause a
spark or may lead to a fire (short circuit).
This is why fuses are used to prevent any kind of short circuit and overloading.

CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamps)

CFL
 CFLs do not work on the heating effect of electric current.
 They do not have a filament inside them instead they contain two electrodes that produce light.
 These bulbs have a fluorescent coating inside them which makes the light brighter.
 CFLs thus save energy as they do not produce heat along with the light.
 Ordinary bulbs on the other hand waste energy as they get heated while lighting up.
What is an ISI mark?
 ISI stands for Indian Standards Institute which standardizes all electrical appliances.
 Hence if any appliance does not have an ISI mark over it, it means that this appliance does not conform to
the standard guidelines of ISI and hence it is not safe to use.
 On the other hand, if any appliance holds such a mark, it means that it is safe to use, it is a quality product
and it will not lead to wastage of electricity.

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ISI Mark on Electric Geyser
What are miniature circuit breakers (MCB)?

Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)


 A miniature circuit breaker or MCB is generally used instead of fuses.
 A fuse breaks due to excessive current so that the circuit opens up and the damage can be prevented.
However, once a fuse breaks down it cannot be used again.
 MCB, on the other hand, is a switch which turns OFF on its own when a circuit overloads. Once the
problem the circuit is rectified we can switch ON the MCB once again.
Magnetic Effect of Electric Current
When an electric current is passed through a wire it behaves like a magnet. This is called the magnetic effect of
the electric current which was discovered by a scientist, Hans Christian Oersted.
He discovered that the needle of a compass deflects when an electric current is passed through a wire placed
near the compass. This indicates that a magnetic field is created near the wire that deflects the needle.

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Deflection in Compass Needle due to Electric Current
Electromagnet
 Every magnetic material has a magnetic field up to which the influence of its magnetism can be
experienced.
 A magnet whose magnetic field is generated with the help of electric current is called an Electromagnet.
 The Electromagnet is formed because of the magnetic effect of the electric current.

Electromagnet
Applications of Electromagnets
 Electromagnets are used in domestic appliances such as electric bells.

 They are used in toys.


 They are used in all kinds of telecommunication equipment.
 They are used in cranes to separate magnetic materials from junk and to lift heavy objects.
 They are used by doctors to remove any magnetic materials that we have fallen in the eye.

Electric Bell

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Components of an Electric Bell
 A coil of wire wound over an iron piece that forms the Electromagnet.
 An iron strip (soft iron armature) which has a hammer attached to it which is joined to the wire coil.
 A contact screw through which is attached to the iron strip.
 A battery which connects the wire coil and the contact screw.
 A switch in the middle of the circuit.
Working of an Electric Bell
 When the switch of the Bell is ON, an electric current flow through the coil of wire which makes the iron
piece attached to it act as an Electromagnet.
 As a result, the iron piece attracts the hammer towards itself. The hammer thus hits the bell and a sound is
produced.
 As the hammer move towards the iron piece, it moves away from the contact screw which breaks down the
circuit.
 As the circuit breaks the wire coil stops receiving any current which makes the electromagnet lose its
magnetic effect.
 As a result, the hammer falls back to its original position.
 Then as the hammer falls back the iron strip again comes in contact with the contact screw and the circuit
gets completed.
 This again turns the iron piece into an electromagnet and the whole process continues until the bell is
switched OFF. This results in the continuous ringing of the bell.

II. TEXT BOOK EXERCISES:

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1. Draw in your notebook the symbols to represent the following components of electrical circuits. Connecting
wires, switch in the OFF position, bulb, cell, switch in ON position and battery.
Answer:
Connecting wires

Switch in the OFF position

Bulb

Cell

Switch in ON position

Battery

2. Draw the circuit diagram to represent the circuit shown below

Answer:

3. Shows four cells fixed on a board. Draw lines to indicate how you will connect their terminals with
wires to make a battery of four cells.

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Answer:

4. The bulb in the circuit shown in Fig. 14.5 does not glow. Can you indicate the problem? Make
necessary changes in the circuit to make the bulb glow.

Answer:
The problem in circuit is that both the negative terminals are connected to the b

5. Name any two effects of electric current.


Answer:
(i) Heating effect
(ii) Magnetic effect
6. When the current is switched on through a wire, a compass needle kept nearby gets deflected
from its north-south position. Explain.

Answer:

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When the current flows through a circuit magnetic field is produced around it. The magnetic fields cause
deflection the needle of magnetic compass. This effect is called magnetic effect of electric current.

7. Will the compass needle show the deflection when the switch in the circuit
shown by Fig. 14.24 is closed?

Answer:
No, because magnetic field is not produced in the circuit until current is flowing through the circuit.

8. Fill in the blanks

(a)Longer line in the symbol represents its —————– terminal.

(b)The combination of two or more cell is called ————–.

(c) When a current is switched ON in a room heater, it ———-.

(d)The safety device based on the heating effect of electric current is called ———–.

Answer:
(a) positive
(b) battery.
(c) produces heat.
(d) fuse
9. Mark ‘T” if the statement is true and ‘F’ if it is false:
(a)To make a battery of two cells, the negative terminal of one cell is connected to the negative terminal of
another cell. (T/F)

(b)When the current through the fuse exceeds a certain limit, the fuse wire melts and breaks. (T/F)

(c)An electromagnet does not attract a piece of iron. (T/F)

(d)An electric bell has an electromagnet. (T/F)

Answer:
(a) F (b) T (c) F (d) T

10. Do you think an electromagnet can be used for separating plastic bags from a garbage heap? Explain

Answer: No, electromagnets attract only the magnetic material like iron. So, it cannot be used for separating
plastic from garbage.

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11.An electrician is carrying out some repairs in your house. He wants to replace a fuse by a piece of
wire. Would you agree? Give reasons for your response.

Answer:
Replacing the fuse with metal piece should be dangerous as fuse wire have very low melting point. In case of
metal piece, the melting point will be high and circuit will be not prevented in case of overloading or
overheating.

12.Zubeda made an electric circuit using a cell holder shown in Fig. 14.4, a switch and a bulb. When she
put, she switches in the ON position, the bulb did not glow. Help Zubeda in identifying the possible
defects in the circuit.

Answer:
The possible reason for not glowing of bulb is:

(i) Connecting wire is loose.


(ii) The cells are used up.
(iii) Bulb may be fused.

Question 13.In the circuit shown in Fig. 14.25

(i)Would any of bulb will glow when the switch is in the ‗OF‘ position?

(ii)What will be the order in which bulb A, B, C will glow when switch is moved to the ‗ON‘ position?

Answer:
(a) No, as the circuit is not complete.
(b) All the three bulbs glow together if switch is in ON position.

III. WORKSHEET:
1. At the time of short circuit, the current in the circuit:
(a) reduce substantially (b) does not change (c) increase heavily (d) varies continuously

2. The magnetic effect of electric current was discovered by:

(a) Maxwell (b) Darwin (c) Oersted (d) Newton

3. Name the metal which is used to make the filament of an electric bulb.

4. Name the device which is being used increasingly in place of fuse.

5. When does an electric short circuit occur?

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6. Explain the importance of using fuse in a household electric circuit.

7. Mention two advantages of an electro magnet over a permanent magnet. What type of magnet is used in an
electric bell? Draw a labelled diagram of an electric bell?

IV. HOME WORK:


1. Can we use a U-shaped permanent magnet in making an electric bell?
2. What might happen if a fuse is not inserted in household electric wiring?
3. Explain why, the current that makes the heater element very hot, only slightly warms the connection wires
leading to the heater.

SOCIAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER 6: TOWNS, TRADERS AND CRAFTERSONS (HISTORY)

I. TEXTBOOK SOLUTIONS:

Q1. Why do you think towns grew around temples?


Ans. The following factors are responsible for the growth of towns around temples:
(a) A large number of priests, workers, artisans, traders, etc. settled near the temple.
(b) They catered to the various needs of the people as well as of pilgrims who flocked to the temples.
Consequently towns grew, which came to be known as temple towns.
(c) They were often the administrative centres.

Q2. How important werecraftspersons for the building and maintenance of temples?
Ans. Craftspersons played an important role in the building and maintenance of temples :
(i) The Vishwakarma community consisting of goldsmith, bronzesmiths, blacksmiths, masons and
carpenters were essential to the building of temples.
(ii) Weavers such as the Saliyar or Kaikkolars were prosperous communities and they made ample
donations to temples.
(iii) The craftspersons of Bidar were skilled in their inlay work in copper and silver. They were also
important for the building and maintenance of temples in their own way.

Q3. Why did people from distant lands visit Surat?


Ans. People from distant lands visited Surat because of the following reasons:
(i)Surat was the gateway for trade with West Asia via the Gulf of Ormuz.
(ii) Surat has also been called the gate to Mecca because many pilgrim ships set sail from here.
(iii) There was a big market for cotton textiles. One could find several retail and wholesale shops selling
cotton textiles.
(iv) The textiles of Surat were famous for their gold lace borders (zari) and had a market in West Asia,
Africa and Europe.
(v)There were ample rest-houses for the visitors. Magnificent buildings and innumerable pleasure parks
attracted people of far-off places.

Q4. In what ways was craft production in cities like Calcutta different from that in cities like Thanjavur?

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Ans. a)The craft production in Thanjavur was in form of inlay work in copper and silver white in Calcutta
it was in the form of cotton textiles, jute textiles and silk textiles.
b) Craftspersons in Thanjavur were independent while in Calcutta they were in the hands of the Europeans.
c) Craftspersons in Thanjavur had the liberty to sell their own craftwork while in Calcutta, craftspersons
had no such liberty.

II. WORKSHEET:

1. Who lived in the ‗Black Towns‘ in cities such as Madras?


2. How was water supplied, to the city of Thanjavur?
3. How did temple authorities use their wealth?
4. What do the ruins of Hampi reveal?
5. Name a few Indian spices which became an important part of European cooking.
6. What were craftspersons of Bidar famous for?
7. Why has Surat been called the gate to Mecca?
8. Mention some articles of trade on which temple authorities collected taxes.

III. HOMEWORK:

1. What purpose did small towns serve?

CHAPTER 5: WOMEN CHANGE THE WORLD (CIVICS)

I. TEXTBOOK SOLUTIONS:

Q1. How do you think stereotypes, about what women can or cannot do, affect women‘s right to equality?
Ans. Women are considered inferior to men. There is a belief that women do not have technical mind and
therefore they cannot be scientists. It is thought that women are good at only certain jobs such as teaching and
nursing. These stereotypes about women‘s capability or incapability of doing certain jobs badly affect
women‘s right to equality. It is due to this reason that women are paid less wages than their male-counterparts.

Q2. List one reason why learning the alphabet was so important to women like Rashsundari Devi, Ramabai
and Rokeya.
Ans. Learning the alphabet was so important to these woman because only after that they became able to write
stories, letters and autobiographies which described their own experiences of inequality.

Q3. ―Poor girls drop out of school because they are not interested in getting an education‖. Explain why this
statement is not true.
Ans. Poor girls do not leave school because they wish so but because they are compelled to do so, due to
several reasons. In rural and poor areas of the country there are no proper schools. There is also dearth of
teachers who can teach on a regular basis. If a school is not close to people‘s homes, and there is no transport
facility, parents do not show their willingness to send their girls to school.

Q4. Can you describe any two methods of struggle that the women‘s movement used to raise issues?
Ans. The women‘s movement used several methods of struggle in order to raise issues. Two out of them are:
(a) Campaigning. It is an important part of the women‘s movement. It fights discrimination and violence
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against women.Campaigns have also led to new laws being passed. For example, in 2006, a law was passed to
give women, who are prey to domestic violence, some legal protection.
(b) Protesting. The women‘s movement raises its voice when violations against women take place. Public
rallies and demonstrations are a very powerful way of drawing attention to injustices.

Q5.Who set up a Mission in Khedgaon near Pune in 1898? How did the Mission prove beneficial for the
women?
Ans. PanditaRamabai setup a Mission in Khedgaon near Pune in 1898. This was the place where widows and
poor women were encouraged not only to become literate but to be independent. They were taught a variety of
skills from carpentry to running a printing press, skills that are considered male preserve. This Mission is still
active today and does a lot for the upliftment of women.

Q6. Was Rashsundari Devi a superstitious woman? If not, why not?


Ans.Rashsundari Devi was a housewife from a rich landlord‘s family in West Bengal. She was not allowed to
learn to read and write. During her time, some 200 years ago, there was a prevalent belief that if a woman
learnt to read and write, she would bring bad luck to her husband. Rashsundari Devi took this belief as false
because she was not at all superstitious. She took strict decision and taught herself how to read and write in
secret, well after her marriage. She even wrote her autobiography in Bangla at the age of 60. Her book titled
Amor Jiban is the first known autobiography written by an Indian woman.

Q7. Although the literacy rates have increased since independence, what remains the worrying factor with
respect to gender?
Ans. It is true that the literacy rates have increased since independence. According to the 1961 census, about
40% of all boys and men were literate compared to 15% of all girls and women. In the census of 2001, these
figures have grown to 76% for boys and men and 54% for girls and women. This means that the proportion of
both men and women who are able to read and have at least some amount of schooling, has increased. But the
worrying factor is that the percentage of male is still higher than the female group. The gap still exists even
today.
II. WORKSHEET:

1. What is the percentage of women engaged in agricultural work in our country?


2. Why was Ramabai given the title ‗Pandita‘?
3. Mention any one stereotype about what women can or cannot do?
4. How did Laxmi Lakra break the stereotype that only men could be engine drivers?
5. What did Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain do for the girls?

III. HOMEWORK:

1. What is the purpose of conducting census every 10 years?


2. What is meant by the Women‘s Movement? When is International Women‘s Day celebrated?

CHAPTER 6: UNDERSTANDING MEDIA (CIVICS)

I. TEXTBOOK SOLUTIONS:
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Q1. In what ways does media play an important role in a democracy?
Ans.Media plays an important role in a democracy. It provides news and discusses events taking place in
the country and the world. It is on the basis of this information that we learn how the government works.
 Media also criticises the unpopular policies and programmes that the government takes.
 Media forms public opinion.
 Media acknowledges us with several current issues.
 Media provides awareness among masses.

Q2. You have read about the ways in which the media ‗sets the agenda‘. What kind of effect does this have
in a democracy? Provide two examples to support your point of view.
Ans. Media creates public opinion in a democracy. It can build up public opinion in favour of or against
any issue. Today, it has diverted from its real agenda. Instead of highlighting public issues, it is now
concentrating upon cheap agendas like fashion shows, child falling in pit, etc.

Q3. Most television channels and newspapers are part of big business houses. Why?
Answer: The technologies that mass media use keep changing and so a lot of money is spent on getting the
latest technology. The TV studio in which the newsreader sits has lights, cameras, sound recorders,
transmission satellites etc. All of these cost a lot of money. One thing more, it is not only the newsreader
who needs to be paid but also a number of other people who help put the broadcast together. Due to these
costs mass media needs a great deal of money to do its various works. As a result, most television channels
and newspapers are part of big business houses.

Q4. What do you mean by an independent media? Why is it important for the media to be independent?
Ans. An independent media means that no one should control and influence its coverage of news. No one
should tell the media what can be included and what should not be included in a news story. It means that
media should not be under anyone‘s pressure. It will be totally independent.
An independent media is very important because it is on the basis of what information media provides us
that we take action as citizens. Hence, it essential that this information is reliable. It should not be biased at
all.

Q5. How can you say that media is far from freedom? Or why do most newspapers still fail to provide a
balanced story?
Ans.
 It is said that media is often controlled by business houses. Media does what these business houses
wish. At times, it is in the interest of these businesses to focus on only one side of the story.
 Media is in the constant need of money. Hence, it becomes essential for media to get linked with
advertising groups. In such a situation it is difficult for media to report against people who give
them advertisements.
 Media‘s close links to big business houses snatches its independence. Media also tends to focus on
a particular aspect of a story because they believe this makes the story interesting.
 Many times even if the media wants to increase public support for an issue, they often do this by
focusing on one side of a story. Thus, it is difficult to say that media is independent.

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II. WORKSHEET:

9. Name various forms of communication.


10. What does the word ‗media‘ mean?
11. Mention any one positive aspect of television.
12. Mention one way in which the mass media earns money.
13. What are the various ways through which people express their dissatisfaction to any of the
government‘s decision which does not go in their favour?
14. Why is it necessary for media to be independent?
15. Why does media sometimes focus on a particular aspect of a story?

III. HOMEWORK:

1. Write a brief note on ‗local media‘.

CHAPTER 8: HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS- THE TROPICAL AND SUB


TROPICAL REGION (GEOGRAPHY)

I. TEXTBOOK SOLUTIONS:

Q1. What are the crops grown by the people of the Amazon Basin.
Ans. The people of the Amazon Basin mainly grow crops like tapioca, pineapple and sweet potato. They
also grow manioc also known as cassava, cocoa and coffee.

Q2. Give reasons.


(i) The rainforests are depleting.
(ii) Paddy is grown in the Ganga-Brahmaputra plains.
Ans. (i) The rainforests are depleting due to following reasons:
→ The indigenous population was pushed out for the developmental activities which is leading to the
destruction of the rainforests.
→ large scale deforestation for construction of roads, industries and houses.
→ for getting wood from forests in order to increase economical profit.
(ii) Paddy is grown in the Ganga-Brahmaputra plains the availability of sufficient amount of water in this
area. Paddy requires fertile alluvial soil and much water to grow which is easily available in this plain. The
rainfall and temperature also support the growth of paddy.

Q3. Write a short note on the climate of the Amazon Basin.


Ans. The climate of the Amazon Basin is characterized by hot and wet climate throughout the year. Both
day and nights and almost equally hot and humid. It rains almost every day. The day temperatures are high
with very high humidity. At night the temperature goes down but the humidity remains high.

Q4. What do you know about the location of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin? Mention the climate of this
Basin.
Ans. The Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin lies in the sub-tropical region that is situated between 10°N to 30°N
latitudes. The tributaries of river Ganga such as the Ghaghra, the son, the Chambal, the Gandak, the Kosi
and the tributaries of Brahmaputra drain it.
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The area of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin is dominated by monsoon climate. The monsoon brings rains
from mid-June to mid-September. The summers are hot and the winters are cool.
Q5. The Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin has varied topography. How does it affect the distribution of
population there?
Ans. The basin area has varied topography. As a result, the distribution of population is not even
everywhere in the area.
a. The mountain areas with steep slopes have inhospitable terrain. Therefore less number of people live in
the mountain area of the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin.
b. The plain area provides the most suitable land for human habitation. Therefore, the density of
population of the plains is very high.
Q6. What is the main activity of the people of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin? Give an account of it.
Ans.
a. The main activity of the people of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin is agriculture. Paddy is the main crop
here.
b. Other crops grown here are wheat, maize, sorgham gram and millets. Cash crops like sugarcane and
jute are also grown. Banana plantations are seen in some areas in the plain.
c. In the West Bengal and Assam tea is grown in plantations. Silk is produced through the cultivation of
silk worms in parts of Bihar and Assam. In the mountains and hills, where the slopes are gentle crops are
grown on terraces.
Q7. How can you say that the life of the people of the Amazon basin is changing?
Ans.The life of the people of the Amazon basin is also changing, though at a slow rate.
a. In the old days it was difficult to reach the heart of the forest. In 1970 the Trans Amazon highway made
all parts of the rain forest accessible.
b. Aircrafts and helicopters are also used for reaching various places.
c. The indigenous populations was pushed out from the area and forced to settle in new areas.
II. WORKSHEET:
1. Why are terraces built on the hill slopes?
2. What leads to the pollution of the rivers?
3. By what names is the river Brahmaputra known in different places?
4. What do men and women of the rainforest do?

III. HOMEWORK:

1. Explain about the lifestyle of people of the rainforest with the help of any one example.

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