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GRADE X BIOLOGY EXACT LOCATION AND FUNCTION SR NO. STRUCTURE EXACT LOCATION FUNCTION 1 Cell
GRADE X
BIOLOGY
EXACT LOCATION AND FUNCTION
SR NO.
STRUCTURE
EXACT LOCATION
FUNCTION
1
Cell membrane
Outermost in animal
cells. Lies next to cell
wall in plant cells.
Regulates the entry of certain solutes
and ions.
2.
Cell wall
Surrounding plasma
membrane/ cell
membrane in plant
cells.
Allows substances in solution to
enter and leave the cell without
hindrance and gives rigidity and
shape to the plant cell.
3.
Centrosome
Region surrounding the
centrioles located near
the nucleus in an animal
cell.
Region surrounding the centrioles
located near the nucleus in an animal
cell.
4.
Chloroplast
1.In the cytoplasm of
plant cells.
2.located mainly
contained in the
mesophyll cells located
between the upper
epidermis and the lower
epidermis(i.e in palisade
cells and spongy cells)
of leaves.
3. Found in the guard
cells of stomata and in
the outer layers of
young green stems.
Trap solar energy for photosynthesis.
5.
Chromatin
fibres
In the nucleoplasm in
interphase stage of
nucleus.
Carry hereditary information or genes
6
Genes
located on
chromosomes.
Encode particular protein which
express in form of some particular
feature/character or traits of the body
of an organism
Clear spaces in 7 Vacuoles cytoplasm with water or other substances in solution 1.Gives turgidity
Clear spaces in
7
Vacuoles
cytoplasm with water or
other substances in
solution
1.Gives turgidity to plant cells by
pressing against the cell wall.
2. storage of water and other
substances, food, pigments and waste
products.
Stomata
In epidermal layer on both
8
surfaces of leaves, green
surfaces of stem of
herbaceous plants.
Diffusion of gases carbon dioxide for
photosynthesis and oxygen for
cellular respiration.
9 Lenticels
On the surfaces of old
woody stem.
Diffusion of gases carbon dioxide for
photosynthesis and oxygen for
cellular respiration.
10 Hydathodes
On the margins of
leaves at the tip of vein
endings
Guttation or Exudation
11 Thylakoids
In the grana of
chloroplast
Site of light reaction of
photosynthesis
12 Stroma
Matrix of chloroplast
Site of biosynthetic phase of
photosynthesis
13 Heart
Located in the centre
between the two lungs
and above the
diaphragm
Pumps oxygenated blood through
aorta to all parts of body and pumps
deoxygenated blood through
pulmonary artery to lungs for
oxygenation
14 Pacemaker
Located at the base of
superior vena cava in
the walls of right
atrium.
Initiates and regulates heart beat
15 Tricuspid valve
At the aperture
between the right
atrium and the right
ventricle
Maintains unidirectional flow of
deoxygenated blood from the right
atrium to right ventricle.
16 Bicuspid or
Mitral valve
At the aperture
between the left atrium
and the left
ventricle
Maintain unidirectional flow of
oxygenated blood from the left
atrium to the left ventricle.
17
Pulmonary
Semilunar
valves
At the opening of the
right ventricle into the
pulmonary artery
Maintains unidirectional flow of
deoxygenated blood from the right
ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
Aortic Maintains unidirectional 18 Semilunar valves flow of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle into
Aortic
Maintains unidirectional
18 Semilunar
valves
flow of deoxygenated
blood from the right
ventricle into the
pulmonary artery.
Prevents backflow of oxygenated
blood from the aorta into the left
ventricle.
19 Pocket shaped
In the lumen of veins
valves
Maintains unidirectional flow of blood
towards the heart
20 Tonsils
Sides of the neck.
Localize infections and prevent it from
spreading to the body as a whole.
21 Spleen
In the abdomen,
behind the stomach
above the left kidney.
Acts as a blood reservoir, produces
lymphocytes, destroys worn out red
blood cells, in an embryo it produces
RBCs.
22 Pancreas
Located in the
abdomen behind the
stomach in loop of
duodenum
secrets hormones Insulin and
glucagon which regulates glucose
concentration in blood.
Secretes pancreatic juices for
digestion.
23 Kidneys
One on either side of
the backbone and
protected by the last
two ribs
Primary excretory organs for removal
of mainly nitrogenous waste products
such as urea, uric acid etc. and also
maintains osmoregulation.
24 Ureter
Arising from the Hilum
in the median surface
of each kidney and
connects behind the
urinary bladder in the
lower part of the
abdomen
Transports urine from the pelvis
region of kidney to the urinary
bladder.
25 Renal Pelvis
Expanded portion of the
ureter in each kidney
Receives urine from the collecting
ducts
26 Urinary
Bladder
Muscular sac in the
pelvis just above and
behind the pubic bone
Stores urine temporarily till it is
expelled.
27
Bowman’s
In the renal cortex
Receives the ultrafiltrate.
capsule
28
Glomerulus
Lodged in the
Bowman’s capsule
Performs ultrafiltration.
29 Proximal In the renal cortex. Convoluted Reabsorbs2/3rd of water and much of glucose tubule
29 Proximal
In the renal cortex.
Convoluted
Reabsorbs2/3rd of water and much of
glucose
tubule
30 Distal
In the renal cortex.
Convoluted
tubule
Reabsorption of remaining chlorides
and some water. Walls secreting
potassium ions and foreign chemicals
such as Penicillin and other drugs into
forming urine
31 Loop of Henle
In the renal medulla
Some absorption of water and
sodium ions
32 Central cortex
Outer portion of the
cerebrum
Enables us to think and reason out,
invent, plan and memorize.
33 Cerebellum
Just at the base of the
brain and under the
cerebrum
1.Helps in maintaining body balance,
posture and equilibrium along with
the internal ear.
2. Coordinates the working of
voluntary muscles
34 Corpus
Callosum
Between the two
cerebral hemispheres
internally
Transfers nerve impulses from one
cerebral hemispheres to the other.
35 Medulla
Oblongata
Lowest portion of the
brain at the base of the
skull
Controls involuntary activities of
internal organs like peristalsis of the
alimentary canal, movement of
breathing, beating of the heart etc.
36 Pons varolli
Centre of the brain
below the cerebellum
Breathing along with the Medulla
oblongata
37 Thalamus
In the Diencephalon
Relays pain and pressure impulses
from the various parts of the body to
the cerebrum
38 Hypothalamus
Below the thalamus in
the Diencephalon
Controls body temperature, anger,
hunger, thirst and the pituitary
gland.
39 Midbrain
Small tubular part of the
brain
Reflexes involving eyes and ears
40 ANS
Pair of chains of
nerves and ganglia on
either sides
of the backbone
Controls involuntary actions of the
internal organs
41
Sympathetic
nervous
Nerves arise from the
spinal cord between
the neck and the waist
region
Prepares the body for violent actions
against abnormal conditions
system

42 Para

Anteriorly in the head and the neck and the other posterior in the sacral region

Concerned with re-establishing normal conditions after the violent act is over.

sympathetic c

Nervous

system

Between the meninges, ventricles of the brain, central canal of the spinal cord.

Acts like a cushion and protects the brain and spinal cord for injuries by absorbing mechanical shocks

43 CSF

44 Spinal cord Extends from the MO down almost the whole length of the backbone
44 Spinal cord
Extends from the MO
down almost the
whole length of the
backbone to the end
of the second lumbar
vertebrae and lies
within the neural canal
of the vertebrae
45 Lacrimal
glands
Upper sideward portion
of the orbit
46 Yellow spot
At the back of the eye
almost at the center on
the horizontal axis of
the eyeball.
47 Blind spot
Lateral to the yellow
spot on the nasal side
of the retina.
48 Aqueous
chamber
Front chamber between
the lens and the cornea
49 Vitreous
chamber
Larger cavity behind
the eye lens and
retina in the eye.
50 Ear ossicles

In the middle ear cavity wherein the handle of the Malleus is attached to the inner surface of the ear drum, and the flat part of the stapes to the oval window and the Incus is found in between the two.

Their lever like movement transmits and amplifies sound vibrations from the tympanum to the oval window.

Concerned with reflexes below the neck, conducts sensory impulses from the skin and muscles to the brain, conducts motor responses from the brain to the muscles of the trunk and limbs

Secrete tears that have bactericidal lysozymes to kill germs, lubricate the eyes, and keep the front face of the eye clean by washing away dust particles.

Region of acute, brightest and color vision.

Point of no vision and origin of optic nerve.

Filled with aqueous humor that keeps the lens moist and protects it from physical shock, refracts light.

The vitreous humor helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball and protects the retina and the nerve endings.

51 Eustachian tube Connecting the middle ear cavity with the pharynx Equalizes air pressure on
51 Eustachian
tube
Connecting the middle
ear cavity with the
pharynx
Equalizes air pressure on either side
of the Tympanum allowing it to
vibrate freely.
52 Organ of Corti
In the median cochlear
canal
Converts sound vibrations to nerve
impulses, helps in differentiating
between sounds of various pitches.
53
Adrenal Glands
Fitting like caps above
the kidneys
Secretions of Glucocorticoids,
Mineralocorticoids by the Adrenal
Cortex and Adrenaline and Non-
adrenaline by the Medulla.
55 Pancreas
In the abdomen behind
stomach the stomach in
the duodenal loop of
small intestine.
Islets of Langerhans that secrete
Glucagon, Insulin, Somatostatin.
56 Thyroid
Bilobed, butterfly like
structure saddled onto
the trachea, just below
the larynx in front of
the neck.
Secretes Thyroxine and Calcitonin
57 Pituitary
Small projection
hanging from the base
of the midbrain below
the hypothalamus.
Secretes Gonadotropins, other tropic
hormones, Oxytocin, ADH.
58 Testes
In thin walled
cutaneous pouches
called scrotal sacs extra-
abdominally
Spermatogenesis.
59 Leydig’s or
interstitial cells
Packaging tissues
between the coils of the
Seminiferous tubules.
Secrete androgens of which the main
one is Testosterone.
60 Epididymis
Fitting like a cap on the
upper pole of the testis
Stores sperms for some days till they
mature and motile
61 Vas Deferens
Arising from each
Testis, travelling
upward through the
inguinal canal, looping
over the ureters of
their side, coming
together and joining
the urethra at the back
of the urinary bladder.
Transports sperms from the
epididymis region of Testis to the
urethra.
62 Seminal vesicles Between the posterior surface of the urinary bladder and the rectum Produces
62 Seminal
vesicles
Between the posterior
surface of the urinary
bladder and the rectum
Produces a secretion that serves as a
medium for transportation of the
sperms and activates them.
63 Prostate gland
Surrounding the urethra
close to its origin from
the urinary bladder
Pours an alkaline secretion into the
semen as it passes through the
urethra and this neutralizes the acid
in the female vagina.
64
Bulbo-
urethral or
Cowper’s
Open into the urethra
just before it enters the
penis
Its secretion lubricates the tipof the
penis during coitus.
gland
65
Penis
In front of the scrotum
Serves for passing out of semen and
urine.
66
Ovaries
In women that are
located in the pelvis,
one on each side of the
uterus.
Oogenesis.
67
Oviducts
One on either side of
the uterus opening near
the ovary
Site of fertilization
68
Uterus
In the pelvic cavity
between the Urinary
Bladder and the rectum
Site of implantation of the blastocyst
and growth of the fetus.
69
Placenta
Disc-like structure
attached to the uterine
wall.
Allows diffusion of Oxygen, nutrients,
from mother to the fetus, eliminates
carbon dioxide, urea and other
wastes from fetus to the mother,
acts as an endocrine gland and
secretes estrogens and progesterone.
70
Amnion
Sac around the embryo
even before the
formation of the
allantois
Has the amniotic fluid that protects
the embryo from physical damage by
jerks or mechanical shocks, keeps
even pressure all around the embryo,
allows the fetus, some restricted
movement, prevents sticking of the
fetus to the amnion.