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C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008


RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
1. What is the appropriate cycle? 5. The longer the time passes by, the memory decreases, it is an
example of?
a. Theory- Hypothesis-Research-Data- Theory
a. Perfect Correlation
b. Hypothesis-Data-Research-Theory-Data
b. Negative Correlation
c. Theory-Research-Data-Theory- Hypothesis
c. Positive Correlation
d. Research-Hypothesis-Data-Theory
d. No correlation
1. What is the appropriate cycle?
5. The longer the time passes by, the memory decreases, it is an
a. Theory- Hypothesis-Research-Data- Theory example of?

b. Hypothesis-Data-Research-Theory-Data a. Perfect Correlation

c. Theory-Research-Data-Theory- Hypothesis b. Negative Correlation

d. Research-Hypothesis-Data-Theory c. Positive Correlation

2. A theory that can generate research is called? d. No correlation


a. Parsimonious
b. Heuristic 6. It is when the libido is back to the ego and become
c. Verifiable preoccupied by personal appearance and self-adoration.
d. Functionally Significant
2. A theory that can generate research is called? a. Primary narcissism
a. Parsimonious
b. Heuristic b. Secondary narcissism
c. Verifiable
c. Identification
d. Functionally Significant
3. A theory that is simple and can be understood easily is, d. Self-Interest
a. Parsimonious
b. Heuristic 6. It is when the libido is back to the ego and become
c. Verifiable preoccupied by personal appearance and self-adoration.
d. Functionally Significant
3. A theory that is simple and can be understood easily is, a. Primary narcissism
a. Parsimonious
b. Heuristic b. Secondary narcissism
c. Verifiable
c. Identification
d. Functionally Significant
4. A personality test’s ability to measure what is purports to d. Self-Interest
measure is,
a. Reliability Primary Narcissism – libido is invested exclusively on one’s ego
b. Verifiability
c. Validity Secondary Narcissism- It is when the libido is back to the ego and
d. Utility Analysis become preoccupied by personal appearance and self-adoration
5. A personality test’s ability to measure what is purports to
measure is, 7. It is considered as the second force in Psychology
a. Reliability
b. Verifiability a. Humanistic
c. Validity
b. Cognitive
d. Utility Analysis
c. Behaviorism
VALIDITY V. RELIABILITY
d. Psychodynamic
Validity- defined as the agreement between a test score or the
quality of what is believed to measure. 7. It is considered as the second force in Psychology
Reliability- the function of the variability of the test scores a. Humanistic
- As the continuum ranging from normal CONSISTENCY of the b. Cognitive
measurement
c. Behaviorism
RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
d. Psychodynamic - operates on the pleasure principle

Psychodynamic – 1st force in Psychology - Primary process

Behaviorism- 2nd force in Psychology EGO- the realistic and socially accepted

Humanistic- 3rd force in Psychology -The moral arm between superego and ID

Cognitive- 4th force in Psychology -Secondary process

8. According to the Psychoanalytic theory, people are innately SUPEREGO- it strives for perfection
to become:
-Ideals and morals
a. Asocial
-Morality principle
b. Anti-social
SUPEREGO
c. Dependent
Ego Ideal- an ideal self-image consisting of approved and
d. Attention seeker rewarded behavior; consists of pride

8. According to the Psychoanalytic theory, people are innately Conscience- it is the capacity for self-evaluation; criticisms and
to become: reproach

a. Asocial - Internalization of punishments and warnings

b. Anti-social Anxiety

c. Dependent - According to Freud, human beings experience an


extreme form of anxiety when they are separated from
d. Attention seeker their mother, this is called as BIRTH TRAUMA.

9. According to Freud, a psychologically healthy individual has a - It signifies a change from an environment of a complete
dominant, security to one which the satisfaction of their needs is
less predictable.
a. Superego
Three (3) Kinds of Anxiety
b. Conscience
Reality Anxiety- caused by real, objective sources of danger in the
c. Ego environment. This is the easiest to reduce.
d. Id E.g. Fire and snake
9. According to Freud, a psychologically healthy individual has a Neurotic Anxiety- fear that id’s impulses will overwhelm the ego
dominant, and make the person do something for which he will be punished.
a. Superego E.g. Rape (animal like)
b. Conscience Moral Anxiety- fear of doing something contrary to the superego
and thus experiences guilt
c. Ego
E.g. Cheating and stealing
d. Id
10. Our personality is nothing more than acquired habits that
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY
we learned through our experience.” This statement can be
Sigmund Freud
explained of what theory?
View of Human Nature
a. Cognitive
Human beings are biological organisms motivated by the
b. Humanistic
satisfaction of bodily needs. They are hedonistic creatures driven
by the same impulses as lower animals c. Psychodynamic
The 3 provinces of mind d. Learning
ID- the biological and instinctive drive
RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
10. Our personality is nothing more than acquired habits that Oral Aggressive- too little gratification; gets what he wants
we learned through our experience.” This statement can be through power
explained of what theory?
E.g. Smoking, nail biting, sarcasm, and verbal hostility
a. Cognitive
Anal Stage- 1.5- 3 years old
b. Humanistic
(Orderliness & Handling relationships)
c. Psychodynamic
** Toilet training, and urge control
d. Learning
Anal Expulsive- spontaneous and sloppy; too lenient; child will
11. The common issue against Freud’s theory was, get pleasure and success from expulsion

a. Does not discuss the role of sexuality E.g. reckless, careless

b. Overemphasized reinforcement and punishment Anal Retentive- excessive pressure; takes pleasure in being able
to withhold.
c. Lacks empirical support
E.g. obsessively clean and orderly, stingy, meticulous, organized
d. Too optimistic about the ability of humans
ANAL TRIAD
11. The common issue against Freud’s theory was,
1. Orderliness
a. Does not discuss the role of sexuality
2. Stinginess
b. Overemphasized reinforcement and punishment
3. Obstinacy
c. Lacks empirical support
Phallic Stage- 4- 5 years old
d. Too optimistic about the ability of humans
- Play with genitals; awakening of sexual urges
12. Borbs is clingy and extremely possessive, often wanting
everything for himself, at what stage he is fixated? ** Oedipus Complex- boys

a. Oral ** Electra Complex- girls

b. Anal Latency Stage- 7 years old

c. Phallic - Period of dormancy

d. Genital - Time of learning, adjusting to social environment

12. Borbs is clingy and extremely possessive, often wanting - Formation of beliefs and values
everything for himself, at what stage he is fixated?
- Sublimation period
a. Oral
Genital Stage- Puberty
b. Anal
- Masturbation and heterosexual relationships
c. Phallic
- Reawakening of sexual desires
d. Genital
- Pursuit of relationship
FIXATION
13. According to the Psychoanalytic Theory, psychic energy can
- Inability to proceed to the next stage due to under/over be invested in an object or person. This is called as...
gratification
a. Anticathexis
Oral Stage- birth – 1.5 years old
b. Cathexis
(Attention, Affection, Attachment)
c. Libido
Oral Dependent- too much stimulation; very dependent and
submissive d. Defense mechanism
RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
13. According to the Psychoanalytic Theory, psychic energy can c. Personality is primarily unconscious and develops at 3
be invested in an object or person. This is called as... yrs. old.

a. Anticathexis d. Personality is primarily unconscious and develops at 5


yrs. old.
b. Cathexis
15. Which of the following statements is most consistent with
c. Libido the Psychodynamic perspective?

d. Defense mechanism a. Personality is primarily unconscious and develops in


stages
Cathexis- it is the process of investing libidinal energy to the ego;
the relationship or connection between a need and an object that b. Personality is primarily conscious and develops since
satisfies the need. birth
Anticathexis- the process of balancing the drives of ID and the c. Personality is primarily unconscious and develops at 3
morals of superego; the inhibition of an impulse yrs. old.

14. The ego works on what principle? d. Personality is primarily unconscious and develops at 5
yrs. old.
a. Primary process thought
16. Jeff is an athlete who is very careless, rude and very
b. Secondary process thought disorderly in his room. In Freud’s theory, this can be explained
as,
c. Moral principle
a. Jeff has developed an anal retentive personality
d. Pleasure principle
b. Jeff has developed an oral aggressive personality
14. The ego works on what principle?
c. Jeff has developed an anal aggressive personality
a. Primary process thought
d. Jeff has a low conscientiousness trait level
b. Secondary process thought
16. Jeff is an athlete who is very careless, rude and very
c. Moral principle
disorderly in his room. In Freud’s theory, this can be explained
d. Pleasure principle as,

The 3 provinces of mind a. Jeff has developed an anal retentive personality

ID- the biological and instinctive drive b. Jeff has developed an oral aggressive personality

- operates on the pleasure principle c. Jeff has developed an anal aggressive personality

- Primary process d. Jeff has a low conscientiousness trait level

EGO- the realistic and socially accepted Anal Stage- 1.5- 3 years old

-The moral arm between superego and ID (Orderliness & Handling relationships)

-Secondary process ** Toilet training, and urge control

SUPEREGO- it strives for perfection Anal Expulsive- spontaneous and sloppy; too lenient; child will
get pleasure and success from expulsion
-Ideals and morals
E.g. reckless, careless
-Morality principle
Anal Retentive- excessive pressure; takes pleasure in being able
15. Which of the following statements is most consistent with to withhold.
the Psychodynamic perspective?
E.g. obsessively clean and orderly, stingy, meticulous, organized
a. Personality is primarily unconscious and develops in
stages 17. According to Adler, people are innately motivated by:

b. Personality is primarily conscious and develops since a. Purposes and goals


birth
b. Sex
RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
c. Balance of energy b. Compensation

d. Safety c. Pampered style of life

17. According to Adler, people are innately motivated by: d. Exaggerated personal Gain

a. Purposes and goals Individual Psychology


Alfred Adler
b. Sex
View of Human Nature
c. Balance of energy
- Adler’s view of human nature was in direct conflict with Freud’s.
d. Safety He minimized the significance of unconscious by describing it as
simply temporary unawareness.
18. Which among the statements are not considered as styles of
life according to Adler? - For Adler, people become aware of their deepest impulses and
fictional finalism and with conscious intent, create their own
a. Socially useful type personalities and lifestyles to achieve their highest goals.
b. Ruling type Structure of Personality
c. Marketing type Organ Inferiority
d. Avoiding type People are more vulnerable to disease in organs that are
less developed or “inferior” to other organs. These inferior organs
18. Which among the statements are not considered as styles of
develop biological deficiencies because of stress from the
life according to Adler?
environment. But since the body acts as an integrated unit, the
a. Socially useful type body will compensate for this weakness.

b. Ruling type Structure of Personality

c. Marketing type Feelings of Inferiority

d. Avoiding type For Adler, all children start life with feelings of inferiority
because they are completely dependent on adults for survival.
Adler’s Style of Life The feelings of being weak, inferior and impotent stimulates an
intense desire to seek power, thereby overcoming the feelings of
- This is the pattern/life plan as we reach our goals inferiority

- Types of Style of Life: Structure of Personality

1. Ruling type- aggressive, dominant (exploiting) Masculine Protest

2. Getting type- dependent, receptive (clingy) For Adler, to become more powerful meant to become
more masculine and less feminine. Since males and females seek
3. Avoiding type- try to escape life problems (running to become powerful in order to overcome inferiority feelings,
away, hiding) then they try to approximate the cultural ideal of masculinity.
Both males and females engage in masculine protest.
4. Socially Useful type- people are having a great deal to
social interest and activity. 20. It is the imagined central goal that guides human behavior.
19. There are two paths toward superiority, the first one is, a. Finalism
Social interest, and the other is?
b. Social Interest
a. Security Operations
c. Inferiority complex
b. Compensation
d. Superiority complex
c. Pampered style of life
20. It is the imagined central goal that guides human behavior.
d. Exaggerated personal Gain
a. Finalism
19. There are two paths toward superiority, the first one is,
Social interest, and the other is? b. Social Interest

a. Security Operations c. Inferiority complex


RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
d. Superiority complex c. Exaggerated physical deficiencies

21. This Adlerian tenet means that the value of all human d. Overcompensation
activity must be seen at this point.
External Factors in Maladjustment
a. Subjective perceptions
1. Exaggerated physical deficiencies- people develop
b. Social Interest exaggerated feelings of inferiority because they overcompensate
for their inadequacy.
c. Style of life
2. Pampered style of life- people have weak social interest but a
d. Creative Power strong desire to perpetuate the pampered, parasitic relationship
with originally had with one or both parents.
21. This Adlerian tenet means that the value of all human
activity must be seen at this point. 3. Neglected Style of life- child survived infancy is proof that
someone cared for the child and the seed of interest is there.
a. Subjective perceptions
23. It is one of the safeguarding tendencies of Adler that is
b. Social Interest similar to Freud’s regression.
c. Style of life a. Accusation
d. Creative Power b. Excuses
Tenets of Adler c. Aggression
Striving for success of superiority d. Moving backward
- The one dynamic force behind people’s behavior 23. It is one of the safeguarding tendencies of Adler that is
similar to Freud’s regression.
Subjective perceptions
a. Accusation
- People’s subjective perceptions shape their own behavior and
personality b. Excuses
Unity and Self-consistency of Personality c. Aggression
-Each person is unique and indivisible d. Moving backward
Social Interest Always remember 
- The self-consistent personality develops into one’s own style of Freud – Defense mechanisms
life; the value of all human activity must be seen from this point Sullivan-Security operations
Adler- Safeguarding tendencies
Creative Power- the style of life is molded by people’s creative
power; ability to control their own lives Freud’s Defense Mechanisms
22. This means that people have weak social interest but a 1. Repression
strong desire to perpetuate parasitic relationship with originally
had with one or both parents. 2. Denial

a. Neglected style of life 3. Projection

b. Pampered style of life 4. Regression

c. Exaggerated physical deficiencies 5. Reaction Formation

d. Overcompensation 6. Rationalization

22. This means that people have weak social interest but a 7. Sublimation
strong desire to perpetuate parasitic relationship with originally
had with one or both parents. Adler’s Safeguarding Tendencies

a. Neglected style of life - Patterns of behavior that protect a person’s exaggerated sense
of self-esteem against public damage.
b. Pampered style of life
RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
- Enables people to hide their inflated self-image and to maintain Analytical Psychology
their current style of life. Carl Jung

1. Excuses View of Human Nature

The most common safeguarding tendency expressed in the “yes The human psyche is imbedded in the past, present and
but” or “if only” format. future. It consists of conscious and unconscious, masculine and
feminine traits, rational and irrational, spiritualistic and
Depreciation animalistic behaviors. Self-actualization will exist when there’s
harmony among the opposites.
Tendency to undervalue other people’s achievements and to
overvalue one’s own. Three (3) components of the Psyche

3. Withdrawal Everything of which we are conscious. It is concerned


with thinking, feeling, remembering and perceiving. It is also
Setting up a distance between themselves and their problems responsible for carrying out of functions of everyday life and of
our sense of identity and continuity in time.
4 types:
Personal Unconscious
 Moving Backward
A land that is not always covered by sea and thus can be
 Standing Still
reclaimed.
 Hesitating
It includes those that are repressed, forgotten or subliminally
 Constructing Obstacles perceived experiences by the individual.

Moving backward Similar to Freud’s unconscious

Psychologically reverting to a more secured period of life. It contains the: Complexes

Similar to Freud’s regression Collective Unconscious

Hesitating It consists of certain potentialities that we all should have


because we are humans.
People hesitate or vacillate when faced with difficult problems
“Transpersonal”
Their procrastinations give them the excuse “It’s too late now.”
It contains the whole spiritual heritage of mankind.
24. This ______embraces all repressed, forgotten, or
subliminally perceived experiences of the individual while the It connects us from our ancestors
______ means emotionally toned conglomeration of associated
It contains the: Archetypes
ideas.
Archetypes
a. Collective unconscious, complexes
- Primordial images; universal thoughts or predispositions
b. Personal Unconscious, Archetypes
to respond to the world in certain ways.
c. Complexes, personal unconscious
1. Persona- the social role that one assumes in society; the
d. Personal unconscious, complexes acceptable one

24. This ______embraces all repressed, forgotten, or 2. Shadow- it encompasses those unsociably accepted thoughts
subliminally perceived experiences of the individual while the and feelings
______ means emotionally toned conglomeration of associated
- Also the source of creativity and defense
ideas.
3. Self- it represents the striving unity for all parts
a. Collective unconscious, complexes
** Mandala
b. Personal Unconscious, Archetypes
4. Anima- the representation of woman in a man
c. Complexes, personal unconscious
5. Animus- the representation of man in a woman
d. Personal unconscious, complexes
** Androgyny
RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
6. Wise old man- the spiritual father; archetype of wisdom c. Monarchic

7. Great Mother- ultimate good and bad mother; the ancestral d. Conservative principle
experience being raised by mother
Jung’s Life span Development
8. Hero- the conqueror; a frightened person who overcomes fear
to save another person 1. Childhood- doesn’t determine our future

25. These are the primordial images or universal thought form - Concerned with eating, emptying bowels and sleeping
or predisposition to respond to the world in certain ways.
- Problem free Age
a. Complexes
- ** Period of Innocence
b. Archetypes
1.1 Anarchic- characterized by chaotic and sporadic conscious
c. Collective Unconscious sporadic images; unable to verbalize

d. Self 1.2 Monarchic- start of the development of ego and beginning of


logical thinking
25. These are the primordial images or universal thought form
or predisposition to respond to the world in certain ways. 1.3 Dualistic- the ego is divided into 2; the subjective and
objective. Children are already aware individuals.
a. Complexes
2. Youth
b. Archetypes
- The birth of the Psyche (EGO)
c. Collective Unconscious
- Towards individuation
d. Self
- Extraversion period
26. It represents the striving for unity of all parts
- Consciousness of “I”
a. Anima
- ** Conservative principle- avoiding problems prior to
b. Animus the development

c. Self - - being clingy to the early phases of life

d. Persona 3. Middle life (35 years old- onwards)

26. It represents the striving for unity of all parts - Interaction with people

a. Anima - Ego has definite forms and content

b. Animus - Introversion period

c. Self - Stage of realization

d. Persona - ** Period of Transition

27. It is a developmental stage under childhood stage wherein - The need for meaning and purpose in life
it is characterized by development of ego and verbal thinking.
28. It is a stage wherein it is the period of diminution of the
a. Dualistic unconscious.

b. Anarchic a. Childhood

c. Monarchic b. Youth

d. Conservative principle c. Middle Age

27. It is a developmental stage under childhood stage wherein d. Old age


it is characterized by development of ego and verbal thinking.
28. It is a stage wherein it is the period of diminution of the
a. Dualistic unconscious.

b. Anarchic a. Childhood
RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
b. Youth b. Innately unconscious

c. Middle Age c. Higher needs have prepotency over lower needs

d. Old age d. Can be built through social interest

29. Jung used word test in his therapy to: 32. It refers to the needs that individuals need for an orderly,
stable and predictable world.
a. Uncover emotionally toned complexes
a. Physiological needs
b. Uncover archetypal energies
b. Safety needs
c. Help to make the unconscious to become conscious
c. Self-actualization needs
d. To promote self-realization through awareness
d. Esteem needs
29. Jung used word test in his therapy to:
32. It refers to the needs that individuals need for an orderly,
a. Uncover emotionally toned complexes stable and predictable world.

b. Uncover archetypal energies a. Physiological needs

c. Help to make the unconscious to become conscious b. Safety needs

d. To promote self-realization through awareness c. Self-actualization needs


30. Yvonne is intelligent and has a sound judgment. She is good d. Esteem needs
in written works yet poor in social interaction hindering her to
self-actualize. She has a fear of doing her best. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow, this is,
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
a. Inferiority complex
View of Human Nature
b. Jonah complex
Maslow advocated a holistic approach to studying the total
c. Mother complex person, and emphasized their positive qualities.

d. Superiority complex He also believed that human nature has a basic goodness and a
natural tendency towards self-actualization.
30. Yvonne is intelligent and has a sound judgment. She is good
in written works yet poor in social interaction hindering her to Self- actualization
self-actualize. She has a fear of doing her best. According to
Maslow, this is, 1. Perceive reality accurately and fully

a. Inferiority complex 2. Demonstrate a greater acceptance of themselves,


others and nature in general.
b. Jonah complex
3. Exhibit spontaneity, simplicity and naturalness.
c. Mother complex
4. Tend to be concerned with problems rather than
d. Superiority complex themselves

Jonah Complex- fear of doing one’s best 5. Have a quality of detachment and a need for privacy.

31. According to Maslow, needs are, 6. Are autonomous and independent.

a. Lower needs have prepotency over higher needs 33. Needs that are composed of hierarchy of needs meaning
that they have a striving or motivational character.
b. Innately unconscious
a. D needs
c. Higher needs have prepotency over lower needs
b. B needs
d. Can be built through social interest
c. Conative Needs
31. According to Maslow, needs are,
d. Belongingness needs
a. Lower needs have prepotency over higher needs
RGO REVIEW CENTER
C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
33. Needs that are composed of hierarchy of needs meaning b. Analytical Psychology
that they have a striving or motivational character.
c. Individual Psychology
a. D needs
d. Object Relations Theory
b. B needs
36. Healthy people evaluate their experiences as good or bad
c. Conative Needs according to:

d. Belongingness needs a. Formative Tendency

D Needs – “Deficiency Needs” b. Actualizing Tendency

- Needs that arise out of the organism’s physiological c. Self-actualization


survival and motivate the individuals to engage in
activities that will reduce the tense drives. d. Positive self-regard

B Needs- “Being Needs” 36. Healthy people evaluate their experiences as good or bad
according to:
- Needs that arise out of the organisms desire to self-
actualize and fulfill their highest potential. a. Formative Tendency

Conative Needs b. Actualizing Tendency

- Needs that are composed of hierarchy of needs meaning that c. Self-actualization


they have a striving or motivational character.
d. Positive self-regard
34. It refers to the intense, mystical an experience in which
individual is in temporary state of joy and wonderment. Phenomenological Perspective:

a. Self-actualization Carl Rogers

b. Peak experiences Phenomenological Perspective:

c. Jonah complex View of Human Nature

d. Inferiority complex Rogers believed that the ultimate goal of each individual is to be
fully functioning person. It is a process in which the individual
34. It refers to the intense, mystical an experience in which constantly pursues his or her actualizing tendency and at the
individual is in temporary state of joy and wonderment. same time, behaves in a manner that is true to the self.

a. Self-actualization Basic Assumptions:

b. Peak experiences Formative Tendency / Maintenance- the tendency for all matter,
both organic and inorganic to evolve from simple to a complex
c. Jonah complex matter.

d. Inferiority complex Actualizing Tendency/ Enhancement- tendency for all humans to


move toward completion of fulfillment of potentials; concept of
35. This theory of personality states and emphasizes the human motivation to actualize, maintain and enhance self.
uniqueness of person in contrast to the general characteristics
brought by universal principles - Evaluates experience as good or bad

a. Psychoanalytic 37. The tendency to evolve and develop from simple to a more
complex form.
b. Analytical Psychology
a. Formative Tendency
c. Individual Psychology
b. Actualizing Tendency
d. Object Relations Theory
c. Self-actualization
35. This theory of personality states and emphasizes the
uniqueness of person in contrast to the general characteristics d. Positive self-regard
brought by universal principles
38. His theory tries to understand lived experiences or
a. Psychoanalytic phenomenology of lives of people on how they actualize.
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C H E D P E R M I T NO. 051 S E R I E S OF 2008
RGO Review for Psychology 09198024027/09184946716

THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
a. Abraham Maslow d. Congruence

b. Carl Rogers 40. It is a subconscious natural phenomenon that guides an


individual towards growth experiences.
c. Aaron Beck
a. Maintenance
d. Erik Erikson
b. Enhancement
38. His theory tries to understand lived experiences or
phenomenology of lives of people on how they actualize. c. Organismic Valuing process

a. Abraham Maslow d. Congruence

b. Carl Rogers Basic Assumptions:

c. Aaron Beck Formative Tendency / Maintenance- the tendency for all matter,
both organic and inorganic to evolve from simple to a complex
d. Erik Erikson matter.
39. “I will love, respect, and accept whoever you are, no ifs and Actualizing Tendency/ Enhancement- tendency for all humans to
buts.” move toward completion of fulfillment of potentials; concept of
human motivation to actualize, maintain and enhance self.
a. Positive regard
- Evaluates experience as good or bad
b. Unconditional positive regard
41. All of the following statements are criteria on how to
c. Conditional Positive regard consider being a fully function person. Which is not?
d. Actualization a. Conditional Positive regard
39. “I will love, respect, and accept whoever you are, no ifs and b. Openness to experience
buts.”
c. Creativity
a. Positive regard
d. Existential Living
b. Unconditional positive regard
41. All of the following statements are criteria on how to
c. Conditional Positive regard consider being a fully function person. Which is not?
d. Actualization a. Conditional Positive regard
Development of Personality: b. Openness to experience
2 Basic Needs: c. Creativity
1. Need for Positive regard by others d. Existential Living
2. Need for Positive self-regard Criteria for Being Fully Functioning Person/Individual
1. Unconditional Positive Regard 1. Openness to Experience- Open to possibilities,
embraces human experience; aware of all human
- Is not contingent to any specific behavior; limitless
experiences without a need to deny or distort them.
2. Conditional Positive Regard
2. Existential Living- Able to live in the moment without
- Is given only under certain circumstances under condition of preconceived matters.
worth.
3. Organismic Trust-trusting one’s own experience; not
40. It is a subconscious natural phenomenon that guides an bound by other’s opinions
individual towards growth experiences.
4. Creativity- Able to adjust creatively to changes and seek
a. Maintenance new experience.

b. Enhancement 5. Experiential Freedom- capacity to choose and be free;


assumes the responsibility
c. Organismic Valuing process
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
42. Eunice is already on her adulthood, yet she is not satisfied 45. Carlo is already 5yrs old and is currently enrolled in Kinder
and contented of what she has done in her life. What core at the University of the West. He is fond of playing games with
pathology is she currently facing? his friends and siblings. What ego strength he is expected to
develop?
a. Disdain
a. Competence
b. Exclusivity
b. Purpose
c. Rejectivity
c. Will
d. Role repudiation
d. Love
42. Eunice is already on her adulthood, yet she is not satisfied
and contented of what she has done in her life. What core 45. Carlo is already 5yrs old and is currently enrolled in Kinder
pathology is she currently facing? at the University of the West. He is fond of playing games with
his friends and siblings. What ego strength he is expected to
a. Disdain develop?

b. Exclusivity a. Competence

c. Rejectivity b. Purpose

d. Role repudiation c. Will

43. According to Erikson, what is the goal of development? d. Love

a. To develop a sense of identity 46. Bong is 21 yrs. old and has just recently graduated
Psychology. He is currently working as a teacher in a private
b. To self-actualize institution. He has now feelings of “I must have a partner in
life.” What psychosocial stage of development does Bong
c. To compensate organ dialect
currently facing?
d. To strive for unity of unconsciousness
a. Generativity v Stagnation
43. According to Erikson, what is the goal of development?
b. Identity v Role Confusion
a. To develop a sense of identity
c. Intimacy v Isolation
b. To self-actualize
d. Integrity v despair
c. To compensate organ dialect
46. Bong is 21 yrs. old and has just recently graduated
d. To strive for unity of unconsciousness Psychology. He is currently working as a teacher in a private
institution. He has now feelings of “I must have a partner in
44. It refers to the idea that development occurs in stages which life.” What psychosocial stage of development does Bong
is universal to mankind that unfold in each stage predetermines currently facing?
the sequence
a. Generativity v Stagnation
a. Conservative Principle
b. Identity v Role Confusion
b. Epigenetic principle
c. Intimacy v Isolation
c. Identity crisis
d. Integrity v despair
d. Actualization principle
47. Fromm is known to develop a theory that emphasizes
44. It refers to the idea that development occurs in stages which connectedness to the world because he believes that we are
is universal to mankind that unfold in each stage predetermines being torn away from our prehistoric union with the nature.
the sequence What is this theory?

a. Conservative Principle a. Humanistic Psychoanalysis

b. Epigenetic principle b. Psychoanalysis

c. Identity crisis c. Phenomenological perspective

d. Actualization principle d. Psychosocial Theory


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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
47. Fromm is known to develop a theory that emphasizes d. Isolation
connectedness to the world because he believes that we are
being torn away from our prehistoric union with the nature. 49. Doc J is very famous in his university wherein he achieved a
What is this theory? lot of recognitions and awards. Eventually these recognitions let
Doc J to become apathetic about others’ feelings. What did he
a. Humanistic Psychoanalysis develop into himself?

b. Psychoanalysis a. Incestuous Symbiosis

c. Phenomenological perspective b. Destructiveness

d. Psychosocial Theory c. Malignant narcissism

Humanistic Psychoanalysis d. Isolation


Erich Fromm
Malignant Narcissism – people believe what they have are so
- Humans have been torn away from their prehistoric wonderful and they do not need to do anything to prove their
union with nature and left with no powerful instincts to value. Self-image is dependent on their achievements.
adapt in a changing environment. But because humans
have acquired the ability to reason, they can think about Incestuous Symbiosis- extreme dependence on the mother
their isolated condition, Human Dilemma. resulting to distorted self-image

- - We are the “Freaks of the World” 50. This need compels us that we must establish connection and
feel at home again in the world; feeling that we belong.
48. According to Fromm, we humans should have developed
two characteristics, what are these? a. Relatedness

a. Assimilation and socialization b. Rootedness

b. Assimilation and Isolation c. Sense of Identity

c. Isolation and loneliness d. Transcendence

d. Congruence and Incongruence 50. This need compels us that we must establish connection and
feel at home again in the world; feeling that we belong.
48. According to Fromm, we humans should have developed
two characteristics, what are these? a. Relatedness

a. Assimilation and socialization b. Rootedness

b. Assimilation and Isolation c. Sense of Identity

c. Isolation and loneliness d. Transcendence

d. Congruence and Incongruence Basic Needs

Basic Anxiety is the feeling of Loneliness and Isolation resulted Relatedness- relating to other people and loving productively
from the separation to the world.
 Submission
With our desire to achieve connectedness once again to the
nature, we should possess two characters:  Power

1. Assimilation  Love

2. Socialization • Transcendence- “the realm of purposefulness and


freedom”; rising above the animal level of creativeness
49. Doc J is very famous in his university wherein he achieved a and becoming active creators.
lot of recognitions and awards. Eventually these recognitions let
Doc J to become apathetic about others’ feelings. What did he • Rootedness- feeling that we belong; need to establish
develop into himself? roots and to feel at home again in the world.

a. Incestuous Symbiosis Sense of Identity- the capacity to say “I am”; becoming


aware of ourselves as separate and unique individuals
b. Destructiveness  Frame of orientation- having a stable and consistent
frame of reference to organize perceptions and make
c. Malignant narcissism sense of the environment (Road map)
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
 Excitation and Stimulation- actively striving for a goal a. Assimilation and socialization
rather than simply responding.
b. Assimilation and Isolation
51. It is a character orientation wherein the individual is living
in a way that he only gets what he needs and wants from c. Isolation and loneliness
outside source
d. Congruence and Incongruence
a. Marketing character
52. According to Fromm, basic anxiety is the feeling of _____
b. Receptive character and _____ resulted from separation from natural world.

c. Productive character a. Assimilation and socialization

d. Exploitative character b. Assimilation and Isolation

51. It is a character orientation wherein the individual is living c. Isolation and loneliness
in a way that he only gets what he needs and wants from
outside source d. Congruence and Incongruence

a. Marketing character Basic Anxiety is the feeling of Loneliness and Isolation resulted
from the separation to the world.
b. Receptive character
With our desire to achieve connectedness once again to the
c. Productive character nature, we should possess two characters:

d. Exploitative character 1. Assimilation

Character Orientations 2. Socialization

Receptive Character- believe that the only way they can obtain 53. It is a form of escape mechanism wherein there is a tendency
something they want is to receive something from the outside to give up the independence of one’s self and to fuse with
source. (Peasants, beggars) somebody.

Exploitative Character- take things they want through coercion a. Authoritarianism


as they exploit others.
b. Destructiveness
(Wealth is stolen, ideas are plagiarized, aggressive, seducing and
conceited) c. Automaton Conformity

Hoarding Character- hoard and save what they already have, d. Positive Freedom
they surround themselves miserly relation to others.
53. It is a form of escape mechanism wherein there is a tendency
(Lives in the past, materialistic) to give up the independence of one’s self and to fuse with
somebody.
Marketing Character- experience themselves as commodities on
the market, described as opportunistic chameleons; changing a. Authoritarianism
their colors and virtues just to fit in.
b. Destructiveness
(Relationships are transactions)
c. Automaton Conformity
Productive Character- value themselves and others for who they
d. Positive Freedom
are, they relate to the world by accurately perceiving the world.
Escape Mechanisms:
** Loving, Working and Reasoning
Authoritarianism- offers escape from the problem of freedom
Power v. Prestige
through submitting to a new domination or dominating others.
Power – is a defense against the real or imagined hostility of
- It is a form of escape mechanism wherein there is a tendency to
others and takes as a form of tendency to dominate others.
give up the independence of one’s self and to fuse with
Prestige- a protection against humiliation and is expressed as somebody.
tendency to humiliate others.
(Sadism and Masochism)
52. According to Fromm, basic anxiety is the feeling of _____
Destructiveness- escape from problems of freedom through
and _____ resulted from separation from natural world.
elimination of other unwanted in the outside world.
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
(Brutality, humiliation, vandalism and terrorism) SUBLIMATION

Automaton Conformity- majority of the people; cease to be - Expression and discharge of uncomfortable feelings in
themselves and adapt the personality preferred by the culture. ways that are interpersonally acceptable.
(Acts like as social chameleons)
• Selective Inattention- the failure to observe some factor
*** POSITIVE FREEDOM*** in an interpersonal relationship that might cause
anxiety. ; more accessible to awareness
- Achieved by the full expression of both rational and
emotional potentialities • Dissociation- impulses and desires are refused in
awareness.
- Successful solution to human dilemma
55. According to Sullivan, it is a cognitive process that explains
54. Freud: Defense mechanisms; Sullivan: ________ causal relations between events that happen together. It
involves generalizations about experiences on the basis of
a. Safeguarding tendencies proximity.
b. Security operations a. Syntaxic
c. Psychological functions b. Prototaxic
d. Style of Life c. Sublimation
54. Freud: Defense mechanisms; Sullivan: ________ d. Parataxic
a. Safeguarding tendencies 55. According to Sullivan, it is a cognitive process that explains
causal relations between events that happen together. It
b. Security operations
involves generalizations about experiences on the basis of
c. Psychological functions proximity.

d. Style of Life a. Syntaxic

Interpersonal Perspective b. Prototaxic

Harry Stack Sullivan c. Sublimation

An individual only exists if its contact of relations with d. Parataxic


other people. Interpersonal relations as basis of personality.
Cognitive Processes
ANXIETY as any painful feeling or emotion that may arise from
Prototaxic- processes at the lowest level; there is no distinction
organic needs or Social Insecurity.
between the self and the external world, the child directly
Sullivan introduced the concept of Security Operations. perceives and senses but doesn’t think about any conclusions.

Interpersonal Perspective: Harry Stack Sullivan Parataxic- causal relations between events that happen together.
It involves making generalizations about experience on the basis
View of Human Nature of proximity; pre logical thinking.

People are socially created animals. He emphasized that society Syntaxic- uses symbols and relies on consensual validation. the
is the actual creator of people’s personalities. The human being highest form of cognitive activity.
does not exist as a simple personality; its personality can only
exist in relation to others. 56. It is a period of development wherein dynamism of lust and
development of several chums can be observed
Security Operations
a. Preadolescence
These are interpersonal devices that a person use to minimize
anxiety; are healthy if they increase our security without b. Early Adolescence
jeopardizing our competitiveness in interpersonal relations.
c. Late Adolescence
Types:
d. Old age
1. Sublimation
56. It is a period of development wherein dynamism of lust and
2. Selective Inattention development of several chums can be observed

3. Dissociation a. Preadolescence
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
b. Early Adolescence b. Basic Anxiety

c. Late Adolescence c. Neurotic Trends

d. Old age d. Basic Hostility

Sullivan’s Stages of Development Feminine Psychology:


Karen Horney
1. Infancy (birth- 2 years old) - interpersonal relationship
that crystallize around the family situation. We are actively searching for “love”

2. Childhood (2 -6 years old) – the development of a Feeling of alienation of women arises because of cultural
healthy relationship with the parents. privilege given to men

3. Juvenile Era (6-8 years old) – the need to relate to Basic Hostility Basic Anxiety
playmates and same sex peers; Play Age
Basic Hostility- it is when parents do not satisfy the child’s needs;
4. Preadolescence (8-Adolescence) – a chum relationship, child develops hostility towards parents.
the beginning of an intimate reciprocal human
relationship; Start of capacity to love ; single chum Basic Anxiety- happens when external conditions obstruct
natural psychological growth. An insidiously, all pervading feeling
5. Early Adolescence (Adolescence Stage) - the development of of being lonely.
dynamism of lust and a stable heterosexual pattern of sexual
satisfaction; several chums. Feminine Psychology:
Karen Horney
6. Late Adolescence (begins when people feel both lust and
intimacy) – integration of stabilization of culturally appropriate View of Human Nature
adult social, vocational, and economic behavior.
Horney maintained that neurosis is caused by disturbed human
57. “Everyone is a real or potential competitor of everyone relationships particularly that between parent and child.
else.” This can be best explained on what theory?
SAFETY and SATISFACTION are the two (2) basic needs during
a. Object relations theory childhood.

b. Feminine Psychology Neurotic Trends

c. Interpersonal perspective These are the results of the formative experience that create
basic anxiety.
d. Humanistic Psychology
3 Modes of Relating:
57. “Everyone is a real or potential competitor of everyone
else.” This can be best explained on what theory? 1. Moving Against (Hostility)

a. Object relations theory 2. Moving Away (Detachment)

b. Feminine Psychology 3. Moving Toward ( Compliance)

c. Interpersonal perspective Moving Toward (Compliance)

d. Humanistic Psychology Need to protect oneself against feelings of hopelessness.

58. According to Horney, these are the results of the formative  Affection and Approval
experiences that create basic anxiety.
 Having a partner
a. Alienation
 Narrowly restricting one’s life
b. Basic Anxiety
Moving Away (Detachment)
c. Neurotic Trends
Expression of self-sufficiency, independence and privacy
d. Basic Hostility
 Self- sufficiency and independence
58. According to Horney, these are the results of the formative
experiences that create basic anxiety.  Perfection and unassailability

a. Alienation Moving Against (Hostility)


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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
Appearing as tough or strong individual c. Neurotics use all neurotic trends

 Power d. Neurotics never use neurotic trends

 Exploiting others 61. Power, exploiting others, social recognition and personal
admiration are examples of what mode of orientation?
 Social recognition or prestige
a. Moving away
 Personal achievement
b. Moving towards
 Personal Admiration
c. Moving on
59. It happens when parents do not satisfy child’s needs
resulting to hostility towards parents. d. Moving against

a. Alienation 61. Power, exploiting others, social recognition and personal


admiration are examples of what mode of orientation?
b. Basic Hostility
a. Moving away
c. Basic Anxiety
b. Moving towards
d. Neurotic Trends
c. Moving on
59. It happens when parents do not satisfy child’s needs
resulting to hostility towards parents. d. Moving against

a. Alienation 62. RR shows lack of attention and affection from his girlfriend.
This resulted to an untoward behavior of RR as flirting and
b. Basic Hostility promiscuous relationships. What mode of orientation is RR
currently having?
c. Basic Anxiety
a. Moving on
d. Neurotic Trends
b. Moving away
Feminine Psychology:
Karen Horney c. Moving towards

We are actively searching for “love” d. Moving against


Feeling of alienation of women arises because of cultural 62. RR shows lack of attention and affection from his girlfriend.
privilege given to men This resulted to an untoward behavior of RR as flirting and
promiscuous relationships. What mode of orientation is RR
Basic Hostility Basic Anxiety currently having?
Basic Hostility- it is when parents do not satisfy the child’s needs; a. Moving on
child develops hostility towards parents.
b. Moving away
Basic Anxiety- happens when external conditions obstruct
natural psychological growth. An insidiously, all pervading feeling c. Moving towards
of being lonely.
d. Moving against
60. Which of the following is true about Horney’s theory?
63. According to Bandura, it refers to the ability to act and make
a. Neurotics only use one neurotic trend things happen; the essence of humanness.

b. Neurotics use two neurotic trends a. Self-system

c. Neurotics use all neurotic trends b. Observational learning

d. Neurotics never use neurotic trends c. Human Agency

60. Which of the following is true about Horney’s theory? d. Personal agency

a. Neurotics only use one neurotic trend 63. According to Bandura, it refers to the ability to act and make
things happen; the essence of humanness.
b. Neurotics use two neurotic trends
a. Self-system
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
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Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
b. Observational learning b. Motivation, Attention, Retention, Reproduction

c. Human Agency c. Attention, Motivation, Retention, Reproduction

d. Personal agency d. Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation

Social Learning Theory Processes involved in Observational Learning


Albert Bandura
1. Attention- the characteristics of the model, nature of
Bandura has increasingly viewed people as agents of activity, and nature of the subject; people need to pay
experience. Causal influences don’t go only in one direction, attention to their model
people are more than reactive organisms; shaped by the
environment, and as the evolution goes by, language and 2. Retention- people need to conceptualize the action and
symbolization developed. take it into the mind

Human Agency- ability to act and make things happen the 3. Motor Reproduction- the individual has to act and
essence of humanness. “People are self-regulating, proactive, perform the symbolic representation of the appropriate
and self-reflective.” actions.

Factors that influence Human Agency: 4. Motivational- people need motivation to give a reason
for behaving purposefully; acquisition and performance
1. Intentionality- enables us to behave purposefully.
65. The following are the factors that influence modeling. Which
2. Forethought- permits us to anticipate outcomes does not belong?

3. Self-reactiveness- allows us to motivate and regulate a. Characteristics of model


actions
b. Attributes of behavior
4. Self-reflectiveness- gives us the ability to reflect on our
thoughts and behavior and make changes if needed. c. Rewards or consequences associated with behavior

Observational Learning d. None of the above

Learning that occurs through observation without any direct 65. The following are the factors that influence modeling. Which
reinforcement. does not belong?

 Imitation- mimicking the model a. Characteristics of model

 Modeling- modeling the structure and style of b. Attributes of behavior


the behavior
c. Rewards or consequences associated with behavior
3 factors that Influence Modeling
d. None of the above
1. Characteristics of the Model
66. It is one of the factors in human agency which enables us to
2. Attributes of the observer behave purposefully.

3. Reward consequences associated with the a. Self-reactiveness


behavior
b. Intentionality
64. What is the correct flow of process in observational
learning? c. Forethought

a. Attention, Reproduction, Retention, Motivation d. Self-reflectiveness

b. Motivation, Attention, Retention, Reproduction 66. It is one of the factors in human agency which enables us to
behave purposefully.
c. Attention, Motivation, Retention, Reproduction
a. Self-reactiveness
d. Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation
b. Intentionality
64. What is the correct flow of process in observational
learning? c. Forethought

a. Attention, Reproduction, Retention, Motivation d. Self-reflectiveness


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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
Human Agency- ability to act and make things happen the  Self-Monitoring
essence of humanness. “People are self-regulating, proactive,
and self-reflective.”  Self-Judgment

Factors that influence Human Agency:  Affective Self-reaction

1. Intentionality- enables us to behave purposefully.  Self-Monitoring

2. Forethought- permits us to anticipate outcomes - Paying attention to one’s behavior as it permits us to diagnose
and understand one’s actions.
3. Self-reactiveness- allows us to motivate and regulate
actions  Self-Judgment

4. Self-reflectiveness- gives us the ability to reflect on our - Evaluating one’s behavior; influenced by personal standards
thoughts and behavior and make changes if needed. that are developed through reflective processing of standards
and behaviors of significant others and social influences.
67. What are the three factors that make up the Triadic
Reciprocal Causation?  Affective Self-reaction

a. Behavior, unconscious, awareness - We have a good/bad feeling about our behavior

b. Personal, behavior, environment Self-efficacy

c. Environment, personal, reinforcement People’s belief that they can successfully perform behaviors that
will produce desirable outcomes.
d. None of the above
69. Borbs didn’t graduate because of financial problems. He
67. What are the three factors that make up the Triadic decided to work yet he was early dismissed because of his rude
Reciprocal Causation? behavior. And eventually, he said to himself that everything is
over. This is an example of
a. Behavior, unconscious, awareness
a. Intellectualization
b. Personal, behavior, environment
b. Rationalization
c. Environment, personal, reinforcement
c. Learned Helplessness
d. None of the above
d. Moving on
68. It refers to the people’s belief that they can successfully
perform behaviors that will produce desired effects. 69. Borbs didn’t graduate because of financial problems. He
decided to work yet he was early dismissed because of his rude
a. Self-judgment behavior. And eventually, he said to himself that everything is
over. This is an example of
b. Self-efficacy
a. Intellectualization
c. Collective efficacy
b. Rationalization
d. Affective self-reaction
c. Learned Helplessness
68. It refers to the people’s belief that they can successfully
perform behaviors that will produce desired effects. d. Moving on

a. Self-judgment Learned Helplessness:


Martin Seligman
b. Self-efficacy
It is a condition in which a person suffers from a sense of
c. Collective efficacy powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent
failure to succeed
d. Affective self-reaction
Each of those reasons can be seen as a different type of
The ultimate goal of Social Learning Theory is...
attribution. An attribution is the factor that a person blames for
SELF- REGULATION the outcome of a situation. Attributions can be made for both
positive and negative events.
- Ability to see and regulate one’s behavior

Internal Factors in Self-regulation:


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An internal attribution is any attribution that gives the cause of b. Internal v External Locus of Control
an event as something to do with the person, as opposed to
something in the outside world. c. Situationism

A stable attribution is one that doesn't change over time or d. Humanistic Psychoanalysis
across situations. For example, believing that you failed because
you're stupid is a stable attribution Behavior Specificity/ Situationism
Walter Mischel
A global attribution is the belief that the factors affecting the
outcome applies to a large number of situations, not just one of This means that an individual behavior is determined by specific
them. situations.

70. According to Rogers, if people tend to grow constructively, 72. Believes that human behavior is predicted from the
they should, understanding of the interaction of people with their
meaningful environments.
a. Rely on the values of others when making decisions
a. Julian Rotter
b. Seek the help of priests
b. Henry Murray
c. Do what their parents expect them to do
c. George Kelly
d. Trust the wisdom of their own bodies
d. Alfred Adler
70. According to Rogers, if people tend to grow constructively,
they should, 72. Believes that human behavior is predicted from the
understanding of the interaction of people with their
a. Rely on the values of others when making decisions meaningful environments.

b. Seek the help of priests a. Julian Rotter

c. Do what their parents expect them to do b. Henry Murray

d. Trust the wisdom of their own bodies c. George Kelly

Criteria for Being Fully Functioning Person/Individual d. Alfred Adler

1. Openness to Experience- Open to possibilities, Expectancy Reinforcement Value Model


embraces human experience; aware of all human Julian Rotter
experiences without a need to deny or distort them.
Emphasized the importance of psychological situation and
2. Existential Living- Able to live in the moment without reinforcement as determinants of behavior.
preconceived matters.
Argues that a person believes that reinforcements are controlled
3. Organismic Trust-trusting one’s own experience; not by his/her own behavior or by the people or outside forces such
bound by other’s opinions as luck and fate.

4. Creativity- Able to adjust creatively to changes and seek 73. In Sullivan’s theory, this refers to the lack of tension
new experience.
a. Anxiety
5. Experiential Freedom- capacity to choose and be free;
assumes the responsibility b. Love

71. Freud: Psychodynamic; Mischel; _______ c. Euphoria

a. Behaviorism d. Tenderness

b. Internal v External Locus of Control 73. In Sullivan’s theory, this refers to the lack of tension

c. Situationism a. Anxiety

d. Humanistic Psychoanalysis b. Love

71. Freud: Psychodynamic; Mischel; _______ c. Euphoria

a. Behaviorism d. Tenderness
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Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
74. It refers to acts or behaviors that are repeated even though 2. Central Dispositions- the building blocks of personality;
they may lost their original function highly characteristic tendencies of an individual. They
provide adjectives or phrases a person might use in
describing the essential characteristics. 5-10
a. Propriate Functional Autonomy characteristics/ person

b. Perseverative Functional Autonomy Functional Autonomy

c. Propriate striving This means that humans are motivated by present drives rather
than by past events and are aware and know the understanding
d. Central dispositions of their actions; also it explains that actions are not accounted for
tension reduction.
74. It refers to acts or behaviors that are repeated even though
they may lost their original function 2 types:

Perseverative Functional Autonomy- It refers to acts or


a. Propriate Functional Autonomy behaviors that are repeated even though they may lost their
original function.
b. Perseverative Functional Autonomy
Propriate Functional Autonomy- refers to those acquired
c. Propriate striving
interests, values, attitudes that are directed for the proprium.
d. Central dispositions
Proprium
Trait Psychology:
Central experiences of the self-awareness that people have as
Gordon Allport
they grow and move forward. It includes all aspects of the
Personality: is defined as a “dynamic organization within the personality that make unity.
individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his
Propriate Functions:
characteristics, behavior and thought.”
1. Bodily Self- awareness of inner sameness and continuity
 Dynamic- moving and changing
2. Self-esteem- pride in the ability to do things
 Organized- structured
3. Self-extension- sense of possession and valuing of
 Psychophysical- involving both mind and body
others
 Determined- structured of the past and predisposing of
4. Self-image- sense of measuring up to the expectation of
the future
others.
 Characteristic- unique for each individual
5. Self as rational coper- sense of self as active problem
Traits solving agent

These are bonafide structures within a person that influence 6. Propriate Striving- dependent on the long term
behavior, not as simple labels but used to describe and classify purposes and goals; motive that propels the individual
behavior to the attainment of goals.

A determining consistent and enduring tendency or Definition of Maturity


predisposition to respond in the world in certain ways.
Extension of the sense of self
 Common Traits
- Able to become involved in participation with others
- A hypothetical construct that enables us to be compared
Warm relating of self to others
in a certain culture.
Emotional security (self-acceptance)
 Personal Dispositions
Realistic perception
- A general determining characteristic but it is unique to the
individual who has it. - don’t live in fantasy
Personal Dispositions Self- objectification
1. Cardinal Disposition- master motives, ruling passion; a - Capacity to laugh at one’s mistake and criticize oneself
pervasive behavior that almost every behavior has
manifestations of it. ** Prominent to a person Unifying Philosophy of Life
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
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- Clear view of purpose in life c. Self as rational coper

75. These refer to the bona fide structures within a person that d. Self-extension
influence behavior, not as simple labels but used to describe or
classify behavior. 78. What kind of behavior does Allport promote?

a. Traits a. Reactive behavior

b. Proprium b. Unconscious behavior

c. Personality c. Reinforced behavior

d. Self-image d. Proactive behavior

75. These refer to the bona fide structures within a person that 78. What kind of behavior does Allport promote?
influence behavior, not as simple labels but used to describe or
classify behavior. a. Reactive behavior

a. Traits b. Unconscious behavior

b. Proprium c. Reinforced behavior

c. Personality d. Proactive behavior

d. Self-image 79. These are the building blocks of personality according to


Allport.
76. It refers to a pervasive behavior that almost every behavior
appears to be influenced by it. ; Also refers to master motives. a. Cardinal dispositions

a. Central dispositions b. Central dispositions

b. Secondary disposition c. Stylistic dispositions

c. Cardinal dispositions d. Motivational dispositions

d. Personal dispositions 79. These are the building blocks of personality according to
Allport.
76. It refers to a pervasive behavior that almost every behavior
appears to be influenced by it. ; Also refers to master motives. a. Cardinal dispositions

a. Central dispositions b. Central dispositions

b. Secondary disposition c. Stylistic dispositions

c. Cardinal dispositions d. Motivational dispositions

d. Personal dispositions 80. According to Henry Murray, these are the actual properties
or attributes of the environment
77. This means that humans are motivated by present drives
rather than by past events and are aware and know the a. Alpha press
understanding of their actions.
b. Beta press
a. Functional Autonomy
c. Delta press
b. Self-identity
d. Theta press
c. Self as rational coper
80. According to Henry Murray, these are the actual properties
d. Self-extension or attributes of the environment

77. This means that humans are motivated by present drives a. Alpha press
rather than by past events and are aware and know the
b. Beta press
understanding of their actions.
c. Delta press
a. Functional Autonomy
d. Theta press
b. Self-identity
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
Personology: a. Cardinal traits
Henry Murray
b. Central traits
Murray described a needs as a "potentiality or readiness to
respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances.” c. Surface traits

Murray identified needs as one of two types: d. Source traits

 Primary Needs 81. According to Cattell, it refers to the traits that seem to hand
together
Primary needs are basic needs that are based upon biological
demands, such as the need for oxygen, food and water. a. Cardinal traits

 Secondary Needs b. Central traits


Secondary needs are generally
psychological, such as the need for nurturing, c. Surface traits
independence and achievement. While these
d. Source traits
needs might not be fundamental for basic
survival, they are essential for psychological Factor Analytic Theory:
well-being. Raymond B. Cattell
Press Surface Traits- clusters of behavior (overt) responses that appear
together. E.g. integrity, honesty, thoughtfulness ** 32 Traits
Forces from objects or persons within the environment that
help/hinder an individual in reaching goals. Source Traits- the underlying variables that seem to determine
the surface manifestations
2 Types of Press:
- “the building blocks of personality”
1. Alpha Press- the actual properties or attributes of the
environment ** 16 Traits
2. Beta Press- the individual’s subjective perception of the These traits were determined through the use of Factor Analysis,
environment a method used to isolate and identify a limited number of factors
that underlie a larger interrelated variables.
According to Murray, all people have these needs, but each
individual tends to have a certain level of each need. Each 82. It refers to the method used by R.B. Cattell in his theory of
person's unique levels of needs plays a role in shaping his or her traits
individual personality.
a. Regression analysis
List of Psychogenic Needs
b. Factor loading
1. Ambition Needs
c. Factor analysis
Achievement and recognition, exhibition
d. ANOVA
2. Materialistic Needs
82. It refers to the method used by R.B. Cattell in his theory of
Acquisition, construction, order and retention traits
3. Power Needs a. Regression analysis
Autonomy, abasement (confessing and apologizing), aggression b. Factor loading
(attacking or ridiculing others), blame avoidance (following the
rules and avoiding blame), deference (obeying and cooperating c. Factor analysis
with others) and dominance (controlling others)
d. ANOVA
4. Affection Needs
83. It is position according to Klein where there is a tendency to
Nurturance, succorance, rejection see the world as having both destructive and omnipotent
qualities.
5. Information Needs
a. Depressive Position
Cognizance, exposition
b. Happy position
81. According to Cattell, it refers to the traits that seem to hand
together c. Paranoid-Schizoid Position
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
d. U Position b. Object

83. It is position according to Klein where there is a tendency to c. Positions


see the world as having both destructive and omnipotent
qualities. d. Phantasies

a. Depressive Position 84. These are the psychic representations of unconscious


instincts such as good and bad breasts.
b. Happy position
a. Fantasies
c. Paranoid-Schizoid Position
b. Object
d. U Position
c. Positions
Object Relations Theory:
Melanie Klein d. Phantasies

 Extended Freud’s developmental stages (4-6 months) 85. This is resolved when children fantasize that they have made
reparations from previous and recognize that their mother
 Emphasis on interpersonal relationships won’t leave them.

 Highlights the infant relationship with mother a. Paranoid-Schizoid Position

 Motivated by human contact and not just pleasure b. Happy position

Object relations – able to understand the interaction between c. Depressive Position


intrapsychic dynamics and interpersonal relationships.
d. U Position
Object- denotes an inner mental and emotional image of an
external object 85. This is resolved when children fantasize that they have made
reparations from previous and recognize that their mother
Phantasies- images of a good or bad breast; psychic won’t leave them.
representations of unconscious instincts
a. Paranoid-Schizoid Position
Positions-represent normal social growth and development
b. Happy position
To reduce conflicts, objects are organized into positions.
c. Depressive Position
1. Paranoid- Schizoid Position (4-5 mos.)
d. U Position
- “To bite or not to bite breast”
86. What are the Big 5 Personality traits?
- Tendency to see the world as having both destructive
and omnipotent qualities a. Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion,
introversion, neuroticism
- The self is disintegrated; splitting of both self and object
as good or bad b. Openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, dominance,
acceptance
2. Depressive Position (5-6 mos.)
c. Neuroticism, conscientiousness, psychoticism,
- Losing mother or destroying mother sensation seeking, agreeableness

- Resolved by fantasizing that mother won’t abandon d. Conscientiousness, Openness, neuroticism,


them. extraversion, agreeableness

- Children recognized that the loved object and the hated 86. What are the Big 5 Personality traits?
object are now the same
a. Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion,
- * This position can be resolved through reparation from introversion, neuroticism
previous and recognize that their mother won’t leave
them. ** b. Openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, dominance,
acceptance
84. These are the psychic representations of unconscious
instincts such as good and bad breasts. c. Neuroticism, conscientiousness, psychoticism,
sensation seeking, agreeableness
a. Fantasies
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
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Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
d. Conscientiousness, Openness, neuroticism, Operant Conditioning
extraversion, agreeableness
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is
OCEAN a type of learning in which (a) the strength of a behavior is
Costa and McCrae modified by the behavior's consequences, such as reward or
punishment, and (b) the behavior is controlled by antecedents
O penness called "discriminative stimuli" which come to signal those
consequences
C onscientiousness
** Operant behavior- responses that are elicited without a
E xtraversion stimulus necessarily being present
A greeableness Shaping- gradual molding of one's organism’s behavior in order
to achieve the desired behavior
N euroticism
Discrimination- ability to tell the difference between stimuli that
87. A girl gives her dog treats for every 3rd time the dog sits by
are not reinforcing.
command. What schedule of reinforcement does the girl
employ? Generalization- the application of a response learned in one
situation to a different but similar situation.
a. Fived ratio
Reinforcement- anything that will increase the likelihood of
b. Fixed interval
occurrence of behavior
c. Variable ratio
* Positive
d. Variable interval
* Negative
87. A girl gives her dog treats for every 3rd time the dog sits by
Punishment- the showing of aversive stimulus as behavior to
command. What schedule of reinforcement does the girl
eliminate the undesirable situation.
employ?
Schedules of Reinforcement
a. Fived ratio
 Continuous Reinforcement- the desired behavior is
b. Fixed interval
reinforced every time it occurs. * best in strengthening
c. Variable ratio the behavior but prone to extinction

d. Variable interval  Interval Reinforcement- the individual is reinforced


after a certain TIME period regardless of the response
Learning Theory rate.
B.F. Skinner
 Fixed- same time period elapses every time
“Behavior should be studied externally because personality
cannot be directly observed.”  Variable- the time varies time to time

- Behavior is externally driven  Ratio reinforcement- the rate of the reinforcement


depends on the appropriate response rate.
- Internal mental states exist, but should not be used to
explain behavior  Fixed- the number of responses required prior
to reinforcement is stable and unchanging.
Classical Conditioning v. Operant Conditioning
 Variable- the number of appropriate responses
Classical Conditioning vary time to time e.g. slot machines

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent Extinction- the tendency of previously learned acquired response
conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a to become progressively weakened upon non reinforcement.
biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously
neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell). It also refers to the learning process 88. It is a level of moral reasoning according to Piaget wherein the
that results from this pairing, through which the neutral stimulus child understands the rules are made by people for the people.
comes to elicit a response (e.g. salivation) that is usually similar This usually starts at 10 yrs. old.
to the one elicited by the potent stimulus.
a. Heteronormous morality
** Respondent Behavior- refers to reflexes or automatic
b. Autonomous Morality
responses that are elicited by the stimuli; the stimulus is the
reinforcement and it precedes the behavior. c. Pre conventional
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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
d. Post conventional c. Destiny

88. It is a level of moral reasoning according to Piaget wherein the d. Psychological situation
child understands the rules are made by people for the people.
This usually starts at 10 yrs. old. 91. The turning point of one’s life.

a. Heteronormous morality a. Creative illness

b. Autonomous Morality b. Identity crisis

c. Pre conventional c. Self-actualization

d. Post conventional d. Transcendence

Piaget’s Moral Reasoning 91. The turning point of one’s life.

• 1. Heteronormous Morality (4-7 years old) a. Creative illness

- Sees the world as an unchangeable collection of rules b. Identity crisis


and laws that are not under the control of any person.
Only thinks the consequences of the actions. c. Self-actualization

2. Autonomous Morality (10 years old and above) d. Transcendence

- Child’s understanding that rules are made by people for 92. It means being in the world and the basic unity between
the people; should consider the concept of free will. person and the environment.

89. This refers to the deprivation of self-actualization and B- a. Umwelt


values.
b. Mitwelt
a. Malignant narcissism
c. Eigenwelt
b. Metapathology
d. Dasein
c. Aggression
92. It means being in the world and the basic unity between
d. Instinctoid needs person and the environment.

89. This refers to the deprivation of self-actualization and B- a. Umwelt


values.
b. Mitwelt
a. Malignant narcissism
c. Eigenwelt
b. Metapathology
d. Dasein
c. Aggression
Existential Psychoanalysis:
d. Instinctoid needs Rollo May

90. An environmental experience that is unexpected and A basic unity exists between people and their environment; a
unintended. unity expressed as Dasein or being in the world.

a. Fortuitous event 3 simultaneous modes:

b. Chance encounter  Umwelt- the environment around us

c. Destiny  Mitwelt- world with other people

d. Psychological situation  Eigenwelt- our relationship with one


self
90. An environmental experience that is unexpected and
unintended. 93. First devised the play therapy for children

a. Fortuitous event a. Melanie Klein

b. Chance encounter b. Mary Ainsworth


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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
c. Karen Horney a. Dangal (internal)

d. John Bowlby b. Puri (external)

93. First devised the play therapy for children c. Lakas ng loob

a. Melanie Klein d. Pakikibaka

b. Mary Ainsworth 97. The pivotal interpersonal value of Sikolohiyang Pilipino

c. Karen Horney a. Pakikiramdam

d. John Bowlby b. Kagandahang-loob

94. Misinterpreting an experience in order to fit into some c. Pakikisalamuha


aspect of our experience.
d. Kapwa
a. Alteration
97. The pivotal interpersonal value of Sikolohiyang Pilipino
b. Distortion
a. Pakikiramdam
c. Denial
b. Kagandahang-loob
d. Repression
c. Pakikisalamuha
94. Misinterpreting an experience in order to fit into some
aspect of our experience. d. Kapwa

a. Alteration 98. Core construct of Sikolohiyang Pilipino.

b. Distortion a. Pakikiramdam

c. Denial b. Kapwa

d. Repression c. Kagandahang-loob

95. He is the founder of Filipino Psychology d. Pakikisalamuha

a. Zeus Salazar 98. Core construct of Sikolohiyang Pilipino.

b. Virgilio Enriquez a. Pakikiramdam

c. Andres Diwa b. Kapwa

d. Marcelo Santiago c. Kagandahang-loob

95. He is the founder of Filipino Psychology d. Pakikisalamuha

a. Zeus Salazar 99. The following are the confrontative surface values, except,

b. Virgilio Enriquez a. Hiya

c. Andres Diwa b. Bahala na

d. Marcelo Santiago c. Lakas ng loob

96. It is the external aspect of dignity. d. Pakikibaka

a. Dignity 99. The following are the confrontative surface values, except,

b. Puri a. Hiya

c. Lakas ng loob b. Bahala na

d. Pakikibaka c. Lakas ng loob

96. It is the external aspect of dignity. d. Pakikibaka


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THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Prepared By:
Prof. Richard M. Campos, RPm
Confrontative Surface Values

 Bahala Na
 Lakas ng loob
 Pakikibaka

100. Which of the following is an example of accommodative


surface values?

a. Bahala na

b. Lakas ng loob

c. Pakikibaka

d. Pakikisama

100. Which of the following is an example of accommodative


surface values?

a. Bahala na

b. Lakas ng loob

c. Pakikibaka

d. Pakikisama

To God be the Glory!