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ENGR. YOSHIKI B. KURATA, CIE, AAE, MSc.

IE, CLSSGB
Course Instructor
CONTENTS

Origins and Development

History of Human Factors &


Ergonomics

Human Error Analysis

Human Information Processing


ORIGIN & DEVELOPMENT
WHAT IS ERGONOMICS?
WHAT IS ERGONOMICS?

Source: International Ergonomics Association (IEA)


WHAT IS ERGONOMICS?

❑ Ergonomics is the scientific study and body of knowledge of human


abilities, limitations and characteristics for the appropriate design of the
living and work environments.

❑ It is concerned with ensuring that the work system is conducive to


good performance and work effectiveness, and consequently that the
work environment is compatible with the health, safety and comfort of
the individual. (BCPE, 1993)
WHAT IS ERGONOMICS?
ORIGIN OF ERGONOMICS

❑ Comes from Greek words ergon which means “work” or “effort” and nomos
which means “natural laws of” or “study of”.

❑ Developed into a recognized field during World War II, when for the first time,
technology and the human sciences were systematically applied in a
coordinated manner.

❑ Interest in the approach grew rapidly, especially in Europe and in the U.S.,
leading to the foundation in England of the first ever national ergonomics
society in 1949, which is when the term ergonomics was adopted.

❑ A succinct definition would be that ergonomics aims to design appliances,


technical systems and tasks in such a way as to improve human safety, health,
comfort and performance.
ORIGIN OF ERGONOMICS

HUMAN FACTORS ERGONOMICS

❑ Traditionally emerged from a ❑ Focuses on the safety and


military background and comfort of workers.
concentrates on human
performance. ❑ More prevalent in Europe and
the rest of the world, including
❑ Preferred term in the United the Philippines.
States and several other
countries.
DEVELOPMENT OF ERGONOMICS

✓ Simple tools and utensils

✓ Purposeful shaping of the tools

✓ Organizational and managerial challenges


✓ Training and selection
✓ Military

✓ Space applications

✓ Aviation applications

✓ Design of workplace and products

Ergonomics draws knowledge from various fields in the


human sciences and technology.
FIELDS OF ERGONOMICS
PHYSICAL ERGONOMICS

Concerned with human anatomy, and some of the anthropometric, physiological and bio
mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. Physical ergonomic principles have
been widely used in the design of both consumer and industrial products.

COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS

Concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response,
as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system.

ORGANIZATIONAL ERGONOMICS

Concerned with the optimization of socio-technical systems, including their organizational


structures, policies, and processes.
FIELDS OF ERGONOMICS

Physical Cognitive Organizational


Ergonomics Ergonomics Ergonomics
• Visual • Usability • Human
Ergonomics • Human- Resources
• Environmental Computer Management
Ergonomics Interaction • Organizational
• Anthropometry • Mental Behavior
Workload • Virtual
• Human Error Organizations
• Work Stress • Work Design
BENEFITS OF ERGONOMICS

Ergonomics has existed as a profession for over 50 years, helping people


to succeed in their jobs by means such as:

❑ Reducing human error in the system performance


❑ Reducing hazards to individuals in the work environment
❑ Improving system efficiency
❑ Designing systems with a user focus
❑ Improve quality of life
WHY ERGONOMICS?

❑ Economic Advantages
❑ Minimizing fatigue and overexertion
❑ Minimizing absenteeism and labor turnover
❑ Improving quality and quantity of output
❑ Eliminating or minimizing injuries, strains and sprains
❑ Minimizing lost time and costs associated with injuries
and accidents
WHY ERGONOMICS?

❑ Progress in Knowledge and Technology


❑ Learning about human desires, capabilities and
limitations
❑ Developing and applying new theories and practices
❑ Moral Imperative
❑ Maximizing safety, efficiency, comfort and productivity
❑ Improving human condition and quality of life
HUMAN SCIENCES AND
TECHNOLOGY
HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Anatomy Systems Engineering

Biomechanics Industrial Hygiene

build of the human body


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

build of the human body


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Bones Orthopedics

Physiology Sociology

skeletal system
HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

skeletal system
HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Safety Engineering Systems Engineering

Physiology Industrial Hygiene

functions and activities of the human body


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

functions and activities of the human body


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Bioengineering Medicine

Biomechanics Psychology

illnesses and their prevention and healing


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

illnesses and their prevention and healing


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Sociology Organizational Behavior

Psychology Psychiatric

mind and behavior


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

mind and behavior


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Sociology Military Engineering

Labor Relations Organization

development, structure, interaction and


behavior of individuals and groups
HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

development, structure, interaction and


behavior of individuals and groups
HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Anatomy Physiology

Biomechanics Anthropometry

physical dimensions of the body


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

physical dimensions of the body


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Anatomy Physical Mechanics

Biomechanics Chemechanics

physical behavior in terms of mechanics


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

physical behavior in terms of mechanics


HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

Work Measurement Body System at Work

Work Physiology Industrial Work Hygiene

physiological knowledge applied to the body


at work
HUMAN SCIENCES & TECHNOOGY

physiological knowledge applied to the body


at work
IN SUMMARY, ERGONOMICS IS:

Human Centered

Multi-disciplinary

Application Oriented