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NOTATION:

ENGLISH LETTERS

APPENDIX

A

LIST OF SYMBOLS

a depth of equivalen! rectangular stress block (={)¡e if ACI code)

a pararneter, distance, coefficient

A

A

Ác

Aes

Ag

area in general

used as subscript for age, anchorage set, additional weight

area of concrete at the cross section considered in general (depending on the particular case, it may be the net area, the gross area, or the transforrned area) area of concrete composite section area of concrete core of a spirally reinforced column measured to outside diameter of spiral effective cross sectional area of strut gross area of concrete at the cross section considered area offorms

A;

area of part i of a section

total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion

A,,

net area of concrete at the cross section considered; area of nodal zone

Ap¡

area of prestressed reinforcement

required to develop the ultimate compressive

strength of the overhanging portions of the flange of a flanged section cross-sectional area of ith tendon area of prestressed reinforcement in tension zone Aps -A p¡, area of prestressed reinforcement associated with the web of a flanged member at nominal moment resistance gross area of concrete enclosed by the shear flow path; it can be taken as a first approximation equal to 0.85Aoi, area enclosed by centerline ofthe outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, in2 area of non-prestressed tension reinforcement area of reinforcement in strut area of reinforcement in tie

1017

1018 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

A' s

Á¡,Á¡y

A,

C¡,Cz,

e

e

e

e

Cc(t)

Ccu

C-line

cm

e;

de

d' s

,C¡

area of compression reinforcement transformed area of concrete at section considered (depending on the particular case it may represent a cracked or uncracked section)

area of one leg of closed stirrups used as torsion reinforcement within distance

s

area of shear reinforcement within a distance s area of shear-friction reinforcement used as a subscript to indicate "bottom fiber" width of compression face of member effective flange width perimeter of critica! section for slabs or footings transformed flange width width of cross section at contact surface being investigated for horizontal shear web width of a flanged member used as a subscript to describe "concrete" or "composite" section distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis cohesion factor various dimensions or distances

resulting compressive force in the concrete section due to the prestressing force and applied externa! forces, such as in the C-line; compression force in strut

cross-sectional constant to define torsional properties

used as a subscript to describe effect of creep

force resultant of the compression block of concrete at ultimate creep coefficient of concrete at time t ultimate creep coefficient, or creep coefficient at end of service life geometric lieu of the compressive force in a member under service conditions factor relating actual moment diagram to equivalent uniform moment diagram nominal compression resistance of strut distance from extreme compression fiber to combined centroid of tensile force when prestressed and nonprestressed tension reinforcement are used nominal diameter of bar diameter of core of spirally reinforced column concrete cover measured from the extreme tension fiber to centro id of tensile reinforcement net concrete cover measured to extreme !ayer ofreinforcement distance from extreme compression fiber to centro id of prestressing steel

distance

prestressing steel, in a composite beam

distance from extreme compression fiber to centro id of nonprestressed tension reinforcement

distance from extreme

reinforcement distan ce from extreme compression

rei n forcement dead loads or their interna! moments and forces distribution factor ofwheel loador concentrated load

live load distribution factor for moments live load distribution factor for shear forces base of napierian logarithms

from extreme compression fiber of cast-in-place

slab to centroid of

compression fiber to centroid of compressive

fiber to extreme layer of tensile

steel

Appendix A - LIST OF SYMBOLS

1019

eccentricity of the C force in the concrete section measured from the centro id of the section lower eccentricity limit ofthe C-line upper eccentricity limit ofthe C-line eccentricity of ith tendon, or eccentricity ofthe steel at section i eccentricity ofthe prestressing force at the section considered measured from the centro id of the section

eccentricity of the prestressing force at section x Jeft and right support eccentricities of the prestressing steel in a typical span AB eccentricity ofthe Zero-Load-C line at section x

e0(x)

eoA,eoB

eoc(x)

eol lower eccentricity limit ofthe prestressing steel

eou upper eccentricity limit of the prestressing

steel

( eº ),np

E

maximum practically feasible eccentricity

load effects of earthquakes or their related interna) moments and forces; modulus of elasticity, in general; equivalent strip width of slab modulus of elasticity of concrete effective or equivalent modulus of elasticity of concrete at time t modulus of elasticity of concrete at time of initial prestress tangent modulus of elasticity measured at the origin of the stress-strain curve secant modulus measured at the maximum or peak stress modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel modulus of elasticity of nonprestressed steel or reinforcing steel bars

modulus of steel at onset of strain hardening flexura) stiffness or flexura) rigidity of compression members

Ec

Ece (t)

Eci

Ea

s;

e;

Es

E,.h

El

ES elastic shortening

f

fi,

f cgs

f cgs(t¡)

t; (t)

used as stress in general, preferably for the steel and occasionally for concrete when a symbol is widely used stress on bottom fiber of concrete section (also ab) stress in the concrete at the centroid of prestressing steel stress in the concrete at the centroid of the prestressing steel at time at section considered stress range in the concrete effective strength of concrete in strut-and-tie model specified compressive strength of concrete compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress effective stress in the prestressing steel, after losses, at section considered initial stress in the prestressing steel at section considered

stress

stress at jacking stress at jacking

proportional limit stress of the prestressing steel calculated stress in prestressing steel at section considered and loading considered stress in the prestressing steel at time t at section considered and for the Joading considered specified tensile strength ofprestressing steel specified yield strength ofprestressing steel modulus of rupture of concrete stress range in the steel

in the prestressing steel at end of jacking

before seating ofthe chuck or anchor after seating of the chuck or anchor

1020 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

Ís

stress in the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement

¡;

stress in the compressive reinforcement

Í s

allowable stress in the steel

t;

direct tensile strength (stress) of concrete

r,

specified yield strength of nonprestressed tensile reinforcement

r; ¡;

specified yield strength of closed transverse torsional reinforcement specified yield strength of compressive reinforcement

F

final or effective prestressing force (after all losses) at section considered

F

used as a subscript to describe effect of friction

used as a subscript for center of gravity

initial prestressing force at time of transfer at section considered

F;

prestressing force at end of jacking

Fn

tensile force in the prestressing steel at the nominal moment resistance ofthe

g

section

g(t)

time function

G

used as a subscript for gravity load or self-weight

GP

gravity load due to precast girder or element

h

overall thickness or depth of member

he

overall depth of composite member

flange thickness of a flanged member

H

relative humidity, percent; also used to describe loading dueto earth pressure

Hu

total horizontal shear force at the interface between the precast section and the

k;

cast-in-place slab of a composite beam used as a subscript to describe "initial" conditions or ith element effect of impact or impact coefficient; moment of inertia, in general impact coefficient or its effect moment of inertia of uncracked concrete section resisting extemally applied load (it represents the inertia of either the net of the gross section depending on the particular case) moment of inertia of uncracked composite section moment of inertia of cracked section (transformed to concrete) effective or equivalent moment of inertia for computation of deflections after cracking moment of inertia of gross concrete section about the centroidal axis, neglecting the reinforcement gross moment of inertia of composite section polar moment of inertia effective length factor for compression members calibration factor used to predict the stress in prestressing steel at ultimate distance from centroid of concrete section to the lower (bottom) limit of central kem

k' 1

reduction factor of additional long-term deflection due to the presence of nonprestressed reinforcement distance from centroid of concrete section to the upper (top) limit of central kem distance from centroid of concrete section to the lower (bottom) limit ofthe limit kem distance from centroid of concrete section to the upper (top) limit ofthe limit kem

Appendíx A - LIST OF SYMBOLS

1021

K

K

Kc

K ec

wobble friction coefficient per unit length of prestressing steel

flexura! stiffness of member; moment per unit rotation flexura! stiffness of column flexura! stiffness of equivalent column (above and below)

K1 flexura! stiffness of attached torsional member

KcA age at loading factor for creep

KcH humidity correction factor for creep

Kcs shape and size factor for creep

KsH humidity correction factor for shrinkage

Kss shape and size factor for shrinkage

1

1

la,lb

fe

{d

t,

In

t,

lu

lx,ly

11,12

span length of member generally center-to-center of supports; also f.

used as a subscript for lifetime, or lower longer and shorter span of a slab panel

height of column center-to-center of floors or roofs development length ith span of a continuous beam or one-way slab

clear span measured face to face of supports transfer length unbraced length of column or column length between hinges spans in the x and y direction for a two-way slab system respectively span in the direction being analyzed for bending, and span or width transverse to /1 (used in the equivalent-frame method for two-way slabs), measured center to center of supports live loads or their interna! moments and forces span length effective tendon length sum oflengths ofspan loaded with live load and containing tendon(s) considered total length oftendon(s) between anchorages fixed end moments at ends A and B of a typical beam, moment in general at section considered or at section x maximum absolute moment in member at stage deflection is computed moment due to balanced load maximum moment on section while acting as composite section cracking moment moment due to dead load total moment due to prestressing at section considered or at section x total moment due to prestressing at supports A and B of a typical span AB bending moment due to self-weight of member moment due to live load maximum moment due to a single live loading lane at section considered moment dueto live load plus impact at section considered maximum bending moment at section considered under service load conditions maximum absolute moment in a span due to truck loading

mínimum bending moment at section considered under service load conditions

L2

mA,mB

M,M(x)

Mb

Me

M c,-

MD

MF,MF(x)

MF A,MFB

Me

M¿

M1ane

M L+l

Mmax

(M )max

M min

Mn nominal moment resistance

M nb

moment due to unbalanced load

Mn,b nominal moment resistance of a compression member (section) at balanced conditions

1022 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

Mnw

MP

Ms

MsD

Mu

Mue

Muw

Mu1

M 1,M 1(x)

n

np

npi

ns

N

Nb

Ne

Ncr

Ndee

Nn

p

p

Pcr

Pm

r;

Pn,b

Pn,o

nominal moment capacity leading to zero tension on extreme fiber of column or wall section nominal moment resistance dueto the overhanging portian ofthe tlange ofa T section nominal moment resistance of compression member (section) subjected to pure bending nominal moment resistance of the web of a T or tlanged section maximum moment on the precast prestressed section of a composite member moment due to cast-in-place slab in a composite member at section considered moment due to superimposed dead load at section considered strength design moment or factored moment at section considered magnified factored moment to account for slendemess in compression member strength design moment for the web of a T section value of smaller factored end moment on compression member, positive if member is bent in single curvature, negative ifbent in double curvature value of larger factored end moment on compressive member, assumed always positive primary moment due to prestressing in a continuous structure at section considered or at section x secondary moment due to prestressing in a continuous structure at section considered or at section x secondary moments due to prestressing at supports A and B or at sections A andB

used as a subscript for nominal modular ratio of concrete of cast-in-place slab to concrete of precast section of a composite beam modular ratio Eps I E¿ initial modular ratio E ps I Eci modular ratio Es / E¿

axial load acting on member, preferably used for tension number of beams in a bridge deck tensile force in concrete section due to unfactored dead load and live load tensile load leading to cracking of prestressed member tensile load leading to decompression ofprestressed member

nominal resistance of prestressed member under axial tension; nominal resistance of nodal zone number ofdesign loading lanes used as a subscript for prestressing; also used for pressure or percentage perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, in

concentrated externa! load in general

axial load acting on member, preferably used for compression critica! buckling load maximum cut-off compressive force on column allowed by code nominal axial load capacity, in general, ata given eccentricity nominal axial load capacity at balanced conditions nominal axial load capacity of compression member subject to pure compression

Pu

PPR

Q

Q

Q

Q,Q¡

r

R

R

Rn

s

s

s

s

s

s

s

Appendix A - LIST OF SYMBOLS

1023

nominal axial load capacity leading to zero tension on extreme fiber of column or wall

factored axial compressive load at given eccentricity

partial prestressing ratio

first static moment with respect to centroid ofthe portion of section above the shear plane considered

stability index

concentrated externa! load

loading or load effect in general, and loading i

radius of gyration of cross section = ~I / A

used as a subscript to describe effect of steel relaxation

radius of circular, cylindrical, or curved element

nominal resistance in general

curvilinear abscissa; also used as a subscript for "steel" reinforcement

spacing to stirrups, or ties, or bent-up bars in direction parallel to longitudinal reinforcement

pitch of spiral reinforcement

length of side element

effect of cast-in-place slab in a composite beam

used as a subscript to describe effect of shrinkage

transverse spacing center-to-center ofbeams or girders in a deck or slab structure effective span of slab transverse clear spacing ofbeams or girders superimposed dead load or its related interna! moments and forces safety factor time torsional shear stress used as a subscript to indicate "top fiber" or "tensión" wall thickness age at loading torsional shear stress contributed by concrete after cracking; also used when member is subjected to torsion alone torsional strength (stress) of concrete under combined torsion and flexura! shear torsional shear stress at cracking particular values of time, mostly used to define the beginning and the end of a time interval design lifetime of member time at transfer or at release of prestress time at jacking of prestressing steel factored design torsional strength (stress) tensile force in the steel; also used as subscript for total to describe cumulative effects; for temperature loading; for torque or torsional moment; for T section nominal torsional moment resistance contributed by concrete after cracking torsional shear strength of concrete under combined torsion and flexura! shear torsional cracking moment tensile force in the ith !ayer of prestressing steel tensile or compressive force in the ith !ayer of reinforcing steel nominal torsional moment resistance of section

1024 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANALYSIS ANO DESIGN

in the steel balancing the compression force in the overhanging

tensile force

portian of the flange of a T section at nominal moment capacity

nominal resistance

of tie

nominal tensile

force in the steel balancing the compressive force in the web of

a T section

at nominal moment capacity

moment resistance contributed by torsion reinforcement

nominal torsional

factored design

torsional moment at section considered; factored tensile force

used as subscript for "factored effects" capacity

or design specified values at ultimate

loads or related interna! moments and forces

u required strength to resist factored

for forms, p for prestressing steel, and

u unit cost; subscript e holds for concrete,/

s for reinforcing steel

shear stress in general permissible shear stress carried by concrete

u,v

in presence of torsion

shear strength (stress) of concrete

by concrete when diagonal cracking

nominal shear strength (stress) provided

results from combined shear and moment

nominal shear strength (stress) provided results from excessive principal tensile

by concrete when diagonal cracking stresses in the web

nominal shear strength (stress) at section considered

Un

nominal horizontal shear strength

(stress)

Unh

by shear reinforcement at section considered

nominal shear strength (stress) provided

Us

factored design shear strength (stress)

Uu

factored horizontal shear strength

(stress)

Uuh

shear force in general at section considered

or at section x

V,V(x)

load at section considered

VD shear force due to unfactored dead

live loading lane at section considered

maximum shear force due to a single

Viane

shear force due to unfactored live load plus impact at section considered

VL+I

nominal shear strength (force) at section considered nominal horizontal shear force resistance

vn

r;

vertical component of effective prestressing

force at section considered dead load

vP

due to superimposed

unfactored shear force factored design shear

VsD

force at section considered

Vu

shear force

factored design horizontal

Vuh

w unfactored load per unit length of beam or per unit area of slab; width

in

general balanced load; width

ofbearing

plate or per unit

dead load per unit length

ofbeam

self

area of slab; it includes

dead load if any

weight and superimposed

per unit length or per unit area, or gravity load

self-weight ofmember live load per unit length

of beam or per unit area of slab

load or unbalanced

nonbalanced

load

load per unit length

ofbeam

dead

superimposed

or unit area of slab

of beam or per unit area of slab interna! moments and forces; crack width

factored

load per unit length wind load or related

weight;

to wedge

width ofbridge

deck

wedge

also x represents, in general, an unknown of rectangular part of cross section dimension of closed rectangular stirrup

abscissa

along the x axis;

X

overall

shorter

dimension

X

shorter center-to-center

X

y

y

Yb

Ybc

Yt

Ytc

Y;c

z

z

z

z

Appendix A - UST OF SYMBOLS

1025

abscissa of section of tendon beyond which the stress loss due to anchorage set is zero

ordinate along the y axis

longer overall dimension of rectangular part of cross section

distance from centroidal axis of section to extreme bottom fiber

distance from centroidal axis of composite section to extreme bottom fiber

distance from centroidal axis of section to extreme top fiber

distance from centroidal axis of composite section to extreme top fiber

distance from centroidal axis of composite section to extreme top fiber of the precast member

longer center-to-center dimension of closed rectangular stirrup

ordinate along the z axis; number used in general

loss in stress in prestressing tendon along span length l

objective function in an optimization problem

factor that defines the slope of a line simulating the descending branch of the stress-strain curve of concrete section modulus with respect to extreme bottom fiber =le! Yb section modulus with respect to extreme bottom fiber for a composite section

= lec I Ybc

section modulus with respect to extreme top fiber =le! y1 section modulus with respect to extreme top fiber for a composite section

= lec I Ytc section modulus with respect to extreme top fiber of precast elements of a composite section = Ice I Y;c

NOTATION: GREEK LETTERS

a angle in general or factor in general

a total angular change of prestressing steel profile in radians between two points

a angle between inclined stirrups and longitudinal axis of member factor that indicate the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension between cracks ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load, reaction or column ratio ofmaximum factored dead load (sustained) to maximum factored total load, always positive effective strength coefficient for nodal zone effective strength coefficient ~ strut

/J

coefficient or multiplier of

concrete under shear stresses induced by the combination of shear forces and torsional moment.

factor used to define the depth ofthe equivalent rectangular stress block at

ultimate as a function of the location

geometric efficiency; unit weight in general; factor in general unit weight of concrete load factor for load i

in psi, expressing the cracking resistance of

J¡;

/J¡

of the neutral axis (Eqs. 5 .12 and 5 .13)

r

Ye

Y;

r. unit weight of steel

Yu fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear at slab- column connections

1026 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS AND DESIGN

s

differential change (increase or decrease) in variable considered

s

moment magnification factor for columns

s

anchorage set, or slippage

s.s,

sag in span considered or in span i

«;»,

moment magnification factor for non-sway and sway column, respectively

LI

deflection in general, positive for detlection and negative for camber

LI

difference or differential amount between two values ofvariable that follows

Ll(t)

the LI deflection at time t

Lladd

additional long-term deflection

Lln

deflection due to dead load

Lla

deflection due to self-weight

LI

L

deflection due to live load

LI

i

initial, instantaneous elastic deflection

z,

Ll1, Ll2, L'.13 Llfcr LlfpA

Llfpc,Llfpc(t;,t1)

life deflection for the sustained loading considered deflections at different times or loading stages

stress range limit in concrete in compression under fatigue total stress loss in the prestressing steel due to anchorage set at section considered respectively total stress loss in the prestressing steel during service life due to

LlfpES

creep of concrete, and stress loss during a time interval (t¡, t.i) at section considered total stress loss in the prestressing steel due to elastic shortening at time of

LlfpF Llfpr LlfpR, LlfpR (t;,tJ)

transfer or release total stress loss in the prestressing steel due to friction at section considered stress range in prestressing steel under cyclic load respectively total stress loss in the prestressing steel during service life dueto

LlfpR1

relaxation ofthe tendons, and stress loss during a time interval (t¡,t1) at section considered stress loss in prestressing steel due to relaxation between time at end of jacking

LlfpR2

and time of stress transfer stress loss in prestressing steel due to relaxation between time of transfer and service life respectively total stress loss in the prestressing steel during service life dut to shrinkage of concrete, and stress loss during a time interval (t¡, tJ) at section considered respectively total stress loss in the prestressing steel during service life due to ali sources of loss, and stress loss during a time interval (t¡ .t J) at section considered average stress loss in the prestressing steel

moment amplitude

moment in excess of self-weight moment, causing flexura! cracking in the precompressed tensile fiber at section considered factored bending moment due to superimposed dead load plus live load at section considered factored shear force due to superimposed dead load plus live load at section considered differences between two stresses, or stress amplitude permissible stress amplitude

= M max - M min at section considered

s

Ce (t)

lich

6ce

lici

lict

6cu

«cu

E:m

Appendix A - LIST OF SYMBOLS

1027

strain in general creep in strain at time t strain in concrete bottom fiber concrete strain at the centroid of prestressing steel due to effective prestress initial elastic instantaneous strain in concrete strain in concrete top fiber; also used for tensile strain in concrete strain in extreme compression fiber of concrete at nominal resistance of the section ultimate creep strain or creep strain at end of life of member strain at maximum or peak stress of the stress-strain curve

¡:;pe

strain

in

prestressing

steel

under effective

stress

Íp e

E:p s

strain in prestressing steel at section considered and loading considered

torsional coefficient; coefficient in general

&pu

ultimate faiture strain of prestressing steel

E:py

yield strain of prestressing steel

6su

ultimate shrinkage strain or shrinkage strain at end of life of member

es (t)

shrinkage strain at time t

E:¡

net tensile strain in extreme !ayer of steel at nominal bending resistance

E:y

strain at onset ofyielding ofreinforcing steel

F I ratio of final prestressing force to initial prestressing force or ratio of

corresponding stresses

load multiplier or load modification factor used in AASHTO LRFD code

e

torsional constant

 

e

angle in general

A,

coefficient in general; coefficient used in prestress losses; multiplier used in deflection computation; rnultiplier used to differentiate lightweight from normal weight concrete ith constant or parameter

multiple presence factor for lane loading in bridges curvature friction coefficient; also coefficient of friction or simply coefficient; ratio of curvatures, rotations, or deflections

V

Po is son' s ratio

7r

3.14159

p'

Pb

Pp

Ps

P smin

Psmax

A; I bde, ratio of compression reinforcement reinforcernent ratio producing balanced condition

Aps I bd P,

ratio of prestressed reinforcement

A5 I bd5, ratio of non-prestressed tension reinforcement ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volurne of core of spirally reinforced compression member mínimum specified reinforcernent ratio for reinforced concrete member maximum specified reinforcement ratio for reinforced concrete beam

o stress in general; preferably used for concrete unless another symbol is widely accepted such asf stress on bottom fiber; bearing stress respectively actual extreme fiber compressive stress in the concrete immediately after prestress transfer, and code allowable limit respectively actual extreme fiber compressive stress in the concrete at service loads, and code allowable limit

1028 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

(Cíes )stab, (ª es)stab

agi

CJ'm

O'¡

o«. a,¡

(]' X

ay

ª'

CY2

t:

r

y

(()

ifJ

f//

f//m

f//¡, f//2

o/

OJe

OJP

OJS

OJsw,

OJpw ,

OJ~

respectively actual extreme fiber compressive stress in computer slab if any at service loads, and code allowable limit stress at the centro id of the concrete section due to the final or effective prestressing force after losses stress at the centro id of the concrete section due to the initial prestressing force maximum or peak stress stress on top fiber; tension stress in general respectively actual extreme fiber (initial) tensile stress in the concrete immediately after transfer, and code allowable limit respectively actual extreme fiber tensile stress in the concrete at service loads, and code allowable limit axial stress in the x direction axial stress in the y direction principal tensile stress; also used for hoop stress principal compressive stress; also used for meridian stress bond stress in general

allowable bond or shear stress

torsional constant curvature of section strength reduction factor

end-restraint coefficient; factor describing fraction of live load average value of restraint coefficient of column considered restraint coefficients at extreme ends of column considered

p'J; / fd

= OJP + OJ5 - w' = effective reinforcing index or global reinforcing index

PpÍps Ifd PsÍ y I fd

reinforcement indices for flanged sections computed as for OJ5 , OJ P, and to' except that b shall be the web width, and the steel area shall be that required to

develop

reinforcing

minimum value of the effective reinforcing

minimum

the compressive

strength of the web only

index corresponding to balanced conditions in reinforced concrete

index

recommended value of the reinforcing index

ABBREVIATIONS:

cf

cubic foot

cgc

centro id of concrete section (center of gravity of concrete)

cgs

centro id of the prestressing tendons or of the steel

cm

centimeter

ft

foot

in

inch

kips

kilopounds

kip-ft

kip x foot (unit ofmoment)

kip-in

kip x inch (unit ofmoment)

klf

kips per linear foot

kN/mm2

kilonewtons per square meter

ksi

kips per square inch

Appendix A - LIST OF SYMBOLS

lb

pound (pounds)

m

meter

mm

millimeter

MPa

megapascal

N/mm2

newtons per square millimeter

pcf

pounds per cubic foot

plf

pounds per linear foot

psi

pounds per square inch

psf

pounds per square foot

ABBREVIATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL

ORGANIZATIONS

1029

AASHTO

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

ACI

American Concrete Institute

ANSI

American National Standard Jnstitute

ASCE

American Society ofCivil Engineers

ASTM

American Society ofTesting and Materials

CEB

Comite European du Beton (has become part of FIB)

CRSI

Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute

FIB

Federation lntemationale du Beton

PCA

Portland Cement Association

PCJ

Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute

PTI

Post-Tensioning Institute

B

APPENDIX

UNIT CONVERSIONS

Unit

SI - Metric Unit

US Customary

ft

m

yard

m

in

mm

in2

mm2

MPa

psi

lb

N

0.083.Jl! ~ .Jl! MPa

.Jl! psi

12

0.17 ft ~Jl: MPa

psi

2.JJ:

6

= 1.s.Jl!

j,

psi

MPa

0.62.Jl:

from US to SI Units

Conversion

in

= 25.4 mm

1

I ft = 0.3048 m

Length:

{ lyd=0.914m

fI in2 = 6.452 cm2 = 645.2 mm2

l I ft2

Area:

= 0.0929

m2

I in3 = 16.39 cm3

= 16390

mm3

I ft3

= 0.0283

m3

1 yd3 = 0.765

Volume:

m3

mi

I oz = 29.57

I gal= 3.785

litres

1030

Appendix B - UNIT CONVERSIONS

1031

 

f1

in4 = 41.62 cm4 = 416,200

mm4

Inertia:

h ft4 =863,032 cm4 =0.00863032

m4

Density:

I

lb/ft3 = 16.03 kg/m3

Unit Weight:

l

lb/ft3

= 1 pcf= 0.1575 kN/m3

Stress and Modulus:

Mass:

Loads:

Moment or torque:

Temperature:

Velocity:

Energy:

Power:

Specific surface:

f 1 lb/in2

kip / in 2

11

=

= 1 k s i

1

psi

,,,

,,,

0.006895 N/mm2

6.895 N / mm 2 = 6 . 895 MP a

¡

 

l lb =

0.454

kg

I

oz = 28.35

gr

1 ton (short) = 907.2

kg

 

1 lb= 4.448

N

I kip = 4.448 kN

 

1

kip/ft =

1 klf

,,,

14.59 kN/m

I lb/ft2

=

1 psf

,,,

0.0479 kN/m2 = 47.9 Pa

1

kip/ft2

=

1 ksf

,,,

47.9 kN/m2

1 lb-ft = 1.356 N-m

1 lb-in= 0.113 N-m

{ 1 kip-in = 0.113 kN-m

1 kip-ft = 1.356 kN-m

ºC = (ºF - 32)

1.8

1

mph = 1.609 kilometer/hour

1

mph = 0.4470 meter/second (mis)

1

Btu = 1056 joule U)

1 horsepower

(hp) = 745.7 Watt (W)

Unit weight of concrete:

150 pcf = 2400 kg/m '

Unit weight ofmortar:

130 pcf= 2080 kg/m3

1032 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

Unit weight of steel:

1/ .J¡000 = 0.0316

490 pcf= 7850kg/m3

to convert

.JJ: from psi to ksi

SI Metric Equivalent of Sorne Design Equations

U.S. Customary

SI Metric

Units:

in

Units:

mm

in2

mm2

psi

MPa

lb

N

.¡¡:

0.083.Jl:

Ve= 2.Jl:

0.17.JJ:

Ír = 7.5.Jl:

0.62.Jl:

fd

Íp s = Í pe + 10,000+-- IOOpp

( A

u

)

.

mm

= 50bws

Í y

f

pe

+ 69 +

.

0.35bws

J,

!;

IOOpP

o.os{ 2 + ;J.¡¡:

o.os.JJ: + 4.8

v. d

~ P

u

Replace "400" with "2.76"

APPENDIX

C

TYPICAL POST-TENSIONING SYSTEMS

The following inforrnation is taken from brochures and literature by manufacturers of prestressing systerns. Their pennission to include this information in this book is gratefully ack:nowledged. The reader should consult with the local representative of each systern to ascertain details and availability and/or the existence of any change or update.

1. THE FREYSSINET C RANGE POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM

(Courtesy Freyssinet lntemational, www.freyssinet.com)

The new Freyssinel C Range post-tensioning system has been developed as an answer to modem civil engineering requirements. The prime characteristic ofthe C range is compactness. The C range is the outcome of more than fifty years of experience in post-tensioning systems. Tendon sizes ranging from 3 to 55 15 mm diameter strands are available.

The following section provides a very brief summary of the Freyssinet C multistrand system. However, changes may be made to the information contained here at any time as new techniques and/or materials are developed. Users are encouraged to check witb Freyssinet on updates and if to check if substantial changes have been made to the specified products.

- applications for 13 mm diameter strand, or smaller units - are avaiJable from Freyssinet.

A large amount

of other detailed

technical

literature

such as specific

data sheets,

speciaJ

l.

Descriptioo

Thc C range multistrand system possesses the following main features and characteristics

(Fig. C l):

• Versatility

The system is designed for a large range of applications with the same type of anchorages:

• use of al! intemationally available sizes and grades of 15 mm strands, including galvaoized and unbonded strand;

• application to interna! and external prestressing:

•:•

bonded

1033

1034 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE

•:•

removable,

•:•

removable and adjustable

•:•

removable, adjustable and detensionable

ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

Table Cl Typical properties of strands compatible with the C range system.

Nominal

Nominal

Nominal

Nominal

Minimum

Proof

 

Tensile

Diameter

Steel

Mass

Breaking

Stress

Standard

Strength

area

strength

at 0.1 %

N/mm2

mm

mrrr'

kz/m

kN

kN

1

770

16

150

1.170

265

228

pr EN 10138-3

1

860

16

150

1.170

279

240

BS

1

770

15.7

150

1.180

265

225

5896 1980

1 820*

15.2

165

1.295

300

255

ASTM

1

860

15.24

140

1.102

260.7

234.6

A 416-96a

(270 ksi)

(0.6 in)

(0.217 in")

(0.74 lb/ft)

(58 600 lb)

(52 740 lb)

*Drawn strand

Note:

The maximum

initial

force in the strand should

Table C2 Typical properties of tendons used

be as recommended

by local codes.

for the Freyssinet C range system.

Number

Type of Strand

 

of

pr EN 10138-3

 

BS 5896-80

 

ASTM A-416-96

strands

1860 grade

 

1820

grade, drawn strand

0.6 in 270 grade

per

steel

steel

steel

tendon

area

mass

UTS

area

mass

UTS

area

mass

UTS

mm2

kg/m

kN

mm2

kg/rn

kN

mm2

kg/m

kN

3

450

3.54

837

495

3.89

900

420

3.306

782

4

600

4.72

1116

660

5.18

1200

560

4.41

1043

7

1 050

8.26

1953

1155

9.07

2100

980

7.71

1825

9

1350

10.62

2511

1485

11.66

2700

1260

9.92

346

12

1800

14.16

3348

980

15.54

3600

1680

13.22

3128

13

1950

15.34

3627

2145

16.84

3900

1820

14.33

3389

19

2850

22.42

5301

3135

24.61

5700

2660

20.94

4953

22

3300

25.96

6138

3630

28.49

6600

3080

24.24

5735

25

3750

29.5

6975

4125

32.38

7500

3500

27.55

6518

27

4050

31.86

7533

4455

34.97

8100

3780

29.75

7039

31

4650

36.58

8649

5115

40.15

9300

4340

34.16

8082

37

5550

43.66

10

323

6105

47.92

11100

5180

40.77

9646

55

8250

64.9

15

345

9075

71.23

16500

7700

60.61

14339

Appendix C-

TYPICAL POST-TENSIONING

SYSTEMS

1035

• Ronge of onchoroges

@

3c15·

@

4ClS

~

7(15

@

9C15•

12C15"

*

13(15

19Cl5

22Cl5"

~

o

25Cl5

(IJ

25Cl5P·

27Cl5•

~

 

31(15

-

 

37(15

-

 

55Cl5

•o;s1r,bution o/ slrondi ,n the onchoroge

with no a,ntrol ,trond

See poge 18 far oelecting !he -

jockocconl,ngly

,g

Size

A

8

3(15

150

110

4(15

1

150

120

7(15

180

150

9(15

:

225

185

12(15

240

200

13(15

250

210

19(15

1

300

250

22C15

330

275

25(15

360

300

25Cl5P

350

290

27(15

350

290

31Cl5

385

320

37(15

420

350

55Cl5

510

420

Figure Cl

Active anchorages for the C range system.

1

nC15 anchorage

e

D

H

0 1·

02"

120

85

50

40

45

125

95

50

45

50

186

110

SS

60

65

260

150

SS

65

70

165

150

65

80

85

246

160

70

80

85

256

185

80

95

100

430

220

90

105

110

.t OO

230

95

110

115

360

220

95

110

115

360

220

100

115

120

346

230

105

120

125

A66

255

110

130

135

516

300

145

160

165

1036 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

• Compactness

Very compact anchorages diffuse better the prestressing forces into the concrete, allowing for a more

efficient design by:

• reducing web thicknesses in beams and box girders, blisters and ribs;

• allowing for a concentration of anchorages at the end zones;

• a reduction ofthe dimensions deviations.

anchor blocks,

ofprestressing

with minimum strand

• Lightweight

The lightweight

jacking equipment compact and automatic

C jacks allow for:

• a reduction of the prestressing anchorage reces ses thanks

• reduced distances

to the compact jack noses;

to walls leading

to the reduction

of the parasitic moments and therefore of

the required reinforcernent,

enabling

an easier placing of concrete;

• improving

the site conditions,

such as handling and stressing.

2. Strand and Tendon Characteristics

ofthe most common strands which may be used with

the C range system and the corresponding values for tendons with a given number of strands. The maximum initial force in the strand at jacking should be as recommended by local codes.

Tables Cl and C2 give the main characteristics

3. Active Anchorages for the C Range System

They are described

in Fig.

C 1 and u sed

for:

• Interna! prestressing with grout, grease, or wax protection

• Partially bonded externa! prestressing with grout protection (non-replaceable)

• Unbonded externa! prestressing, grease or was injected.

4. Ducts for the C Range System

The following main types of ducts are used for the Freyssinet C range tendons:

• For interna! prestressing:

• Corrugated sheath made up of rolled steel sheet strip having a recomrnended rninimurn thickness of 0.3 mm. The recommended duct diameters are specified for each anchorage. However, the applicable regulations must be checked against the proposed dimensions. Generally, cement grout is used for corrosion protection, sometirnes wax or grease (i.e. in nuclear reactor containment buildings). For certain applications, galvanized steel strip is used.

• Plastic corrugated Plyduct® sheath, recently developed and patented by Freyssinet to comply with international standards such asfib and British TR47. It is perfectly air and watertight.

• None, with the patented Ductless Freyssinet system using individually sheathed and greased strands directly embedded in the concrete.

• For externa! prestressing:

• For partially bonded systerns (grouted)

- steel sheath or steel tube in the concrete

corrugated

zones (diaphragms

and deviators);

- polyethylene

high density

(HDPE) or steel tubes (rarely) in the zones outside the

concrete. HOPE tubes are standardized

rating of0.63 N/mrn2 (6.3 bar) is recornrnended.

in most countries.

Ducting with a pressure

Appendix e - TYPICAL POST-TENSIONING

SYSTEMS

1037

• For unbonded System Nºl (double ducting, grouted most often)

- steel tube for the outer casing in the concrete zones;

- HDPE for the inner casing in ali zones.

• For unbonded System N°2 (single ducting, patented system using sheathed and greased strands in a duct which is grouted before stressing)

- steel tubes in the concrete zones;

- HDPE for zones outside the concrete (0.4 N/mm2 series may be used).

5. Replaceable

Active R Anchorages

These ancborages have a special guide and are used for:

• Interna! prestressing without duct (Patented Ductless System), with sheathed and greased strands. For replaceable tendons, it is recommended to use a longer cap with strand length as required to allow distressing the tendon (the tendon is then also adjustable). lt may also be stressed with a monostrand jack.

• Externa! replaceable unbonded prestressing with bare strands, generally grour injected (Extemal Prestressing System NºI).

• Externa! (replaceable or not) prestressing with sheathed and greased strands grouted before stressing (ExtemaJ Prestressing System N°2). With longer cap as above, the tendon is adjustable. Jt may also be stressed with a monostrand jack.

Figure C2

,

·-

¡.r

·

"'°':.

·º

.

,.

;:-

.·_

.

;

.•

.

• . ~·.--.

.

o .•

Typical Freyssinet replaceable active R aochorage.

1038 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

6. Active Flat F Anchorage

for slabs, foundation

and other thin structural

mats, shells

Flat anchorages

are generally recommeoded

elements.

• Ronge of onchoroges

JF15

~

cRf

H15

ºcfoO

5 F 15

(8

cpr,coaiJ

g,OIA

" ,

t~

o(

©© ©©

e Rotdoo,,,

i GI"

G2"

8

Size

e

A

1

l

20··

58

163

3FIS

190

85

1

20

163 75

90 1

AflS

230

20

1ó3

270 95

1

SF15

90

AD di!T'llr1s.ons,n rrwn • f'at duct dr.ion,b,s.

11ot duct mar be

dndly c:onn«lld

• • 75 • 20

• Notes:

ore ~igned lor o minimum concrele

• The F anchoroges

strength 1<111,n = 30 N/ mm' (cylinder strength).

the

• The prelerred methodof tendon instollotionis by threoding

stronds in the ducts (Rot shopeJ belore concreting. Howeveí,

il

lo thread thestronds alter concrete

required, il is olso ponible hordening; in thot cose, Agent

pleose, conlod the local

Freyssinel

used with the

moy be

System (see poge

6)

• The Ovctlen

F

onchoroges.

• Primorydistributionburningremlon:ementis shown on poge 14.

active fiat F ancborages.

Figure

Freyssinet

C3

7. lnstallation - Placing

installarion

The

ofthe C range post-tensioning system includes the following main steps:

Appendix e - TYPICAL POST-TENSIONING

SYSTEMS

• duct placing

• cable placing

• stressing

• grouting (or other corros ion protection method)

1039

For internal prestressing, the ducts are placed befare the concrete is poured. Corrugated steel or plastic ducts are the most common. For external prestressing, the most commonly used ducts are steel tubes inside the concrete and HOPE pipes outside the concrete . The cable is generally placed by pushing each strand into the duct from one end. Freyssinet was a pioneer in promoting and developing this technique in the early 70's, and can provide advanced pushing equipment and fittings. A patented high speed, 4 head pushing machine has been developed for use in large projects. With this machine, it is possible to thread 1, 2, 3 or 4 strands ata time. The

operation of the machi ne may be controlled from the two ends of the tendon being placed.

8. lnstallation - Corrosion Protection

The C range tendons can be protected with any of the known systems: cement grout, grease, and wax being the most common. Freyssinet can supply ali the necessary equipment to ensure thorough corrosion protection is achieved. Sorne special cases require special attention:

• Externa!

The pressure resistance of the ducts must be checked befare grouting. This is achieved using compressed air. Checking the tightness with water is prohibited.

prestressing with cement grout.

• Grouting of System Nº2 tendons

In this case, the role of the grout is to constitute a spacer to prevent the plastic sheath surrounding the strand from being damaged in the contact zones between strands, due to curvature reactions. Sorne properties of the grout such as mechanical strength (1 O N/mm2 is sufficient for the spacing role required) and shrinkage play only a secondary role. The grouting takes place befare stressing.

• Yacuum grouting

Freyssinet was a pioneer of the vacuum grouting technique. This has been used and perfected by Freyssinet for more than twenty years. It is especially suitable for Iarge projects with difficult conditions.

• Ductless System

In this system, tendons consisting of sheathed structure, do not require grouting.

and greased strands embedded

in the concrete of the

• Wax injection

The tendons may also be injected with petroleum wax when specified by the consultant (for example,

to check the tension after a number ofyears

orto protect temporary ties).

9. Jacks

The Freyssinet jacks are designed to provide tension to a number of strands simultaneously or to one strand and a time. The C range tendons are stressed with high performance CC type hydraulic jacks.

are

They are front pull with automatic dewedging and hydraulic Iocking-off

shown in Figs. C4 and C5. A range of high pressure hydraulic pumps to operate the stressing jacks is available.

of jaws.

Examples

1040 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS AND DESIGN

Freyssinet CC 350 stressing jack.

Figure

C4

dosed: 710 mm·

M23

Freyssinet M23 monostrand stressing jack.

Figure CS

Appendix C-TYPICAL POST-TENSIONING

SYSTEMS

1041

2. VSL MULTISTRAND POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM

(Courtesy VSL Corporation, www.vsl.net)

1. VSL Multistraod Post-Tensioning

The YSL Multistrand System is characterized by the following fearures:

• tendon units using up to fifty-five OS' ( l3mm) or 0.6'º ( I Smm) diameter

standardized

strands:

• wide selection of anchorage types;

• steel or plastic PT-PLUS™ ducts;

• high-performance cernent or other types of grouting;

• tendons manufactured on-site or in the plant;

• no need to determine tendon length in advance;

• simultaneous stressing of all strands in a tendon;

• stressing carried out in any number of phases;

• simple and reliable equípment for installation, stressing and grouting.

2. VSL Multistrand System Components

Groutlube

Vent -·

1i--------~-~--

Groutlube-

,m·~~==~:==::::::~~~~ ~--=,

f_ Dnlln

Om1 -

Oead-endanchorage

Stresslng anchorage

Figure C6

Figure C6

VSL multistrand anchorage.

1042 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

3. VSL Ancborages

Technical data and dimensions are provided in the manufacturer brochure.

For clarity and simplicity,

spirals are not shown in the picrures,

However, they fonn an integral part of the anchorage.

For more

detailed information, see VSL 's Report

for Post-Tensioning." for bonded slab post-tensioning.

Series on "Detailing

They

are VSL standard anchorages

The SO, SA and VSLAB+~

tanks and otber structures.

are also often used for bridges, buildings.

Anchorage:

Stressing

VSL Type ES

anchorage has a composite bearing plate

This revolutionary

concrete) and is

(rnetal-high

performance

lt comes in 3 different

and easier to handle.

lighter, smaller

configurations:

for

ES-STANDARD

using

duct system for enhanced corrosion

normal

applications,

PT-PLUS™

ES-PLUS

VSL's

protection

to provide an electrically isolated tendon.

or improved fatigue resistance, and ES-SUPER

anchorage can also be used as a dead-end

with an additional retainer plate, the ES

Equipped

anchorage.

CStrumpet

Duct

Beanng plate

Anchor head

Strands

Permanent

grout cap (opoon>J)

Figure C8

VSL type ES anchorage.

Stressing

Anchorage:

VSL Type EC to handle anchorage

system allows prestressing

through

This compact and easy

force to be transferred

with an additional

two flanges. lf equipped

anchorage

retainer plate, the EC

be used

can also

as

a

dead-end anchorage.

Grout conneccion

Duct

Bearlng

plate

Anchor head

Strands

Figure

anchorage.

EC

C9

VSL type

Appendix

e - TYPICAL POST-TENSIONING

SYSTEMS

1043

Stressing Anchorage:

VSL Type E

The prestressing force is transferred to the concrete by a mild steel-bearing plate. additional retainer plate, the E ancborage can also be used as a dead-end anchorage.

lf equipped with an

Bearing plate (steel)

Anchor head

Wedges

Strands

Grout tube

Duct

Sleeve

Figure CJO VSL type E anchorage.

4. Sheathing and Corrosion Protection

Generally, corrugated steel ducts witb a mínimum wall thickness of26 gauge are used. However, the VSL PT-PLUS™ System with its corrugated duct and plastic coupler can provide a number of important advantages wben compared with conventional ducts, such as:

• greatly enhanced tendon corrosion protection;

• irnproved tendon fatigue resistance;

• reduced sensitivity to stray electric currents;

• reduced tendon friction:

• electrical isolation wben used with special ES anchorages.

The PT-PLUS™ Systern is suitable for ali applications best adapted to:

• transverse tendons in bridge deck slabs;

• tendons that are close to the concrete surface;

but, given its specific cbaracteristics,

is

• bridges and otber structures

railway

that are subject

to fatigue

loadings

or stray electric

currents;

• structures where a severe corrosive environment

• tendons that need to be electrically rnonitored throughout the structure's service life.

may be expected;

5. Multistrand Post-Tensioning

Stressing

The unique features of the VSL Post-Tensioning Systern lies in its special wedge locking procedure. The wedges always remain in contact with the strands during the stressing operation. As tbe pressure in the jack is released, the wedges automatically lock in the conical holes of the anchor head.

1044 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

Plaong oí anchor head and wedges

Steps in stressing operation.

Figure Cll

Grouting

The objectives ofthe

ofthe prestressing steel

by filling

VSL Grouting System

are to prevent corrosion

in tbe tendon and to

fully encapsulate tbe steel in an alkaline environrnent, as

of all voids and cavities

the

well as achieve an

tbe surrounding

prestressing

effective bond between

steel

and

concrete

througb:

member.

Tbis is achieved

and admixtures;

• Careful selection

of cement, water,

• Continuous

control processes

and measurement;

quality assurance and quality

• Selection of mix design and procedures

adapted to the selected

and

materials.

environment

equipment;

ofthe grouting by t:rained VSL GroutingTecbnicians.

• Performance

Post-Tensioning

Externa!

savings

in

resulting

post-tensioning

to bridges

due to the

construction

is well adapted

Externa!

costs

and

by the

resistance

the high degree

Externa! tendons

provided

if corrosion

system.

easy to

are

for strengthening

and, if necessary, replace.

and, apart

are ideal

They

inspect

existing

from

structures

can be used for a wide range

their uses in bridges,

including buildings, silos and

of other applications,

reservoirs.

Tendons:

VSL Externa!

• strand

bundle;

Appendix C-TYPICAL POST-TENSIONING SYSTEMS

1045

polyelhylene ducts;

 

standard multistrand anchorages,

or special anchorages permitting easy tendon replacement;

grout

 

Strand bundle and sheathing

Stressing anchorage

Figure

CJ 2 VSL externa!

post-tensíoníng

system components

6.

Monostraod Post-Tensioning

The VSL Monostrand System has advantages similar to those of the VSL Bonded Slab Post- Tensioning Systern. The VSL Monostrand System uses 0.5'' (l3mm) and 0.6" (15mm) diameter strands. The strands are given a coating of permanent corrosion-inhibiting coating aod are enclosed in an extruded plastic sheath. The grease and plastic provide double corrosion protection, as well as preventing any bonding between the strands and the surrounding concrete. The plastic sheath is polyethylene with approximately 50 mil wall thickness. To ensure continuous corrosion protection in aggressive environments, special sleeves are used to join the sbeaths lo the ancborages and each anchorage is provided with a protective cap. Tbe VSL Monostrand System features factory-applied corrosion protection very low friction losses, and fulJ utilization of the structural depth. These light, flexible mooostrands can be easily and rapidly installed, leading to economical solutions. Detailed information is giveo in VSL's "Post-Tensioned Slabs" publication. With modifications, tbe VSL Monostrand System can also be used for post-tensioning masonry walls,

Monostrand

Specifications:

• 0.5'' ( l 3mm) and 0.6"( l 5mm) diameter strand in accordance with ASTM A4 l6.

• permanent

corrosioo-inhibiting

coating

and

plastic

sheath

in

accordance

witb

PTI

recommendations.

 
 

Wedges

 

Recess former

 
 

lnscallation nur

Figure Cl3

VSL type 86 monostrand

ancborage.

CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN

1046 Naaman - PRESTRESSED

Twin ram jaclc

jack.

Figure Cl4

VSL twin ram stressing

Reinforcement

of the Anchorage

Zone required by the design,

ln addition

reinforcement

is necessary in

additional

to the slab reinforcement

Details should be established by the project

tbe

distribution

behind

each anchorage.

force

zone

engineer.

Resistive

Tendon

VStrandTM

Heat

miugate

heat-resistive

post-tensioning

innovative

the

bave

developed

been

tendons

YSL's

to

Each tendon consists of

prestressing steel.

thennal effects of a fire on the strength of the

detrimental one or more

This coating

material.

steel prestressing

strands coated with a proprietary

intumescent

greater degree of protection to tbe strand in the event of a fire. These tendons

a significantly

provides

are particularly

well suited for strengthening

of parking

garages and other structures that are exposed

to vehicular

tires.

posttensioning

Dywidag

in place. (Courtesy Dywidag-Systems-Jnternational).

bars

Appendix C-

TYPICAL POST-TENSIONING

SYSTEMS

1047

3. DYWIDAG BAR POST-TENSIONING SYSTEM (Courtesy Dywidag-Systems-International, www.dywidag-systems.com)

Dywidag-Systems-International

They include:

(OSI) offers severa! steel reinforcing products for use in constructioa.

• Multistrand post-tensioning system

• Bar post-tensioning system

• Rock and soil anchors

• Tie rods

• Threadbar reinforcing system

• Threadbar resin anchored rock bolts

• Soil nails

Next only tbe Dywidag bar post-tensioning

system is brietly described.

The reader is referred to

OSI for literature on Lhe other products and latest updates.

l