NOTATION:
ENGLISH LETTERS
APPENDIX
A
LIST OF SYMBOLS
a depth of equivalen! rectangular stress block (={)¡e if ACI code)
a pararneter, distance, coefficient
A
A
Ác
Aes
Ag
A¡
area in general
used as subscript for age, anchorage set, additional weight
area of concrete at the cross section considered in general (depending on the particular case, it may be the net area, the gross area, or the transforrned area) area of concrete composite section area of concrete core of a spirally reinforced column measured to outside diameter of spiral effective cross sectional area of strut gross area of concrete at the cross section considered area offorms
A; 
area of part i of a section 

A¡ 
total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion 

A,, 
net area of concrete at the cross section considered; area of nodal zone 

Ap¡ 
area of prestressed reinforcement 
required to develop the ultimate compressive 
strength of the overhanging portions of the flange of a flanged section crosssectional area of ith tendon area of prestressed reinforcement in tension zone Aps A p¡, area of prestressed reinforcement associated with the web of a flanged member at nominal moment resistance gross area of concrete enclosed by the shear flow path; it can be taken as a first approximation equal to 0.85Aoi, area enclosed by centerline ofthe outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, in2 area of nonprestressed tension reinforcement area of reinforcement in strut area of reinforcement in tie
1017
1018 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
A' _{s}
Á¡,Á¡y
A,
C¡,Cz,
e
e
e
e
Cc(t)
Ccu
Cline
cm
e;
de
d' _{s}
,C¡
area of compression reinforcement transformed area of concrete at section considered (depending on the particular case it may represent a cracked or uncracked section)
area of one leg of closed stirrups used as torsion reinforcement within distance
s
area of shear reinforcement within a distance s area of shearfriction reinforcement used as a subscript to indicate "bottom fiber" width of compression face of member effective flange width perimeter of critica! section for slabs or footings transformed flange width width of cross section at contact surface being investigated for horizontal shear web width of a flanged member used as a subscript to describe "concrete" or "composite" section distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis cohesion factor various dimensions or distances
resulting compressive force in the concrete section due to the prestressing force and applied externa! forces, such as in the Cline; compression force in strut
crosssectional constant to define torsional properties
used as a subscript to describe effect of creep
force resultant of the compression block of concrete at ultimate creep coefficient of concrete at time t ultimate creep coefficient, or creep coefficient at end of service life geometric lieu of the compressive force in a member under service conditions factor relating actual moment diagram to equivalent uniform moment diagram nominal compression resistance of strut distance from extreme compression fiber to combined centroid of tensile force when prestressed and nonprestressed tension reinforcement are used nominal diameter of bar diameter of core of spirally reinforced column concrete cover measured from the extreme tension fiber to centro id of tensile reinforcement net concrete cover measured to extreme !ayer ofreinforcement distance from extreme compression fiber to centro id of prestressing steel
distance
prestressing steel, in a composite beam
distance from extreme compression fiber to centro id of nonprestressed tension reinforcement
distance from extreme
reinforcement distan ce from extreme compression
rei n forcement dead loads or their interna! moments and forces distribution factor ofwheel loador concentrated load
live load distribution factor for moments live load distribution factor for shear forces base of napierian logarithms
from extreme compression fiber of castinplace
slab to centroid of
compression fiber to centroid of compressive
fiber to extreme layer of tensile
steel
Appendix A  LIST OF SYMBOLS
_{1}_{0}_{1}_{9}
eccentricity of the C force in the concrete section measured from the centro id of the section lower eccentricity limit ofthe Cline upper eccentricity limit ofthe Cline eccentricity of ith tendon, or eccentricity ofthe steel at section i eccentricity ofthe prestressing force at the section considered measured from the centro id of the section
eccentricity of the prestressing force at section x Jeft and right support eccentricities of the prestressing steel in a typical span AB eccentricity ofthe ZeroLoadC line at section x
e0(x)
eoA,eoB
eoc(x)
eol lower eccentricity limit ofthe prestressing steel
eou upper eccentricity limit of the prestressing
steel
( eº ),np
E
maximum practically feasible eccentricity
load effects of earthquakes or their related interna) moments and forces; modulus of elasticity, in general; equivalent strip width of slab modulus of elasticity of concrete effective or equivalent modulus of elasticity of concrete at time t modulus of elasticity of concrete at time of initial prestress tangent modulus of elasticity measured at the origin of the stressstrain curve secant modulus measured at the maximum or peak stress modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel modulus of elasticity of nonprestressed steel or reinforcing steel bars
modulus of steel at onset of strain hardening flexura) stiffness or flexura) rigidity of compression members
Ec
Ece (t)
Eci
Ea
s;
e;
Es
E,.h
El
ES elastic shortening
f
fi,
f cgs
f cgs(t¡)
t; (t)
used as stress in general, preferably for the steel and occasionally for concrete when a symbol is widely used stress on bottom fiber of concrete section (also ab) stress in the concrete at the centroid of prestressing steel stress in the concrete at the centroid of the prestressing steel at time t¡ at section considered stress range in the concrete effective strength of concrete in strutandtie model specified compressive strength of concrete compressive strength of concrete at time of initial prestress effective stress in the prestressing steel, after losses, at section considered initial stress in the prestressing steel at section considered
stress
stress at jacking stress at jacking
proportional limit stress of the prestressing steel calculated stress in prestressing steel at section considered and loading considered stress in the prestressing steel at time t at section considered and for the Joading considered specified tensile strength ofprestressing steel specified yield strength ofprestressing steel modulus of rupture of concrete stress range in the steel
in the prestressing steel at end of jacking
before seating ofthe chuck or anchor after seating of the chuck or anchor
1020 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
Ís 
stress in the nonprestressed tensile reinforcement 
¡; 
stress in the compressive reinforcement 
Í s 
allowable stress in the steel 
t; 
direct tensile strength (stress) of concrete 
r, 
specified yield strength of nonprestressed tensile reinforcement 
^{r}^{;} ¡; 
specified yield strength of closed transverse torsional reinforcement specified yield strength of compressive reinforcement 
F 
final or effective prestressing force (after all losses) at section considered 
F 
used as a subscript to describe effect of friction used as a subscript for center of gravity 
F¡ 
initial prestressing force at time of transfer at section considered 
F; 
prestressing force at end of jacking 
Fn 
tensile force in the prestressing steel at the nominal moment resistance ofthe 
g 
section 
g(t) 
time function 
G 
used as a subscript for gravity load or selfweight 
GP 
gravity load due to precast girder or element 
h 
overall thickness or depth of member 
he 
overall depth of composite member 
h¡ 
flange thickness of a flanged member 
H 
relative humidity, percent; also used to describe loading dueto earth pressure 
Hu 
total horizontal shear force at the interface between the precast section and the 
k; 
castinplace slab of a composite beam used as a subscript to describe "initial" conditions or ith element effect of impact or impact coefficient; moment of inertia, in general impact coefficient or its effect moment of inertia of uncracked concrete section resisting extemally applied load (it represents the inertia of either the net of the gross section depending on the particular case) moment of inertia of uncracked composite section moment of inertia of cracked section (transformed to concrete) effective or equivalent moment of inertia for computation of deflections after cracking moment of inertia of gross concrete section about the centroidal axis, neglecting the reinforcement gross moment of inertia of composite section polar moment of inertia effective length factor for compression members calibration factor used to predict the stress in prestressing steel at ultimate distance from centroid of concrete section to the lower (bottom) limit of central kem 
k' _{1} 
reduction factor of additional longterm deflection due to the presence of nonprestressed reinforcement distance from centroid of concrete section to the upper (top) limit of central kem distance from centroid of concrete section to the lower (bottom) limit ofthe limit kem distance from centroid of concrete section to the upper (top) limit ofthe limit kem 
Appendíx A  LIST OF SYMBOLS
_{1}_{0}_{2}_{1}
K
K
Kc
K ec
wobble friction coefficient per unit length of prestressing steel
flexura! stiffness of member; moment per unit rotation flexura! stiffness of column flexura! stiffness of equivalent column (above and below)
K1 flexura! stiffness of attached torsional member
KcA age at loading factor for creep
KcH humidity correction factor for creep
Kcs shape and size factor for creep
KsH humidity correction factor for shrinkage
Kss shape and size factor for shrinkage
1
1
la,lb
fe
{d
t,
In
t,
lu
lx,ly
11,12
span length of member generally centertocenter of supports; also f.
used as a subscript for lifetime, or lower longer and shorter span of a slab panel
height of column centertocenter of floors or roofs development length ith span of a continuous beam or oneway slab
clear span measured face to face of supports transfer length unbraced length of column or column length between hinges spans in the x and y direction for a twoway slab system respectively span in the direction being analyzed for bending, and span or width transverse to /1 (used in the equivalentframe method for twoway slabs), measured center to center of supports live loads or their interna! moments and forces span length effective tendon length sum oflengths ofspan loaded with live load and containing tendon(s) considered total length oftendon(s) between anchorages fixed end moments at ends A and B of a typical beam, moment in general at section considered or at section x maximum absolute moment in member at stage deflection is computed moment due to balanced load maximum moment on section while acting as composite section cracking moment moment due to dead load total moment due to prestressing at section considered or at section x total moment due to prestressing at supports A and B of a typical span AB bending moment due to selfweight of member moment due to live load maximum moment due to a single live loading lane at section considered moment dueto live load plus impact at section considered maximum bending moment at section considered under service load conditions maximum absolute moment in a span due to truck loading
mínimum bending moment at section considered under service load conditions
L2
mA,mB
M,M(x)
Mª
Mb
Me
M c,
MD
MF,MF(x)
MF A,MFB
Me
M¿
M1ane
M L+l
Mmax
(M )max
M min
Mn nominal moment resistance
M nb
moment due to unbalanced load
Mn,b nominal moment resistance of a compression member (section) at balanced conditions
1022 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
Mnw
MP
Ms
MsD
Mu
Mue
Muw
Mu1
M 1,M 1(x)
n
np
npi
ns
N
Nb
Ne
Ncr
Ndee
Nn
p
p
Pcr
Pm
r;
Pn,b
Pn,o
nominal moment capacity leading to zero tension on extreme fiber of column or wall section nominal moment resistance dueto the overhanging portian ofthe tlange ofa T section nominal moment resistance of compression member (section) subjected to pure bending nominal moment resistance of the web of a T or tlanged section maximum moment on the precast prestressed section of a composite member moment due to castinplace slab in a composite member at section considered moment due to superimposed dead load at section considered strength design moment or factored moment at section considered magnified factored moment to account for slendemess in compression member strength design moment for the web of a T section value of smaller factored end moment on compression member, positive if member is bent in single curvature, negative ifbent in double curvature value of larger factored end moment on compressive member, assumed always positive primary moment due to prestressing in a continuous structure at section considered or at section x secondary moment due to prestressing in a continuous structure at section considered or at section x secondary moments due to prestressing at supports A and B or at sections A andB
used as a subscript for nominal modular ratio of concrete of castinplace slab to concrete of precast section of a composite beam modular ratio Eps I E¿ initial modular ratio E ps I Eci modular ratio Es / E¿
axial load acting on member, preferably used for tension number of beams in a bridge deck tensile force in concrete section due to unfactored dead load and live load tensile load leading to cracking of prestressed member tensile load leading to decompression ofprestressed member
nominal resistance of prestressed member under axial tension; nominal resistance of nodal zone number ofdesign loading lanes used as a subscript for prestressing; also used for pressure or percentage perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, in
concentrated externa! load in general
axial load acting on member, preferably used for compression critica! buckling load maximum cutoff compressive force on column allowed by code nominal axial load capacity, in general, ata given eccentricity nominal axial load capacity at balanced conditions nominal axial load capacity of compression member subject to pure compression
Pu
PPR
Q
Q
Q
Q,Q¡
r
R
R
Rn
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
Appendix A  LIST OF SYMBOLS
_{1}_{0}_{2}_{3}
nominal axial load capacity leading to zero tension on extreme fiber of column or wall
factored axial compressive load at given eccentricity
partial prestressing ratio
first static moment with respect to centroid ofthe portion of section above the shear plane considered
stability index
concentrated externa! load
loading or load effect in general, and loading i
radius of gyration of cross section = ~I / A
used as a subscript to describe effect of steel relaxation
radius of circular, cylindrical, or curved element
nominal resistance in general
curvilinear abscissa; also used as a subscript for "steel" reinforcement
spacing to stirrups, or ties, or bentup bars in direction parallel to longitudinal reinforcement
pitch of spiral reinforcement
length of side element
effect of castinplace slab in a composite beam
used as a subscript to describe effect of shrinkage
transverse spacing centertocenter ofbeams or girders in a deck or slab structure effective span of slab transverse clear spacing ofbeams or girders superimposed dead load or its related interna! moments and forces safety factor time torsional shear stress used as a subscript to indicate "top fiber" or "tensión" wall thickness age at loading torsional shear stress contributed by concrete after cracking; also used when member is subjected to torsion alone torsional strength (stress) of concrete under combined torsion and flexura! shear torsional shear stress at cracking particular values of time, mostly used to define the beginning and the end of a time interval design lifetime of member time at transfer or at release of prestress time at jacking of prestressing steel factored design torsional strength (stress) tensile force in the steel; also used as subscript for total to describe cumulative effects; for temperature loading; for torque or torsional moment; for T section nominal torsional moment resistance contributed by concrete after cracking torsional shear strength of concrete under combined torsion and flexura! shear torsional cracking moment tensile force in the ith !ayer of prestressing steel tensile or compressive force in the ith !ayer of reinforcing steel nominal torsional moment resistance of section
1024 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANALYSIS ANO DESIGN
in the steel balancing the compression force in the overhanging
tensile force
portian of the flange of a T section at nominal moment capacity
nominal resistance
of tie
nominal tensile
force in the steel balancing the compressive force in the web of
a T section
at nominal moment capacity
moment resistance contributed by torsion reinforcement
nominal torsional
factored design
torsional moment at section considered; factored tensile force
used as subscript for "factored effects" capacity
or design specified values at ultimate
loads or related interna! moments and forces
u required strength to resist factored
for forms, p for prestressing steel, and
u unit cost; subscript e holds for concrete,/
s for reinforcing steel
shear stress in general permissible shear stress carried by concrete
u,v
in presence of torsion
shear strength (stress) of concrete
by concrete when diagonal cracking
nominal shear strength (stress) provided
results from combined shear and moment
nominal shear strength (stress) provided results from excessive principal tensile
by concrete when diagonal cracking stresses in the web
nominal shear strength (stress) at section considered
Un
nominal horizontal shear strength
(stress)
Unh
by shear reinforcement at section considered
nominal shear strength (stress) provided
Us
factored design shear strength (stress)
Uu
factored horizontal shear strength
(stress)
Uuh
shear force in general at section considered
or at section x
V,V(x)
load at section considered
VD shear force due to unfactored dead
live loading lane at section considered
maximum shear force due to a single
Viane
shear force due to unfactored live load plus impact at section considered
VL+I
nominal shear strength (force) at section considered nominal horizontal shear force resistance
vn
r;
vertical component of effective prestressing
force at section considered dead load
vP
due to superimposed
unfactored shear force factored design shear
VsD
force at section considered
Vu
shear force
factored design horizontal
Vuh
w unfactored load per unit length of beam or per unit area of slab; width
in
general balanced load; width
ofbearing
plate or per unit
dead load per unit length
ofbeam
self
area of slab; it includes
dead load if any
weight and superimposed
per unit length or per unit area, or gravity load
selfweight ofmember live load per unit length
of beam or per unit area of slab
load or unbalanced
nonbalanced
load
load per unit length
ofbeam
dead
superimposed
or unit area of slab
of beam or per unit area of slab interna! moments and forces; crack width
factored
load per unit length wind load or related
weight;
to wedge
width ofbridge
deck
wedge
also x represents, in general, an unknown of rectangular part of cross section dimension of closed rectangular stirrup
abscissa
along the x axis;
X
overall
shorter
dimension
X
shorter centertocenter
X¡
X
y
y
Yb
Ybc
Yt
Ytc
Y;c
y¡
z
z
z
z
Appendix A  UST OF SYMBOLS
1025
abscissa of section of tendon beyond which the stress loss due to anchorage set is zero
ordinate along the y axis
longer overall dimension of rectangular part of cross section
distance from centroidal axis of section to extreme bottom fiber
distance from centroidal axis of composite section to extreme bottom fiber
distance from centroidal axis of section to extreme top fiber
distance from centroidal axis of composite section to extreme top fiber
distance from centroidal axis of composite section to extreme top fiber of the precast member
longer centertocenter dimension of closed rectangular stirrup
ordinate along the z axis; number used in general
loss in stress in prestressing tendon along span length l
objective function in an optimization problem
factor that defines the slope of a line simulating the descending branch of the stressstrain curve of concrete section modulus with respect to extreme bottom fiber =le! Yb section modulus with respect to extreme bottom fiber for a composite section
= lec I Ybc
section modulus with respect to extreme top fiber =le! y1 section modulus with respect to extreme top fiber for a composite section
= lec I Ytc section modulus with respect to extreme top fiber of precast elements of a composite section = Ice I Y;c
NOTATION: GREEK LETTERS
a angle in general or factor in general
a total angular change of prestressing steel profile in radians between two points
a angle between inclined stirrups and longitudinal axis of member factor that indicate the ability of diagonally cracked concrete to transmit tension between cracks ratio of long side to short side of concentrated load, reaction or column ratio ofmaximum factored dead load (sustained) to maximum factored total load, always positive effective strength coefficient for nodal zone effective strength coefficient ~ strut
/J
coefficient or multiplier of
concrete under shear stresses induced by the combination of shear forces and torsional moment.
factor used to define the depth ofthe equivalent rectangular stress block at
ultimate as a function of the location
geometric efficiency; unit weight in general; factor in general unit weight of concrete load factor for load i
in psi, expressing the cracking resistance of
J¡;
/J¡
of the neutral axis (Eqs. 5 .12 and 5 .13)
r
Ye
Y;
r. unit weight of steel
Yu fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear at slab column connections
1026 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS AND DESIGN
s 
differential change (increase or decrease) in variable considered 
s 
moment magnification factor for columns 
s 
anchorage set, or slippage 
s.s, 
sag in span considered or in span i 
«;», 
moment magnification factor for nonsway and sway column, respectively 
LI 
deflection in general, positive for detlection and negative for camber 
LI 
difference or differential amount between two values ofvariable that follows 
Ll(t) 
the LI deflection at time t 
Lladd 
additional longterm deflection 
Lln 
deflection due to dead load 
Lla 
deflection due to selfweight 
LI 
L 
deflection due to live load 
LI 
i 
initial, instantaneous elastic deflection 
z, 

Ll1, Ll2, L'.13 Llfcr LlfpA Llfpc,Llfpc(t;,t1) 
life deflection for the sustained loading considered deflections at different times or loading stages stress range limit in concrete in compression under fatigue total stress loss in the prestressing steel due to anchorage set at section considered respectively total stress loss in the prestressing steel during service life due to 

LlfpES 
creep of concrete, and stress loss during a time interval (t¡, t.i) at section considered total stress loss in the prestressing steel due to elastic shortening at time of 

LlfpF Llfpr LlfpR, LlfpR (t;,tJ) 
transfer or release total stress loss in the prestressing steel due to friction at section considered stress range in prestressing steel under cyclic load respectively total stress loss in the prestressing steel during service life dueto 

LlfpR1 
relaxation ofthe tendons, and stress loss during a time interval (t¡,t1) at section considered stress loss in prestressing steel due to relaxation between time at end of jacking 

LlfpR2 
and time of stress transfer stress loss in prestressing steel due to relaxation between time of transfer and service life respectively total stress loss in the prestressing steel during service life dut to shrinkage of concrete, and stress loss during a time interval (t¡, tJ) at section considered respectively total stress loss in the prestressing steel during service life due to ali sources of loss, and stress loss during a time interval (t¡ .t J) at section considered average stress loss in the prestressing steel 
moment amplitude
moment in excess of selfweight moment, causing flexura! cracking in the precompressed tensile fiber at section considered factored bending moment due to superimposed dead load plus live load at section considered factored shear force due to superimposed dead load plus live load at section considered differences between two stresses, or stress amplitude permissible stress amplitude
= M max  M min at section considered
s
Ce (t)
lich
6ce
lici
lict
6cu
«cu
E:m
Appendix A  LIST OF SYMBOLS
1027
strain in general creep in strain at time t strain in concrete bottom fiber concrete strain at the centroid of prestressing steel due to effective prestress initial elastic instantaneous strain in concrete strain in concrete top fiber; also used for tensile strain in concrete strain in extreme compression fiber of concrete at nominal resistance of the section ultimate creep strain or creep strain at end of life of member strain at maximum or peak stress of the stressstrain curve
¡:;pe 
strain 
in 
prestressing 
steel 
under effective 
stress 
Íp e 
E:p s 
strain in prestressing steel at section considered and loading considered torsional coefficient; coefficient in general 

&pu 
ultimate faiture strain of prestressing steel 

E:py 
yield strain of prestressing steel 

6su 
ultimate shrinkage strain or shrinkage strain at end of life of member 

es (t) 
shrinkage strain at time t 

E:¡ 
net tensile strain in extreme !ayer of steel at nominal bending resistance 

E:y 
strain at onset ofyielding ofreinforcing steel 

r¡ 
F I F¡ ratio of final prestressing force to initial prestressing force or ratio of 

r¡ 
corresponding stresses 

r¡ 
load multiplier or load modification factor used in AASHTO LRFD code 

e 
torsional constant 

e 
angle in general 

A, 
coefficient in general; coefficient used in prestress losses; multiplier used in deflection computation; rnultiplier used to differentiate lightweight from normal weight concrete ith constant or parameter 
multiple presence factor for lane loading in bridges curvature friction coefficient; also coefficient of friction or simply coefficient; ratio of curvatures, rotations, or deflections
V 
Po is son' s ratio 
7r 
3.14159 
p'
Pb
Pp
Ps
A·
P smin
Psmax
A; I bde, ratio of compression reinforcement reinforcernent ratio producing balanced condition
Aps I bd P,
ratio of prestressed reinforcement
A5 I bd5, ratio of nonprestressed tension reinforcement ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to total volurne of core of spirally reinforced compression member mínimum specified reinforcernent ratio for reinforced concrete member maximum specified reinforcement ratio for reinforced concrete beam
o stress in general; preferably used for concrete unless another symbol is widely accepted such asf stress on bottom fiber; bearing stress respectively actual extreme fiber compressive stress in the concrete immediately after prestress transfer, and code allowable limit respectively actual extreme fiber compressive stress in the concrete at service loads, and code allowable limit
1028 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
(Cíes )stab, (ª es)stab
agi
CJ'm
O'¡
o«. a,¡
(]' X
ay
ª'
CY2
t:
r
y
(()
ifJ
f//
f//m
f//¡, f//2
o/
OJe 

OJP 

OJS 

OJsw, 
OJpw , 
OJ~ 
respectively actual extreme fiber compressive stress in computer slab if any at service loads, and code allowable limit stress at the centro id of the concrete section due to the final or effective prestressing force after losses stress at the centro id of the concrete section due to the initial prestressing force maximum or peak stress stress on top fiber; tension stress in general respectively actual extreme fiber (initial) tensile stress in the concrete immediately after transfer, and code allowable limit respectively actual extreme fiber tensile stress in the concrete at service loads, and code allowable limit axial stress in the x direction axial stress in the y direction principal tensile stress; also used for hoop stress principal compressive stress; also used for meridian stress bond stress in general
allowable bond or shear stress
torsional constant curvature of section strength reduction factor
endrestraint coefficient; factor describing fraction of live load average value of restraint coefficient of column considered restraint coefficients at extreme ends of column considered
p'J; / fd
= OJP + OJ5  w' = effective reinforcing index or global reinforcing index
PpÍps Ifd PsÍ y I fd
reinforcement indices for flanged sections computed as for OJ5 , OJ P, and to' except that b shall be the web width, and the steel area shall be that required to
develop
reinforcing
minimum value of the effective reinforcing
minimum
the compressive
strength of the web only
index corresponding to balanced conditions in reinforced concrete
index
recommended value of the reinforcing index
ABBREVIATIONS: 

cf 
cubic foot 
cgc 
centro id of concrete section (center of gravity of concrete) 
cgs 
centro id of the prestressing tendons or of the steel 
cm 
centimeter 
ft 
foot 
in 
inch 
kips 
kilopounds 
kipft 
kip x foot (unit ofmoment) 
kipin 
kip x inch (unit ofmoment) 
klf 
kips per linear foot 
kN/mm2 
kilonewtons per square meter 
ksi 
kips per square inch 
Appendix A  LIST OF SYMBOLS
lb 
pound (pounds) 
m 
meter 
mm 
millimeter 
MPa 
megapascal 
N/mm2 
newtons per square millimeter 
pcf 
pounds per cubic foot 
plf 
pounds per linear foot 
psi 
pounds per square inch 
psf 
pounds per square foot 
ABBREVIATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL
ORGANIZATIONS
_{1}_{0}_{2}_{9}
AASHTO 
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials 
ACI 
American Concrete Institute 
ANSI 
American National Standard Jnstitute 
ASCE 
American Society ofCivil Engineers 
ASTM 
American Society ofTesting and Materials 
CEB 
Comite European du Beton (has become part of FIB) 
CRSI 
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute 
FIB 
Federation lntemationale du Beton 
PCA 
Portland Cement Association 
PCJ 
Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute 
PTI 
PostTensioning Institute 
B
APPENDIX
UNIT CONVERSIONS
Unit
SI  Metric Unit
US Customary
ft
m
yard
m
in
mm
in2
mm2
MPa
psi
lb
N
0.083.Jl! ~ .Jl! MPa
.Jl! psi
12
0.17 ft ~Jl: MPa
psi
2.JJ:
6
= 1.s.Jl!
j,
psi
MPa
0.62.Jl:
from US to SI Units
Conversion
in
= 25.4 mm
1
I ft = 0.3048 m
Length:
{ lyd=0.914m
fI in2 = 6.452 cm2 = 645.2 mm2
l I ft2
Area:
= 0.0929
m2
I in3 = 16.39 cm3
= 16390
mm3
I ft3
= 0.0283
m3
1 yd3 = 0.765
Volume:
m3
mi
I oz = 29.57
I gal= 3.785
litres
1030
Appendix B  UNIT CONVERSIONS
1031
f1 in4 = 41.62 cm4 = 416,200 
mm4 

Inertia: 
h ft4 =863,032 cm4 =0.00863032 
m4 

_{D}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{:} 
I 
lb/ft3 = 16.03 kg/m3 

Unit Weight: 
l 
lb/ft3 = 1 pcf= 0.1575 kN/m3 
Stress and Modulus:
Mass:
Loads:
Moment or torque:
Temperature:
Velocity:
Energy:
Power:
Specific surface:
f 1 lb/in2
kip / in 2
11
=
= 1 k s i
1
psi
,,,
,,,
0.006895 N/mm2
6.895 N / mm 2 = 6 . 895 MP a
¡
l lb = 
0.454 
kg 

I 
oz = 28.35 
gr 

1 ton (short) = 907.2 
kg 
1 lb= 4.448 
N 

I kip = 4.448 kN 

1 kip/ft = 
1 klf 
,,, 
14.59 kN/m 

I lb/ft2 
= 
1 psf 
,,, 
0.0479 kN/m2 = 47.9 Pa 

1 
kip/ft2 
= 
1 ksf 
,,, 
47.9 kN/m2 
1 lbft = 1.356 Nm
1 lbin= 0.113 Nm
{ 1 kipin = 0.113 kNm
1 kipft = 1.356 kNm
ºC = (ºF  32)
1.8
1 
mph = 1.609 kilometer/hour 
1 
mph = 0.4470 meter/second (mis) 
1 
Btu = 1056 joule U) 
1 horsepower
(hp) = 745.7 Watt (W)
Unit weight of concrete: 
150 pcf = 2400 kg/m ' 
Unit weight ofmortar: 
130 pcf= 2080 kg/m3 
1032 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
Unit weight of steel:
1/ .J¡000 = 0.0316
490 pcf= 7850kg/m3
to convert
.JJ: from psi to ksi
SI Metric Equivalent of Sorne Design Equations
U.S. Customary
SI Metric
Units: 
in 
Units: 
mm 
in2 
mm2 

psi 
MPa 

lb 
N 

.¡¡: 
0.083.Jl: 

Ve= 2.Jl: 
0.17.JJ: 

Ír = 7.5.Jl: 
0.62.Jl: 
fd
Íp s = Í pe + 10,000+ IOOpp
_{(} A
u
)
.
mm
= 50bws
Í y
f
pe
+ 69 +
.
0.35bws
J,
!;
IOOpP
o.os{ 2 + ;J.¡¡:
o.os.JJ: + 4.8
v. d
~ P
u
Replace "400" with "2.76"
APPENDIX
C
TYPICAL POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS
The following inforrnation is taken from brochures and literature by manufacturers of prestressing systerns. Their pennission to include this information in this book is gratefully ack:nowledged. The reader should consult with the local representative of each systern to ascertain details and availability and/or the existence of any change or update.
1. THE FREYSSINET C RANGE POSTTENSIONING SYSTEM
(Courtesy Freyssinet lntemational, www.freyssinet.com)
The new Freyssinel C Range posttensioning system has been developed as an answer to modem civil engineering requirements. The prime characteristic ofthe C range is compactness. The C range is the outcome of more than fifty years of experience in posttensioning systems. Tendon sizes ranging from 3 to 55 15 mm diameter strands are available.
The following section provides a very brief summary of the Freyssinet C multistrand system. However, changes may be made to the information contained here at any time as new techniques and/or materials are developed. Users are encouraged to check witb Freyssinet on updates and if to check if substantial changes have been made to the specified products.
 applications for 13 mm diameter strand, or smaller units  are avaiJable from Freyssinet.
A large amount
of other detailed
technical
literature
such as specific
data sheets,
speciaJ
l.
Descriptioo
Thc C range multistrand system possesses the following main features and characteristics
(Fig. C l):
• Versatility
The system is designed for a large range of applications with the same type of anchorages:
• use of al! intemationally available sizes and grades of 15 mm strands, including galvaoized and unbonded strand;
• application to interna! and external prestressing:
•:•
bonded
1033
1034 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE
•:• 
removable, 
•:• 
removable and adjustable 
•:• 
removable, adjustable and detensionable 
ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
Table Cl Typical properties of strands compatible with the C range system.
Nominal 
Nominal 
Nominal 
Nominal 
Minimum 
Proof 

Tensile 
Diameter 
Steel 
_{M}_{a}_{s}_{s} 
Breaking 
_{S}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} 

Standard 
Strength 
area 
strength 
at 0.1 % 

N/mm2 
_{m}_{m} 
mrrr' 
_{k}_{z}_{/}_{m} 
_{k}_{N} 
_{k}_{N} 

1 
770 
16 
150 
1.170 
265 
228 

pr EN 101383 
1 
860 
16 
150 
1.170 
279 
240 
BS 
1 
770 
15.7 
150 
1.180 
265 
225 
5896 1980 
1 820* 
15.2 
165 
1.295 
300 
255 

ASTM 
1 
860 
15.24 
140 
1.102 
260.7 
234.6 
A 41696a 
(270 ksi) 
(0.6 in) 
(0.217 in") 
(0.74 lb/ft) 
(58 600 lb) 
(52 740 lb) 
*Drawn strand
Note:
The maximum
initial
force in the strand should
Table C2 Typical properties of tendons used
be as recommended
by local codes.
for the Freyssinet C range system.
_{N}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} 
Type of Strand 

of 
pr EN 101383 
BS 589680 
ASTM A41696 

strands 
1860 grade 
1820 
grade, drawn strand 
0.6 in 270 grade 

per 
steel 
_{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} 
steel 

tendon 
area 
_{m}_{a}_{s}_{s} 
UTS 
area 
mass 
_{U}_{T}_{S} 
area 
mass 
UTS 

_{m}_{m}_{2} 
kg/m 
_{k}_{N} 
_{m}_{m}_{2} 
kg/rn 
_{k}_{N} 
mm2 
kg/m 
kN 

3 
450 
3.54 
837 
495 
3.89 
900 
420 
3.306 
782 

4 
600 
4.72 
1116 
660 
5.18 
1200 
560 
4.41 
1043 

_{7} 
1 050 
_{8}_{.}_{2}_{6} 
_{1}_{9}_{5}_{3} 
1155 
9.07 
2100 
_{9}_{8}_{0} 
7.71 
1825 

9 
1350 
10.62 
2511 
1485 
11.66 
2700 
1260 
9.92 
346 

12 
1800 
14.16 
3348 
980 
15.54 
3600 
1680 
13.22 
3128 

13 
1950 
15.34 
3627 
2145 
16.84 
3900 
1820 
14.33 
3389 

19 
2850 
22.42 
5301 
3135 
24.61 
5700 
2660 
20.94 
4953 

22 
3300 
25.96 
6138 
3630 
28.49 
6600 
3080 
24.24 
5735 

25 
3750 
29.5 
6975 
4125 
32.38 
7500 
3500 
27.55 
6518 

27 
4050 
_{3}_{1}_{.}_{8}_{6} 
7533 
4455 
34.97 
8100 
3780 
29.75 
7039 

31 
4650 
36.58 
8649 
5115 
40.15 
9300 
4340 
34.16 
8082 

37 
5550 
43.66 
10 
323 
6105 
47.92 
11100 
5180 
40.77 
9646 
_{5}_{5} 
_{8}_{2}_{5}_{0} 
_{6}_{4}_{.}_{9} 
15 
345 
_{9}_{0}_{7}_{5} 
71.23 
16500 
7700 
60.61 
14339 
*Masses given correspond to BS 589680.
For pr EN multiply by 0.991.
Appendix C
TYPICAL POSTTENSIONING
SYSTEMS
1035
• Ronge of onchoroges
_{@} 
3c15· 
@ 
4ClS 
_{~} 
7(15 
_{@} 
9C15• 
• 
12C15" 
* 
13(15 
• 
19Cl5 
22Cl5" 

~ 

o 
25Cl5 
(IJ 
25Cl5P· 
27Cl5• 

~ 

31(15 

 

37(15 

 

55Cl5 

• 
•o;s1r,bution o/ slrondi ,n the onchoroge
with no a,ntrol ,trond
See poge 18 far oelecting !he 
jockocconl,ngly
,g
Size 
A 
8 

3(15 
150 
110 

4(15 
_{1} 
150 
120 
7(15 
180 
150 

9(15 
: 
225 
185 
12(15 
240 
200 

13(15 
250 
210 

19(15 
_{1} 
300 
250 
22C15 
330 
275 

25(15 
360 
300 

25Cl5P 
350 
290 

27(15 
350 
290 

31Cl5 
385 
320 

37(15 
420 
350 

55Cl5 
510 
420 
Figure Cl
Active anchorages for the C range system.
_{1}
nC15 anchorage
e 
_{D} 
_{H} 
0 1· 
_{0}_{2}_{"} 
120 
85 
50 
40 
45 
125 
95 
_{5}_{0} 
_{4}_{5} 
_{5}_{0} 
186 
110 
SS 
_{6}_{0} 
_{6}_{5} 
260 
150 
SS 
_{6}_{5} 
_{7}_{0} 
165 
150 
65 
_{8}_{0} 
_{8}_{5} 
246 
160 
_{7}_{0} 
_{8}_{0} 
_{8}_{5} 
256 
185 
_{8}_{0} 
_{9}_{5} 
_{1}_{0}_{0} 
430 
220 
_{9}_{0} 
105 
_{1}_{1}_{0} 
.t OO 
230 
95 
110 
_{1}_{1}_{5} 
360 
220 
95 
110 
_{1}_{1}_{5} 
360 
220 
100 
115 
120 
346 
230 
105 
_{1}_{2}_{0} 
_{1}_{2}_{5} 
A66 
255 
110 
_{1}_{3}_{0} 
_{1}_{3}_{5} 
516 
_{3}_{0}_{0} 
145 
_{1}_{6}_{0} 
_{1}_{6}_{5} 
1036 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
• Compactness
Very compact anchorages diffuse better the prestressing forces into the concrete, allowing for a more
efficient design by:
• reducing web thicknesses in beams and box girders, blisters and ribs;
• allowing for a concentration of anchorages at the end zones;
• a reduction ofthe dimensions deviations.
anchor blocks,
ofprestressing
with minimum strand
• Lightweight
The lightweight
jacking equipment compact and automatic
C jacks allow for:
• a reduction of the prestressing anchorage reces ses thanks
• reduced distances
to the compact jack noses;
to walls leading
to the reduction
of the parasitic moments and therefore of
the required reinforcernent,
enabling
an easier placing of concrete;
• improving
the site conditions,
such as handling and stressing.
2. Strand and Tendon Characteristics
ofthe most common strands which may be used with
the C range system and the corresponding values for tendons with a given number of strands. The maximum initial force in the strand at jacking should be as recommended by local codes.
Tables Cl and C2 give the main characteristics
3. Active Anchorages for the C Range System
They are described
in Fig.
C 1 and u sed
for:
• Interna! prestressing with grout, grease, or wax protection
• Partially bonded externa! prestressing with grout protection (nonreplaceable)
• Unbonded externa! prestressing, grease or was injected.
4. Ducts for the C Range System
The following main types of ducts are used for the Freyssinet C range tendons:
• For interna! prestressing:
• Corrugated sheath made up of rolled steel sheet strip having a recomrnended rninimurn thickness of 0.3 mm. The recommended duct diameters are specified for each anchorage. However, the applicable regulations must be checked against the proposed dimensions. Generally, cement grout is used for corrosion protection, sometirnes wax or grease (i.e. in nuclear reactor containment buildings). For certain applications, galvanized steel strip is used.
• Plastic corrugated Plyduct® sheath, recently developed and patented by Freyssinet to comply with international standards such asfib and British TR47. It is perfectly air and watertight.
• None, with the patented Ductless Freyssinet system using individually sheathed and greased strands directly embedded in the concrete.
• For externa! prestressing:
• For partially bonded systerns (grouted)
 steel sheath or steel tube in the concrete corrugated zones (diaphragms 
and deviators); 
 polyethylene high density (HDPE) or steel tubes (rarely) in the zones outside the 
concrete. HOPE tubes are standardized
rating of0.63 N/mrn2 (6.3 bar) is recornrnended.
in most countries.
Ducting with a pressure
Appendix e  TYPICAL POSTTENSIONING
SYSTEMS
1037
• For unbonded System Nºl (double ducting, grouted most often)
 steel tube for the outer casing in the concrete zones;
 HDPE for the inner casing in ali zones.
• For unbonded System N°2 (single ducting, patented system using sheathed and greased strands in a duct which is grouted before stressing)
 steel tubes in the concrete zones;
 HDPE for zones outside the concrete (0.4 N/mm2 series may be used).
5. Replaceable
Active R Anchorages
These ancborages have a special guide and are used for:
• Interna! prestressing without duct (Patented Ductless System), with sheathed and greased strands. For replaceable tendons, it is recommended to use a longer cap with strand length as required to allow distressing the tendon (the tendon is then also adjustable). lt may also be stressed with a monostrand jack.
• Externa! replaceable unbonded prestressing with bare strands, generally grour injected (Extemal Prestressing System NºI).
• Externa! (replaceable or not) prestressing with sheathed and greased strands grouted before stressing (ExtemaJ Prestressing System N°2). With longer cap as above, the tendon is adjustable. Jt may also be stressed with a monostrand jack.
Figure C2
,
•
·
¡.r
·
"'°':.
·º
.
,.
;:
.·_
.
;
.•
.
• . ~·..
.
o .•
Typical Freyssinet replaceable active R aochorage.
1038 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
6. Active Flat F Anchorage
for slabs, foundation
and other thin structural
mats, shells
Flat anchorages
are generally recommeoded
elements.
• Ronge of onchoroges
JF15
~
cRf
H15
ºcfoO
5 F 15
(8
cpr,coaiJ
g,OIA
I·
" ,
)°
t~
o(
©© ©©
e Rotdoo,,,
i GI"
G2"
8
Size
e
A
1
l
20··
58
163
3FIS
190
85
1
20
163 75
90 1
AflS
230
20
1ó3
270 95
1
SF15
90
AD di!T'llr1s.ons,n rrwn • f'at duct dr.ion,b,s.
11ot duct mar be
dndly c:onn«lld
• • 75 • 20
• Notes:
ore ~igned lor o minimum concrele
• The F anchoroges
strength 1<111,n = 30 N/ mm' (cylinder strength).
the
• The prelerred methodof tendon instollotionis by threoding
stronds in the ducts (Rot shopeJ belore concreting. Howeveí,
il
lo thread thestronds alter concrete
required, il is olso ponible hordening; in thot cose, Agent
pleose, conlod the local
Freyssinel
used with the
moy be
System (see poge
6)
• The Ovctlen
F
onchoroges.
• Primorydistributionburningremlon:ementis shown on poge 14.
active fiat F ancborages.
Figure
Freyssinet
C3
7. lnstallation  Placing
installarion
The
ofthe C range posttensioning system includes the following main steps:
Appendix e  TYPICAL POSTTENSIONING
SYSTEMS
• duct placing
• cable placing
• stressing
• grouting (or other corros ion protection method)
_{1}_{0}_{3}_{9}
For internal prestressing, the ducts are placed befare the concrete is poured. Corrugated steel or plastic ducts are the most common. For external prestressing, the most commonly used ducts are steel tubes inside the concrete and HOPE pipes outside the concrete . The cable is generally placed by pushing each strand into the duct from one end. Freyssinet was a pioneer in promoting and developing this technique in the early 70's, and can provide advanced pushing equipment and fittings. A patented high speed, 4 head pushing machine has been developed for use in large projects. With this machine, it is possible to thread 1, 2, 3 or 4 strands ata time. The
operation of the machi ne may be controlled from the two ends of the tendon being placed.
8. lnstallation  Corrosion Protection
The C range tendons can be protected with any of the known systems: cement grout, grease, and wax being the most common. Freyssinet can supply ali the necessary equipment to ensure thorough corrosion protection is achieved. Sorne special cases require special attention:
• Externa!
The pressure resistance of the ducts must be checked befare grouting. This is achieved using compressed air. Checking the tightness with water is prohibited.
prestressing with cement grout.
• Grouting of System Nº2 tendons
In this case, the role of the grout is to constitute a spacer to prevent the plastic sheath surrounding the strand from being damaged in the contact zones between strands, due to curvature reactions. Sorne properties of the grout such as mechanical strength (1 O N/mm2 is sufficient for the spacing role required) and shrinkage play only a secondary role. The grouting takes place befare stressing.
• Yacuum grouting
Freyssinet was a pioneer of the vacuum grouting technique. This has been used and perfected by Freyssinet for more than twenty years. It is especially suitable for Iarge projects with difficult conditions.
• Ductless System
In this system, tendons consisting of sheathed structure, do not require grouting.
and greased strands embedded
in the concrete of the
• Wax injection
The tendons may also be injected with petroleum wax when specified by the consultant (for example,
to check the tension after a number ofyears
orto protect temporary ties).
9. Jacks
The Freyssinet jacks are designed to provide tension to a number of strands simultaneously or to one strand and a time. The C range tendons are stressed with high performance CC type hydraulic jacks.
are
They are front pull with automatic dewedging and hydraulic Iockingoff
shown in Figs. C4 and C5. A range of high pressure hydraulic pumps to operate the stressing jacks is available.
of jaws.
Examples
1040 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS AND DESIGN
Freyssinet CC 350 stressing jack.
Figure
C4
dosed: 710 mm·
M23
Freyssinet M23 monostrand stressing jack.
Figure CS
Appendix CTYPICAL POSTTENSIONING
SYSTEMS
1041
2. VSL MULTISTRAND POSTTENSIONING SYSTEM
(Courtesy VSL Corporation, www.vsl.net)
1. VSL Multistraod PostTensioning
The YSL Multistrand System is characterized by the following fearures:
• tendon units using up to fiftyfive OS' ( l3mm) or 0.6'º ( I Smm) diameter
standardized
strands:
• wide selection of anchorage types;
• steel or plastic PTPLUS™ ducts;
• highperformance cernent or other types of grouting;
• tendons manufactured onsite or in the plant;
• no need to determine tendon length in advance;
• simultaneous stressing of all strands in a tendon;
• stressing carried out in any number of phases;
• simple and reliable equípment for installation, stressing and grouting.
2. VSL Multistrand System Components
Groutlube
Vent ·
1i~~
Groutlube
,m·~~==~:==::::::~~~~ ~=,
f_ Dnlln
Om1 
Oeadendanchorage
Stresslng anchorage
Figure C6 

Figure C6 
VSL multistrand anchorage. 
1042 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
3. VSL Ancborages
Technical data and dimensions are provided in the manufacturer brochure.
For clarity and simplicity,
spirals are not shown in the picrures,
However, they fonn an integral part of the anchorage.
For more
detailed information, see VSL 's Report
for PostTensioning." for bonded slab posttensioning.
Series on "Detailing
They
are VSL standard anchorages
The SO, SA and VSLAB+~
tanks and otber structures.
are also often used for bridges, buildings.
Anchorage:
Stressing
VSL Type ES
anchorage has a composite bearing plate
This revolutionary
concrete) and is
(rnetalhigh
performance
lt comes in 3 different
and easier to handle.
lighter, smaller
configurations:
for
ESSTANDARD
using
duct system for enhanced corrosion
normal
applications,
PTPLUS™
ESPLUS
VSL's
protection
to provide an electrically isolated tendon.
or improved fatigue resistance, and ESSUPER
anchorage can also be used as a deadend
with an additional retainer plate, the ES
Equipped
anchorage.
CStrumpet
Duct
Beanng plate
Anchor head
Strands
Permanent
grout cap (opoon>J)
Figure C8
VSL type ES anchorage.
Stressing
Anchorage:
VSL Type EC to handle anchorage
system allows prestressing
through
This compact and easy
force to be transferred
with an additional
two flanges. lf equipped
anchorage
retainer plate, the EC
be used
can also
as
a
deadend anchorage.
Grout conneccion
Duct
Bearlng
plate
Anchor head
Strands
Figure
anchorage.
EC
C9
VSL type
Appendix
e  TYPICAL POSTTENSIONING
SYSTEMS
_{1}_{0}_{4}_{3}
Stressing Anchorage:
VSL Type E
The prestressing force is transferred to the concrete by a mild steelbearing plate. additional retainer plate, the E ancborage can also be used as a deadend anchorage.
lf equipped with an
Bearing plate (steel)
Anchor head
Wedges
Strands
Grout tube
Duct
Sleeve
Figure CJO VSL type E anchorage.
4. Sheathing and Corrosion Protection
Generally, corrugated steel ducts witb a mínimum wall thickness of26 gauge are used. However, the VSL PTPLUS™ System with its corrugated duct and plastic coupler can provide a number of important advantages wben compared with conventional ducts, such as:
• greatly enhanced tendon corrosion protection;
• irnproved tendon fatigue resistance;
• reduced sensitivity to stray electric currents;
• reduced tendon friction:
• electrical isolation wben used with special ES anchorages.
The PTPLUS™ Systern is suitable for ali applications best adapted to:
• transverse tendons in bridge deck slabs;
• tendons that are close to the concrete surface;
but, given its specific cbaracteristics,
is
• bridges and otber structures railway 
that are subject 
to fatigue 
loadings 
or stray electric 
currents; 
• structures where a severe corrosive environment
• tendons that need to be electrically rnonitored throughout the structure's service life.
may be expected;
5. Multistrand PostTensioning
Stressing
The unique features of the VSL PostTensioning Systern lies in its special wedge locking procedure. The wedges always remain in contact with the strands during the stressing operation. As tbe pressure in the jack is released, the wedges automatically lock in the conical holes of the anchor head.
1044 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
Plaong oí anchor head and wedges
Steps in stressing operation.
Figure Cll
Grouting
The objectives ofthe
ofthe prestressing steel
by filling
VSL Grouting System
are to prevent corrosion
in tbe tendon and to
fully encapsulate tbe steel in an alkaline environrnent, as
of all voids and cavities
the
well as achieve an
tbe surrounding
prestressing
effective bond between
steel
and
concrete
througb:
member.
Tbis is achieved
and admixtures;
• Careful selection
of cement, water,
• Continuous
control processes
and measurement;
quality assurance and quality
• Selection of mix design and procedures
adapted to the selected
and
materials.
environment
equipment;
ofthe grouting by t:rained VSL GroutingTecbnicians.
• Performance
PostTensioning
Externa!
savings
in
resulting
posttensioning
to bridges
due to the
construction
is well adapted
Externa!
costs
and
by the
resistance
the high degree
Externa! tendons
provided
if corrosion
system.
easy to
are
for strengthening
and, if necessary, replace.
and, apart
are ideal
They
inspect
existing
from
structures
can be used for a wide range
their uses in bridges,
including buildings, silos and
of other applications,
reservoirs.
Tendons:
VSL Externa!
• strand
bundle;
Appendix CTYPICAL POSTTENSIONING SYSTEMS
_{1}_{0}_{4}_{5}
• 
polyelhylene ducts; 

• 
standard multistrand anchorages, or special anchorages permitting easy tendon replacement; 

• 
grout 

Strand bundle and sheathing 
_{S}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{a}_{n}_{c}_{h}_{o}_{r}_{a}_{g}_{e} 

Figure 
CJ 2 VSL externa! 
posttensíoníng 
system components 
6.
Monostraod PostTensioning
The VSL Monostrand System has advantages similar to those of the VSL Bonded Slab Post Tensioning Systern. The VSL Monostrand System uses 0.5'' (l3mm) and 0.6" (15mm) diameter strands. The strands are given a coating of permanent corrosioninhibiting coating aod are enclosed in an extruded plastic sheath. The grease and plastic provide double corrosion protection, as well as preventing any bonding between the strands and the surrounding concrete. The plastic sheath is polyethylene with approximately 50 mil wall thickness. To ensure continuous corrosion protection in aggressive environments, special sleeves are used to join the sbeaths lo the ancborages and each anchorage is provided with a protective cap. Tbe VSL Monostrand System features factoryapplied corrosion protection very low friction losses, and fulJ utilization of the structural depth. These light, flexible mooostrands can be easily and rapidly installed, leading to economical solutions. Detailed information is giveo in VSL's "PostTensioned Slabs" publication. With modifications, tbe VSL Monostrand System can also be used for posttensioning masonry walls,
Monostrand
Specifications:
• 0.5'' ( l 3mm) and 0.6"( l 5mm) diameter strand in accordance with ASTM A4 l6.
• permanent 
corrosiooinhibiting 
coating 
and 
plastic 
sheath 
in 
accordance 
witb 
PTI 
recommendations. 

Wedges 

Recess former 

lnscallation nur 

Figure Cl3 VSL type 86 monostrand 
ancborage. 
CONCRETE ANAL YSIS ANO DESIGN
1046 Naaman  PRESTRESSED
Twin ram jaclc
jack.
Figure Cl4
VSL twin ram stressing
Reinforcement
of the Anchorage
Zone required by the design,
ln addition
reinforcement
is necessary in
additional
to the slab reinforcement
Details should be established by the project
tbe
distribution
behind
each anchorage.
force
zone
engineer.
Resistive
Tendon
VStrandTM
Heat
miugate
heatresistive
posttensioning
innovative
the
bave
developed
been
tendons
YSL's
to
Each tendon consists of
prestressing steel.
thennal effects of a fire on the strength of the
detrimental one or more
This coating
material.
steel prestressing
strands coated with a proprietary
intumescent
greater degree of protection to tbe strand in the event of a fire. These tendons
a significantly
provides
are particularly
well suited for strengthening
of parking
garages and other structures that are exposed
to vehicular
tires.
posttensioning
Dywidag
in place. (Courtesy DywidagSystemsJnternational).
bars
Appendix C
TYPICAL POSTTENSIONING
SYSTEMS
_{1}_{0}_{4}_{7}
3. DYWIDAG BAR POSTTENSIONING SYSTEM (Courtesy DywidagSystemsInternational, www.dywidagsystems.com)
DywidagSystemsInternational
They include:
(OSI) offers severa! steel reinforcing products for use in constructioa.
• Multistrand posttensioning system
• Bar posttensioning system
• Rock and soil anchors
• Tie rods
• Threadbar reinforcing system
• Threadbar resin anchored rock bolts
• Soil nails
Next only tbe Dywidag bar posttensioning
system is brietly described.
The reader is referred to
OSI for literature on Lhe other products and latest updates.
l
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