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I I A Symbol of Two |lations


The Tirlip:
a Symbol of Tlvo Nations

edited by

Michiel Roding
Hans Theunissen

M. Th. Houtsma Stichting / Ttr.rco-Dutch Friendship Association


Utrecht / Istanbul 1993
Cover illustrations:

Pieter Holsteyn the Younger, 'Semper Augustus


private coll.

Melchior Lorichs, Panolamic view of istanbul (detail)


dlawing, dated 1559
Leiden University Libraly

Tiles from the Rüstem Paça Mosque (1561), istanbul

O by authors

Covet design: Roelol Koebrugge


Lay out: Michiel Roding / Jan de Ruiter
Printed by: Waanders, Zwolle

This volume can be ordered from:

M. Th. Houtsma.Stichting
Drifr 15, 3512 BR Utrecht
The Netherlands

Turco-Dutch Friendship Association


Türkiye-Hollanda Dostluk DerneÉi
Prof. Mazhar Ökdel Sokak Kazaz Ìçhanr No. 313 80760 giçli istanbul

CIP.GEGEVENS KONINKLIJKE BIBLIOTHEEK, DEN HAAG

Tulip

The tulip : a symbol of two nations / [ed. M.J. Roding et al.]


- Utrecht : M.Th. Houtsma Stichting ; istanbul lTurkish-
Netherlands Association. - Ill.
rsBN 90-90062t0-6
Trefw.: tulpen ; cultuurgeschiedenis / tulpen in de Islamitische
kunst / tulpen ; kunstgeschiedenis ; Nederland.
Contents

paSe

Introduction & Editors' Introduction 7

Tulips portrayed. The tulip trade in Holland in the 17th century 9-24
Sam Segal

Turkish tulips and delft flowerpots 25-39


Ronald Brouwer

Tulips. Turks and tiles 40-49


Johan ten Broeke

The tulip in Istanbul the Ottoman period 50-56


Turhan Baytop

Tulips in Ottoman Turkish culture and art 57-75


Yrldrz Demiriz

Notes 78-83
Abraharn Mignon, Still life with flowers in a vase

ctt. 1670
Museum Boynans-van Beuningen, Rottetdam
Introduction Editors' Introduction
The Turks and the Dutch seem to enjoy a special relationship Ovel lecent yeals the interest in the historical and cultural
based on more than 400 years of trade and 300 years of lelations between Turkey and the Nethellands has increased
peaceful lelations. Over the last few decades both countries considelably. Two exhibitions, Topkapr (in Rotteldam and
have g|own even closer togethel thanks to the existence of istanbul) and Turkornanie (in Leeuwalden), both held in
numerous international organisations, increasing bilatelal 1990, wele a filst indication of this new interest in the
ties, tourism and last but not least the presence of more than fascinating historical and cultural ties which have existed
200.000 people of Turkish origin in the Netherlands. This between both countlies. In conjunction with these exhibitions
special lelationship even extends to the cultural field. two books dealing with Tulkish-Dutch political and cultulal
One unique enthusiasm which the Turks and the Dutch have lelations were published (Topkap & TLtrkonnnie, Amsterdam
in common is their love of the tulip. The 'Lâle Devri' ('Tulip 1989 and Basjibozoek, Utrecht/Leeuwalden 1990). Both the
Ela') was a period ofpeace and cultural enlightrnent in exhibitions and the publications were eye-openel's and cleally
Turkey while the tulip has become almost synonymous with demonsh'ated that there was still much mole to discover'.
Holland. One of the relatively unexploled fields of shaled intelest is
This book is about a shared passion for the tulip as a soul'ce the subject ofthe present volume: the tulip. Instead of
of inspiration lor Dutch and Turkish artists and men of coveling Turkish-Dutch lelations in general, the exhibition
science. The book has been published in conjunction with and the present book deal with one palticulal featule of both
the exhibition 'The Tulip: a Symbol of Two Nations' which cultures in detail. When studying the role of the tulip in
for the first time brings together fi'om Turkey and the Turkish and Dutch culture, we came across intelesting
Netherlands a wide lange of lTth and l8th-century celamics, diffelences but also many similarities. While the tulip in
textiles, books, prints and paintings containing tulip designs. Turkish culture was more or less a symbol of Paladise on
The Turco-Dutch Friendship Association, under whose earth and had an almost divine status, in the Nethellands this
auspices this book and the exhibition have been ploduced, is precious and beautiful flower represented the tlansitoliness
grateful fol the support leceived fi'om the Tulkish and Dutch oflifle. However, such elevated notions about the tulip did not
business, cultural and scientific communities. Special thanks plevent both the Turks and the Dutch from seeking financial
go to the M. Th. Houtsma Stichting (Utlecht) and Mrs. gain by speculating in the tulip mat'ket. During the period of
Nazan Ölçer, the director of the Museum of Turkish and the tulipornania (first half of the I 7th century) exorbitant
Islamic Art (istanbul), fol the way she helped the prices were paid for tr.rlip bulbs in Holland. A mole or less
Association to furthel its aims of enhancing understanding similar development took place at the beginning of the 18th
and friendship between Tulkey and lhe Nethellands. centuly in the Ottoman Empire: tulips were highly plized
collector''s items. Such was the impoltance of the tulip during
Jan J. Jonkcr Roclants thosc ycars in Ottoman Turkish history that latcr historians
P re sident of t he Tttrco - Dutch Frientlsl'ri¡; Associutiort have named the period the 'Tulip Era' ('Lâle Devli').
Whereas, generally speaking, one can think of valious
cultural achievements which symbolize different aspects of
both nations, the title of this book The Tulip: a Synùol of
Two Natiorts clearly explesses what the exhibition intends to
illustrate: the shaled cultulal and artistic enthusiasm fol the
tr"rlip in both Turkey and the Netherlands fi'om the l6th
centul'y up to the pl'esent day. The focus of this book is on
the l6th, lTth and 18th centulies, because at that time the
role of the tulip in the decorative arts of both cultures was
paramount. In choosing the subjects of the articles in this
book we have tried to maintain a balance. We wished to deal
with both Tulkish and Dutch culture equally, while botany
and alt histoly, it was thought, should complement one
another. The lelatively short period of time available to both
authors and editors made this a difficult task. Moreover',
there are almost no detailed scholarly publications on the
lole of the tulip in the Dutch decorative arts. Hopefully this
publication will stimulate scholars in both countries to do
fulther lesealch into this fascinating subject.
The editors wish to thank the museums in both the
Netherlands and Turkey for their cooperation, and the
authors of the articles for theil assistance in finding
illustrations for the book. And we wish to expl'ess oul'
special thanks to John O'Kane (Amsteldam) and Merâl
Gülnihar (Utrecht) for theil help in translating and revising
the texts in English.

Michiel Roding / Hans Theunissen


7
Tile panel with tulips
I 6th centuÌy

Topkapr Palace Museum


Tulips portrayed. The tulip
trade in Holland in the lTth
century
Sam Segal (Amsterdam)

Introduction
Wherever one sees tulips one thinks of Holland. And it is
true that since the end of the I 6th century this country in
particular has cultivated and exported them to the rest of the
world. Much has been written about the cultivation of tulips
in Holland. In particular the 'windhandel', the unbridled
speculation in tulip bulbs in the 17th century which resulted
in thousands of guilders being paid for a single bulb, has
attracted the attention ofboth scholars and.journalists.r In
this introductory article some aspects of the subject will be
discussed that have up to now hardly been studied at all.
What follows is the result of a combined botanical and art
historical study of the tulips in Dutch paintings and drawings
in the 17th and 18th century. Particular attention has been
paid to the 'tulip books'. These were albums of water-
colours of tulips put together by one or more artists and
commissioned by a bulb merchant. They served as a sales
catalogue for tulip bulbs, which a me¡chant could use to
show prospective customers what kind of flower they could
expect to see next spring.

"l{* .¡-'¿

2 Wood Tulip, from Gesner's collection of drawings


Universitätsbibliothek, Erlangen

The early history of the cultivated tulip


The actual origins of the history of the cultivated tulip in
Holland can be traced back to Persia and Turkey. In Persia
l'r .. . -.
the tulip was already known in the l2th century; it was, for
,.,,.-a-, ,,. r .

:-\
"\..).:\;--
1 I
instance, mentioned by the poet Omar Khayyam in one of
his quatrains. In Edward Fitzgerald's famous translation2 it
ê',t' t"t '"
-'
t, . ta' 'v

reads:

As then the Tulip for her morning sup


Of Heavenly Vintage from the soil looks up,
Do you devoutly do the like, till Heav'n
To Earth invert you - Iike an empty Cup.

,:rù.,.

3 Kurdistanic tulip from Gesner,


1 Conrad Gesner (?), Koerdistanic Tulip, grown in Augsburg 1557 woodcut in: Valerius Cordus
Universitätsbibliothek, Erlangen 1561

9
The mystic poet Celaleddin Rurnî sung the praises of the frorn Holland. But his love for tulips also caused more
tulip in the l3th century. Sultan Mehn.red II, known as the selious problems. A revolt against his legirne (1730) folced
Conqueror' ( 145 I - 148 1), aftel conqnering Constantinople him to abdicate. Amongst the charges brought against him,
( 1453), devoted considerable attention to the building of the was the accusation that he had spent too much money on the
city and the laying out of gardens. Pleasure gardens with tladitional annual tulip festivals.
ornamental plants and flowers did not yet exist in Europe; all The most popular tulips in Turkey at that time had red
that could be found thele wel'e helb gardens and orchat'ds. flowers with small almond-shaped petals ending in a long
Under Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent ( 1520- 1566) the point. But these did not appeal to the taste ofEuropeans. At
Ottoman Empire reached its apex; it stretched fi'om the least we larely come across the 'Needle tulip' in Western
Crimea to Egypt and coveled lalge parts of the BaÌkans. paintings or drawings. They wele later given the scientific
From the l6th century onwards the tulip increasingly gained name of Tulipa acmninata (4). At present varieties of this
popularity in the Ottoman Empire leaching a peak duling the kind are once again being sold. We can see from books
leign of Sultan Ahmed lIl (1703-1730), which period in about herbs and flowels, and from thousands ofpaintings
Turkish histoly is known as the 'Tulip Era'. During these and drawings, that in Western Eulope the preference was for
centlu'ies the tulip was also used as a decorative motif on diflerent shapes and especially lor flowels with more than
tiles and pottely.l one colour.
Until lecently it was thought that Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq The first depictions of tulips in the Netherlands were two
(Augelius Gislenius Busbequius), who was Flemish in woodcuts in a book by the lenowned doctol and herbalist
oligin and the ambassadol in Constantinople of the Rembert Dodoens (Dodonaeus) of Mechelen in 1566.8 How
Habsburg Enrperol Ferdinand I, was lesponsible for having vast their variety was, however', can first be seen in a helbal
intloduced the tulip into Eulope. In a lettel dated 1555 he of 1581 by Mathias de I'Obel (Lobelius), who worked in
wrote that he had seen gardens with tulips, but the lettel'was Rijssel (Lille). He described and numbered 4l difTerent
more a piece of litelary leminiscence than contemporary valieties. Eighteen of these ale illustlated; thele are
documentation having been wlitten long after the event, i.e. descriptions of six othel softs accompanying other'
some time after 1562.4 This may mean that he saw the tulips woodcuts.e Sorne of these 24 woodcuts were later used in
only at a later date.s In any case he could not have seen tulips treatises by Charles de I'Escluse (Clusius), who devoted
blooming in December (1554) as he wlites. Busbecq sent much attention to tulips in a helbal of I 601 ; this text is
seeds and bulbs to Vienna but it is not known whether he did genelally regarded as the first scientific tl'eatise on tulips.r0
this before the beginning of the I 570s. In 1 559 the humanisr Clusius (1526-1609) was also a lenowned scholar. He came
and scholal'Gesner saw a tulip in the garden ofJohannes lrom the folmer Southern Netherlands town of Atrecht (now
Heinrich Herwart in Augsburg of which he had previously Arras in Northeln France). He was in the service of the coult
leceived a dlawing. Gesnel had ah'eady been engaged for at Vienna as head of the hnperial Gardens; and in this
solne time in publishing books about animals that were capacity he cultivated the plant materials from
generously illustrated with woodcuts, and hc had bccn Constantinoplc that Busbecq had given him. When Clusius
working simultaneously on a book about plants. Gesnel''s was olfered a post at the University of Leiden and was given
book on plants was only published in 17'7 1,200 yeals after' the opportunity of laying out a botanical garden, he brought
his death in an abridged folm without his own illustlations. his tulip bulbs with him. He glew them in his own galden
These illustrations consisted of, water'-colours that wele and demanded substantial prices from potential buyels. He
made by him ol'his assistants, and which were accompanied did not make much profit fi'om them because the bulbs wer.e
by glosses. A sumptuous facsimile edition of this source stolen. They must have gone on to become palt of the
material has lecently appeared; in it we can see two watel'- original stock in the Dutch tulip trade and cultivation.
colouls which are the earliest dlawings of tulips that we so In Clusius' pr"rblications it is often uncleal which descliption
far know of (1).6 The first plinted woodcut is based on one of tulips peltained to which illustrations. The Antwerp
of these two dlawings: the red tulip flom the garden in publishel Plantijn had used many woodblocks for the
Augsburg can be seen in a treatise by Gesner dating fì'om woodcuts that had previously been used for work by
1561 (3). It was a tulip originating in 'Byzantium', Dodonaeus and Lobelius that belonged to other types. It is
presumably Constantinople.T The second tulip in Gesner's not possible to ascertain the coloul pattel'n from the
collection of water-colouls, a yellow one (2) flom Italy, is by woodcuts; the illustrations in the herbals were rarely
¿ìnother hand, maybe the German Kentmann, who lived in coloured in, and if they were it was celtainly not done by the
Italy from 1549 to I 55 L In any case Kentmann gave Gesner' authors. Nol is it clear how much of a hand Clusius had in
a dlawing of a yellow flowel that looked like a lily and the choice of illustl'ations.
which had three leaves, and the descliption of this drawing The wold 'tulip' is generally explained as being the result of
tallies with the yellow tulip. a misundelstanding. The Turkish word is lâle. Apparently
Some of the tulips from Turkey allived in Central and Busbecq was told that the tulip looked like a turban, the
Western Europe via Vienna. Tulips wet'e also sent to the Dutch word fol which, 'tulband', is effectively the same as
North via Venice and the botanical gardens in ltaly. The the Turkish wold 'dülbend'; this is thought to have been the
tulip later passed fi'om Flanders to Holland. There the soil oligin of the narne 'tulip'. Accolding to Clusius' earliest
was ready to receive them in more than one sense. Tlade in treatises on tulips, dating from 1576, two solts oftulips were
tulips soon developed, for the time being mainly with France sold in Constantinople: the eally flowering Kaffa Tulip
and England, and latel with Germany. It is a paradoxical fact (fi'om Kaffa in the Climea) and the later floweling Cavalla
that in the l Sth century Sultan Ahmed III inipolted tulips Tulip (from Cavalla in Greece).

l0
Of palticular importance is the publicati on, De Bloem-lnf Kurdistanic tulip Tulípa stapfii Turra
and the Latin edition Hortus Florirlus by Crispyn de Passe Red tulip Tuli¡tcL agenert.sis De Candolle
the Younger in 16 14. This is a 'florilegium' , an anthology or Firetulip Tuli¡tcr prurecotTenore
collection of coppelplate engravings of common garden Green tulip Tulipa vìridiflora Bailey
plants, that could be used as display material for the sale of
flowel bulbs, tubels and lootstocks. A Flench and English For convenience the wold 'species' has been nat'rowly
edition soon appeared. Over the next few years a supplement defined, that is a number of them will simply be legarded as
of another twelve pages containing twenty tulips were added a variety or subspecies; botanists are not always in
to the original edition in which seventeen tulips wele agreement about this. Most of these botanical species
illustrated on seven pages (5). The names ofthe growers oliginated in a region stletching from Western Asia to
were mentioned and thele were two short texts describing Southern Russia, and some of them came froln South-West
the care and cultivation of tulips and the equiprnent that was Eulope. TLtlipa Ð,lvestrls and the related subspeciesTuli¡tcr
needed. Illustrations in many publications both in the ausîrolís have also reverted to a wild folm in Southet'n,
Netherlands and abroad wel'e taken from this 'flolilegium' Westel'n and Central Europe. According to some authors,
till well into the 18th century. they were originally indigenous to Italy, Poltugal and even
ln 1629 the Englishman John Palkinson leported 40 1 France, but this is unlikely for a numbet'ofreasons, fot'
varieties of tulip in 30 illnstrations contained in four instance that they would certainly have been obselved by
engravings; in the lists that were published, and in the herbalists before the midclle of the lTth century. Dodonaeus
accounts of auctions and Dutch tulip books of rhe I 630s and wrote in 1568 that tulips were not indigenous to Italy and the
early 1640s, one cornes across at least 650 varieties. A list of Nethellands,rl and in view of the fact that he was in contact
the tnlips that were cultivated in l7 40 in the gardens of the with the scholal's of his time, one can assume that he knew
Malgrave of Baden-Durlach in Karlsruhe contains about the tulips that wele legistered came fi'om elsewhere. Tulips
2400 names.rr At the present time there are about 5000 were said to have been painted befole then by Leonaldo da
recognized cultivars. Vinci, Domenico Ghillandaio and Gian Pietro Ricci
The filst study ihat was entirely devoted to tulips was (Giampetrino), but the identifications at'e incorrect.ra In the
Chesnée Monstereul's Le Floriste François,1654. The case of a numbel of other species, moreover, it is unceltain
author begins his book with a eulogy to the tulip which he whether their oliginal area of distlibution reached as fat' as
reckons as being the highest of all flowers, like human Europe. Tulipa saxatilis is known in Rhodes and Crete.
beings among the animals, the sun among the stars and the Tulipa viridífloris is not a ploper species; it presumably
diamond among precious stones. Particular attention is paid 'appeared' under cultivation round about I 630 as a
hele to the care and cultivation of tulips. In 1678, also in 'monstrosity', a deviation with partially or entilely green
France, a little book about tulips appeared anonymously. In flowers. This deviation also occurs in the so-called pallot
1700 a heatise was published by Van Oosten; in 1754 and tulips.
1760 there were treatises by D'Ardène; also in 1760 there The tulips tlìat were cultivated duling the Golden Age were
was one by Van Kampen. They give us an idea of how tastes rarely 'botanical' tulips, i.e. varieties that also occul in a
had changed. wild form. It is almost always cultivated products or
'cultivars' that we ale dealing with; sometimes they are
forms of a botanical species with a deglee of deviation, but
Botanical tulip usually they are spontaneous hyblids that wel'e produced
Flom the descriptions by Clusius and De Passe's during the process of cultivation; frequently they are the
illustlations we can conclude that at the beginning of the product of lepeated cultivation of more than two sorts ovel'
lTth cenlury tulips were sometimes cultivated species and successive generations. Hybrids like this do not come about
that the majority were hybrids of the following botanical so easily in a natural state because the species do not
varieties:12 nolmally grow together, and even if they did, they would
quickly be driven out by othel sorts that were better suited to
Wood tulip T ttl i P a Ð, lv e s t ri s Linné local conditions. Growels, on the other hand, ale in a
(= T. Ð'lvestris L. ssp. s]'/uasa'ls) position to provide artificially the optimr"rm conditions for'
May tulip T u I i pcr ct u st ra Ii s Link every plant. It is not easy for a botanist to determine the
(= T. sj.lvestris L. ssp. uustralis (Link) Pamp.) species oftulips that can be seen in old drawings or'
Slender tulip T u I i pct l'ttutti li s Herbert paintings. The distinguishing features are very often not
Cretan tulip T ul i¡tct sctxcrt i li s Sieber rendered. Fol instance, Gesner's yellow tulip does not show
Striped tulip Tulipct bifloraPallas the typical contracted flowel base, but it can hardly be
Persian tulip Tulipct c lusiana Ventenat anything other than a Tulipa sylvestris that has been
(= T. clusittttct De Candolle ssp. clusirutcr) irnperfectly lendered by the artist. The uncoloured woodcut
Yellow tulip TLtl i pa chrysantha hort. by Dodonaeus dating from I 568 offers a clearer picture of
(=7. clusiana DC. var. chrysantlut (,A.D. Hall) the shape ofthis species, so that it can be identified without
Sealy the aid of colour. This species also occurs in Lobelius and
Star tulip Tul i pa ste I krtct Hooker Clusius. Moreover, in the case of Clusius the same
(= T. clusiana DC. var. stellatu (Hooker') Regel) illustration is also linked up with another (sub)species,
Needle tulip Tul i pa ac tuni rtcrta Y ahl Tulipa australis.ts
Tapered tulip Tulipa schrenkii Regel Despite these difficulties during the first decades of their'

l1
cultivation in Westem Europe tulips are easier to trace back a large number ofvariegated tulips. 'Breaking'refers to a
to their origins than is the case later on; they are clearly still type of tulip which has undergone a genetic alteration of its
close to their origins. It is, however, rarely possible to colour scheme, which is in contrast to the original one
identify them with any certainty; at most one can offer an coloured types, the parent tulips or breeders. As a result of
approximation of what their original stock was. This is continual cuitivation colour combinations occur with flames,
because we are not dealing with the typical features of the stripes or marks. The variegated types were the most popular,
original plants; deviations also occur. The most important of they were known as 'fine' tulips. Moreover it was only in the
these are a product of diseases. New hybrids are often more last century that it was discovered that a virus was involved.
susceptible to insect plagues,or viruses than botanical Clusius had already observed that 'broken' tulips were often
species that have succeeded in adapting themselves over the weaker. It goes without saying that present-day growers a¡e
course of the centuries. Virus diseases, especially the one keen to eliminate viruses and avoid tulips which do not resist
that caused the 'breaking' oftulips in the 17th century, led to infection.

'J',liy,l","L; Bo-,, l,f"; Colo,i,


.i,ln"-f,..,; l;yf .r o",,ro

5 Tulips from a supplement to the Ë1o rtus F loridus by Crispyn de Passe the
Younger, ca. l6l7

4 Needle Tulip from a Turkish tulip book, ca. 1730 6 Pieter Holsteyn the Younger, 'Semper Augustus' ---)
private coll. private coll.

12
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Tulips produce hybrids easily. But not all species ale the such prominent men as the engraver and publisher Johannes
same in this respect. Of the list above, the first five species de Bry in Frankfurt, and the painter and draftsman Jacques
are less inclined to produce hybrids than the other ones. de Gheyn in The Hague, who also drew and painted flowers.
Hybrids withTulipa clusiana and related tulips, Z. schrenkii The cultivated varieties of the I 7th century were often
and T. praecox, are the most common. In the case of L named aftel their grower, for instance, Tulipcr lttcobi Bommii
stapfii,the'Kuldistanic tulip', that has a star-shaped mark lulei coloris coccittes flamntis divisa et ornata (in De Passe,
on the base contrasting with a light colour, quasi-botanical 5), Merveille Van Qaeckel, Admirael PoÍtebacker, etc. Jacob
forms occur at an eal'ly stage. It is probably Gesner's red Bom and Jan Quaeckel were growers in Haarlem, Hendrick
tulip and it is certainly the same as the tulips depicted by Pottebacker was a resident of Gouda. But there were also
Lobelius and latel on by Clusius.r6 Tuliltct clusianctwas names such as Schoone Helena, Bnryd van Enchtrysen,
depicted by Lobelius,rT and it appeals latel on in Clusius Lcryrr,tck, Non Pareille or Geel en Root van Leyden.
(161 1) as Tulípa Persica. It also appears in the florilegium To cultivate a garden one had to be wealthy. Exotic garden
of Piere Vallet from Paris in 1608 - Vallet's illustration is plants were very expensive. An ornamental garden was in
then used by De Bry (1611) and we find it again in Sweert fact a 'collection' ofprecious objects, and the bulbs were
(1612) and De Passe (1614).r8 Here it is a case ofa species planted at a good distance from each other in flowerbeds, as
with a red flower and a white border that bears some one can see fi'om innumelable prints. Sometimes a single
resemblance to our' 'Christmas tulip'. On the same sheet in tulip will adorn a whole bed. Tulips were among the most
De Passe the Tulipa saxatilis of Crete is depicted. sought after, costly and prestigious collector's objects. Not
In this survey the most common sort has been left out, the all tulips were equally expensive. It was clearly a matter of
Tulipa gesnerana.This tulip, described by Linnaeus and fashion. Although this was not the only deciding factor',
named after Gesner', is an indistinct hyblid of various fashions were to a great extent determined by a flower'
botanical species, an average result oftulips cultivated possessing what were legarded as ideal chal'acteristics, in
accolding to the taste of his age. It is not a botanical variety, pal'ticulal'certain colour combinations. The length and
even though it is the one that is most frequently mentioned in strength of the stalk and the size and shape of the flower,
the literature on cultivated tulips. The name conceals a even the coloul of the stamens, played a part. And of course
silence as well as an ignorance about the botanical it was impoltant whether the variety was consideled rare or
background of the flower. not.
The pensionary of Amsterdam, Dr. Adliaen Pauw, grew
nothing on his estate in Heemstede except a small number of
Cultivars
tulips of the Semper Augusras valiety (6), the only known
Countless cultivars have been identified. Products that are examples of this tulip. Nicolaes à Wassenaer wrote in 1623:
not produced flom seed but by vegetal (asexual) 'Among the many Precious examples of these Flowels ...
reploduction, for instance by cutting rootstocks in pieces or one that for its Beauty is named Sentper Augttst¿¿s is the
by making cuttings, are more consistent in their' foremost of this Year;the colour is white; \tittr Carmine on a
characteristics than products that are grown fi'om seed. blue base, and with an unbroken flame right to the top, never
Vegetal reproduction occurs in the case of tulips through the did a Florist see one more beautiful than this...' The plice
outgrowth of side-bulbs, a process that can be induced was f 1,000 for a single bulb. The Sentper Augusras stayed at
manually by making an incision in the underside of the bulb. the top for a long tirne. 7n 1624 it was pliced at f 1 ,200, in
In the case ofthe abundance ofvarieties in the lTth century 1625 it was marked up at f 3,000 but remained unsold, in
it is very doubtful whether we are dealing with reasonably 1633 its price was f 5,500 and in 163'7 f 30,000 was offered
consistent types; we have already seen that virus infection for three bulbs.re What is more, one should take into account
influenced the development of new varieties. It is a question that the value of the guilder was vely high at the time; we are
hele of what one's point of view is; a certain variation of the talking about fortunes here. The average annual income was
typical features nust always be allowed for. It may even be a around f 1 50. A filst class house in a Dutch city cost around
question ofpropaganda. In fact there was no scientific basis f 5,000; the most expensive houses on the central canals of
for identifying cultivars, either through carefully described Amsterdam, including garden and coach house, were about f
features and research into what constituted the limits of a 10,000. The tulips, therefore, had value as an investment,
variety, or through genetic research, which plays an and in the 1630s this led to the tulip 'windhandel', tlading
important part at the p¡esent day. Few, if any, of the 'close to the wind' or ín blanco; the episode has gone down
thousands of modern cultivars can be traced back to in history as the tulip mania. The phenomenon of the tulip
botanical stock; they can, however, be accurately identified. books is closely related to this development.
Consistency is partially preserved by the development of To diffelentiate between tulips there are various possible
cultivated forms that are sterile, that is, ones that ploduce no criteria. One of the for€most distinguishing featules :is the
seed or only seed that is infertile. This means that cultival's floweling season, a feature that one cannot make use of,
are often specialities of one orjust a few growers who own however, when using works of art to identify a species.
the palent tulips that ale capable ofproducing viable seed. Clusius' division into early and late flowering tulips was
Many names of growers are known to us flom the tulip lists accepted up until the l8th centul'y. The variation in timespan
in publications and reports of auctions, and fiom notes in is some two months; the earliest tulips normally flower in
tulip books. De Passe gives a list of names of 'fanciers' the second half of March, while the latest have normally
according to city; it contains both professional growers as reached theil prirne befole the end of May. The following
well as garden fanciers. We find on this list the names of varieties belong in chronological order to the early species:

14
T u I i p cr s c h r e nk i i, T. b ifl o r a, T. p ra e c ox and T. a g e n e ns i, fhe
latter flowering up until the beginning of May. Then flom
the end of April there ale: T. sylt,es[ri", T. clusiana, T.
stel lato, T. chr¡,5¡¡¡1¡þ¡¡ and T. srtxatolís respectively, while
T. ctLtsÍralis only begins to flower in May. The classification
that was mainly used in the lTth century, whether or not in
combination with the time of flowering, was determined by
basic coloul and colour combinations. Speaking broadly the
following groLlps wel'e dilfèrentiated as follows:20 À

Co u I e tu'en'. single-colonred. Usually palent tulips.


Gheboorcletr. single-coloured with a yellow or lightel border'.
Luckett'. pnrple (ol pink-purple) with a broad white border; early (9
and 12). For instance Lock vutt Rijrt, Luck t,an Quaeckel;various
exarrples in Sweelt (1612) and De Passe (1614).
Ducken: red with a yellow border; short, small flowels, early (8-12).
For instance Duck Conrcl; examples in Lobelius, Clusius, Sweelt
and De Passe; after IJ22 Duck vatt Tol.
Brutsons'. red with a wide yellow border. For instance Vroege
I
Bransott ttut Kaer.
Agcttlten: bi-coloured, short; usually short Ro¡¿1. For instance,
AgrraÍ Fetùs Du Costct. But multicoloured varieties also occur.
Rozen: red or pink on a whìte ground. The Iargest group includes
Setnper Augustus (6 and ll), Sonterscltoott and viltually all the
Atlmiraels and most of the Generaels.
Violenen: purple or lilac on a white glound. Fol insta¡ce, Viceroy
(10), Bru¡,n Purper, Otto tle Matt, Generael van der Eyck and
Adtn irae I vcut Enc kltuys en.
BogL{ettert'. red or purple in sharp contrast with a white background,
r-\
lalge and rounded with rounded petals, and in some cases with a
tlrick stalk more than 80 cms long (7); particnlarly con.ìn.ìon
dur'ìng tl.re late I 7th, and the l8th centuly (also known as
'Flemish' tulips).
Bizartlett: red, pulple ol brown on a yelÌow gronnd. Sometimes
known as 'Fantasquen'. The species includes Roo¡ en Geel wut
Le|tlen, Root ett Geel von Catoll'n, Atlmirael Pottebacker and
fuIenteille wut Qtneckel.
Marrluetrirten'. at least four colours; late flowering tulips. For
instance, Ceclonulli. Populal in Flanders in the early lTth century,
very fashionable in France in the I Sth century.
)
Paragorten: colour changes lesnlting frorn 'bleaking' , generally
regalded as an ìmprovement. For instance, Pcnagon Da CosÍcr,
7 Vincent Laurensz van der Vinne, 'Baquette'
Parugott Líefl<erts. private coll.
Porkiettuþten'. huge tulips with distinctly fiilled or incised flamed
petals, usually partially green. As eally as 1 630 there is a pai nting Only the tulip books give one some idea of what the
of a green tulip,2l a type which became fashionable after about hundleds of cultivals looked like that are mentioned during
l 660. the period of the tulip nania and the immediate years that
followed. that is the 1630s and I 640s. We observe that thele
Double or full tulips are mentioned in Besler as early as is sometimes a consiclerable amount of variation allowed
l 6 l 3; they only became fashionable, however, duling the within the types with the result that thele is also a distinct
last quartel of the 17th century. For tulips with a colour overlapping between diffelent types. One must agree with
pattern different terms were used: spotted, for instance for Walthern ( 174 I ) that charlatanism olten played a role.22 In
Ihe Jaspis tulips, jagged, striped, flanied (marking from the order to provide some idea ofthe abundance of varieties, it
border going through to the centre; the finely flamed types seems useful to plovide a diagrarn showing the shapes of the
were later called Paltocly tulips), feathered (short slanting flower and the petals, the colour schemes and other
stripes along the bordels), marbled and sometimes winged, distinguishing featnLes.23
burnt, bruised and shledded. To a certain extent it is possible to follow the fashions by
In popularity the Admiraels wel'e just ahead of the GenertLels consulting the tleatises that were wlitten about tulips over
as frequent winners olcompetitions. The Adnùraels the coul'se of the years; they often list the chalactelistics of
stlictly speaking had a regular red pattern on a white the ideal tulip. But paintings and dlawings al'e an even more
background. leliable soulce, because the literature lepeats itself and tends

15
to ramble. One can roughly date lTth-century paintings on
the basis of types of tulips and locations. For instance there
was a clear difference between the tulips in flower pieces
from the South and North Netherlands, especially in the first
half of the I 7th century.
Tulips with a sharply outlined drawing and with pointed tops
or tops that curled outwards were later replaced by larger
and rounder flowers with more colours and with a subtle
transition between colours. Ideal tulips, accolding to Oosting
(1700), have the following features: 'The finest calyxes are
those that have petals that are rounded at the top, and these
should not be curled; when they are open they shouid be
straight and round.' '... as for the flames, these must start
low, beginning at the base of the Flower and climbing right
up the Petal, and ending in the form of a sheli at the edge of
the flower.' 'As legards the base, it must be of the finest Sky
Blue, and the stamens should seem to be Black, although
they are really of a very dark Blue, these are the most
handsome features of the constant beauty of Tulips. As for
the form, the Stalk must be tall and straight, and the flower
of a regular size...'. Oosting regarded the single-coloured
tulips as being the least valuable but points out, as Clusius
had done a century earlier, that they were the strongest - and
consequently the best tulips to be used for experiments.
Plesent-day growers who want to include 'old tulips' in their
selection will undoubtedly be able to derive benefit from this
approach. There is also an increasing demand for old
cultivars, for instance, of roses. The so-called old cultivars in
the trade are mostly forms that derive from more modern
plants that at best only ostensibly match the genuine o1d
cultivars. A subculture has come into being that one can in
fact feel some sympathy for. The modern species are
relatively strong and fÌower for a long period; their
behaviour is predictable and one knows how to combat
sicknesses and pests. What is mol'e, it is a time-consuming
business to cultivate plants from seeds. An approach that
would be of some scientific interest would be to tl'y gl'owing
the 17th-century tulips (and roses) all over again from the
botanical species. It would be an additional asset that
botanical species, genelally speaking, surpass cultivars in
beauty and delicacy, at least in my opinion. As far as I am
concerned, one might even try to 'improve' the botanical
species as such. In the modern literature on the subject the
Duc tulips, both the old and new ones, are fairly frequently I!,ríni

10 Pieter Holsteyn the Younger, 'Viceroi


private colÌ.

identified as Duc vanTol.This tulip was first grown by Dr.


Martinus van Tol and first appears in a list of 1'722. An early
illustration can be found in Trew.2a The first illustration of a
Duc is that of Lobelius in 1576.25 The Ducs were relatively
cheap during the period of the tulip mania; a bulb cost f 2 I 0
in 1637.
The Somerschoon appears in a number of tulip books. The
water-colours give us some idea of how variable they can be:
¡"c.- ir
it has an egg-shaped flower with egg-shaped petals that may
8 Pieter Holsteyn the Younger 9 Pieter Holsteyn the Younger be either rounded or pointed. The top is either concave or
'Duck' 'Lack van Rijn' spreading, with red feathering on a white ground and with
private coll. private coll. points, marks or stripes along the central vein, and with

I6
yellow l'ound the base. The red colour in the water-coloul's
The tulip mania
varies from vermillion to pulple-red, often with pink. There
is a plonounced ovellapping with many other 'Rozen'. In the The absurd prices that wele paid fol a single tulip bulb, the
period of the tulip mania a bulb of the Somersclrcon vntety speculation that accompanied it and the social consequences:
fetched f 1,010. pool people who became rich in a sholt time and who then
TheViceroy fetched f4,600 in an auction in 1637, a price usually became poor again, and lich people who gambled
that was only surpassed by lhe Semper Augustus and the away their wealth - all this is something that has appealed to
Ccrtolijn van Enchr,rysen at f 5,400.26 The Vicerq, was a people's imagination ovel the centuries. The tulip mania is
'Violette', a species with pulple malkings on white (10). The one of the most popular themes in Dutch histoly. Much has
number of its types is comparatively small; most of them been written on the subject and there are many legends about
were expensive. These highly sought-after tulips are hardly it.In 1942 Krelage wlote a book that is still wolth reading in
ever absent from any tulip book during the period of the tulip which he goes through the histolical facts systematically.
mania. The dlawings, however, suggest that the notion of Since then a great deal of new infolmation has been added to
what we may be permitted to call a Víceroy appears to have his study and that ofhis predecessors, and it is to be
been fairly flexible. The name 'Viseroy' is visible under a expected that new research into the documentary sources
tulip on the gable of an inn in a painting by Jan Breughel the and the archives will shed even mol'e light on the events. In
Younger which is a satire on the speculation in tulips. In it its broad lines the essence of this history is well known.
monkeys perform all the rituals of the bulb traders, including From the beginning of the first imports of exotic tulips the
the blow-out after a deal. The painting is in the Frans bulbs became a favorite luxury item amongst the aristocracy.
Halsmuseum in Haarlem (13). For a single tulip bulb of a specific cultivated valiety or what
The so-called 'Rembrandt tulips' are not tulips from the time was thought to be one, hundleds of guilders were paid, and
of Rembrandt; they ale cultivated products that came on the in the 1620s this surn could lise to f 3,000. The bulbs wele
market at the end of the l 9th centuly. usually sold in installments during the period between the

ll

11'FloraesGecks-kap',engravingbyCornelisDanckertsafterapaintingbyPieterNolpe

1-l
12 Pieter van Kouwenhoom, four tulips:
'Duck', 'Lack' and 'Tulipa australis', ca. 1630
. Lindley Library, Inndon

18
time when they were extracted in June and their planting in In the Autumn and Winter of 1636 to 1637 the prices rose to
October. It was not possible to tell from looking at a bulb staggering heights; this led to a catastrophe in February. The
what sofi of flower it would produce: that was the reason for prices suddenly began to plunge. The local authorities and
drawings and tulip books. Moreover it was a question of the growers attempted to keep the situation somewhat under
trust. Because certain tulips were rare and the demand was control: for instance, they recommended that only
great, prices could soar. Sales took place by contract, and transactions that had taken place before November 1636 or
gradually more and more middlemen came between the another date were to be declared bona fide. All levels of the
original owner or grower and the eventual buyer; this meant population were involved in the trade: the weavers, for
that the price rose still higher. More and more adventurers instance, who occupied a low place on the social ladder. One
became involved in the trade. In the end people would buy of the victims of the trade in tulip bulbs was the famous
an object on credit which they did not actually obtain, which landscape painter Jan van Goyen. He had stored bulbs worth
they did not have the money to pay for, and which they f 60 each and had to watch their value decline to a few
proceeded to sell to someone else, who did not have the guilders. It took him years to pay offhis debts.
money either, and who in turn had no intention of keeping The event was commented on in lampoons and pamphlets.
the product. And all these transactions took place whether or Among the most famous were Adriaen Roman's three
not there were any contracts or certificates of authenticity 'Samen-spraecken' (dialogues) between the two weavers
from an expeft grower. Of course the situation was wide Waermondt and Gaergoedt, who discussed the rise and fall
open to all manner of complications. 'Colleges' were set up of the Goddess Flora. They were published in 1637 and were
composed of traders who were more or less knowledgeable apparently a great success . In 1643 they were reprinted with
on the subject and who did not want expensive deeds of additions, and in 1734 aimost a hundred years later, a second
notaries or contracts to stand in their way; they instituted reprint was produced at a time when the trade in hyacinths
new rules concerning the procedures for buying and selling - threatened to provoke a similar fever of speculation. This
rules that were fairly complicated. Rituals prevailed such as third dialogue gives lists with prices. Not all the bulbs were
the obligatory drinking spree and dinners, after a transaction expensive; one could also buy per pound for prices ranging
had been sealed. These rituals were in part an old custom; from f 12 for White and Reds to f 5.700 for Audenaerde.
the celebration banquet had already existed in the 16th Flora's rise and fall was an allegory that was frequently used
century. It was a confirmation of an agreement in which the in imagery and in writing. The prints of Floraes Gecks-kap -
buyer, seller and witnesses got drunk at the expense of the Flora's fool's cap - (11) and Floraas Malle-wagen - Flora's
client.2l chariot of fools - (14) are well known. The first of them

13 Jan Brueghel the Younger, Parody ofthe tulip mania


Frans Halsmuseum, Haa¡lem

t9
shows a tavern in the form of an oversized fool's cap under four corners of the print we see scenes depicting the
which all the tulip lanciers can be seen. The name of the transactions of the tradels.2e Both of these engravings are
tavern, written on a flag, \s In de sofie bollen - which means accompanied by a lengthy commentary.
roughly translated 'at the sign of the fools' bulbs'. Flola is In order to appreciate the relation between the tulip trade and
seated on a donkey, proverbially known for its stupidity. the goddess Flora we should take a look at how she was
The full title is Floroes Gecks-kap of AJbeelclinge van 't described in the anonymous tract, the Heydensclte Afgoden,
wonderlijcke lcter von 1637 doen d'eene Geck d'ander ol Heathen ldol, of 1 646.30 Flora is the Goddess of the trees,
uytbroede, de Lu¡, Rijck sonder goeÍ, en Wijs sonder versÍant plants and flowers; she is malried toZephyr,the South-West
t'vaeren.28 (Floraes Fool's cap or a Picture of the wonderful wind. She deceives him with Hercules. A rich rnan falls in
year 763'7 when one Fool hatched another, the Idle Rich lost love with her and leaves hel his capital in his will, so that she
their wealth and the Wise lost their senses). In De becomes vely rich. Prostitutes offer sacrifices to hel in the
Mallewaagen alias het vctlete der Bloemisten (The fools temple. According to Cicero lewd plays were perfolmed in
chariot or the decline of the florists) we see numerous honour of Flola. 'Today people call the Flower fanciers
allegorical figures such as 'Vergaer al' (Hoald it all), 'Ydel Flolists aftel FLORA, although the crazed Merchants of
hope' (Vain hope) and 'Leckbaerd' (Wetbeald) who is in his Tulips in the Year 1637 , make use of the Name
cups. There are numerous amusing details, such as the bird undeselvedly, since they are no Florists who love flowers,
that is called 'Vain hope has flown the coop', and the but only profits and feasting; These Knaves were so mad in
citizens 'We want a ride too' and the cart with a sail that is their trade that they f'olgot their Shop and all decent
shipwlecked. The tulips in the hands of Flola, who is Housekeeping, and built a thousand Castles in the Air'', as
depicted with a generous low neckline, also have names A. Roman in his 'Waelmondt and Gaergoedt' amusingly
such as Senper Augustus and on the ground there are the writes. She is depicted as a young, and lascivious woman
tulips that are pelishing together with their names. In the with flowels on her head and between her breasts, with her

*'*r.]1.".
ùaSa,aí &. tb'øûr
/2¡ .{,tll.' *,¡,t.,n '.r

E- Å¡ n&* .1., ß/.,¡*i*'s

l'Lolr,{

;:ttt l.y c./¡a


i -6**nh
'1
1*l ltq"

.---:-þ- -:"'"a'n!.!

14 'Floraes Malle-waagen', engraving by Crispyn de Passe the Younger after â painting by Henclrik pot

20
sleeves rolled up and wearing light and thin clothes. In some cases we know that the water-coloul's were
Many were the authors who had lidiculed the 'tulip rage' commissioned by a bulb dealer. A dealer could use the
starting at a much earlier date. Roeme¡ Visscher wrote a text drawings as a catalogue: one could show potential buyers of
in 1 590 that was published in 1614 in his emblem book, bulbs how they would look when they were in bloorn, a
Sinnepoppen. Above the illustration of tulips there was a period that ralely lasted more than a few weeks. We do not
caption: 'A fool and his money are soon parted.' Hondius in always know who the artists were and in many cases a tulip
his Mor.fe-schans in 162l refers to the tulip on the one hand book consists of drawings by more than one artist. The
as being 'Exalted above all flowers' and on the other hand lenowned 'Tulip book of Judith Leyster', for instance, in the
talks about 'Fools who make gardens for one flower alone Frans Halsmuseum in Haarlem in fact contains only two
and no other...';he continues in lhyme: 'Al1 these fools want drawings by this artist; the rest are the work of two other'
is tulip bulbs / Heads and Hearts have but one wish / Let's artists.33 Moreover the stalk and the leaves are by no means
tly and eat them; it will make us laugh / To taste how bitter always done by the same artist as the flowers. What was
is that dish.'3r Anyone who has eaten tulip bulbs during the important was the depiction of the flower and this had to be
Second Wolld War will confirm that even when one is done with cale. The leaves and the stalk were often left to
hungly they ale unpalatable. What is more, tulip bulbs did other, generally less skilled, assistants; this secondary work
not suddenly become cheaper. One can get a fairly good was usually added latel and the leaves do not always match
picture from numerous accounts and inventolies of the the flowel they accompany. Some drawings have been
course the prices followed. The annual lists of stock and preselved at an uncompleted stage of their production: with
purchases of the Malgrave of Baden-Durlach in Kallsruhe, the dlawing of the flowe¡ in black chalk or just with the
who annually ordered thousands of tuiip bulbs fi'om flowel without the stalk and leaves.
Holland, show that in 1612 he bought I 163 bulbs for f I 166, The term 'aquarel', watel'-colour, should not necessarily be
that is an average of a guilder per bulb. But some of them taken literally; sometimes the painting is done with gouache
cost f 1 0 each and a few of therr as much as f 40. The annual and often with a mixed technique. The flowers or plants are
income of a nulse ol a washerwoman'at the time was f 20. frequently outlined with thin lines of black chalk, or
The Margrave's inventory of 1636 records 4796 species of sometimes with black lead (pencil) or silver point. Usually
tulip many of which were represented by a single bulb, but these lines were lemoved later on, but traces of them can
in the case of some by mole than 80,000.32 A catalogue of often still be seen. Drawing lines of this sort can be
James Maddock in Walswolth dating from 1742 reports 665 important for identifying an artist. Sometimes the outlines or'
species of tulip with prices varying from f 0,30 to f 75 per hatching lines are done with a pen and ink. In a number of
bulb. Real change only came at the end ofthe 19th century cases an extra gloss was given to the flowet' ol to parts of it
when many old species were got dd of. By then species by applying gum arabic or egg white to the drawing.
could be improved in a more scientific fashion and the The drawing of the tulip might be accompanied with notes: a
economy began to concentrate on seliing in bulk. signalLrre or thc nlollo[¡r'¿rnl of the'ailist. a sclics nunrbct'. the
Nonetheless, to this day it remains a challenge for growers to
produce new cultivars.

Tulip books, tulip series and water-colours of


tulips
At the beginning of this article a definition of the 'tulip
book' is given. At this point it seems appropriate to offer a
more detailed description of its contents. A tulip book is a
series of drawings of tulips, usually done in water-coloul's,
which are compiled in one album. The drawings may be
inserted loose between the empty pages or they may be bound.
Many such albums of drawings of flowers, plants or animals
were in the course of time bloken up and the sheets were
then sold separately. In a number of cases we do not know
for ce¡tain if an album was oliginally a genuine tulip book
and sometimes that would seem to be unlikely. It frequently
happened that a considelable number of tulips were included
in an album ofdivelse flowers and plants, and one can guess
that these were latel'sold separately. One such example is a
large series of drawings by an artist in the collection of the
Custodia Foundation in Paris, in which there are 46 sheets
with tulips, along with a large number of drawings of shells.
The pages are numbered, so that we know that the complete
series consisted of at least 483 water-colours. The drawings
are stamped with the monogram BA; Laurens Bol attributed
them to Bartholomeus Assteyn. Many other sheets of this l5 l'ietcr \\ itl)oo:. ¡ tulip. l()¡j-ì
series are known, mostly of plants or' flowers. privatc coll.

2t
/'
I

--4"it:)

16 Anthony Claesz, 'Titlepage' of a tulip book


private coll.

22
name of the tulip, the weight of the bulb and its price. The His work seems to have been inspired by that of Holsteyn. I
weight was stated in 'aces', a hundred aces was the equivalent have been able to study most of the tulip books that will be
of about 4,8 grams. The artist signed the drawing himself but mentioned below and I have photo and slide materials of
the explanatory text was not necessarily done by him; it many of them; this has been an essential precondition for my
might, for instance, be added by the tulip grower. Sometimes research.
the notes can be found on the back of the drawing. In Research into the tulip books has shown that artists often
determining the date and deciding who the artist was, the copied their own work as well as the work of other artists.
kind of paper used as well as the watermark and the size of Therefore one may well come across identical sheets in
the paper are relevant (assuming that the sheet has not been different albums and copies by others especially of tulips
mutilated). that were rare or expensive. These were articles of
In 1942 Krelage knew of 17 tulip books, of which he himself merchandise. One can assume that a tulip book with copies
owned nine.3a Only two artists' names could at that time be like this was used to give buyers a more complete picture of
determined with any certainty, Jacob Manell (17) and Judith the bulbs that were on sale, and perhaps to purchase bulbs on
Leyster. Recent research has revealed not only more tulip commission from others. The Viceroy, for instance, that was
books but also more artists' names.35 We now know of marked up at f 4,600 1n 1637 , appears in most of the Dutch
drawings by Anthony Claesz (16) and Pieter Holsteyn the tulip books, the Semper Augustus in many. It is also the case
Younger (6, 8-9 and 1.0), for instance. Of Pieter Withoos' that in a number of tulip books many tulips are depicted that
tulip books all that survives are a few loose drawings (15). are related in shape or pattern, and were presumably grown

ì,-
'l'o.ttlJ ò' ì. . -.t..¡;i. ^., -,i¡, l;

17 Jacob Manell, various tulips, ca. 1640


Rijksprentenkabinet Amsterdam

23
from a limited nurnber of types or pal'ent tulips - one can . },
.--
tf )'..., 1.,',,'1t r'l
assume, thelefore, that cel'tain growers wele specialized or 4ú
,";l !t...{
,
$ li:"i,,
limited in their assoltment. Tulip books wele not only made
in Holland. There wele also French and German tulip books, . ;.jjlt t,,t,,. r!¡ u .,y r,
although these are comparatively fewer', and generally of a i/ 3,,,,.,,,' / n,, u',.,
',i'
latel date; moreovel'they were not tl'ade catalogues but ' l,)ii "¡,ii
surveys of tulips from a specific garden. It is striking that .N
many Dutch names continued to be used in Germany much '.

longer than in Holland. Up till now there ale 45 'genuine'


l
tulip books that we know of, some of them only indirectly -
from the literature on the subject and fi'om archives.
Tulip dlawings by a fairly lalge number of artists of the l Tth
and l8th century ale known to us, though usually the amount
of work of each artist is small. There are sometimes
unexpected names such as Ferdinand Bol; a sheet by him is
mentioned in the lamous inventory of Valerius Röver of
Delft in 1730, that originally belonged to the equally famous
Agnes Block who glew flowel's in her countly house in
Nieuwersluis and who commissioned artists to paint flowers:
tulipa cedo nLtlli van Ferdinand Bol.36 In the same inventory
seven sheets with tulips by Herman Saftleven ale mentioned,
dating from 1661 .37 Among the most handsome water-
colours of tulips is the work of Herman Henstenburgh and
the wo¡k of various members of the Van de Vinne lamily of
Haarlem in the l Sth centuly. Ten sheets with tulips from a
series of 53 drawings in the British Museum in London ale
traditionally ascribed to Jan van Huysum; in fact they are by
his younger blother Jacob van Huysum.38
In oul age we no longer regald the tulips as a precious
object; instead tulips ale just one of those delightful things
that enhance our lives. Indeed, now it is the tulip drawings
and mlip books that have become precious. They are works
ofalt and as such give us the oppoltunity to take a delight in
tulips that no longel exist.

.---,f-hfr* ---..\*_ '-lÊ/ --./-L.


.' --

l8 Tulip book Tot lofder eedele tul¡rt, 1636


'Spits van Spranger' or 'Bruin Anvers'
private coll.

24
Turkish tulips and delft Flowerpots with spouts
Because of external similalities, delft-wal'e was often
flowerpots wlongly referred to as porcelain. This is apparent, fol'
example, from a notarial act dl'awn up on the l st of
Ronald Brouwer (Delft) November 1684. lt seems that a 'big flowelpot \¡iith spouts'
found broken in a chest was part of a shiprnent of 'polcelain'
to the merchant Niclaes du Chemain from Rotterdarn. The
Introduction flowerpot was manufacturedby De Grieksclte A, one of the
Between I 680 and 1 720, vases with spout-shaped openings best-known delft-wale manufacturers.2
wele made in the Dutch city of Delft. These vases" occupy a This, however', is not the earliest mention of such vases, for
special place in the history ofEulopean ceramics. Since the even years before a similal descripiion was given in an
end of the last century, it has been widely assumed that these inventory of Amalia van Solms (1602-1675), the spouse of
vases were made especially fol tulips; hence the name 'tulip the Dutch Stadhouder Prince Flederik Hendrik (1584-1641).
vases'. Only in the last three decades have people begun to Between the years 1654 and 1668, she had an inventoly
question whether this leally was the purpose of these vases. macle of the goods that wele present in several of her houses.
Were tulip bulbs actually placed in the spout-shaped Amalia's great collection of 'polcelain' included dozens of
openings of the vases to spl'out, or did people prefer cut 'flowelpots', with or without lids, in various forms and
tulips or even other flowers? (25-26) sizes, and what is mole important, it included 'four'
flowerpots with spouts, and stars on the necks'.3
It is plausible that the description of 'flowerpots witl.r spouts'
Chinese porcelain and delft pottery l'efers to the striking vases with cylindrical spor"rts that make
Already by the end of the 17th century pottery from Delft the alrangement of flowers easiet' and support the flower
(delfrware) was a household word. The expansion of this stems. Sometimes these spouts al'e cornbined with linle
industry was due to the demand for Chinese porcelain. Many
Europeans were desirous ofthis fragile but elegant product. adt<b--:\*æ.
"b;æl
The position of coarsel pottery was threatened when thd
newly founded British East India Company (1600) and the
N e de rl ands e V e r e e ni gtl e O o s t indis c he C o ntp a g nie
(VOC)( 1602) started to ship lalge quantities of porcelain to
Europe. In the 17th centul'y Eut'opean arts and crafts were
strongly influenced by the Chinese way of decorating
porcelain and lacquer-wale. Chinoiselie was the imaginative
imitation of decorative motifs and ohjer d'orÍ,r from Chinese
culture, adapting these somewhat to European taste (19).
Since the beginning of trade relations, the Chinese took into
account the specific wishes of their European tl'ading
pal'tners. What is notable in this respect, is the made-to-order
Chinese porcelain (Chíne de commande) based on the
European model.1
Because of the civil war between the Ming-dynasty and the
Qing-dynasty, the expolt of porcelain came to a halt between
ca.1647 and 1683, while the huge dernand from Europe
lemained. As the manufacturet's from Delft were able to
imitate Chinese polcelain successfully since about 1625,
they wele able to meet the demand for such a ploduct.
People were not awal'e of the composition of porcelain clay,
and of the baking process. After baking ( I 200- 1 300 degrees t
å
centiglade), porcelain is waterproof even without glaze. Yet,
the Chinese applied the glaze first to heighten the lustre of
the porcelain and the cobalt blue decoration. The delft
pottery, known as delfrware, was pol'ous even after baking
(ca. 900 degrees centigrade), and had to be glazed to make
it waterproof and usable. Aftel this pt'ocedure (ca. 1000
degrees centiglade), delft-ware acquiled the look of
porcelain because of the blue decoration against the white
backglound of tin glaze under a transparent lead glaze.

19 Flowervase, a chinese lady caffying a horn ofplenty I


Marked: PAK
Museum Sypesteyr, Loosdrecht.

25
holes in tlìe vase body and/or in the lid. Other types only Medici.e Thel'e is also a striking t'esemblance between
have such openings, by which the valiation in the celtain delft vases and those produced by Antonio
arrangement and the quantity of the flowe|s is rest|icted. Guidobono ( 1605- 1685) from Savona. Due to the problems
This type of vase was also known as the 'tulip vase'. In 17th- ofdating such objects, it is difficult to tlace the origins of
century inventories the term 'tulip vase'does not appear. this concept. Yet, it is possible that the concept was
The term 'tulip vase' was r.ìot used until ca. 1900. In his book developed simr.rltaneously.r0 Three late l Tth century English
CatologLte tles Fai'ences de Delft (1877 ), the exiled French flowel holdels ale derived fi'orn treacle-pots, but on the
art critic Henry Havard described two such flowel holdels as shouldels they have three spouts instead ol one. The
'portebouquets, avec huite tubes poul jacinthes'. Havard's cartouches on the belly of two examples bear resemblance to
HisÍoire tle la Fai'ence de Delft, published in 1878, mentioDs the drawings on treacle-pots and dispensing-bottÌes. It is
a 'bouquetier en folme cl'alc de triomphe', two pyramidal difficult to determine the origin of this motif, since it is
flowel holders as 'bouquetiers àjacinthes' and a fan-shaped found in Germany, England and the Netherlands.rr It is not
exarnple as 'poltebouquet avec tubes pourjacinthes'. known io what extent English ceramics have influenced the
Havard may have assumed that the hyacinth bulbs were Dutch ceramics ol vice velsa. It is also not known whether
placed in the spouts to make them flower', as was done in a these English vases were used flor'flowels.
glass in his time. He rnay also have had in mind the
speculation in hyacinth bulbs which took place around
1730.1
The use of cut flowers
Fol Havard's conternporaries it was only a small step from Not much is known about the use of cut flowels in the 17th
hyacinth bulbs to tulip bulbs. A hundred yeals belore the century. It is possible that bouquets were composed of
hyacinthomania, in the period of 1636 and 1637 tulipornania flowers originating from botanical collections in gardens, or
had been unleashed. As a lesult, the tulip would lemain specially cultivated flowers. Trontpe-l' oeil paintings on the
perrnanently associated with lTth-century Dutch cultn|e. ceiling ofthe country house ofthe Dutch stadhouder, Het
The relation between extlernely expensive tulip bulbs and Loo, show garlands and straw baskets with flowers.l2 Were
precious delft-wale vases seemed to be obvious. So, fi'om flowels placed in such baskets, or in bowls or glass vases in
the end of the l9th century onwarcls flower holdel's were the l'ooms of the country house? In any case, we know that
seen as special vases for tulips.5 fi'eshly cut flowers were delivered weekly to the country
However, the tuliponiania can no longel plovide us with the house Honselaersdijk.rs An indication of the type of ffowers
answer to the question of the pulpose of these vases, as was used may be found inLhe Hortus Regius Honslcrerclicensis
thought to be the case in I 900. Havard, the foundel of the (ca. 1688). In the approximately one hundred gouaches of
histolical study of delft-ware, ascribed objects with the
n'ìonogram AK to Aelbrecht Cornelisz Keyzer, who was
employed in De Grieksclte,4 until 1667 . On the authority of
Havard, these vases were dated to the middle of the 17th
century, sholtly aftel the tulipomania.6 However, more
lecent scholarly opinion attributes objects with the
monogl'am AK to Adriaen Kocks, who was the ownel of the
De Grieksche A between 1686 and l70l . On the basis of the
latest l'esearch, it is now accepted that most of these vases
wele manufactured between 1680 and 1720. Thus, it was a
good filty years after the tulipomania that the flowel holders
became popular'. The lelation between these two phenomena
is no longel self-evident.

Typological predecessors
It is clear that the delft flowel holders are the lesult of a
gradual developn-rent. The eally mention of 'flowelpots with
spouts' in the inventory of Amalia van Solms does point to
this fact. The idea of arranging bouquets in spolrts or
exhibiting a single flower, plobably originated in the Middle
East. Moreover, ceramics frorn the Middle East have greatly
influenced Eulopean pottery thl'ough trade and the crusades.T
20a Heart-shaped tlower vase u,ith eight spouts
An engraving fi'om the Flora ouero Cultura di Fiori (Rome, (tìont side)
1638) by P. Giovanni Battista Felrali sl.rows a classical vase Haags Gemeentemuseum, Den Haag
with tulips, narcissi, hyacinths, anemones and carnations
protruding from the holes of a removable lid.8 Did the
pottely makers in Delft adopt this concept fiom Italy? Delft
vases with three sponts rnay have been inspired by eally
Italian examples, such as a little vase shaped like a grotesque
masque (ca. 1580) from the factory ofFlancesco I de

26
plants in Honselaelsdijk, one can see tulips, hyacinths, Queen Christina of Sweden given by Pope Clemens IX in
nalcissi, anemones, auricula, carnations and t'oses; ten plates I 677.re Both leal ancl artificial f lowers (rrade of sugar') wele

even show bouquets of two or three tulips, ancl four plates displayed in clishes in Germany in 1650; they wele desclibecl
show tulips in a mixed bouquet.ra as the 'most pleasant and beautilul things in this wolld'.20 In
It is known that well-to-do people rnade it a custom to 1680, a Flench wedding banqr.ret was embellished with
decorate the fireplace with bouquets of flowels during the nineteen baskets with anemones, hyacinths, jasnines ancl
summer months.rs Sometimes people rnacle use olscreens orange-blossoms.2r The Ft'ench also used altifìcial flowers
decorated with flowels. Such screens pt'evented draughts, made of silk. In the Netherlands, 'fìfty bouquets of flowels',
and beautified the sombre hearth. The inventory ol't Huys 'twenty-three bouquets', and 'fifty bâskets with flowels' a|e
in 't Noorteynde (1632) mentions four scleens, including 'a nentioned in the inventory of Amalia van Solnis ( 1654-
flowerpot with two half flowelpots painted [...] on panels fbr 1668). These were plobably all altificial flowers.22
the fireplace [...]'.r6 A late lTth-century panel, ot'iginally One can only specr"rlate about the use of delft flower' holders
owned by Stadhouder'-King William III, shows a paintecl in combination with flowers. Pelhaps filled flowet'holclels
fireplace with an orange tlee in a blue polcelain pot.l7 were displayecl an-ridst the abundant clockely, the dishes,
It is obvious that in the l Tth century flowels were used and the gold, silvel and sugal olnarnents. In palticular',
fol decorative purposes on special occasions. Several exarnples of srnall vases ill the forln of bowls, triurnphal
illustrations attest to the use of strèwn flowel's as table alches ancl 'Tulkish heads' were sLritable fol'table
decolation, a custom which probably originated in l6th- decolation. Lalger pyramiclal flowel holdels may have been
centul'y Italy. Some pleserved Dutch floweled tablecloths placed on tables against the wall, but they would also have
still remind us of natulal llowers strewn on tl-re banquet been suitable fol tables at large banquets.2s On the other
table. In the Nethellands, table cloths like these were only hancl, srraller fan-shaped l1owel holdel's were plobably
used on special occasions. Such table cloths make use of the placed on consoles against the wall, on bt'ackets, ot'on the
naturalistic style in the l'epl'esentation of flowers, which rnantelpiece (20a-b). Because olthe llat backs, and
resulted from the art ofpainting and botany in the lTth plotlLrding spolrts of the fan-shaped vases, the bouqLlets were
century. Twenty diffel'ent flowers, inclucling tulips, roses, not clamped. The leflections in the lashionable rnil'r'ols of
irises, narcissi, aquilegias and lilies, can be identified on one the day most certainly enhancecl the effect of the coloulful
such tablecloth.r8 bouquet.za
Many examples of table decorations with flowels at'e known Unfbltunately, lTth-centuly flower still lifes do I.tot contriu
lrom outside the Netherlands. Mixed bouquets of flowers set flowel holdels. Painted still lifes often show mixed bouquets
between sugal figr"u'es wel'e on hand at the banquet for with flowels of diffèrent seasons, and they suggest a
prefelence fol celtain types of flowels and arrangenents.
The absence of paintings showing 'tulip' holders has been
explained by the unrealistic con-rposition ernployed in llower'
still lifes. Possibly, the exclusivettess of'tltesc tulip lrolclels is

,lfr, i;A also an explanation. Stlangely enough, decorations of some


flower holders also show rr-rixed bouquets, inclucling the
highly estecnred flnrrred tulips.
An englaving by P. Serwouter fi'om 1626 shows an intelior',
and in the backglound is a cupboard on top of which at'e two
vases with mixed bouquets. Depictions of inteliors in which
Ai bouquets play a n-role prominent l'ole al'e rale. Usually, a
more allegolical lole is assigned to flowels. Sucli is the case
of a spring bouquet on an engraving by Wenceslaus Hollar'
( I 64 1 ). In this allegoly of 'Spring' (the englaving is palt of a
selies ofthe foul seasons) a lady fills a vase with a valiety of
flowels, and in her lelt hand she holds several tulips.
Anothel example is an interiol'with a family pot'tt'ait by
Emanuel de Witte fi'om 1673. In ihe folegloul.td one cau see
,,i'-ñ-s11 a mixecl bouquet of flowels in a glass vase. Does the bouquet
r:Jå*¡#.* syn'rbolize 'vanitas'?25 A vanitas picture by Jacques de
-: -- "- ._- "-
Gheyn de Jonge ( 1603) shows a niche within which is a skull
flanked by two urns. A plurne ol smoke rises fi'om one Llrlt,
and the othelurn contains a rose and a stl'iped tulip. These
20b Heartshaped flower vase with eight spouts
(back side) flowels may symbolize the transitory natnre of wealth.26 A
Haags Gemeeltemuseum, Den Haag similal meaning can be attributecl to the still life of Dilck van
Deelen fiom 1631 .If consists of a flarned tulip in a Chinese
vase set in a niche along with a lew shells; a beautifirl
combination of populal palaphernalia fron the tuliponrania
eLa.27
Despite the absence of sulviving flowel holdels, in the alt of
painting a few depictions ale available to us. In Douai an

2l
identical pair of polychrome delft vases with lids are kept. As is clear by now, there is no historical evidence to
These ale decorated with a chinoiserie décor showing substantiate the persistent claim that the spouts of vases were
figures on a terrace. In the floreground, among othel objects, used to contain tulip bulbs. Tulip bulbs would have had to be
there is an empty flower holder; in this case a bowl. It is not extremely small to fit in the narrow spouts. Moleover, even
cleal whether thele is a baluster'-shaped vase in this bowl, or had it been possible to place the bulb in the spout, the
whether the bowl itself has a lid with spouts. The backglound growing flower would soon have upset the balance of the
is also interesting. On sepalate socles two pyramidal flower vase. The sprouting of flower bulbs, especially hyacinths, in
holders, which are actually being used to hold something, a water filled glass only became populal by 1750; but this
are shown. Stlangely enough, these flower holders do not was seldom the case with tulips.3o
contain flowers, but twigs and green leaves. Is this pelhaps a This alleged use of the flowel holders has led to some
buxus referring to the gal'den shrubs trimn-red in the shape of strange experiments and to another misconception. Duling
a pylarnid? Actually, the effect is rathel pool when compaled the memorial exhibition ' 1650- 1 950: De Stadhouder-Koning
with the detailed depiction of other' flowers in vases found en Z¡n Tijd' in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam a pyramidal
on this late 1 7th-century pair of delft flower holders.28 flower holdel was filled with relatively sholt-stemmed
A second exarrple offlowers in delft vases is preserved by tulips.3r It had been assumed that the water basin of the
the embroidely on chairs in Croft Castle and Doddington pyramid was meant to contain hyacinth or tulip bulbs, and
Hall in England. The embroideled covering of thése chairs that these bulbs would flower through the spout. The
shows mixed bouquets of flowers in vases with spouts. Only oliginal Persian vases were thought to have inspired the delft
one embroidery shows us a tulip among the many diffelent pottel'y makel's.32 Some of the spouts of this flower holder
cut flowers. These chairs are dated to about I 7 I 5, thus after wele blocked by tin glaze. This resulted in the conclusion
the peak of interest in this type ol flower holder. The that the delft vases wele only used for decolative purposes.
inspiration fol the design on the fabric may come flom the Their function, however, should not be questioned because
actual use of delft flower holdels: lilled with an abundance of a few manufacturing defects. The defects were probably
of flowers.29 accepted because of the dilficulty of manufacturing the
pottery, and because of its preciousness. It is unlikely that
pottery makers would have introduced spouts and holes if
the lattel had no pulpose.33

Manufacture
To deny the functionality of delft flower holders would be to
underestimate the pottery makeÍs sense of practicality. Their
craftsmanship and their knowledge of materials allowed them
to manufacture the particulally complex flower holders.3a
Large items were composed of separate palts: it was
technically not feasible to make a high pyramid all in one
piece, since the possibility of the object collapsing duling
the manufacturing plocess was too gleat. One can see that
the walls ofthe lalge socles often show signs olcollapsing.
Cylindrical pipes were applied to the watel basins of the
pylamids, and a stick was inserted to add stability to the end
product. Much care was needed to make the separate pieces
fit together, as the baking and the drying process could cause
deviations (31). To make the stacking easier, some pyramids
wele plovided with numbels on the separate parts.35 Even
the small fan- shaped vases wel'e difficult to make because
of the closed vase body and the spouts. It is almost certain
that moulds were used. Sepalate parts were assembled with a
thin gleasy clay. Fol mole complex parts, one had to use
moulds consisting of more than one piece. Fol example, all
known 'Turtish heads' are almost identical; only the posirion
ofthe head and the finishing are diffelent (30).36 Thus
differences between one item and another wele introduced
during the assembly. In a certain sense one could speak of
mass production; the small differences in size are due to
shrinkage during the drying process.
Because present dating techniques have a large margin of
euor, the technical development of the manufacturing
pl'ocess cannot be traced. It seems that many types of flower
2l Flower vase, in shape a cornbiniìl¡on ol a pyranlid tnd three fìn-sltaped holdels wele developed simultaneously for diverse
vases pulposes. The technical knowledge gained in manufactuling
Museun Willet-Holthuysen, Amsterdan

28
other fol'ms of pottery made the production of these labour
William and Mary
intensive vases possible. Their extravagant forms make them
r"rnique in the history of pottery. Maly Stuart II (1662-1695) is consideled to have been the
most passionate collectol of celamics in her tirne. However,
this image of her is more or less distorted. Ever since the
Ascriptions I 5th century, porcelain objects were displayed in art
Almost all flower holdels produced between ca. 1680 and galleries as precious rarities. The prestige of owning a few
1720 can be ascribed to a few dellt pottery makers on the celamic objects decreased because of the lalge quantities of
basis of monoglams used by the manufacturers. The most ceramics imported by Dutch and English trading companies.
important wolkshop was D¿ Grieksclte A owned by Samuel This is the leason why displaying large quantities of
van Eenhoorn (SVE, 1678-1685). After his death in 1685, porcelain became mole popular in the 17th century; the more
De Grieksche A was sold to his blother-in-law Adliaen abundant the display, the more prestige a collectot'would
Kocks (AK, 1686-1701).37 His son Pietel Adriaensz. Kocks enjoy. An irnportant factor in this craze fol collecting was
(PAK, 1701-1722) acqtiredDe Grieksclte A in 1701 after that delft-ware, often with decorations inspired by Chinese
the death of his father.38 Two yeals later Pietel died, after pottery, was considered to be as valuable as the Chinese
which his widow Johanna van det'Heul ran the company oliginals. Delft and Chinese porcelain cornplemented one
tntil l'722. Lambertus, Samuel van Eenhoorn's brother, had another beautifully when displayecl togethel in special
been the owner of De MetalerLPo¡ since 1691.3e Ascliptions settings, designed accolding to the reigning taste for
fo De Metalen Pol of Lambeltus van Eenhoorn (VE or LVE, chinoiselie. An eally example of this type of display is the
1691-l'721) ot' De Dobbelde Schenckan of Louwijs Cabinet de Porcelaine ( 1 663) in Oranienbulg near Bellin
Victoorsz. (LF, 1688-1713) are often postulated, because built lol the collection ofLouise Henriette (1627-1661),the
their tlademalks are identical. It is not known how rnuch of daughter of Amalia van Solms and the spouse of the elector
this categoly ofpottery has been lost. Thelefole, it is not of Brandenburg.ar Perhaps the polcelain cabinets of her
possible to estimate the volume of the production. But, it is husband's glandmother', Amalia, whose 'flowelpots' have
pelhaps leasonable to assume that only a few manufacturet's aheady been discussed, served as a source of inspilation for'
ploduced fl ower holdels.ao Mary. Another example is the famous Trianon cle Porcelaine

22 'Flower Brick'
Malked: IVD or LVD
Stedelijk Museum l-let Prinsenhof, Delfi

29
(1610/l l-168'7 ) of Lor.ris XIV; f'or which rnaterial was
oldeled frorr Delft.a2 Thus Maly did not set a tlend, but only
Het Loo
stirrulated the already existing fashion. However', she did A hunting lodge was built in the latest lashion fol William
fbcus attention on delfÌ flowel holders. and Maly in 1685/6: Het Loo near Apeldoorn. Marot played
A second name that should be mentioned in connection with an leading role in the lodge's construction and decoration,
flowel holclers is Daniel Marot ( 1661?- 1752). After rhe and the laying-out ofthe garden.aa The hunting lodge was
lepeal of the Edict of Nantes, the Huguenot Marot fled flon.r expanded considerably once the political influence of
Flance to the Nethellands in 1685. This intelior decorator William and Maly had incleased, after they were crowned in
was errrployed by Stadhouder William III ( 1650- 1702) and England.
his spouse Mary Stualt II in 1686. He set about tlansposing During the lestolation of Het Loo (1917-1984) fragments of
the French court style to the coul't of his new employels in a delft pottery and Chinese porcelain were found in many
unique way. Relying on Marot's skill in co-ordinating places including in the so-called 'plinsesse or
alchitectule, interiol decorating and galden design, the koninginnetuin' located south of the'koninginnegrot'. Flom
staclhouder hoped lile at his coult would compale lavourably these fragrnents at least four incomplete flower holdels have
with cultulal life in Flance. Due to the tense political been reassembled. An oval flowel plate and a fan-shaped
situation between William III and Louis XIV, the cultivation flower holder both carry the monoglam SVE of Samuel van
of the royal household was an irupoltant matter of prestige. Eenhoorn. The third piece is a sphere-shaped flower holder
Ma|ot created splendid intelio|s fol Mary's irnplessive on a socle. Identical fragments were found on the fi'ont of
celamics collections. Undertaking this comrnission led to his Het Loo. This makes it plobable that another example may
style inflr"rencing the decoration and design of flower' have been employed in the decoration. The foulth find is a
holders. In particular, the products of De Grieksclrc A flower holdel consisting of loose spheres. An additional
incorporale many deco|ative elements taken from Marot: middle spout was fonnd suggesting the presence of a second
shells, pealls, gallands, garden vases, diamond patterns and example. Although the thild and fourth finds bole no
blushes. There are no indications that Malot l-rimself rnade rÌronograms, they are attributed lo De Grieksch¿ A in the
designs fol De Grieksclte A.a3 The flowel holders al'e absent time of Sarnuel van Eenhoorn due to similarities in style and
in the engravings of Marot and even in his interior designs. technique which they share with the filst and second finds.
But it is possible that such designs have been lost. The fact that these finds are dated to alound 1 680 makes
thern the earliest in the Nether'lands. The pieces marked with
SVE point to contacts wtth De Grieksche A even before
Mary's departure to England in 1689, but most of the objects
in Maly's collection were supplied by Adliaen Kocks.as
Based on the sites ofthese dillerent finds, it is possible to
detelmine the oliginal location of the pieces. In the northeast
cornel of the eastel'n wing Maly had three looms fiom which
a stailcase led to her official quarters on the filst floor. An

râ¡,1 ¡1{ì¡ù ô'|;ftiì inventory froni l 7 l 3 desclibes these private l'ooms as 'cellar
of hel majesty, kitchen cellar and the playhouse of her
majesty'. The kitchen cellar was also called 'candied fruit
cellar', and the playhouse also the 'grotto' or the 'tea-room'.
In the cellar there were '[...] a delft porcelain bowl, two
delflt-ware pylamids, two delft-wale flat flowel bottles, [...]
\ ã-.1. and five delft-wale small flower pylamids'. In the kitchen
- :5:- "
cellar thele wele besides other delfts '[...] two pylamids,
thirteen flowelpots varying in type and size, [...] and two
fruit baskets [...]'. The inventory does not mention any
flower holders in the other rooms. Only among 'the
porcelain that is under the guidance of the castellan from
England' is there 'a blue and white little dog to put flowers
in'.46 Perhaps this collection was meant for the polcelain
cabinet that was made in 1692 duling the expansion ofHet
Loo. A stucco ceiling with milrors designed by Marot points
to the plans fol such a cabinet in the loom that was converted
into a Iibraly in 1695.47

Honselaersdijk
23 Globe-shaped flowcr?ot, centrâl part of a largervase In Mary's other mansion, Honselaersdijk, flower holders
(cf. ill. 33 on p. 39)
were also pl'esent. The constluction was started in 1620 by
FIaags Gemeentemuseum, Den Haag
order ofFredelik Hendlik. However, since it took such a
long tirne to complete, William III and Mary also had an
influence on the construction. Since their man'iage in 1671,

30
Ig
nl¿prâllou'ua3u[rnoã tru,\-suuru,{o8 urnêsnlN
)v :peì.rBIN
stnods uoâUq qIA pêpr^oJd prJ êrlt 'âsu^ JâaoU pâduqs-l^\ofl ?Z
4¡ç=-:>
t '. 1Þ
{
ä
ï
t I
1ó:r ç +qì
T-
.. I 1
t,
.tr:1J,
&

¿-
\ -j*,.
:'ç
tg I
& 3. \ ¡d'
¡,t
uu
&.
år'
ì
I
,fù
ì> & Ç,: ..,ì
they regularly spent the sumlner months thele. Accolding to were sevelal small looms and one large loom. In the four'
an inventory lrom I 694- I 702, the household furnishings corners, there were four smaller cabinets, one with Japanese
included 'in the northeast gallery [...] two large delft lacquer panels and one with min'ors. On the other two
polcelain pyramids to put flowers in and four small, seven cabinets, mirrors and calvings were combined as decolation.
large delft porcelain flowerpots and foul small, as well as The rooms were described as the 'Looking Glass Closet', the
female figures with baskets on their heads and a small basket 'Bathing Closet', the 'Marble Closet' and the 'DelflrWare
[...]'. On the large gallery thele were 'foul delft porcelain Closet'. The Chinese polcelain and the delft earthenware
flowerpots', while 'in the painting room by the gallery [...1 stood on consoles, with displays on the mantelpiece setting
two delft polcelain pyramids' and 'three delftware the tone. Unfortunately, the Water Gallery was destloyed in
flowerpots [...]' wele plesent. In 'the bedroom adjacent to 1700. Some tiles, urns, vases and flower holders ofthe
the bath' there wele '[...] a dellt porcelain flowerpot [...]' and Water Gallery are preserved; they are presently housed in
'two delft-wale pyramids'. Finally, the inventory mentions Hampton Court and other museums. After the completion of
'two flower pyramids of the same porcelain' in 'the bath'.48 Hampton Court, a part of Maly's collection was located
In his account of travelling thlough the Netherlands the there. However, most of the pieces were transfen'ed to
Swedish architect Nicodemus Tessin (1654-1728) describes Kensington House.53
his visit to Honselaersdijk. He does not mention the flower The current collection of Hampton Court includes three
pyramids. He does, however, mention the 'Indian cabinet' in pairs of large flower holders. This category of pottely is
Honselaelsdijk and notices that this room harbours plecious distinguished from what was produced earlier in the
Chinese objects and paintings, and has mirors on the Netherlands by its extravagant form and decorations.
ceiling.ae In the same period Tessin visited a pottely maker Because of the presence of the royal coat of arms and the
in Delft and observed the manufactule of 'die gröste double monogram of William and Mary (WMRR,
Blumentopffe', by which he may mean flowel holdels. If Wilhelmus Maria Rex Regina) on two pairs of flower
that is the case, then he should have noticed the exolbitant holders, one may conclude that they must have been
pieces in Honselaersdijk.so If these flowel holdels were not manufactured between the time of Mary's coronation in
there at that time, then perhaps they were bought between 1689, and her death on 7 January 1695.s4 All six examples
I 687 and 1694. They may have been ordered shortly before ale marked AK which stands for D¿ Grieksclte A of the time
Mary's departure to England in 1689, or they may have been of Adriaen Kocks. Financial docnments attest that Mary and
transferred from one of Mary's other houses. Adriaen Kocks had contact. On 30 July 1695, Anne van
It is not odd that Tessin uses the word 'flowerpot' in his Goltstein, the treasul'er of Mary's private wealth (wardlobe
travelogue. According to other inventories this term was accounts) wrote: 'I do hereby certify that there is due unto
always used for pottery or porcelain objects. Perhaps he is Adrianus Koex of Delft for Dutch China or wal'e sent to hel'
leferring to what we would call a flower vase. In the past the late Majesty the sume of thirteen hundred & fifty gildels 3
te¡m 'vase' was only used for lalge garden ornaments made styvels of English money f. 1221i l4s 09d' .ss
of marblc or lcad. Likcwisc, thc 17th-ccntury English word Thc fact that Hampton Court prcscntly harbouls thc most
'flowerpot' is used both fol a large urn with handles and for impressive flower holdels should not make us conclude that
a vase (cl. 32).5r Possibly the urn-shaped earthenware the peak of Mary's passion fol polcelain was during her'
flowerpots filled with plants wele also used for cut flowers. 'English' period. In any case, her early death prohibited her'
The decoration on a lid vase in Douai depicts alongside a return to the Netherlands, and any fufther Dutch additions to
balustlade, a large Chinese cup vase, flowerpots and a broad her collection.s6
basin with handles, all filled with bouquets.s2

Dyrham Park
Hampton Court
The English court was receptive to Mary's passion for'
In 1689, aftel the 'Glorious Revolution', William and Mary porcelain and earthenware because they had been buying
were crowned king and queen of England, Ireland and these since 1675. By the end ofthe lTth century, the
Scotland; thus, succeeding Mary's father James Stuart II. construction and renovation of mansions and country
Shortly aftel this date the demolition and rebuilding of the houses, as well as the interior decoration and the laying-out
old Tudor lesidence Hampton Court outside London was of gardens was in the hands of a relatively small gloup of
begun. Because ofMary's death in 1695, the project architects, designers and artisans. Probably the (Chinese)
stagnated. But the fenovation of the Tudor wing, better porcelain and (delft) earthenware was bought from the same
known as the Water Gallery because it overlooks the group of suppliers. Although the interest for ceramics cannot
Thames (designed by Christopher Wren, 1632-l'723), was be asclibed solely to Mary, she certainly encouraged this
completed in 1689. The 'daily' was also completed by that interest.sT Flower holders were bought in large numbers; for
time. Daniel Defoe (1663-1731) wlites: 'the Queen had also instance for Chatsworth (between 1689 and 1694),by
a Dairy, with all its conveniences, in which hel Majesty took William Cavendish (1641-170'7), the foulth Earl and the filst
great delight.' This 'dairy' was decorated mainly with Duke of Devonshile.5s
Chinese porcelain, delft earthenwale and tiles. In hel dialy Dutch influence is most cleally visible in the interiol of
in 1695, Celia Fiennes desc¡ibed what the Water Gallery Dyrham Pa¡k. William Blathwayt (1649?-171'7), the owner
looked like. It was decorated with Chinese porcelain and of Dyrham Park belonged to the court, and was familial with
with portlaits of court ladies painted by Godfi'ey Kneller Mary's collections. His own porcelain and earthenware
(1646-1723). Behind the balcony facing the Thames, there collections ale described in inventories of I 703 and 1 7 I 0.

32
+: .., €
":* ,

I -4,,
'. ;'¡!.zL
Ìâi.--¿-i.;;, ""=. ,¿

25 Borvl-shaped lìorvcr vasc u,ith holes in the rim and six spot¡ts
Marked LVE or LF
Museurn Boyrrrns-van Bcurringel, Rotterdan

.i:,,.

26 Borvl-shaped flou,er vase with holes in the rim ancl six spouls
N4arked: LVE or LF
Museuur Boytnatrs-r,an Beuuingetr, Rotterdanl
33
The more than folty delft pieces still present in Dyrharn Park
almost all date back to the late lTth and early 18th century.
About half ale marked AK, or can, with a reasonable degree
of certainty, be asclibed to De Grieksclte A.In 1703,therc
wele nine 'flowerpots', four 'Queen flowerpots', thlee 'blue
pots' and eleven other examples present on top of a door or
over a fileplace. The origin ofthe term 'Queen flowerpots'
is unknown. It is tempting to speculate that these foul pots
were originally part of Mary's collections, or were even
given to Blathwayt by Maly. It is also possible that the term
was used for a special kind of pot. The term is not mentioned
in the inventory of 17 10, whereas the inventory does
mention fifteen flowerpots, nine delfts to put on top of a
door, two to put under the table and two 'large pyramid delft
flowel pots'. These large pyramids stood in 'ye chimney' of
the 'Vestible' and the 'Best bed Chamber above Stairs'.
These have in fact su¡vived. Two other preserved flower
holders rnay be identical with the mentioned 'flowelpots',
on the other hand this term may have been used to designate
the urns with open tops that are still present in Dyrham Palk.
If each of these two flower holders was part of a set of two,
then together they may have been the four' 'Queen
flowerpots'mentioned in the inventory of 1703.In any case,
the list of the housekeepel Sarah Saunders (November l 7 I 0)
shows that fifteen delft 'flowerpots' including the pyramids
wele placed in the fireplace. The fact that objects beautified
the fileplace during summer months does not rnean that they
were made for this purpose. Since Blathwayt did not yet live
in the house, the earthenware could still have been in the
fireplace in November.5e

Obelisks, pyramids and pagodas


Of thc many shapes flowel holdels could have, the
pylamidal is the most lemarkable. Delft pyramidal flower'
hoidels have a base in the fblm of a hexagon ol square, and
rest on a socle and are built up of separate interlocked water
basins with spouts. The number of separate pieces vaties
greatly. In 17th-century inventofies they are always called
'pyramids' but presenrday literatule refers to them as
obelisks (27,29).
Knowledge of the architecture and decorative arts of ancient
Rome was obtained in Noltheln Europe by travel, but even
more so by the publication of the De Archítectura (25 B.C.)
of Vitruvius, which was translated into Italian by the
architect Sebastiano Serlio (1475-1554). One may observe
the growing influence of Vitruvius' book in late l6th and
early lTth-century al'chitecture. Pieter Coecke van Aelst
(1502-1553) published a Dutch translation ofSerlio's work
between 1542 and 1 553. An illustrated edition about
perspective and ornamentation, in which Vitruvius' ideas
were propagated, was published by Hans Vredeman de Vries
(1527-1604) in 1563. Since 1575 obelisks were regularly
used fol decorative pul'poses in the Netherlands, as can be
seen on the gables of the city hall of Leiden. Du|ing the 1 7th
centul'y obelisks, as eye-catchers, were populal motifs in
gardens. Obelisks were often used by Daniel Malot in his
designs. The delft-ware obelisks often had shell motifs on
Ç
the sides of their base (possibly Marot's influence).60
27 Flower pyranid witll twenty spouts
Cornparable decolative ceramic obelisks were often Marked: LVE or LF
manufactured in the l Tth centul'y, not only in the Museurn Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotteldam

34
Netherlands, but also in Faenza (Italy). Other small obelisks in 1712, there wele 'five plates to make pyrarnids' in the
are also called pylamids in inventories. In 't Huys in 't attic ofthe house.63
Noorteynde the¡e were 'two firedogs with copper pyramids' Obelisks were also used as decoration for mourning
in the room 'whele madame the princess liked to stay'. By processions and burial ceremonies ofnoblemen in the l6th
1632, other such 'filedogs' are recorded, all of which were and lTth centuries.6a However, they wele also a popular
described as pylamids.6l motif fol mole festive occasions such as iriumphal parades.
According to an inventory of 1'737 of the Nienoord Manor Obelisks were incolpolated into the triumphal at'ches on the
near Leek, there were at least foul' 'porcelain pyramids in the occasion of William III's entry to 's-Gt'avenhage in 1691.
cupboald', and 'three blue delft pyramids in the largest Possibly, there may be some connection with another
cabinet'. This manor was owned by the nobleman Georg stliking folm of flowel holder: the town-gate or the
Wilhelm van In- en Kniphuizen of Groningen. Georg was a triumphal arch (28).65
member of William III's coult. The mention of 'the The Italian Cesare Ripa (ca. 1560-before 1625) viewed the
cupboald' suggests that these were smaller objects. Were obelisk as the symbol of the gloly of the king. He describes
they pyramidal flowel holders or small obelisks bought in the 'Glolia di Principi', the 'honour ofdivinity ofthe plinces
imitation of the coult?62 [...]' as 'a beautiful woman [...]'. 'In her left hand she holds a
Arranging objects fol display in the form of a pylamid or an pyramid, which symbolizes the high and befitting honour of
obelisk was fashionable in the 17th century. In Eulope, it a prince, a pyramid which he has ordered to be built at high
was comllìon practice to arrange artefacts, f|uit, flowers, cost and beauty in ordel to leceive honour [...]'.6ó This
and plants this way at banquets. At the coronation banquet symbolic explanation of the pylamid appears to strengthen
( 1672) of Charles XI of Sweden a giant obelisk made out of the link between flower holders and the coult. The delft
tankalds and burning candles was taken around. In a banquet 'pyramids' undoubtedly selved as a part ofthe royal
in Rome (1688) given by Cardinal Chigi, an obelisk made representation at the cout't of William III and Mary. The
out of plates towered above the table. For this custom there presence of allegorical decorations on some of the flower'
were also special objects available. An inventory of holders supports this supposition.
Oranienstein (1695) mentions objects of thin metal ('Blech') Anothel possible origin of the shape of these flower holders
such as '3 dressilpyramyden zu confituren'. Accol'ding to an is the Eastern pagodas. Thele are clear resemblances
inventory of a house on the Vijverberg (in The Hague) made between the pyramidal flower holders and the famous

28 Pairof florver holders in the shape of city gates


Pieter Hoogendijk, Baan

35
29 Pairof flowcrpyrâmids
Marked: AK
Photo Christie's. Amsterdânl

36
30 Pair of flower vases, busts of sultans
Ma¡ked: LVE or LF
Hooykaas Fine Arts, Den Haag

3'7
Chinese polcelain towers, such as those of the Paolinxi and cloths), was a result of tlade contacts. The depiction of Tur-ks
the pagoda of the temple of Lin-Ki-Sseu at Tcheng-Ting- on delft tiles is chalacteristic ofthe enthusiasm for.oriental
Fou. Illustrations in travelogues may have served as sources décol'as are the above mentioned flowe¡ holders shaped like
of inspiration. The most important source of information the head of a Turkish sultan.i2
about China in the 1 8th century was the richly illustrated Small busts of turban-wealing figules were placed on the
travelogue Het gezantschap Der Neêrlanchsche Oost- socles of many pyrarnids. These are often described as
Indische Compagnie aan den grooten Tartarischen Cham, Turks. The poor design of these items can, however, make
Den tegenrvoordígen Keiryr van China, elc. (Amsterdam exact identification difficult (27).Herc also, one can see the
1665) by Joan Nieuhof. Nieuhof described in some detail the influence of Marot. He contlibuted to the turquerie in the
pagoda of Paolinxi in Nanking.6T The fact that pagodas were Netherlands by using Turkish figures as decorative
drawn on wall tiles in the second half of the 17th centur-y elements; these were applied, fol example, to a mirror
illustrates that this motif was quite popular.6s A second designed by him. Amongst the decorations by his hand on
source of general information about China was the the staircase in Het Loo, six figures appeal dlessed in an
travelogue of the Jesuit Athanasius Kirchner. Kirchner had unmistakably Turkish manner.73
never been to China, but he based his work on descriptions
and documents of other missionaries. His China
Mr.¡ntntentis f.../ (Amsteldam, 1667), a work on the fauna,
Blossom and after-blossom
flola, language and religion of China, was quite famous at In 1709, the German alchemist J. F. Böttcher (1682-1'l19)
that time. It is significant that Kilchnel notes similarities in succeeded in discovering the much sought after sect.et of
form between the pagodas of Nanking and Egyptian ploducing hard porcelain. The emerging European porcelain
obelisks. Thus, a pyramidal flower holder could be a variant industry in Meissen, Sèvres and Limoges gladually crowded
of the Chinese pagoda, as well as a variant of the antique out the more blittle delfrware. Weespel porcelain, which
obelisk. The European tradition of variations on obelisk like Meissen polcelain had a good reputation, helped push
shapes has existed longel than the influence fi'om China, but out of the market the much softer dellt potter.y. The
the influence of the pagoda may have given an impulse to diminished production of the large flower holders, in
this development.6e contrast to the smaller pieces, must have been caused by the
The water basins, with their spouts, may in some cases have disappearance of the specific fashion that had been initiated
been imitations of the loofs of pagodas. However, the by the court of William and Mary. Interest dropped off
division into separate levels has mofe to do with the gladually, and the large pyramidal flower holders became
necessity to divide the watel'. Moreover, as mentioned cu¡iosities that no longel suited the frail rococo interiors.Ta
eallier, it was technically impossible to manufacture such Although pyramids were no longel produced after 1720, fan
large ptoducts in one piece. The division ofthe basins was in and bowl-shaped pottery was produced spor.adically in
the first place a functional aspect, and perhaps in the second Europe even up till the l9th century. Now and then, such
place a referencc to thc Eastcrn pagodas. Only two colossal sniall flowel holdels were alsu protluced in Delft. 18th-
delft flowe¡ holders have a stliking similality with the century Frisian earthenware from Makkum and Bolsward is
pagodas in all aspects: one flower holder in the Howard even more typical.T5 After the l Tth century small porcelain
Castle collection and one in the Palace Museum Het Loo. flower holders were still ploduced in Ansbach, Strassbur.g,
There was also a strange interaction on another level: some Samadet and Moustiers. The 18th-century Chinese porcelain
Chinese porcelain flower holders at'e imitations of European imitations referred to above should also be mentioned in this
models. The socles of these flower holders ale decol.ated context. These vases were no longer exclusive; by now they
with Western motifs. Since comparable delft examples wer.e wel'e on display in the residences of well-to-do citizens.
ascribed to Adriaen Kocks (1686-1701), it is possible that Unique are the flowel holders ploduced fi'om the design of
these imitations (with an identical AK mark) were produced William Burges for the smoking loom of Cardiff Castle in
in the same period. However, this 'model' may still have 187 4.76
been copied aftel 1700.70 The relation between the pagoda
and the obelisk is most obvious duling the peak of the
fashion for China, and is best illustrated in the porcelain
cabinets ofthe late 17th century. Extlavagant anangements
of Chinese porcelain and their delft imitations form
pyramidal brackets often combined with chinoiserie wall
{F
coverings reaching up to the cornices. Marot designed small
pyramidal brackets for William and Mary which became
ry
mot'e and more popular in the l8th centuly.Tr
Besides the amalgation of the European and Chinese shapes
in chinoiserie, the influence and fi'ee t¡anslation of the
oriental elements should not be overlooked. The court life
t
of Eastern countries was associated with love of extr.eme
ostentation and luxuly. The so-called 'turquerie' was part of
this type of exoticism. The intloduction of bulbor.rs plants
r g b
such as the tulip and fritillaries, along with Tur.kish carpets,
*
which were status symbols in the Dutch interior (as table 3l The interior of a water container, showing the veÍical stabilisator

38
polcelain objects, and exotic and expressive forrns. They
may also be consideled as a manifestaiion of William and
Mary's royal desire to promote their own self-
representation. In particular the monumental pyramids are,
both in their form and their decoration, the curious by-
product of the late-humanistic idealization of kingship and
the fashion for chinoiserie at the royal coul'ts of Northern
+rår- Europe.78

32 Urn-shaped floweryot with ten spouts (the lid missirtg)


Marked: De Pauw GK
private coll

In the 20th century, the flower holders have again become


popular. Besides those inspired by lTth-centuly examples,
there ale now freeÍ intelpretations of the old theme of the
'tulip vase'.rr

Synopsis and conclusion


Delft flowe¡ holde¡s have only been called tulip or hyacinth
vases since around 1900. The ploduction ofthese vases is
not directly related to either the tulipomania or the
hyacinthomania. Because of their presumably gradual
development, it is not easy to determine who deveioped the
idea of simplifying the anangement of flowers by means of
spouts on the vase, or by means of little holes on the vase
body. Nor is it known who started the production of these
vases. The basic idea may have been developed in the
Middle East, Italy or in the Netherlands.
Delft flowe¡ holders were most certainly used for cut tulips
duling spring. Flower bulbs were never placed in spouts or
basins, because the design does not allow for this. Moreover,
33 GÌobe-shaped flowervase on a base
it is inconceivable that these precious products wel'e not Stedelijk Museum Het Prinsenhof, Delft
used to display extraordinary flower bouquets from the
galden during the rest ofthe year. The descriptions found in
inventories unambiguously indicate that they were so used.
Despite their occasional minor defects, these vases were not 34 Quatrefoil, decorated with grapes, tulips and pomegranates
only decorative items, but also mastel'ly crafted utensils.
-l
ca.1600
Flower holders were the result ofthe 17th-century love of Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden

39
(

{;

lt

1. L,/ t
I


Tulips, Turks and tiles the design, fbl example by putting in shading. Thele is a
great variety in the imagery used: on the one l-rancl, thele ale
realistic depictions of people, animals and ships, and on the
Johan ten Broeke (Rijswijk) other hand, fàntasy rrotifìs of sea monstels and the legendaly
unicorn. Depictions of people include noblemen, alistoclats,
altisans, traders ancl beggals, that is they include all the
Introduction social classes depicted in engravings in I7th-centuly
Not only the tulip but the inhabitants of the Ottoman En.rpire costurre books. The lelation with the alt of painting is clear'
as well have selved as a soul'ce of inspiration fbr Dutch in landscapes, still lifes and rnulti-figuled sLrbjects, such as
celamic tiles. It is striking how Tulkish celamics and pastoral and biblical scenes. Flowels, and tulips in
depictions ofTurks contributed to enliching the valiety of particular, ale depicted on tiles in many valiations: as
decorations found on appalently authentic Dutch tiles. Even glowing out of a clump of ealth, splouting flom a flower
without realizing it, Dutch tile rnanr"rf,acturels acloptecì bulb, as a cut flowel in a vase, etc. It should be noted that not
techniques that wele developed by Ottornan tile all flowels can be identified; fantasy and leality go hand in
manufacturels in the second half of the l 5th century in iznik. hand. One tile off'els space enough to depict one flower'. This
These tecl-rniques fo¡-rnd theil way into the Southeln and later' is not the case with bouqlrets of flowels; though they occur,
the Northeln Netherlands via countlies sucl-r as Spain and they are usually roughly drawn. Bouqnets of flowers appear
Italy. The iznik technique involved coveling the depiction to full aclvantage when the design extends over more than
on the tile with a layer of cleal transparent glaze. Not only one tile. The production of such tile panels, consisting of
the Iznik technique, but also the stock in-ragery of Ottoman eight tiles ol'rìore, was in palt intended fol export. They turn
craftsmen inf-luenced the Dutch tile in its natr¡r'alistic up in such diverse places as the Nymphenburg Palace near'
depiction of flowels and plants, ancl later the n'rore stylized Munich ancl the Rambouillet Castle neal Palis.
tulips ancl carnations.I
In the Nethellands the tiles were not used so n-ruch in palaces
It is common for both Turkish and Dr.rtch tiles to depict one ol castles, but in houses in the city, and in falmhouses cluring
quarter ol a motif on a single tile, and thus for.u' adjacent tiles the l8th century. The use oltiles had a utilitalian chalacter'.
form a complete motif.2 The foul tiles are identical, and new In the cities they were applied in kitchens, cellars, in halls on
patterns can be formed by a|r'anging the tiles in a different the glound flool ancl inside fileplaces, that is they were not
order'; this principle is called a 'quatre-fbil'. The used to cover the walls in the living-r'ooln as was the case in
intelrelationship between the tiles depends on the motif on larmhouses. The populality of tiles in the Northern
the corner of the tile which rnay vary in size. Since in Tulkey Netl-rellands was to a large extent determined by econonic
tiles wele used on lalge surfaces, a stliking optical effect factors. The Nethellands in the lTth centr.rry was prosperous,
was sought after'. In the Netherlancls tiles were mainly used and lalge segments of the population, inch.rding artisans,
in the intelior of houses, and a single patteln folmed by four' enjoyed a higher living standard than befbre. A plactical
tiles u¡as considered to be too large. Therefore, the Dutch leason fbl using tiles \^/¿ìs to collntel'act the effect of
plelellecl orre motif pertile. hurridity that resulted from the geoglaphical location.
Although people ale particularly familial with delft tiles, Hurrridity caused detelioration of the lime that was used to
Delfi was only one of many northern Dutch cities whele coat walls. Coveling walls with tiles, which were durable
tiles wel'e manufactuled. For instance impoltant tile and easy to clean, was prelerled to plastering walls.
mannfacturels wele also established in Middelburg,
Rottel'dam, Gouda, Hooln, Arnsteldarn, U¡'echt, Makkurn
and Hallingen. Since the kincl of illustrations on the tiles, as
well as theil colouling, was sr:bject to national tlends,
similal tiles wele manufactuled in mole than one city.
Consequently, the origin of the tiles manufactured in the
l 6th and l Tth centuries cannot be detelmined. The most
common tiles ale apploximately thilteen square centimetres
in size. In the Netherlands tiles were lalely made to order,
but were deliveled flom stock by tile makers, and tile
traders. They had to estimate the demand fol tiles and the
taste of theil customel's. It is thought that around five
hundled million tiles were produced in the Netherlands,
rnany of which wele expolted especially to northern
Gerrnany.
Prints often selved as examples f'or figurative decorations.
To transpose a design onto a tile pelf'orated transfel paper'
was used. This paper, in Dutch called the 'spons', was laid
on top of the baked tile and patted with a sack filled with -\
chalcoal powder'(35). In this way a pattern of dots of
charcoal powder was formed on the tile. These dots were
connected with a paintblush dipped in pign.rent consisting of
rnetal-oxides. Ful'ther touches were then aclded to cornplete 35 Pricked transfer paper, 'spons' (cl. ill. 40)

41
Í Ë,.
ii

t..",
tt',

Tilips on tiles .t
,'j
At the beginning of the 16th century, Italian tile makers in ir

Antwerp introduced floor tiles with flower and leaf motifs.


Italian influence is noticeable in the décor and the
,1
composition of the tiles. Square tiles were framed by four
il
oblong hexagonal tiles. Together these five tiles formed an
octagon. The square tile in the centre might depict a portrait, I
an animal figure, or a rosette in a circle. The oblong tiles
,l
form a frame of flowers and pomegranates. This type floor
tile was not often employed, since it was prone to wear out.
:,
During the 16th century more tiles with stylized floral motifs 'i'
were available, but now as wall tiles instead of floor tiles.
lr .,,*1 '
Around 1580 pomegranates, marigolds and oak leaves became il \J11
fashionable, not only for the decoration of multicoloured
tiles, but also for the decoration of pottery. On tiles the design :l
ìl
W r&
ffi
was divided over four adjacent tiles, the quatre-foil. Around
1610 the motif depicted on the quatre-foil was scaled down 't. J t,\
so that it would fit on one tile. And now the combination of
I
ãr={ i
I
q) ¡.

pomegranates with grapes and tulips also became popular.


This shows that within a short time after its introduction, the
l
ì

I
q" lì
Vî- f
I
I

tulip was widely used as a decorative element.3 This type of ì

tile was also produced in the form ofa quatre-foil with an


i

eighrpointed star in the centre. The complete pattern eme¡ges


when four quatre-foils (sixteen tiles in all) are arranged
together. The centre of the designs is now no longer formed
by an eight-pointed star, but by tulip motifs that are applied
to the corner of each quatre-foil. These tulips are often
painted in the same orange colour as the pomegranates.
Ten years later, around 1625, orange coloured pomegranates
and blue bunches of grapes appear in a diagonal position on
some tiles. The harmony of the wall is preserved when the ì,

tiles are placed alternately. It is not known why the

i&
combination of one flowcr with two fruits occurs on a tilc.
It may well have been a matter of tradition, or perhaps a
symbolic meaning lay behind the motif. ln the 1óth and 17th
IrÆr
centuries the pomegranate was seen as a symbol of unity.

¿#
Thus the motif, could cary a reference to the revolt of the
seven provinces under the leadership of the 'prinsen van
Oranje' ('princes ofOrange') against Spain (1568-1648)
(34). The tulip, however, prompted ethical considerations
ffia
,,.f,Eg I
ì

ì
concerning its role as a luxury item and object of financial I
speculation. Calvinistic preachers saw the tulip as one of the
worldly vanities that would undermine the godliness of the
young Dutch Republic. This vision is also expressed in a
still life by Jacques de Gheyn II (1565.1620). The still life
depicts a skull in a niche; on both sides of the skull stands a
vase with a tulip. The combination of a skull and flowers in
I
still lifes always points to transito¡iness. The emphasis here
lies more on the vanity of human desire and the quest for
.l
prosperity: everything shall pass away.a
An engraving from Houwelyck, amoralizing book written
by Jacob Cats, links up with this theme. In this engraving the
tulip is more a symbol of virtue than one of sin. A widow

appears in the engraving. In her hand she holds a spindle
which is an attribute of he¡ female industriousness and
honour. At her feet lies a dog, the symbol of fidelity. The
hand of a skeleton on the left in the engraving threatens to
,fu Q#r
3ó Three tiles with a central tulip motif, part of a panel of I 6 tiles
snap the stem of a tulip, which signals the widow's
(cf. rll. 42 on p. 46 )
approaching end.5 But to return to ceramic tiles, it may be ca.1625-1650
noted that around 1620 the tulip emerged as an independent Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden

42
3aru several plants, oliginally found in Turkey, such as the
,-ü;5! fritillary, the iris, and the carnation. So a customer could
decorate his wall with flowers according to his own taste

ff'*j
/', I
(36). On some flower tiles an insect or a snail sits on top of
the flower', and occasionally such a cl'eatul'e replaces the
flower. Sometimes these flower tiles were combined with
tiles depicting associated motifs such as birds and insects.
1
'¡q,Í
..f.; .r'-ì ¿ * Combinations of flowers fi'om different seasons as seen on
c.,T, l¡\ --. f paintings of flower pieces also occut'.

{Þ jP 4 b-':f, \ Around 1620 a change in taste took place. Besides the


ì multicolouled tile, the monochrome blue tile became
:
Ã. ¡_-
(, it
popular'. This is explained by the fact that people had
):9'þ-' g become familiar with blue Chinese polcelain that was found
,i
)
on captured Poltuguese ships. Somewhat later the Verenigde
! Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) impolted Chinese
\, { merchandise. Outside the Nethellands the Dutch imitation of
¡j
the blue porcelain was considet'ed 'chinoiserie'. Despite the
/
,,, \}.a I
I

37 Polychrome tile with a tulip, ca. 1610-1630 I


Museum Het Princessehof. Leeuwarden
.. il
motif. For instance, in 1614 fhe HorÍus Floridus of Crispijn
de Passe II saw the light of publication. This work shows
several faithfully reploduced depictions of multicoloured
tulips.6 The first phase of tulipomania seems to have arrived.
Tiles with tulips, whose bulbs seem to be placed in a heart-
shaped vase, are beautifully drawn and coloured. This
apparent heart-shaped vase is in reality a stylized leaf motif,
originally used to decolate the corner of a tile (37).7 It is odd
that on this type of tile two unidentifiable flowers splout out
of the stem. These fantasy flowers are later leplaced by
tulips and thus a remarkabie new variety of imaginative
tulips cmcrgcs, thc so-callcd 'triple tulip'. The fact that these
tiles were available in a great l'ange of frames and colner n
motits, attests to their popularity. The 'triple tulip' remained
in production until the l9th century. However, at a latel' date
the design is coarser, and the meandel'corner motif that
originates in Chinese pottery is hardly recognizable.
The 'natural' tulip as a single flower appeal's in various
frames, such as medallions, ovals, diamond-shapes, etc. 1
The corner motif is formed by French lilies, oxheads ot' the
Chinese meanders.s These flowers are often so
naturalistically painted, that one has the impression the
painters consulted the so-called 'florilegia' for a model. /ç
Amusing variants are the tiles that display a c¡oss-section of
the calyx of the tulip so that one can see the stamen and the
pistil (39a-b). In general, the colou|s do not col'l'espond with
reality since the tile paintels did not have as many colours at t
their disposal as the painters of oil paintings and water'-
colours. With legard to the green leaves of the plants, the
painters were less careful. Often the depiction is schematic,
or even inconect from a botanical point ofview. However,
the tiles which depict life-sized tulips by using two tiles on
top of each other are of extlaoldinary quality (38). This type
+ h
of tile is only found in the city of Hoorn and was probably 1

made to order.e The tulip book of Anthony Claesz and Judith I


Leyster, presently in the Frans Halsmuseum in Haarlern, È..
may have been used as a model. 38 Tulip painted on two tiles
Besides multicoloured tiles with tulips, other'flower Hoorn, ca. 1630-1640
decorations became fashionable by 1 630. These include Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam

43
pl'eflerence for blue in other folms of decolations, flowers, I 9th centr"u'y.r0 These tiles, sometimes known as
birds, and insects were often depicted in colour until 1670. 'Kievitseielen' ('Plover''s eggs'), were also manufactured in
During the second half of the 1 8th centur.y, after having been Utlecht and Makkum (41). It seems strange to name a flower
out of production fol a long time, tiles with flower.s once tile alter a bild's eggs. This is due to the fact that the tulips
again appeared on the local market in the Netherlands. These depicted on the tiles are of the speckled variety that bear.
blue ol manganese tiles, lacking a corner motif, wer.e often some lesemblance to the plover's eggs. Both the 'tr.iple
used in small Frisian towns and in farmhouses. Typical tulip tulip' and the carnation remained popular; more than one tile
tiles wele not included in this category ofproduction. The manufacturer had on offer' 'Hoekanjelielen', a quatre-foil
incleased prosperity of the farmers also expr-essed itself in a consisting of nine calnations surrounding a star.
taste for tile panels, often consisting of thr.ee times four tiles Apart fi'om selving as the centl'al decoration, the tulip and
ol'mol'e, depicting vases with assorted flowel.s flanked by the carnation wele also used as corner motifs.ll By contrast,
birds. The tLrlip and the calnation are almost never-absent in the I 8th centul'y, the carnation was often used as a corner
lrom these bouquets. motif in tiles depicting landscapes ol biblical scenes. The
In the second half of the I 8th century the old idea of the tulip was also a part of the fi'arne of the actual depiction.
quatre-foil was introduced again. In this form of the quatr.e- Several blue tiles fì'om the collection of the Boymans-van
foil decorative tiles occur'; tulips and cal'nations spl.out out of Beuningen Museum in Rotterdam may be cited as examples.
a stylized leaf, and their stems closs. This type tulip motif These tiles depict, for example, a running hale or a sitting
called 'Anjelielveren' was included in the catalogue ofthe dog set in a medallion of tulips and ears of col'n. Amusing
tile manufactulel Van Hulst ol Harlingen until the end of the tiles such as these ale very rare.l2
In conclusion, a few tiles depicting tulips in combination

f#
t_ i. with hurnan figures rnay be mentioned. The depiction of two

iþ- smartly dressed gentlemen with raised swolds confi'onting


each othel is probably symbolic. The cause of the
confi'ontation is possibly the tulip that is depicted between
the two gentlemen. The reference to tulipornania is
plausible. Since ancient times flowels have been seen as
messengers of love, and not so much as originato|s of
conflict. The fact that the tulip can leplace the rose in this
1-. ' function is clear lrom a tile which depicts a n-ran offer.ing a
I
\ tulip to a woman (40). This depiction should not make us
forget that cultivated cut flowers were beyond the means of
oldinary people. Only kings and noblemen could afford
these (exotic) flowels and plants. Ordinary people did
participa{.e in the speculative tlatling of flower.bulbs, but this

x
had mole to do with possible profit than with delight in the
flower itself. Depictions of flowers on tiles were cheaper,
and much more dulable than real flowels. In the lTth
:
.i,ì "{*.',-d
/]{b+ century, people went to painters and tile manufactur.ers to
procure flowers.

åä Æw w

'& &
TK
39a-b Two polycltrone tiles wiÌha cross-section ofa tuìip, ca. 1630-1640 40 '&
BIue on rvhite tilc decorated u,ith a declaration of love. ca. 1660- I 670
Museunl Het Princessehof. Leeuwarden private coll.

44
0

--ì---

e
I


.J

.aár6in¡*
4l Panel of six tiles with floral decoration, ca. 1725-1115. 42 Panel of sixteen polychrome tiles decorated with tulips -J
Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden ca. 1630-1640 (detail)
45 Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden
it þ tÅ¿tL
ele FffiÙ á-qËv Jffi ö8
fi" ãßt. '.Ð," i
i4s ?J { Ee
ì
þ
!

ì
¡

I
I

q
tu
¡ \"/ g@* eÁr
(4Æ
---:
äâ
Ni)
#&r ' -# & ¿rü
o ffi' m m
ffim r:
i
ry 'tr ì

-- ti

i
.l
I

P
w Oc ^
¡v ';<tì
(ri
"-"& €d #tu üøt :-::
-: I -' ,:,,, -

H ^l
Mffiå å{
"9 %Þ d
I
ÊJL 'þ t'tm I
I

'I

ì J
tiles is odd as Roman soldiers are also depicted on them.
Ttrrks on Dutch tiles These figures were inspired by engravings ol a series of
Although some attention has been given to the depiction of Roman heroes by the well-known engraver Hendrik Goltzius
human figures on tiles in technical litelature, very little is (1558- 1616). The soldiers ale depicted in mannet'ist poses
written about the specific group of tiles depicting (costume-) and are painted fluently. The dlawings of the wan'iors at'e
figures with regard to the Ottoman Empire. Although the painted in dark biue, and are partially coloured in with
Netherlands as a seafaring nation came into contact with orange-brown. The men are dressed in flowing sashes which
many peoples, and many charts and maps were deco¡ated makes the tiles very lively. Apart fi'om the turbans, the Turks
with depictions of ethnic groups from remote areas of the are recognizable by the weaponry they carry; a bow and an
world such as Africa and America, the Ottomans received an'ow, and sometimes a club. It is possible that they symbolize
special attention. It is true that the Chinese at'e often depicted barbaric opponents of the Romans such as the Scythians. This
on tiles, and thele are a few tiles depicting South Amelican type of tile was not used to decorate walls, but as skitting. The
hunters, yet the Turks are depicted in a variety of lorms.l3 tiles were ploduced in Rotteldam fi'om ca. 1600 to 1625 (43).
Besides the group known as the 'Sat'acens', tiles with porn'ait Blue tiles depicting soldiels exercising or fighting did serve
heads, dignitaries, costume-figures, and many Ottoman as wall decoration fi'om 1620 to 1640. Tiles with Dutch
holsemen occur. It is possible that the political and religious musketeers and lancers in imitation of works by Jacques de
contloversies between Chlistian Eulope and the Ottoman Gheyn II (1565-1629) belong to this lattel categoly. Turkish
Empire have influenced the iconography of the Dutch tile.
Portrait tiles depicting 17th-century rulers at'e relatively rale,
yet can be found produced according to diflerent designs.ra
The quality of the depictions is not high. The tile maker was
r' L {
-l
obliged to work quickly and thus did not have time to make a
detailed portrait. One such tile of small format (9,5 x 9,5 cm.)
is the portrait head of a Turkish sultan with mustache, that
probably depicts Sultan Süleyman the Magnificenl (1520-
1 566¡.
ts The crooked nose and the absence of a beald is

notable.
A tile depicting a sultan on horseback is in the collection of
Museum Het Princessehof in Leeuwarden. The iconography !
'l
of this motif originates fi'om a series of woodcuts by Jan
Swart of Groningen (ca. 1495- I 555) depicting Süleyman
leading his troops on campaign. Since, in the Netherlands,
no consideration was given to the Islamic injunction against
pictorial representation of the Plophet Mohammed, a tile {,
exists bearing his poltrait. The tile painter used as his model
one of the seventeen copper englavings from the book
Hisrorische Beschryvinglte ende Aþeeldinghe der
Voornaentste Hooft Ketteren published by Christoffel van
Sichem (1546-1624) in 1608 in Amsterdam. The tile is palt
43 Polychrometile witha'Saracene', 1590-1625
of a series of persons whose ideas were conceived to be Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden
inimical to Christian teaching. For lack of a better alternative
Van Sichem used a portrait of an Ottoman sultan as a source
of inspilation. These unique tiles were manufactured in
small quantities in 1610.r6
The origin of the bhre tiles made in the I 7th and l Sth t;¡

centuries depicting Turkish costume-figut'es is not known


with celtainty. The tiles appear to be inspired by woodcuts
that adorned the Dutch translation of the Frenchman Nicolas
de Nicolay's (1517-1583) well-known travelogue. From this
selies, tiles ofthe following figures have been recovered: an
'Aga', the commander in chief of the fealed Janissaries
(Yeniçeri aþasr), a'Boluch Bassi', a captain of the same
troops (bölük ba¡r), and two wrestlers (pehlivan) (44). The -{
difference in versions points to the fact that various set'ies
were made based on De Nicolay's book.lT
Depictions ofTurkish wan'iols also occuL on the above
mentioned 'Saracen tiles'. The word 'Saracen' stems from
the middle ages when it was used as a term to designate
Arabs, but it was later employed to refer to all Moslems. In
the Netherlands the word 'Sat'acen' is still associated with
fierceness and danger. The term 'Saracen' used for these
44 BIue on white tile with two wrestlers after De Nicolay, ca. 1620-1640
Museun Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden

47
9{t

'&'! -+ '¡,

- ¿,.;;'b
.ì'(:
t

-T:
*.' ,
'I
t

't,

45 Panelwith88Dutchtilesdepictingistanbul,after:GeorgedelaChapelle,RearciltleclítersporÍroits...(1648),ca. l7l0
Palacio d'Ega, Portugal (Photo W. Joliet, Königswinter)

archers al'e depicted less often. Blue holsemen l'epresenting


Turkish and Western cavahy stem from a later period: 1670-
1700. A combat between two holsemen is formed by placing
two tiles opposite each other.
In the filst half of the I 8th century manganese coloured tiles
became popular. These purple colouled tiles depicting Vr'est
European horsemen and cavaliers wearing turbans occupy a
special place in the development ofceramic tiles. In contrast
to the somewhat older blue tiles in which men and horses
occupy only a small pol'tion of the sulface, the image on the
purple tiles fills the whole surface. Also stliking is the
liveliness expressed by the beautifully painted tails of the
holses. It is plausible that this group was produced in
response to events related to the siege ofVienna in 1683,
and subsequent Turkish wars in the Balkans. Parallels can be
seen in paintings and engravings by Jan van Huchtenburg
(164',7 -17 44).18
The lalgest collection of Dutch tiles depicting Turkish wals
is to be found in the Casa de Paço de Figueira da Foz in
Portugal.re Besides 3812 blue tiles depicting landscapes and
693 tiles depicting biblical scenes, 1925 manganese-
coloured tiles with horsemen are found in the collection.
46 Tile with a Turkish costume-figure after De Nicolay
About a quarter of the horsemen wear turbans that seem to ca.1880-1900
be characteristic of the 'Turk'. These tiles were allegedly Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden

48
ww

Ir)
ð\/'l J

6ü3"
tiç
>rlv ^
p-.þt)
(Jj>z{<
U\l ål\.
"rc'
a Þ

ô\
^l.Ç
l+.<1!
(/Ì") #
47 Four tiles with maganese decoration olTurkish u'arriors
Untcht, ca. 1900
found on board a ship that was shipwrecked in the bay of Museum Het Princessehof, Leeuwarden
Figuela between 1705 and 1715. The export ofDutch tiles to
Poltugal in the 1700s was not uncommon.
Thus far topoglaphy has not been discussed. One unusual imitation of Dutch pilasters, Dutch tiles with costume-
tableau, also located in a Portuguese palace, must be figures inspired by the illustrations in De Nicolay's
mentioned. The tableau is one of the eight panoramas of tlavelogue were used on English mantelpieces (46). One
European harbour cities present in the Palacio d'Ega in such skilfully painted tile resembles an emit'. This tile clearly
Lisbon. This palace was the seat of a harbour master around demontrates that De Nicolay's figures served as models for
1700. He commissioned the manufacturer to produce al'tists up to the l9th century. These expolt tiles wet'e made
tableaux depicting the harbours of Amsterdarn, Antwerp, in different sizes (15,2 x 15,2 cm.) to fit the standard folmat
Hamburg, Cologne, London, Rotterdam, Venice and ofthe English cast-ilon fireplaces. Alound 1900, a tile Ò

istanbul. Unfortunately, in the past, while the tableau ofthe factory in Utrecht manufactured tiles with Turkish hot'semen
last named hal'bour was being relocated, one side of the that bear resemblance to the manganese horsemen tiles of
painting was lost.2o (45) alound 1700 (47).2t Apparently, a fashion for olientalisrn
The last word about Turkish costume-figures on tiles has not had made such tiles popular once again.
been said. It is surprising that during the late 19th and the
early 20th century both Turkish dignitaries and 'Sat'acen'
horsemen come back in fashion for decorative put'poses. In

49
48 The istanbul Tulip called ibrahim Bey Ali (ibrahim Bey's scarler) from a Turkish tulip book
ca. 1725

50
The tutip in istanbul during lk-f
ì
the Ottoman period ï :
a\
Turhan Baytop (istanbul) i
\ ,;
Introduction ¡ \,
Asia Minor, the home of ancient deities, is also the home of
many bulbous plants. The Hittites, who lived in this region
t',
about 2000 8.C., used to gl'ow bulbous plants like onions,
garlic, leeks and saffron. They celebrated the anival of
spring, when the snow melted away on the plateaux of
t
Anatolia and the flowers began to appear, by holding spring \r
festivals. M.S. Al gives us the following information on the
names of the spring festivals of the Hittites: 'We know for a
certainty that the names of the festivals are Puruliyas and
An.tah.çum-sar. We have no idea what the former means,
but it is certain that the meaning of the lattel is bulb. This
word was originally Sumerian, and the suffix 'sar' is
sufficient evidence to show that it signifies a certain plant.'
T
çum-sar and sum.qikil-sar, observes H. Eltem, are the names
the Hittites gave to garlic and onions, respectively. The
above information enables us to connect An.tah.qum-sar
with a bulbous plant which blooms in spring. We believe
that this plant, whose flowers ornament the Anatolian
49 Kefe Lâlesi (Tulípa schrenkíi; photo: T. Baytop)
plateaux in the early spring, is the crocus, for to this day
people in Anatolia welcome the blooming of the crocus on
the plateaux because it heralds the end of winter. It is It is clear that in istanbul, during the Ottoman period,
reasonable to assume that the name of one of the spring bulbous plants were held in the highest esteem. Leaving
festivals of the Hittites was 'the Crocus Festival'.1 aside roses and carnations, one may note that for a number
The coming of spring is still celebrated in Turkey on 6 May of centuries the various forms of tulips, hyacinths, jonquils,
under the name 'Hrdrellez' and on this day people go on ranunculus, anemones and irises were the chief ornamental
picnics. In some regions (Adana, Diyarbakrr', Gaziantep, flowels of the orchards and gardens of istanbul. There is
Refahiye, etc.) a special pilafcalled 'çi[dem pilavr' (clocus clear evidence also that wild flower bulbs were brought from
pilaf) prepared with bulgur (cracked wheat) and çiþdem various regions of the Ottoman Empire to the palace galdens
(crocus) bulbs is eaten at Htdrellez.2 of istanbul. There is an order by Sultan Murad III ( 1574-
The home of the tulip is said to be Central Asia, but about 1 595), issued in 1 593 to the governol general of Marag, in

twenty types of wild tulip also occur in Anatolia. In addition which the sultan instructs the governor to collect from the
to these it is certain that a number of tulip bulbs were mountains of his district 50.000 bulbs of white hyacinths (aft
brought from Central Asia to Persia, Anatolia and even to sümbül) and 50.000 of the blue form (gök síiml:z/) for urgent
Europe by the Turks during the Turkish migrations.3 dispatch to istanbul.6
Tulip designs which are found on tiles excavated from the According to a folk legend, mentioned by the famous
Alaeddin Hill and on the ceiling ornaments of the Alaeddin traveller Evliya Çelebi, the tulip is made of the blood of
Palace (in Konya) point to the fact that this flower design Ferhad. The story of Ferhad and Qirin is set in Amasya. In
was iniroduced by the Anatolian Seljuks in the twelfth order to marry $irin, Ferhad first had to complete the task of
century and has been used ever since. The fact that no tulip bringing water from the other side of the mountain (Elma
design is found on the buildings, coins and works of art of Da!) to the town - by tunneling through the mountain!
the Byzantines proves that the tulip was not highly valued When he was on the point of achieving this difficult feat, he
before the Turkish invasion. It was obviously the Ottomans learned the news of $irin's death. Shocked by what he heard,
who brought the tulip to istanbul since tulip designs are he swung his axe and inflicted a fatal wound on his own
found on some of the buildings and fountains which were body. From his blood tulips sprang up. Today there is a
constructed soon after the conquest (in 1453).4 channel called 'Ferhad arasr' in the surroundings ofAmasya
Floriculture reached its height during the rule of the which some people still believe was made by Felhad.i
Ottomans. In the Surname of Murad III (ca. 1582), which The same Evliya Çelebi also relates that in the 1630s there
describes the 52-day long circumcision feasts of Prince were about 80 flower shops and 300 florists in istanbul,
Mehmed, the son of Murad III, the miniatures in the chapters which was also rich in vineyards and orchards. The gardens
on florists are of great significance in that they indicate the of the villas and waterside residences on the Bosphorus were
level which floriculture in istanbul had reached by the end of decorated with tulips and hyacinths. He remarts 'Lâlezar
the 16th century.s (tulip garden) excursion spot: The various kinds of tulip,

51
generally known as the 'Kalrthane Tulip', are found here.
One is intoxicated at the sight of this spot in the tulip
The genus Talipa in Ttrrkey
season.'8
The histoly ofthe European garden tulip appalently begins In the genus Tulipa two main subdivisions are recognized,
in the middle of the 16th century. Until recently it was the Eriostemones and the Leiostemones,In order to facilitate
thought that the Flemish diplomat Augerius (Gislenius) identification, we have arranged the eighteen Turkish
Busbequius, who was sent by Ferdinand I of Austria to species under these two subdivisions.rr
istanbul as ambassador to Süleyman the Magnificent ( 1520- Subdivision l: Eriosremones Boiss. Lowest leaf long, more
1 566), had played a crucial role in the introduction of the or less parallel-sided. Young flower or bud infundibular or
tulip in Eulope. This assumption was based on the mention more or less globose above the nallow, constlicted base.
ofthe tulip in Busbequius' four 'Turkish Letters' (Legarionis Perianth segments with hairy claws, the outer narrower
Turcicoe epistolae quator). In one ofhis lette¡s he relates and/or shorter'. Filaments unequal, the inner ones longer, all
that in the galdens of Edirne he saw an unknown flower, swollen at base. Ovary bears a small, narrow stigma.
with gorgeous colours, which the Turks called 'tulipan'.r
Busbequius' observations are as follow: 'We stayed one day Name: Region:
in Adrianople and then set out on the last stage of our l) T. biflora Pallas Eastem Anatolia (Van: Çuh pass)
joulney to Constantinople, which was now close at hand. As 2)7. humilisHerbert Easæm Anatolia (Van: Çuh pass)
we passed through this district we everywhere came across 3)7. orphanideaBoiss. Western Anâtolia (widespread)
quantities of flowers - narcissi, hyacinths, and tulipans, as ex Heldr.
the Tulks call them. We were surprised to find them 4) T. pulchellaFenzl Southern Anatolia (mainly Cilician
flowering in mid-winter, scarcely a favourable season. There Taurus)
is an abundance of nalcissi and hyacinths in Greece, and 5)7. sylvestrisL- Mainly in Western Anatolia
they possess so wonderful a scent that a large quantity of 6) T. saxatilis Sleber Western Anatolia lMuf la. Marmaris.
them causes a headache in those who are unaccustomed to ex Sprengel Sö[üt and Taqhca)
such an odour. The tulip has little ol no scent, but it is 7) T. thracica Davidov Thrace (Edime, istanbul and Tekirda!)
admired for its beauty and the variety ofits colours. The
Turks are vely fond of flowels, and, though they are Subdivision lI. Leiostemones Boiss. (Sect. Tulipa). Lowest
otherwise anything but extravagant, they do not hesitate to leaf lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, not parallel-sided.
pay several aspres for a fine blossom. These flowers, Young flowers campanulate to globular or stellate, rounded
although they were gifts, cost me a good deal; for I had at base. Outer perianth segments longer and wider than inner
always to pay several aspres in return for them.'r0 ones. Filaments without swollen, hairy base. Stigma
Originally, scholars thought Busbequius had written his generally wider.
letters during or shortly after his stay in the Ottoman Empile
(1555-1562). Recent lesearch, however, has revealed that Name: Regionr
they were most likely written (and published) between 1581 8) T. agenensis DC. Mainly in Southem Anâtolia
and 1589. By this time tulips were already known in Europe. 9) T. aleppensis Boiss. Southern and Eastem Anatolia
Busbequius can therefore not be considered the first ex Regel
European to write about tulips. Neithel did he introduce the l0\ T. armenaBoiss. North-eastern Anatolia
tulip to Europe.rr l1) T. clusiana DC. Western Anatolia (rare)
In May 1673 the Frenchman Antoine Galland tlavelled by 12) T. foliosa Stapf Mainly in Southern Anatolia
the same route as Busbequius from istanbul to Edirne and 13) T. julia C. Koch Eastem Anatolia
also recorded that he came across fields ofcultivated tulips; 14) T. mucroncua Fomin Eastern Anatolia (Erzurum: Oltu)
these are no longer in existence.l2 15) T. praecoxTen Northern and Westem Anatolia (rare)
16) T. sintenisii Baker Mainly in Eastern Anatolia
17) T. sprengeri Baker Nothem Anatolia (Amasya?)
The Istanbul Tulip
18) T. undulatifol¿a Boiss. Western Anatolia { izmir: Çe¡me¡
In istanbul, raising tulip cultiva¡s from wild forms began in
the time of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566). Most of the wild Turkish species are showy and worthy of a
They were then given a common name: 'Lâle-i Rumî' place in gardens, but they are not always easy to grow
(Ottoman Tulip). As all were obtained and grown in outside in cool climates since the bulbs require a warm dry
istanbul, we prefel to call them collectively the 'istanbul period in summer. In cool arcas they are best grown in a bulb
Tulip'. They had in common a characteristic shape, very fiame or alpine house.
different from the Eulopean tulip of today: almond-shaped, The epithets turcarum and, turcica have been used several
perianth segments with a long, slender and pointed tip. They times by botanists for Turkish tulips, understandably causing
have been described in detail and illustrated in a number of some confusion. These names can be interpreted as follows:
Ottoman manuscripts. la T. turcarum Gesner is a synonym of T. armena Boiss.
Today the istanbul Tulip, of which thele were about 1.500 T. turcica Griseb. is a synonym of Z. orphanidea Boiss. ex Held¡.
forms, has completely disappeared. We can only see it in Kunth is a synonym
T. turcica of T. acuminata Vahl ex Heldr.
pictures or read about it in manuscripts of the period. The T. turcicaRofh is a synonym of T. sylvestrisL.
reason why it ceased to be cultivated was the fact that ìt was
grown by only a few tulip enthusiasts.

52
they could not have been exported in such large quantities.23
The characteristics of the Istanbul Tulip
Unfoltunately we do not know by which methods or from
Çeyh Mehmed Lãlezaû, the well-known chief of the sultan's which wild species the istanbul Tulip, distinguished by its
florists (szr ¡llkûfeci) during the leign of Sultan Ahmed III almond-shaped flower with dagger-shaped segments, was
(1703-1130) gives us the following descliption of the obtained. It seems likely that the Eastern Tulip, which was
istanbul Tulip, which was obtained as a result of selection introduced into Europe between 1550 and 1560, was a wild
ovel a period of many centuries: The flowers are almond- species from Anatolia which was sold in the flowel markets
shaped, the tepals are dagger-shaped and the tips are pointed. of istanbul. There is little similarity between the Eastern
In the Ottoman period, the only tulips that were considered Tulip, which flowered in 1559 at Augsburg and which was
of high value were those with the above featules.rs namedTulipa tLtrcarLrm by C. Gesner in 1560, and the
The book of Çeyh Mehmed Lâlezarî titled Mizanü 'l-Ezhar istanbul Tulip. The pictule of the latter given by Gesnel in
(The Manual of Flowers) is composed in three parts. In the his De Hortis Gernaníae supports this belief. Fulthermore,
first part, the author cites the twenty chief leatures which there is sound infolmation indicating that the istanbul Tulip
make a cultival most valuable. Part two discusses tulip was of Cappadocian oligin.2a
cultivation and in particular the quality of soil required. Part
three deals with the genus narcissus (zerrin) and describes
seventeen characteristics ofits varieties.l6 The book was
translated into German in I 8 15 by H. F. von Dietz with the
title Wage der Blmnen.t1 W. S. Murray made a summaly irr
English of the German translation which he published under
the name Tlre Habit of Flowers.t8
Mehmed b. Ahmed Ubeydî, who wrote biographies of 17th
and 18th-century florists, and Tabib (physician) Mehmed
Aqkî both refer to Çeyhülislam Ebusuûd Efendi ( I 490- I 574)
as the earliest florist who raised tulips. He possessed a
particular variety called 'Nur-r Adn' ('The Light of
Paradise').re
As was recordedinthe Defter-i Liilezar-t ibrahim (The Book
of ibrahint s Tulip Garden), the only folm of tulip known in
istanbul befole the second Ottoman conquest of Baghdad (in
1638), was the saltraî líìle (the wild tulip). The histolian
Hoca Hasan Efendi, who accompanied the army of Sultan
Murad IV (1623-1640) on the easteln expedition, blought
l¡ack seven kinds of tulips fronl Pelsia and culLivated then iu
istanbul. Schmidt von Schwarzenhorn, the Aush'ian
ambassador', also brought ten kinds of tulips in 165 I . At
about the same time, tulip bulbs were brought fi'om Clete
and they became widely known as Cretan tulips.20
The origin ofthe old cultivars that are referred to as the
istanbul Tulip has not been estabÌished with certainty. Nor'
do we know exactly what stlains of tulip they wele obtained
50 An I 8th,-century miniaturc of a group of experts inspccting cultivars
fi'om. M. H. Hoog colnpares their acurninate tepals to those
of the Tulipa scltrenkii and argues strongly in favour of their
having originated from this species of tulip, which is native
The council of expert-florists and the chief-
to the steppe legions of the Crimea (49).21
florist of the sultan
Alter 1730 the forms oi the istanbul Tulip gladually
disappeared. Similar in flower shape - and still extant today During the lTth and 18th centuries, when the interest in
- is a single species of Tuli¡ta with long acuminate tepal tips, raising tulips (lâle) and nalcissi (zerrin) was at its peak, it
the Tu I ipa ac umínaÍ a.22 was the task of the chief-florist to control the activities in
The European botanist Clusius (1526-1609) mentioned two this prospering area. One such chief-florist whom we know
species of tulip that wele imported to Europe from the east about was Abdullah Efendi. He was appointed in the fìrst
and lecolded information about their place of origin. One of halfofthe 17th century by Sultan ibrahim (l 640-1648), as
them is the Kaffa Tulip which flowers early, and the other we ale infolmed by the book of Mehmed b. Ahmed Ubeydî,
one is the late flowering Cavalla Tulip. Because we do not which contains bioglaphies of flower glowers up to the
find the above names in the contemporary manuscripts beginning ofthe lSth century.25 Next, during the reign of
which mention the folms of the istanbul Tulip. we are Sultan Mehmed IV ( I 648- 1687), a council of expert-florists
inclined to believe that they were wild species of tulip. It is (encämen-i díiniç-i çükíìfe) was set up.26 This council, under
recorded that the bulbs of these tulips were sent to Europe in the presidency of the sultan's chief-florist (ser ç[ikíifeci),
sacks that were full to the brim, and were eaten by ignorant judged the new cultivars and assigned them their official
people who mistook them lor onions. But the genuine names.27 Only if a cultivar was perfect and faultless, did it
istanbul Tulips at that peliod wel'e so lare and expensive that receive such an official name. The new name, the

53
characteristics ofthe new cultivar, and the grower's name Ottornan-
were then registered in the catalogue of the council (50). Turkish name Turkish English
The names given to various tulip cultivars grown in Ìstanbul Al Krrlangrç Al Krrlangrç Scallet Swallow
were mostly Arabic or Persian (ol mixed A¡abic and Al Mücellâ Al Mücellâ Bright Scarlet
Persian) such as 'Nize-i Rummânî', 'Mir'at', 'Revnak- Altrn Sarrsl Altln Sansr Golden Yellow
bahE', 'Zevk-bahq', 'Srn-r Gülzar', but there were also some Behcet-i Çemen Çayrrrn Güzelligi Meadow Beauty
Turkish names such as 'Altrn Sansr', 'Bryrkh', 'Büyük A1', Berk-i Ra'na Güzel Yaprak Beautiful Leaf
'Cüce Moru', 'Ìbrahim Bey Ah' and 'Nar Çiçegi'. The Bryrklr Bryrklr Moustached
majority of these names reflected the graceful appearance or Büyük Al Büyük Al Big Scarlet
a distinctive feature of the flowers. Only a few tulips bore a Cam-r Gül-rcnk Gül Renkli Bardak Rose-coloured Glass
person's name. A list of the most renowned Ottoman tulip Cam-r Hurqid Hurçid'in Kadehi Hurqid's Glass
names, followed by their modern Turkish and English Cam-l Simim Gümüq Kadeh Silver Glass
equivalents, is given below:28 Cam¡ Zerrin Altrn Kadeh Golden Glass
Cevher-i Hayat Hayat Cevheri Essence of Life
Cüce Moru Cüce Moru Dwad's Purple
DüÍ-i Yekta Eqsiz inci Matchless Pearl
Ferah-efza Ferahhk Arttu'an Increaser of Joy
Ferah-engiz Sevinç Getiren Bringer of Joy
Feyz-i Seher Sabahrn Bollulu Prosperity of Dawn
Gül-i Qebab Gençlik Gülü Rose of Youth
Gtil-ruhsar Gül Yanaklr Rose-cheeked
HàIet-eîz.a Keyif Arttrran Increaser of Pleasure
iblahim Bey Ah ibrahim Bey Ah ibrahim Bey's
Scarlet
iqve-baz Nazlr Delicate Coquette
Kerem-i Bari Tann'nrn Lütfu Kindness of God
Klzrl Ktztl Scarlet
Kumaq-r Aqk Agk Kumaqr Tissue of Love
Lem'a-rFeyz Bolluk Prnltrsr Glitter of Prosperity
Leylâkî Leylâk Renkli Lilac-coloured
Mahbub Sevgili Beloved
Menba-r Hayat Hayatrn Kaynaél Source of Life
Mir'at Ayna Mirror
Muatiar Güzel Kokulu Fragrant
Nahl-i Erguvan Erguvan Çiçe!i Judas-tree Flower
Nar Çiçeli Nar Çiçeli Pomegranate Flower
Naz-dar Cilveli Flirtatious
Necm-i ikbal ikbal Yrldrzr Star ofFelicity
Nihal-i Gülgen Gül Bahçesinin Fidanr Slim One of the Rose
Garden
Nize-i Rummânî Nar Mrzralr Pomegranate Lance
Nur-r Adn Cennet Nuru Light of Paradise
Nur-r Behcet Güzellik Nuru Beauty's Light
Nur-l Cenan Gönül Nuru Light of Heart
Nur-l Saadet Saadet Nuru Light of Happiness
Nur-r Sefid Beyaz Nur White Light
Peyker-i Çiralan Qenlik Çehresi Face of Illumination
Peyker-i Elmas Elmas Çehresi Diamond Face
Peyker'-i Yakut Yakut Çehresi Ruby Face
Peymane-i Gülgûn Gül Renkli Kadeh Rose-coloured Glass
Reqk-i Elmas Elmas Krskandrran Diamond's Envy
Revnak-bahq Parlakhk Yayan Disperser of
Brightness
Ruy-r Mahbub Sevgilinin Yüzü Beloved's Face
Sahib-krran Sahipkrran Lucky
Saye-i Elmas Elmas Gölgesi Diamond's Shade
Saye-i Htima Saadet Gölgesi Happiness'Shade
Srrr-r Gülzar Gül Bahçesinin Srmr Secret of the Rose
Garden
51 The istanbul Tulip called Cüce Moru (Dwarf's Purple) fiom a Turtish
rulip book Sim-endam Gümüg Boylu Silver Glace
ca.1725 Subh-r Bahar Bahar Sabahr Spring Morning

54
gevk-bahq Istek Veren Instiller of Passion
Çua-r Yakut Yakut hrÉl Ruby Light
Çu'le-i Çemen Çayrr Alevi Meadow Flame
Vahid-i Gülzar Gül Bahçesinin Bir Unique One of the
Tanesi Rose Garden
Zerd'¡z Srrmalr Blocade
Zevk-bahq Zevk Veren Delightful
Zi-qan Çanlt Glorious ti !/

4â:. I
Illustrated manuscripts
Manuscripts have been preserved which give detailed -ti ..- t"
information about tulip cultivars, theil names, characteristics 'f ::Fl
and their growers.2e But those with illustrations are
relatively few, and then they often only contain a small
number of illustrations.30 The most important illustrated
manuscript with regard to the istanbul Tulip is an album
which plesumably dates from 1725.3t The original copy has
no title and the artist is not known.32 It contains coloured
figures of49 cultivars, each qualified by their special name
(50,51,52). The original is housed in a private collection in
Belgium but a facsimile of this precious album is presently
in the press in Ankara.33
53 Two çükufedans (vases for flowers)

Fixed market prices


Tulips were highly esteemed in istanbul during the filst
decades of the 1 8th century. The plices of bulbs leached
theil peak during those years. This peliod has been called the
'Tulip Era' ('Lâle Devri') by historians such as Ahmed
Cevdet Paqa and Ahmet Refik. They recorded that a single
bulb of the much sought aftel cultivar'1Ì4a hbub (Beloved)
could fetch 500-1000 Ottoman gold coins. In order to
prevent such inflationary increases the state officially fixed
prices by issuing price-lists. A surviving list, dated 1726,
gives the fixed prices of 239 cultivars. Another such list,
dated 1727, mentions 306 cultivals and the plices lixed for

52 The istanbul Tulip, Nize-i Rummânî (Pomegranate Lance) in a lâledan


ca. 1125 54 Three lâledans

55
each of them.34 The cultival Nlz,e-i Rummiinî (Pomegranate
Lance) appeals on both lists as the most expensive one (5).
A single bulb was valued at 50 piasters (7.5 Ottoman gold
coins).3s

Tirlip vases
Two kinds of vases were used by the Ottomans to display
tulips or other flowers: the lâledan (tulip vase) and the
Síikûfedan (flower vase). The lâledans ofcolouled glass
were made to hold a single tulip. They were about 20 cm
high, with a long, slendel neck and a globulal or dept'essed-
globular (like a clocus bulb) base (54,55). A figule ofthis
type of vase appears in an old album produced ca. l'725
which is known today as the 'Lâle Albümü' ('The Tulip
Album') (52).36 Vases fol only one tulip are actually very
rare. Representative specimens are on view in the Museum . |..: .,. ..
of Ethnography in Ankara. The Sükûfedans made of glass
were egg-shaped and had an enlarged mouth (53). They held
several flowers at a time and were not only used for tulips.
Surviving examples are not rare today. Many may be seen in
museums and private collections. Although the 1.500
varieties oftulip they displayed during the 17th and l8th
centuries ale all extinct today, these special vases (lâledan
and Eükûfedan) have foltunately survived and ale conserved
with great care in numerous museums and private
collections.3T

55 French engraving showing a sultan (Ahmed III?) and a plate wirh seven
lâledans s,ith tulips
(fronr M. G. Choiseul-Goufïer,Voul'uge pitÍoresc¡ue tle lu Grèce...ll,
plate 98, Paris 1822)

56
Tutips in Ottoman Turkish instances the violet, the cyclamen and the calendula are
mentioned. The same plefet'ence can be seen in Ottoman

culture and art Tulkish art. The four classical flowers of Ottoman art are the
same flowers which the gardenet'preferled. In art as in the
garden, other flowers were secondary. We can also observe
Y tldtz D emiriz (is tanbul) this parallelism in the folms of tulips used as decorative
motifs in different periods. The folm ofthe tulip in art
changes according to the gal'dener's taste in tulips. As time
Introduction passes, the egg-shaped tulip is leplaced by the longer,
Early sources do not provide us with much detailed pointed one. The longer the blossom the more highly prized
information about the interest the Turks had in flowers and it was throughout the lSth century.
in gardens in the pre-Ottoman period. It is only after the The tulip design, as it appears on various objects and is
establishment of the Ottoman Empire that we find more ernployed in various techniques, has a part near the stem that
substantial refercnces to this interest in the wlitings and looks like sepals, which do not actually exist in nature. This
visual representations ol the time. is undoubtedly the basal blotch. The Ottoman al'tist depicted
Although it is known that flowers wele grown in Turkish objects not as they look, but as they are. He stylized the tulip
gardens from much earlier times, the first tulip motifs in in such a way that the basal blotch, which is actually located
Turkish arts only appear in the 1 6th century. There is no inside the calyx, is visible to the viewer.
conclusive evidence that earlier decorative forms such as the The natulalistic tlend in Ottoman art established itself in the
fleur-de-lys, palmettes, etc., which some scholat's have second halfofthe 16th centuly. This was the period when
considered to be tulips, are in fact leally tulips. In other cases the Ottoman Ernpire reached the zenith of its military and
the dating may be wrong. Indeed, it was not until the l6th political power. Moleover, this was the time of its greatest
century that some degree of naturalism emelged in Ottoman artistic and architectural achievements. It was the era of
Turkish an. In this new style flowers were the dominant Sultan Süleyman the Magnificient ( I 520- 1566) - known as
motifs. This may be due to the fact that in Islamic art the Law-Giver (Kanunî) in Tulkey - and his architect Sinan.
figurative decoration was to some extent shunned. Generally Great artist craftsmen like the miniaturist Osman, the
speaking, religion did not actuaily forbid the human figure in calliglapher Ahmed Karahisarî and the illuminator Kara
art, but because worship of images was forbidden, figurative Memi, who at the same time was the director (nakkaqbaqr) of
decoration was not tolel'ated in religious books or on the imperial studios (naÀta çhane) in istanbul, flourished in
religious premisses. By contrast, floral decoration was very that brilliant day and age. The year I 550 was a turning point
much employed in every kind of arts and clafts. which saw the beginning ol a new tt'end in Ottoman art, and
Why were flowers so important for the Ottoman Turks? certain new techniques, such as the underglaze technique
Perhaps one answer is to be found in a little story which and the beautiful red colour of the tiles. The tulips of this
appears in several oltl rrraluscripts otl flowe¡s. While Qeyli period conform to thc tastc and artistic standards of the 1 6th
Necmeddin Hasan Efendi of the Sümbüliye dervish order century. They are short and rather round, very similar to the
was preaching a sermon, someone passed him a note, asking egg-shaped tulips still popular today in European countt'ies.
whether it could be said with certainty that any particular As I see it, this new tlend in Ottoman decorative al't came
person presently alive would go to heaven. At the end ofhis about at this time as a result of Kara Memi's individuality as
sermon, the Sheikh asked whether there was a gardener in an artist.
the congregation. A man stood up. The Sheikh then said, It may be noted that the iTth centuly did not contribute
'This man will go to Heaven.' According to one of the anything new to the representation of flowers, but the
hadiths, the oral tladitions of the Prophet Mohammed, number ofspecies depicted is gleater. However, the 18th
people will do in the after life, what they have enjoyed doing century was an important stage of development fol flower
in this life. Because flowers are deemed to belong to illustrations. The so-called 'Tulip Era' ('Lâle Devli')
Heaven, the gardener would go to Heaven in order to be able corresponds to the period of 'Tulipomania' in the
to cary on his work. Like many other flowers, the tulip also Netherlands. Both professionals and amateurs grew tulips.
had a symbolic meaning. Because it is written with the same The rich bought the different species of bulbs and had them
Arabic letters as appear in the name 'Allah', it was generally registered under theil own names. Amateurs of every social
taken to be a symbol for God.r Others held it to be the class were involved. Fishermen, barbers, shoemakers,
symbol for modesty befole the Almighty, because when the porters, calligraphers, the minister offinance, the
tulip is in full bloom it usually bows its head. Sheikhulislam (next in rank to the grand vizier and
The tulip was seldom depicted by itself; more often it responsible fol all matters connected with leligion), the son
appeared in the setting of a garden in spring. Scenes like this of Sultan ibrahim, some women, pashas, virtually evel'yone
may also be taken as an image of 'the Garden of Eden'. The including the sultan were enthusiastic admirers of flowers.
favourite flowers of the Ottoman gardens have their parallels The Ottomans prefelred their tulips to be in the garden rather
in art. For the Ottoman gardener only a few particular than confined in pots or vases. Books on gardening tell us
species of flowers possessed a high value. The tulip, together that only blossoms that were rather delicate and not likely to
with the rose, the hyacinth, the narcissus and the carnation survive long, wele picked and put in vases. Bulbs and plants
were the only flowers which were considered important. were sold, but cut flowers were not.
Other species were considered to be wild llowers. Sultan Ahmed III ( 1703- 1730) and his grand vizier
Accordingly they ale not noted in most sources. In some Nevgehirti (Damat) ibrahim Paqa were very fond of flowers,

57
especially the tulip. The tulip and the hyacinth, which had
travelled from Turkey to Europe in the 16th century, were
Manuscripts and their decoration
now re-imported f¡om Holland to their native country. The The texts as a source on the tutip
price of tulip bulbs was officially fixed to avoid prices In many respects old manuscripts are our most important
rocketing. The number of florist shops was limited. Famous source for the tulip. These texts help us understand the place
gardeners were appointed by the palace to maintain the flowers in general, and the tulip in particular, held in daily
quality of the flowers and to name the new species. During life. They also give information about the cultivation of
the reign of Ahmed III, $eyh Mehmed Lâlezafi, and later tulips, their various names, as well as the cultivators and the
during the reign of Selim III (1789-1809), Mehmed Açkî possessors of tulip bulbs. Most of these sources list names of
Efendi and Ubeydî Efendi wrote books on the subject.2 tulips, but do not provide illustrations. Only very few
The first appearance of famous tulips is known through contain pictures of the flowers they list and describe.
poems which give the date by means of the letters in the last Such was the importance of the tulip to the Ottoman Turks
verse (chronogram).izzet Ali Paqa wrote many verses ofthis that they established criteria by which the beauty of the
kind. Nedim, one of the most famous poets of the period, blossoms and the health of the plant could be judged. Çeyh
also includes such dates in some of his poetry. For instance Mehmed Lãlezatî inhis Mizønü 'l-Ezhar wrilten during the
he has written a poem in which a famous tulip called 'Nize-i reign of Sultan Ahmed III (1703-l'730) specifies rwenry such
Rummânî' is memorialized. Howeve¡, it is interesting that criteria. Mehmed Aqkî, writing in 1801, gives twelve.3
Nedim never refers to his beloved as a tulip, though he often
compares his loved one to a rose.
It is in the 18th century that we find some of the most
beautiful tulip illustrations, such as those painted by Ali
Üsküdarî and Abdullah Buharî. In their art signs of Western
influence appean, or what it is fashionable nowadays to call
Westernisation.
In the 19th century, flower motifs are even more affected by
Western taste. Different styles seem to have reached the
empire at the same time, and therefore become mingled in a
strange new style. The rococo style grew in strength and
with this trend the tulip, though never entirely forgotten, lost
its popularity and ceded its pre-eminence to the rose.
The tulip is depicted in different types of compositions in
Ottoman arts and crafts. The principal patterns can be
categorized in the following manner:
1 The tulip in the Calden of Eden. In this categury the lrain
motif is the fruit tree in blossom. Underneath the tree are
depicted different flowers that bloom in spring, such as
the rose, carnation, iris, hyacinth and of course the tulip.
Even though they are rather stylized, they appear in their
natural position in the garden.
2 Near a vase filled with different flowers. The vase is often
shown in an oval medallion. The tulip is preferably
represented as growing in a garden, while other flowers
are more often depicted in pots or vases. Occasionally
tulips also appear in a vase. Often a plate is placed
underneath the vase.
3 The mixed bouquet. In earlier compositions the flowers
nearly always appear in a vase. The type of vase differs
according to the style of the decoration. This type of
composition is often found repeated on tiles as a series of
bouquets. A typical composition ofthe 18th cenrury is the
'flowers in a niche'. After the 18th century, bouquets
bound with a ribbon are also in vogue.
4 The single tulip in a vase (often slender-necked). This is
typical ofthe 18th century.
5 Composite motif in decoration, especially on textiles and
tiles:
a The tulip set in another motif like the leaf or the
palmette.
b The tulip fil1ed with other motifs.
56 Tulip miniature from a redecorated manuscript
6 Together with traditional abstract motifs as endless I 8th century

surface decoration or in borders. Anhegger Collection, istanbul

58
Hele ale some of the clìaracteristics of the pelfect tulip: we can distinguish the tulip (F.lr). The miniatut'e depicting
The six petals should be long and equal in length. The outer gardenels carrying a small-scale gat'den serves as a document
and inner segments should close neatly, and neither the showing how flowers were an'anged in gardens. In still
filarnents nor the basal blotch should be visible. The pollen another miniatule ol the sarne manuscript. a ptocession
should not soil the flower. The stem should be long and crllying r giant irnage of a rulip is depicted lF.200r').s
strong. The leaves should be long, but they should not be so The appearance of a typical garden is pt'eserved in many
long that they hide the blossom. The blossom should stay miniatules depicting palace gardens. The same theme is also
erect and not bow its head. The coloul should be pure and found as a folm ofbook decolation. On the lacquered
clear. In the variegated forms, the glound colour should be binding of a book of the 1550s (Topkapr Palace Library EH.
of a pu|e white. Bulbs should be neithel' too large, not' too 285 I ) we see how a garden of the period looked. It is
srr.rall. Petals should not be jagged. Flowels should not be probably the work of Kara Memi, the director of the imperial
double. So an Ottoman cultivatol might just as well thlow studios. Here the tulips are t'ather short and lounded. They
away a perroquet tulip. differ significantly from the ideal tulips ol the 1 8th centuly.
The books on tulips, and on flowers in genelal, give the ln the rniniatules dated 1539 of the Be¡,np-, Menazil-i Sefer-i
names of the cultivated tulip and its descliption. Names were
only given to flowers which conformed to the norrr.rs set by
the above mentioned criteria. The flowels wet'e olten named
after the blossom, particularly its colour', though sometimes
the name lefelred to thei| cultivatol'or owner. Some names
are lather lomantic. But the flowels are never namecl alter a
lamous pel'son ol'someone to whom they were cledicated.
Some old manuscripts describe in detail the methods of
cr"rltivation. They give rnuch inf'ormation about l-tow to
conserve bulbs, and how and where to plant them. But they
nevel tell us about the methods of cultivation. It seems that
new tulips wele sirr.rply fbund by accident. The wold
'occurred' frequently appears in connection with a new
cultivar'.

The illustrations as a source on the tulip


Diffelent categolies of sout'ces help us understand the
importance of flowers in Ottoman social life. Some, Iike
miniatules, ale indirect soulces. Celtainly by the middle of
the l6th ccntury wc find in miniaturcs that histot'ical cvcnts,
towns and buildings, plants and galdens, and natut'e
generally ale depicted in a rathel natulalistic ot'r'ealistic
manner. Miniatures leveal to us the way tulips wele planted
in galdens, ol l-row they were alranged in vases.
In a miniatule of the Hantse-i Atoî, dated 1121 , in fhe
Walters Alt Gallery in Baltimore (W. 666), Ataî is depicted
as presenting his work to his master. The vase with flowers
in a niche in the backglound shows how vases were placed
in rooms and thus indicates the leal life basis of a
composition which appears in numerous wolks of alt. A
miniatule depicting Sultan Murad III ( 1574- 1595) in his
libraly, from the Binney Collection, dated 1582, and a
miniature in an album in the Topkapr Palace Library (H.
2148,F.11v) provide illustrations of how flowers rvet'e
actually an'anged in looms. Vases wet'e placed in different
positions alound ol on a low table, each vase bearing one or
mole flowels. Such miniatures also provide examples of the
thin-necked líiletkm, the tulip vase. In a miniatule in the
Divant Selinú ofthe 1520s, tulips appear in different kinds
of containels, there are even single tulips contained in large
bowls (istanbul University Libraly F. 1330 F.28r').a
From different soul'ces we know that thele was a guild of
florists and gardeners. In Mulad III's famous Surnante or
Book of Festirrities dated ca. 1582 (Topkapr Palace Library
H. 1344) diffelent guilds are depicted duling a pt'ocession 57 Tulip by Ali Üsküclarî
before the sultan. Flowel'cultivatol's take part in the daled 1728
procession with their flowels. Among the flowers displayed istanbull Universìty Library (T. 5650 F,7ó r)

59
Irakeyn of Matrakçr Nasuh (istanbul Univelsity Library T.
5964), which depict places the Ottoman army passed
Flower miniatures
through on campaign, thele are representations of flowers Many of the most beautiful depictions of flowers ale found
such as tulips and carnations, as well as valious trees. In in manusclipts. Some are of purely decolative chalacter and
these miniatures, not only can we recognize which plants ale make up part of the more ol' less abstract illuminations
depicted, but it is clear that the palticular' flola of the legion referled to above. Anothel category floral depiction is more
has been included. Accordingly in Baghdad we see palms, naturalistic but its purpose is still primarily to decorate the
whereas on mountains cedat's and pine trees appear. The book. These kinds of flowel designs ale especially found in
tulip is shown growing in the wild near Konya, but as a prayer-books and anthologies of poetry. In such cases the
cultivated flower in Seyitgazi near Eskiqehir in the garden of flowers have no particular connection with the texts. Flower
the convent.6 It is well-known that the tulip is native to miniatures were sometimes added to manuscripts at a latel.
Anatolia. In the above mentioned miniature it is shown in its date. Fol instance the flagment of a very old Koran in the
natural surLoundings. But what is of importance to a Anheggel Collection (istanbul) contains a tulip miniatule
historian is not where it grew wild, but where, when and by which can be dated to the lSth centuly (56).
whom it was cultivated as a garden flower, and then was The most important example of this category is a book of
intloduced to the whole world. poetly decorated by Ali Üsküdarî, the famous illuminator
and flower painter of the 18th century. Although Ottoman
artists seldomly signed theil works, most of Üsküdar'î's are
dated and bear his signature. In the above mentioned book
dated 1'728, alongside a wonderful tulip (57), nearly all the
species of flowers known in Turkish art ale depicted. These
pictul'es are among the most natulalistic flower miniatures or
portraits of the Tulip Era.
During the sarne period Abdullah Buharî, anothel eminent
miniaturist, painted flowers. One of his wolks is a signed
tulip (Topkapr Palace Libraly H. 2155). The length of the
blossom is exaggelated, owing to the taste of the per.iod, and
its twisted point appears to be a product of the artist's
fantasy. However, among tulips which ale still cultivated
one finds certain cultivars with similar twisted points, which
proves that the artist was, in fact, an accurate obselver of
nature (58,59).7
Flower decoration was generally very common during the
Otturrrarr pelit-rd. In any horne it would be common to find a
notebook whose cover was decorated with a flolal bouquet.

58 Tulip miniature by Abdullah Buharî 59 Tulip with twisted petals (april l99l)
I 8th century
Topkapr Palace Library, istanbul (H. 2155, F.40 r)

60
Such notebooks with decorated covers wel'e mass produced well as the text, are copied fron-r the same oliginal by altists
for populal use. This technique of wolkmanship was known or amateurs of various deglees of skill, which lesults in quite
as Edirnekíirî, a popular rococo style in fashion flom the end similar designs, but different standalds of quality in the
of the l8th to the 19th century. The style is vely similar to handling (Topkapr Palace Liblary Arda. 30; Nut'uosmaniye
the decolation on European peasant furnitule of the peliod. Liblaly 40'76,4077 and 4078).8
In some cases the book would be used by the ownel to copy As fal as I an aware, the only rnanusclipt that pl'esents
out poetry. The pages too are decolated with flowels in the pictures of tulips along with theil names, was formerly in the
same Edit'nekârî style. The flowels are not mentioned in the Ayverdi Collection but is now in the De Belder Collection in
poems. A rather well-known exarnple is the Sükûfencune \n Belgium. It contains 49 water'-colours ol some of the most
theMillet Liblary in istanbul (No. 1307). Anothet' less well- famous tulips. The names of the tulips are written near the
known example in a plivate collection in istanbul iRasih flowers.9
Nuli ileli Collection) may also be cited (60).
The tulip in book decoration: illumination,
kafi'ø, book-bindings
New flolal designs first rr-rade their appearance in manuscript
illurninations. Sholtly afierwalds they began to be applied in
other alt florn-rs. This was no coincidence. The nakkcrsan
(designels, paintels, decorators, ilh.rminators) of the irnpelial
stuclios had an immense influence on the work of all the
other artists in the palace. This lesulted in the splead of the
new designs and helpecl to establish a particlrlal'artistic tasie
thloughout the Ottoman territories. In rny opinion book
illuminations were often Llsed as pattern soul'ces lol othel'
techniques. It is interesting to note that the same
composition of a tulip between two large leaves as part of
the illurrinatorr of the copy of fhe Dittctn of Muhibbî
(pseudonyrn of Süleyman the Magnificent), signed by Kara
Memi and dated I 561 (istanbul Univelsity Liblary T . 5467),
occuls on tiles of the Rüstem Paqa Mosque clated 1562 in
istanbul, as well as in an ernbroidely olaround the year 1600
(61).r0 The design in the manuscript could well be the
prototype. In the same book decolation in the halkíirî (or
Italkíir) tcchnique sulrouncling the text often includes the
foul classical flowers of the period, the tulip, together with
the calnation, the lose and the hyacinth. But Kara Memi also
intloduced many new kinds of plants and f1owers wl-rich
were not usecl in pattelns of the ealliel altists, and which
were regarded as wild flowers by the gardenels.
The most widely used decoration on paper is tezltib ot
illuniination. The title page, the serlevha, of nearly all
handwl'itten books is nìore or less illuminated. The sulahs of
the Koran, and diffelent palts of any book, often begin with
an illuminated panel. At the end of the book there is often
another decorated page whele the date and the name of the
calliglapher' (hartut) ale recolcled. Only on rare occasions is
the name of the illuminator (nakka$ also given (Topkapr
60 Mixed bouquet from a çlikufenarre
late I sth century
Palace Libraly Y.332, F.537v; 62). This rnay be due to the
Millet Library, istanbuì (Ms. I 307, F. I 7 Ð fact that illuminations wele carried out in ateliers by groups
olclaftsmen. Illurninations are genelally in traditional
Still anothel categoly of flower painting is the illustrated styles, and consist of abstract ol highly stylized patterns. It
flower-book, a genle known asfhe çükûfenarr¿. These books was in the mid- l6th century that the natulalistic trend filst
have two aspects of intelest to historians. Their descliptive appealed in the decoration of books. The palace atelier
texts al'e inlportant as sources of information about flowers, created more natulalistic designs with real flowels, while
and they include some rather simplified flower designs rnany othel illuminators remained loyal followers ol the
which a|e meant to l'epresent certain cultivars. Among these tladitional style. In this period, besides the four classical
designs there ale some water'-colours of tulips. We know ol flowels many new flowers as well as the blossoming tree
tlre existence of different copies of the çükíifenanrc ploduced wele added to the l'epertory of the artists.
by Ali Çelebi in 1667168, all of which only survive in later The term 'tezhib' is delived h'om the Alabic 'zeheb' (gold),
copies. In all these copies there al'e watel'-colout's of flowet's and in fact gold is one of the most important n'raterials. The
with explanatory texts on the facing page. The designs, as designs ale generally on a golden ol dalk blue ground, and

61
Indeed the margins of manuscripts were filled with rich
floral halkârî decoration.
The 1 8th century blought much more to floral decoration.
The style is often still classical, but is mixed with interesting,
rather naturalistic flowers. In many illuminations there is a
single flower or a bunch of flowers. Sometimes the flowers
are in oval frames, but in most cases they arejust placed in
the centre of the abstract designs. In Korans and prayer-
books the medallions in the malgins are replaced by flowers.
In this form of decoration the tulip is often depicted at the
top of the bunch. The flower in the margin is sometimes in
an oval medallion (65).
From the end of the 1 8th century on, rococo is the
predominant style in Turkish decorative arts. Especially in
book illumination very lich decoration, often on a golden
ground, is preferred. Here too tulips are among the flowers.
On illuminated pages they are very small and rare. But in
margins, single tulips as well as tulips in mixed bouquets
replace the medallion of the classical period. Flowers often
appear in different shaped vases in rococo as well as the later
styles. In this type of decoration the tulip frequently occurs.
This folm of floral decoration can also be considered as
flower miniatures.l2
An interesting category of manuscript decoration is the so-
called 'katr'a', i.e. cut-paper and collage. The technique is
suitable for floral decoration, and in Ottoman manuscripts

ó1 Kara Memi, illumination from tîe Divant Muhibbî


signed and dated 1566
istanbul University Library, Ìstanbul (Ms. T. 5467)
This detail shows the prototype for the tiles in the Rüstem Pasa Mosque

the paper itself is not visible. The designs are done with thin
colltours in black. But in the lìaturalistic trelrd, Lhe l.iny
flowers often appear without a painted ground. The designs
produced in this manner look much more natural, even
though the flowers themselves are stylized. The tulip in this
kind of decoration often has a rather rounded form (e.g. in the
Topkapr Palace Library H.2248;63). The most interesring
tulip designs of this category are in the above mentioned
Divan-t Muhibbî (istanbul University Library T. 5467).Here
the tulips are not only used in illuminated panels and
borders. Illuminations had been surrounded by arrowlike
lines and decorations. But now Kara Memi, director of the
imperial studios, replaced them with small tulips.rl
Another type of illumination is The halkârî in which the artist
has a freer hand, even though here as in so many decorations
patterns are used. The ground is not painted, and the design
is painted with a thin, rather transparent layer of gold and
coloured lightly. In the above mentioned manuscript, the
margins are filled with designs inthe halkârî technique.
Here the tulip appears in many different shapes and
compositions. In a panel on the last page of a Koran
(Süleymaniye Library Laleii 16) the tulip is depicted in a
garden, under a tree in blossom (64).
The naturalistic style, although it was applied in most arts
and crafts of later periods, was not preferred for
illuminations by practitioners of the classical technique. On
the other hand, in halkârî floral decoration rather naturalistic
62 lllumination with bouquets from the last page of a Koran
designs were still used. In the lTth century very little had dated:1764/65
changed in the style and the designs of this technique. Topkapr Palace Library, istanbul (Y. 332)

62
there are tulips of differing quality and style. In two albums
of the 17th century (Bibliothèque Nationale Estampes Od.
26 and26a), though the design is rather simple, even the
bulbs are shown.13 In other such works the design is made
out of many layers of paper, and the flowers look very
natural. In a l7th-century manuscript in the British Library
(Or. 13763) tulips appear with other flowers in vases of
different shapes. Sometimes Íhe kan'a technique is used for
depicting a whole garden as on a richly decorated page in an
album in the istanbul University Library (F. 1426). Tulips
are shown together with other flowers under trees.la

63 Page ofan album illuminated with smaÌl tulips (detail)


lóth. century
Topkapr Palace Library, istanbul (H. 2248,F.6 r)

64 Halkârîpanel from a Koran


16th century
SüÌeymaniye Library, istanbul (Laleli ló)

65 Medaillon with mixed bouquet fromthe Terci¡me-¡ Resehat


dated 1753154
Topkapr Palace Library, istanbul (Ms .'f. 5467)

63
In anothel technique which cornbines fhe hall<ârî and katt'a,
the design is made with the help of cut-out paper patterns.
The pattern is used to coloul the diffelent palts ofthe design.
Shading and contours of gold are then added in the lnlkiirî
technique. In a manuscript copy of the poems of Muhibbî
fron'r the mid- 16th centlry this type of decoration is applied
(Topkapr Palace Liblaly R. 738m.). The rnargins of the book
look like a galden in which many dilfelent species of
flowers are situated at random. HeIe the tulip occufs as a
single plant in the galden (66). The blossom has the lounded q{
form, as in all decorations of the pel'iod.rs
EbrLt ot malbled papel is often used fol book-bindings ol the c{
.

decoration of panels of calliglaphy. In recent titnes ebru


with floral decolation, especially with tulips, becomes quite
colllmon. Some artists like Necmeddin Okyay, Sami Okyay
and Mustafa Üstün have proclucecl ebru with tulips.t6
In Ottoman bookbinding many cliflerent matelials and
techniques have been used. The classical type binding is in
leather with a central medallion and colner'-pieces. The
designs ale stamped, gilded and painted. In this categoly of
decoration, tulips in mixed bunches occur (e.g. Topkapr
Palace Libraly EH. 2690 and 2271).n Lacqueled bindings
are more suitable for'floral decolation. While in nany
exarnples the decoration consists of traditionally stylized
motifs, there ale also those with rather naturalistic designs.
The best known frequently cited example is the binding of a
hadith translation dated 1540 (Topkapr Palace Liblaly EH.
285 t ). The exteriol is decorated with tladitional hatuT,i
design. The intelior resembles the Galden of Eden format.
Blossoms of many different species are shown in theil'
natural forms. The blue and red tulips are egg-shaped.rs
Along with book-bindings thele ale some othel objects
decolated in lacquer technique. Most ofthem ale
calligraphels' items like pen boxes ol wlitiug pads. Orr a pcrr
66 Margin decoration with tulips frotnthe Dítunt Multíbbî
box dated 1757 in the Mnsenm of Tulkish and Islamic Arts I 6th. century
in Ìstanbul (No. 2 I 1 ), the inside clecolation consists of tulips Topkapr Palace Library, istanbul (Ms. R. 738n, F. I9 I v)
and other naturalistic flowels. Tulips ale also found on
embloidered bindings. An intelesting example of this is the by the same ailist (67). Tuþras of latet'peliods are often
bincling of a Koran fi'orn the seconcl half of the l6th century decorated with flolal bouquets in the style ofthe peliod. The
(istanbul Univelsity Liblary A. 6570). The embroidely in flowers ale placed around as well as inside the løfrn. These
gold and blue is on sharkskin. The colner quadlants ale filmans are exhibited in many museums, e.g. Museum of
re
decorated with tulips. Turkish and Islamic Arts 2234 (Mahmud II dated 7
Septernber 1745) with tulips among tl.re sclolls; Museum of
Turkish and Islamic Arts2232 (Mustafa III dated l7 ApLil
Illuminated documents and calligraphic
1 766) with a bunch of roses, anemones and tulips between
panels
scrolls which beal abstract designs; Museum of Tulkish and
The techniques ernployed in the decoration of books are also Islanric Arts 2294 (Mustafa II dated I 9 July 1809) with single
used for docurnents bearing the s¡"rltan's tuþrn, which is the tulips orr both sides of the tuþru and a tulip in a bouquet.2r
sultan's monogram and serves as his coat of arms. Filmans In Islamic cultule calligraphy plays an important role as a
(impelial edicts) are in the f'olm of sclolls which begin with decorative art. The lace of the Prophet Mohammed was
lhe tuþra.The tuþra and the space alound it ale usually never depicted.The Hilye-i ¡errf a written text desclibing
illuminated. Since firmans are olten dated to the day, they the Prophet, replaces his portlait. Especially aftel the I 8th
help us date the appearance of many decolations and century, fhe Hilye-i qerildecolated the walls ol almost every
diffelent styles. Ir{ras also occnr in the folm of single Ottoman home. The illuminators decorated the texts which
panels. The oversize ørfra of Stileyrnan the Magnificent of were w|itten by rnany famous callig|aphers. In this type of
the 1550s (Topkapr Palace Libraly GY. 1400) is one of the panel the open spaces were filled with medallions or'
most beautifully decorated examples, and is perhaps the bouquets. Sometimes single flowels were used. Hele too the
wolk of Kara Men.ri. Hele the tulips, depicted as they are in tulip is one of the favourite subjects.
nature, are among the most natulal in Ottoman alt.20 The
67 Tulra ol Murad lll. detail
arjzr of Mulad lll
('l'opkapr Palace Libraly GY. 1392) is late l6th century
perhaps the greatest, and is decorated in the same style and Topkapr Palace Library, istanbul (Ms. GY. 1392)

64
I -./
Calligraphic panels wele decolated in a similal manner. The
written text was neally always an ayeÍ (verse) of the Kolan.
The text is often lepeated in s¿'l1ll.ç and nesilt script which left
rectar.ìgular spaces fol decolation. In the case of the fo'lik
script, which is genelally written with a diagonal slant, the
open spaces are tliangular'. In these spaces we find some of
the rnost attractive tulips with other naturalistic flowels (e.g.
in Topkapr Palace Liblary H. 2288 and H. 2306; 68).
Flowers occur scatteled between the lines too. This kind of
calligraphy was not only employed in panels, but was also
pasted on cardboald (murakka) and collected in albums.

Ceramics and tiles


Tiles with tulip decorations
Ceramics and tiles, being arrong some of the best known
wolks of art, ale also the easiest to date thanks to the designs
and techniques employed on them. The new underglaze
technique used from the 1550s on facilitated naturalisric
decolation. Flowers, including tulips, rnade up palt ofthe
naturalistic decolation frorn this date on. The famous red and
the beautiful gleen cololu'found on tiles gave them a natural
and vivacions chalacter. It is interesting to note the use of
the tulip alongside tladitional nlotifs in tiles and celamics of
this period.
On tiles of the Takkeci Mosque in istanbul 11591 .¡. for
instance, the palmette motifs of classical art are fìlled with
flowers of the Ottoman naturalistic style, wheleas the rnain
field is filled with traditional motifs. The tiles of the Rüstem
Paqa Mosque ( 156 I ) are famous for theil tulips of very
clifferent types (69). Here too tulips are used together with or
68 Mixed bouquet fron a 'murakka'
instead of traclitional abstract motifs.22 Tiles decolated with Topkapr Palace Library, istanbul (Ms. H. 2306, F.37 r)
tulips are so numerolls during this centul'y that it would be
nearly irrpossible to compile a complete list of them. Neally belongs to the 1590s, it is partially decoratecl with 18th-
all irnpoltant buildings ale decorated with tiles, and on century tiles from the Tekfur Salayr workshop. A typical
nearly evely one ofthem the tulip is an irnpoltant important l Sth-centuly tulip with a lose and a carnation in rococo style
motif. This type of decoration, along with trees in bloorn, is depicted in a panel ofthis rnosque (70).
roses and tulips, even appears on a small tile tombstone.23
The exceptionally high technical quality of Tulkish tiles Ceramics with tulip decorations, and ceramic vases
lasts fi'om the I 550s to the end of the century. In the 1 7th Ceramic aft is one of the most highly esteemed of Ottoman
century the coloul begins to fade. As the century proceeds arts throughout the world. This reputation is well deserved.
only bluish colours remain, the glaze is cracky and not as The best of the tiles and ceramics of the classical period
clear as before, and yet the floral design becomes even come from the iznik wolkshops. Here too the naturalistic
richer'. Many new flowers begin to bloom on the tiles. The trend begins towards the mid- l6th century. The first tulips
beginning of this period is marked by the production of the appear on the blue-white ceramics dated 1535-40. The tulips
tiles of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque (ol Blue Mosque) in ale depicted in vases, and as complete plants in nature.
istanbul, dated to the first years ofthe century. Gleat panels Sometimes they occur on sclolls as well. On such ceramics
with flolal designs alongside lepeated smaller designs we observe how vases were arranged on small tables. None
include many tulips in the red colour which has not yet of the vessels on the ceramic forms are called vases, the thin-
disappeared. necked ones are sürahis (bottles), the wide-necked ones are
The Topkapr Palace is perhaps the most remalkable complex called kavanoz (jars). In fact, in many miniatures flowers
for the study of tiles. The building activities of the palace appear in cel'amic containers of almost any form.
began in the second half of the l 5th centuly, and continued In the I 530s new colours were added to the blue and
as long as it was used as such. The same is true of its turquoise. Till the mid-16th century pale green and violet
decoration. Consequently, tiles ofthe whole intervening remained the predominant colouls. The tulips found on this
period have been used in the different buildings of the category of ceramics have the same forms as in the second
complex. In l Tth-centuly tiles of the Topkapr Palace the half of the century. An interesting example of the multiple
design of the tulips is acculate and lich, but the only use of the tulip design is a bottle owned by the Alessandro
lernaining colour is blue. Bruschetti Foundation in Genoa. Tulips as whole plants
A revival of the alt of tilemaking occuned in the I 8th alternate with vases containing tulips. Tulips are even part of
century. Although the Mehmed Ala Mosque in istanbul the decolation of the vase design.2a

66
70 Tiles from the Mehmed Ala Mosque, istanbul
18th. century

Slip ware and especially the polychrome underglaze


ceramics ofthe 16th century are rich in tulip designs.The
design of these tulips does not differ much from designs on
contemporary tiles. The tulip's beautiful red colour, typical
of this period, accords with the flower's Tulkish name lâle,
which is derived from lâ1, the Persian word for red. In the
17th century the tulips are similar in design, but the earlier
beautiful clear colour is gone. In later periods the iznik
ceramics were replaced by those of the Kütahya and
Çanakkale workshops whele the naturalistic designs were
seldom used.25

c Ottoman glass and the tulip vase


Special vases are among the most important items connected
with tulips. The typical tulip vase had a thin neck and a
rounded base to hold sufficient water for the flowers. If
numerous flowers were required indoors, several vases
would be placed side by side. In many instances the vase
was designed with an accompanying plate underneath it.
Most surviving vases ale of glass and date from the end of
the 18th to the 1gth century. But we know fi'om miniature .

representations that glass vases were used for tulips earlier.


Nearly all the extant eallier examples are in ceramic. These
69 Tulip decoration on tiles of the Rüstem Paqa Mosque. istanbuJ t l56l) have been discussed above in connection wiih ceramics
ca.1566-1570 bearing tulip decorations.

67
Although much is known about glass making in earlier
times, none of the fine vases preserved in museums and
Painted wall decoration
private collections are earlier than the I 8th century. This In Turkish alchitecture the upper parts of interiols
may be due to theil fragility, as well as to the fact that commonly bear painted decorations. Only a few original
keeping flowers in a vase was not the most popular way of examples of these earliel painted decorations still exist
displaying them. In catalogues only the wide-necked ones today. This is due not only to the decay of the plastel on
are described as vases. Thin-necked vases are often mixed walls and ceilings, but also because in many buildings the
up with the gülâbdan, the bottle for rose-water. However, in decoration was renewed according to the taste of a later day.
many works of alt a single tulip is shown in a vase of this For instance, in the mosque of Sultan Selim I ( 1 5 1 2- I 520) in
kind. In an iliustrated Tulip Book the famous red tulip called istanbul the ceiling of the müezzin's lodge was redecorated
'Nize-i Rummânî' is depicted in such a vase.26 The same in the 1 8th century. The border consists of caftouches filled
type of vase is recorded in different materials and decorated with bunches of flowers.
with different techniques. On a marble tombstone relief, The most elaborate collections of painted flowers date from
da|ed, 1739/40 in the cemetery of the Hadrm ibrahim Paqa the 1 8th century. The so-called Fruit Room or Breakfast
Mosque in Silivrikapr (istanbut), we find an 18th-century Room of Ahmed III in the Topkapt Palace is richly
tulip in a typical thin-necked tulip vase together with rich decolated with panels on which are depicted different kinds
floral decoration. of fruit and flowers in vases. The flowels are in bunches,
Some of finest vases are embellished with the filigree which is very different from what we know about the
technique, which has the rather romantic Turkish name Turkish way of arranging flowers one by one in vases. This,
'ÇeEm-i Bülbü1', meaning 'Nightingale's Eye'. The Topkapr togethel with the style of the paintings, is a sign of Western
Palace Museum as well as some private collections have artistic and cultural influence. The tulips which are very long
thin-necked as well as wide-necked Çeçm-i Bülbül vases. and sharyly pointed resemble arrows (71.).
The slender-necked vases which appear in a 17th-century The same type of decoration can be observed in various
miniature and are filled with tulips seem to be deco¡ated techniques. Beautiful examples were carved in marble
with ÇeEm-i Bülbül fihgree27 especially as decoration for fountains and tombstones. On a
Another, rather ¡ich category of vases is the so-called lacquered book-binding signed by Ali Üsküdar'î (Ayverdi
'Beykoz ware'. In the Ethnographical Museum in Ankara Collection) the same composition of flower bunches in oval
there are several thin-necked vases produced in different medallions occurs (72).
colours. Some of them, although similar to vases which From the end of the 1 8th centuly on, ceilings of palaces and
appear in painted and sculpted works of art, are described as houses wele decorated with flowers. But in such
gülâ.bdan.2z Only the rather wide-necked ones are described ornamentation the tulip rarely occurs, having been replaced
as vases. In the larger museums there are nunÌerous by other flowers.
examples of this category. Since Beykoz glassware is very
popular amongst collectors, many specimens are found in
private collections.2e
Marble and stone
The use of ca¡ved stone in Anatolia is as old as recorded
histoly. Pre-Ottoman Tulkish buildings are no exception to
this long tradition ofalchitectural decoration. On the other

71 Painted wall decoration from the Yemis Odasi (Fruit room) of Ahmed III,
Harem ofthe Topkapr Palace, istanbul
I 8th century

68
hand, since the capital of the early Ottoman period was not
rich in stone, blick and teü'a-cotta were first employed for
architectural façades. Nonetheless, eventually in Edirne, and
then in istanbul after the conquest, stone became the
standard material for façades of imperial Ottoman buildings.
The naturalistic trend, however, is not much in evidence in
the decoration on these monumental buildings.
Smaller constructions such as public fountains (çeçme and
sebil)have the finest decoration in carved stone, ol more
precisely in carved malble. They were calved like exquisite
jewels, especially after the I 7th century. By the I 8th
century, building and dedicating fountains was becoming
more and more popular. In evely corner of Ìstanbul, public
fountains, some small-scale, others quite monumental, were
constructed. Among the best known are the Ahmed III
Fountain near the entrance of the Topkapr Palace, the Saliha
Sultan Fountain in Azapkapt, the Tophane Fountain and the
Bereketzade Fountain. They all had in common a rich
surface ornamentation. Decoratively calved marble bore
their inscliptions in beautiful caliigraphy. Almost no space
was left without decolation, most of which was of a
natulalistic character. Potted trees, bowls of fruit and vases
with flowers embellished the shallow niches which broke up
the wall surfaces. In the I 8th ceniury this scheme is also
found in the painted decolation of interiors. Most of the
monumental or richly decorated fountains date from the I 8th
century. The vases which appear are filled with a great
variety of flowers. The centre of the flolal bouquets is often
filled with roses, while the tulips in the upper part look like
an'ows. They resemble the ideal tulips of the Ottoman
gardener (73).

72 Lacquered binding of a poetry album signed by Ali Ûsküdarî 73 Flowers in a vase, marble decoration on the Saliha Sultan Çeqmesi
I 8th century istanbul (detail)
Ayverdi Collection, istanbul 18th century

69
., I ùtt
,, t
Jr t.

74 Marble tombstone decorated with single tulips in vases


dated 1746/4',7
Cemetery ofthe Hadrm ib¡ahim Paqa Mosque, Silivrikapr

75 Tulip decoration on a marble sarcophag


End of the I 6th. certury
Cernetery oI tlre Piyrle Prsl Mosque. isrunbul

10
Tombstones are a second important source for tulips carved Anatolia we find much latel carpets which resemble the
on marble, especially as most of them are dated. Naturalistic 16th-century Uqak carpets with floral rnotifs. But their'
flowers appear on tombstones much earlier than on designs are of a more geometrical character. Most Ladik
fountains. Some examples from the l6th centuly ale pl'ayer-rugs are also of a latel date, and tulips are among
decorated with stylized tulips (74). Towards the close of their typical patterns.
the l6th and throughout the 17th century, the tulip is part Another category of artefact which uses tulips for'
of the regular floral decoration found in graveyards. decoration is the kilim or the woven carpet. The production
Generally speaking, the relief is not very high, and the technique, however, does not allow lound lines, and hence it
characteristics of the flower ate merely indicated by a few is not easy to employ naturalistic flower designs. For the
simple lines. most part, kilims can be defined as folk art. Nonetheless,
The tombstones of the 18th century are much richer in floral there is a gloup of kilims from the 17th century which
design, and the relief is much higher. Some of them employ flolal designs with rounded folms and al'e woven
resemble small-scale copies of fountains of the same period, with such fine technique that it is possible io identify
rather than tombstones. Looking ât them we are not individual flower species. In this categol'y known as
reminded of death, but perhaps of Paradise. One remarkable 'Ottoman palace kilirns' because of their resemblance to the
example of such floral design is provided by the tomb dated Ottoman palace carpets, one of the preferred motifs was the
l'/46147 and located in the small cemetely of the Hadrm tulip. Of the few surviving examples two ale in the Ulu
ibrahim Paqa Mosque in Silivrikapr (istanbul). On the head Cami of Divriþi, others in Gümüq near Amasya and in the
and foot stones ale carved flowers in vases, a fi'uit tree and Army Museum in Ingolstadt (Germany).r2
fruit in bowls. But the most interesting detail is the single
tulip in a thin-necked vase which is repeated on both sides Tulips on Turkish textiles and clothing
of both stones (75).
Although few examples of painted marble are extant today, The tulip is among the favourite motifs ernployed as
we may safely assume that such ornamentation was not so decoration on Ottoman textiles and reproduced thlough
rare in the classical Ottoman peliod. The scarcity of different techniques. Textiles used for clothes such as
surviving specimens may be due to diffelent forms of caftans, shirts or ¡aluars (shalwars, baggy trousers) are
cleaning or dusting. woven with an infinite valiety of patterns. Fot' cushions or
But on some marble tombstones and sarcophagi the coloured prayer-rugs they were prepared as special panels. Therefole
decoration is still visible. In the türbe (mausoleum) of Piyale the designs differ greatly. Diffelences ale dué also to the
Paqa in Kasrmpaqa (istanbul), the painted decoration is matelial used ol the technique.3s In all cases the tLrlip plays a
flo¡al. The painting is often combined with carved designs major lole in the design. On velvet the designs are not as fine
on the same surface. Carved tulips occuÏ together with as on silk fabrics such as serenk (blocade), allas (satin),
painted ones. On a tombstone inthis türbe tulips glowing kemha (brocade), etc. Most fabrics only survive in
undel a tree in blossotn recall numel'ous tiles of similar fi'agmcnts. Thc clothes of the sultans wele preserved in the
design.3o palace, though sorne of them were placed in their tombs.
Consequently, the Topkapr Palace Museum has a lich
collection of caftans and other clothes of the sultans.3a This
Carpets and Kilims includes a wide variety of representations of tulips on
Turkish carpets hold a speciai place in the history of Turkish textiles and embroideries. A ìarge amount of silks and
arts and crafts. Owing to their production technique, their velvets has also survived and may be viewed in museums
decolative patterns, even when they include flolal motifs, and private collections.
have a stlongly geometrical character. As the naturalistic Some of the most plecious textiles wet'e used for the caftans
trend in Turkish arts becomes popular, floral designs begin of the sultans. But the tulip is found on matelials used for
to appear in carpets too. In the 16th and 17th centulies many other garments too. On a safin Vlvur in the Topkapt
carpets with floral motifs were produced. Typical Museum (131512) groups of a tulip and a carr'ìation are
compositions of floral decoration such as the fruit tree in scattered over a beige ground.35
blossom with groups of flowers underneath, flowers in vases Talismanic shirts wele worn by lhe sultans to protect them
and flowels as part of abstract designs are all found in these flom all kinds of evil. These cotton or linen shirts were
carpets too. And here as well the tulip is one of the favourite decolated with Kolanic verses and prayers. Tulips in the
flowers. The form of the tulip is rather stylized and to some classical style are part of a floral design on the back of a shilt
extent depends on the number of knots employed in the in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts in Istanbul. The
weaving technique. shilt is dated to about 1400 by the museum, and supposedly
Most examples are found on the Ladik and Uqak type belonged to Sultan Yrldtrtm Bayeztd I ( 1389- l402) simply
carpets. In some multiple-niche Uqak player-rugs dating because it was obtained fi'om his türbe.Bùllhe tíirbe was
from the 16th and the 17th centut'ies, the tulip has a rather lebuilt much later and the sultan is not the only pelson
natural form, whereas on the bol'der of an l Sth-century Uqak buried there. In fact, on the basis of stylistic clitelia the date
calpet, it appears with a more geometrical character. The of the shirt cannot be earlier than the mid- 1 6th century.
two multiple-niche prayer-rugs of the Museum of Turkish Leather is another material used for clothing. The leather
and Islamic Arts from the mid-16th century ale similal in caftan in the National Museum in Budapest belongs to the
design. Each of the niches has in the center an oval l6th century and is a unique work. There are cut-out designs
medallion with a bouquet of diffelent flowers.3r In Centlal of flowels in the lining which is also of leather. Among them

7I
78 Embroidered cover -J
76 Tulips and canlations on the leather binding of an European book lóth century
dared I 549 Burton Yost Bery Collection, Chicago

72
--'zii.?pøffi t{ -."t :., .,1 .
a t, .,i
2;
,:r"i.
iiir:i,í*,r' t:ti
r:l:
:|i..
, ,:
¡!.h'.
:)r'
,/./;
ï:t
L
L,-
"-: :
r1
.;:.-;..,;"
t ,¿ t" ?.r'.. I
'ti' ':.'tj, " !
. ,ir'
f,
't/. :
í.t;
v¿ '/t
.;a
174 ft::
t'. {2-
"j, ,
:,.:..
:. ,Ji:
',.'
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r'
; .1
'):. :)..1)'
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i,'i ' .;:tl t.:'' :it
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: )., ,..i , ,' , .' ;:iar
'1 /" t. . twÍ
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.-.."i¡1¡: r''::.: ; ::::.
.. rr_':, . lr. :, . -.,
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.:i':
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the tulip is recognizable in a vase with some other flowers.36 form of decoration, and the red of the tulips of some r-ather-
Even leather shoes and boots wele decorated with flower early examples are still as bright as when they were first
motifs. There is the example of a tulip embroidered on the embroidered. Two covels fi'om the 16th century are among
top of a single surviving shoe. Other shoes bear stamped the richest examples (Topkapr Palace Museum 3l/44 and
decorations in lobed oval medallions. The design was Washington Textile Museum1.22). The l6th-century cover
stamped on the leather befole the shoe was folmed. It is in the Burton Yost Berry Collection (Chicago) is most
intelesting to note a similar design with tulips and carnations interesting for its design which imitates that of tiles in the
on the binding ofa European book dated 1549 (76).31 Rüstem Paça Mosque and,fhe Divan-t Muhibbî discussed
For cushions the preferred material was velvet. Tulips often above (78). An 18th-century embroidery in the Petsopoulos
appear alongside the more popular carnation on cushions of Collection ploves that the tradition was still alive at that
various dates. They turn up in almost any collection of time, although the tulip design in this case is much
Islamic art. Woven flool coverings are rather rare. They rougher.3s
imitate the designs on textiles used for clothes. But the Embroidered prayer-rugs were indispensable for the
genelal compositions are like those employed on carpets. tlousseau of a Turkish bride. Often it was her own
handiwork. In the trunk of every old family in Turkey an
embroidered player-rug is to be found, even if it is of rathe¡
Tulips on embroideries
simple workmanship. Whenever the young women
Alongside simple embroidered objects, some ver.y richly producing the embroidery had enough time and skill, as well
emb¡oideled articles are to be seen in museums and private as the money to purchase finer material, the final result was
collections. Various accesso¡ies for dlessing are r.ichly a wo¡k of art. Fine tulips ale embroidered on a pr.ayer-rug of
embroidered. But the richest embroidelies occur on prayer- the 1 8th century in the Anhegger Collection in istanbul. (77).
rugs, quilt covers, cushion covers or fhe bohça (the square-
shaped wrapper for a bundle ofclothing).
The largest group is the quilt cover. Museums and private
The tulip in war and on war trophies
collections in many countdes have large quantities of them. The Turks decorated their arms and armour', as well as other-
Usually the whole cover is embroidered with a border objects used in war, with flowers. War trophies make up an
enclosing the overall pattern. Flowers are the most common important part of the Turkish works of art preser.ved in the

77 Embroidered prayer rug (detail)


I 8th century
Anhegger Collection, istanbul

74
museums of Central Eulope. In these collections we find not Mohacs in 1687 is decorated with flowels including the
only objects needed directly for fighting, but also evidence tulip. The flora1 compositions at'e very similar to those on
of the large amounts of equipment carried by the al'my: tiles. The design consists of a series of niches filled with
bottles lor water made out of diffelent matel'ials, decorated floral pattel'ns and an oval medallion in the center'. This
spoons, player-rugs, documents and ofcourse the Kolan. design is also comparable to the two prayel'-rugs of the
And all these with tulips for their decolation. Even the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts discussed above. There
saddles of holses were covered with velvet woven in a are similar tents in the Museum of Krakow in Poland; a
special form and with tulips in the design.3e museum in Vienna has another example of a 17th-century
The helmet worn by the sultan is at times a masterpiece of tent with tulip decorations.a2
thejeweler's claft. A l6th-century helmet in the Topkapt
Palace Museurn has large golden tulips with precious stones
Final word
in the center.ao
The shields are often made of iron ol' coppel'. But there are The tulip oliginally set out fi'om Turkey and then returned
also many wicker shields with a metal boss for protection. centuries later to its native land. Pelhaps more than any other
The osier branches al'e woven around this metal centel like a flowel it has entered the daily life of the people. The
basket. This part of the shield often beals floral decorations. gardenel, in the hope of going to heaven, planted tulips.
On exarnples from the 16th century, tulip motifs frequently Turkish women embroidered tulips as a pastime or to earn
appear'. Interesting specimens may be seen in the Topkapt money. It was nearly the only way they had of expressing
Palace Museutn, as well as among the war tlophies in their thoughts and leelings. Women knitted them on socks,
different European museums.4l and produced fine flowels of lace work. Theil husbands,
Impelial tents al'e among the most interesting objects in brothers and fathers carried items decorated with tulips when
these collections. They are made of felt and are often they went to war. By embroidering tulips women offeled up
decorated in appliqué technique. In the collections of the a prayel' for the sale return of their" menfolk. It would
Military Museum of istanbul, the Topkapr Palace Museum pelhaps be an easier task to list Tulkish works of art which
and many museums of Central Europe there are complete do not employ flolal decoration. In any case, reviewing the
tents or irnportant fragments. A tent in the Army Museum in wide-ranging decorative use to which flowers such as the
Ingolstadt (Germany) which was captured at the Battle of tulip were put, has given me a great pleasule.

75
Bibliography: Gtaft, C. v ande, A gne s B lock - Vo nde Is ttic ht e n vrie ndin, Ulrecht

Tulips portrayed. Tulip trade in Holland in the 17th century 1943.


Hall, A. D., The Genus Tulipa,Lond,on 1940.
Helmus, L. M., 'Drie contacten met zilversmeden', A. M. Koldewey
(ed.) Irt Buscoducis Kunst uit de Bourgondische tiid te's-
Anonymous, Ileydense Afgoden, Beelden, TempeLs en Offerhonden; Hertogenbosch - De cultuur van late middeleeuwen en
met De vremde ceremonien naar elcks landîs tvijse,Haailem renaissance - Bijdrzrgen, Maarssen & Den Haag 1990, 473- 481.
1646. (New edition by E.K. Grootes, Deventer 1987.) Hondius, P., Dapes inemptae, Of de Moufe'schans / drtt is, De
Anonymous, Traité des Tulipes, avec la mattière de les cultiver, soeticheydt des bvyten-levens [ ... ] ,Leyden 1621.
Paris 1678. (In duodecimo.) Kaiser, W.-D. & R. R. Vetter, Na rzissus und Tulipan - Über alte
[Ardène, J.-P. de R. d'], 'Traité des Tulipes', Traité de la culture des und neue Blumenzwiebeln, Stuttgart 1985.
Renoncules, des Oeillets, tles Auricules et des Tulipes,Patts Kampen (et fils), N. van,Traité desfleurs à oignons, Haarlem 1760.
1754,345-413. (German edition Regensburg 1764.)
[Ardène, J-P. de R. d'],Traité des Tulípes, qui non-seulentent réunit Krelage, 8.H., Bloemenspeculatie in Nederland De tulpomanie
tout ce qu'on avoit précédemment écrit de raisonable, mais est van 1636-1637 en de hyacintenhandel 1720-36, Amsterdam
augmenté de quontité de remarques nouvelles sur I'éduccuiott de 1942.
cette bellefleur, Avignon 1760. (2nd edition 1765; not identical Krelage, 8.H. De patnfleÍten vãn de Tulpenwindhandel 1636-1637,
with the above publication.). DenHaag 1942.
Bergström, I., 'Een tulpenboek, geschilderd door Jacob Marrel / Krelage, 8.H., Drie eeuwen bloembollenexport - De geschiedenis
Jacob Manel's earliest tulip book - hitherto unknown' ,Tableau, van den bloembollenhandel en der Hollandsche bloembollen tot
vll,2, 1984,32-49. ./938, Den Haag \946.
Besler,8., Hortus Eystellensis [...], Eichstätt & Nuremburg 1613. Levey, M., The World of Ottom.an Art, New York 1975.
(Reprinted 1621, 1640 and I 7 13. Facsimile replint Munich I 964. Levi d'Ancona, M., The Garden of the Renaissance - Botanical
Edition \¡/ith only the illustrations in facsimile, introduction by Symbolism in Itûlian Painting, Florence 1 977.
D. Vogellehnel and commentary on the identifications by l.lartels,Z. R. M. W. von , Augerius Gislenius Busbecquius - Leven
G. Aymonin, L'Herbier des quatre sttisons [.../, Paris 1987; en werk van de keizerlijke gez(tnt aan het hof van Süleyman de
Der Gûrten van Eichstäü, München 1988.) Grote - Een biografische, literaire en historische studie met
Blunt, W., Tulipomania, Harmondsworth & Melbourne 1950. editie van onuitgegeven teksten, Dissertation Groningen 1989.
(Revised edition Tulips and Tulipomania,London 1917 .) Mourik, 8., Staatkundige Historie van Holland [...], XXXXVI,
Bol, L. J., Bekoring van het kleine,Amsterdam [1963]. Amsterdam 17-19, 100- 104.
Bry, J. Th. de, Florilegium Novvm, hoc est Voriorvm Maximeque Munting, A.,Waare Oeffening der Planten, Amsterdam 1672. (2nd
Rariorum Florvm ac Plantat'vm Singvlariutn vnct cvm svis edition Leeuwarden I 682.)
Radicibvs & Cepis Eicones, ¿ilíSenter aere sculptoe eî ad vivum Obel, M. de l' (Lobelius), Plant(trum seu Stirpíum Historia,
ut plurimum expressae New Blumenbuch 1.../, [Oppenheim] Antwerpen 1576.
161 1. (2nd enlarged edition Oppenheim I 612. Various additions Obel, M. de l' (Lobelius), Kruydtboeck ofi bescrryvinghe van
up to 161 8, reprints with dilferent titles 1626, Florilegivm allerleye Ghewassen, Kruyderen, Hesteren ende Gheboomten
Renayohlm et Avilvm 1.../, Frankfurt am Main 1641 pub, by /... /, Antwerpen 1581. (See also Gobelius 1581/1591)
Matthaeus Merian, l1 I 0, 17 7 6.) Oosten, H. van, De Neederlandsen Bloem-hof, Of de Naauw-
Busbecquius, A. G., Itinera Constantonopolitanum et Amasianum keurig,e Bloemist. Verhandeling Van de Culture cler Tulpen,
[... ] ad Solimcumum Turcarum Imperatorenl, Antwerpen 1581. Neevens de wyze om die wel te kweeken, mitsgaders haare
Chesnée Monstereul, De la, Le Floriste Français, traitement de Naanten, Verwen en Schoonheyt, naar de Fransche wyze.
I'origine des tulipes, Caen i 654. (2nd edition Rouen I 658.) (Verhandeling Van de Culture der Angelieren, Volgens de
Clusius, C., Appendix Peregrinarvm et eleganlívm nonttularum behandeling der Franssen. De Nactuvv-keurige Hovenier,
plantrffum, ex Thracia vsque delatarum, in Rariorum aliquot Handelende van de Boomen en Boomgewassen, &c.
stirpium per Hispanias obseruatarum Historia, Antwerpen 1576, Verhandeling Van het voortktveken, en Culture der Límoen en
509-528. Oranje-boomen), Leiden 1700. (The different editions also differ
Clusius, C., Rariorvm Plantarvm Historia, Antwerpen 1601. in compilation; 2nd edition Leiden 1703,7th edition Amsterdam
Clusius, C., Cvrae Posterior¿s I.../, Leiden 161 l. & Rotterdam 1792, English editions; The Dutch Gardener [...],
Damme, A. van, Aantekeningen betreffende de geschiedenis der 17 03, 71 I 1 ; German editions 11 06, \7 28, 1 75 1 ; French editions

bloembollen - Hctarlem 1899-1903, Leiden 1976. (Reprint of 1',7 14, 1121.)


articles in the Weekblad voor Bloembollencultuur, 1899-l'903.) Parkinson, J., Paradisi ìn Sole Paradisus Terrestris or A Gorden
Dodoens (Dodonaeus), R., FIorum et Coronorívm Odorararvmque ofall sorts ofpleasantflowers [.../, London 1629. (Facsimile
Nonnvlanm Historia, AnÍwerpen 1568. (2nd edition 1569.) reprint Amsterdam 1 975.)
Dijk, W. va:n, A Treatise on Tulí¡ts by Carolus Clusius of Arras, Passe (de Jonge) , C. de, Hortus Floridus [... ] Crispi Passi iunioris
Haarlem 195 1. (Translation, including cornmentary, of Clusius deliniatae [...],4 pafts (seasons), Utrecht & Arnhem 1614, with
r 601.) additions to the first part (Spring) until 1 6 1 7; Dutch edition: Den
Escluse, Ch. de l' (Carolus Clusius), in Valerius Cordus, Blomhof, I. . . /. The additions also include two short treatises:
Annotationes in Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazorbei [...] Hic Traicte compendieux et abrege des tvlipans et de levrs diverses
accedunt: Stocc Homii et nessi in Bernatium Helvetiorum clitione sortes & espeçes [... ] , and Necessaire instrument povr replanter
monîiutn & nascentium in eis stirpium Item Conradi Gesneri De tovtes sortes de flevrs ovec vne facile & lres excellente maniere
hortis Germaniae liber recens, una cum descripl¡one tulipae de retirervnTulipanhors de îerre sansfaire dommage a lafleur.
Turcarum [...], Strasburg 1561. (There is also a French and an English edition, the latest is from
Escluse, Ch. de l' (Carolus Clusius), Rarlorwn Plonxtrunr Historia, 1615. Thele are two facsimile prints ofthe English edition
Antwerpen 1601. (See also Dijk, W. van.) published by E.S. Rohde, London 1928-29 and l9'74.)
Frefz,D., Conrad Gesner als Gärtner,Zûich 1948. Posthumus, N. W., 'The Tulip Mania in Holland in the Years 1636
Gobelius, 5., Plantarum seustirpium Icones, Antwerpen 158 1. and 1,63'Ì' , Jourtnl of Econotnic and Business History,I,4, 1929,
(Reprinted 1591.) (Usually attributed to Lobelius.) 434-466.

-77
Roman, ,{., Sa¡rz en-spraeck / Tusschen Waerntondt Ende
Gaergoedt, Nopende opkonste ende ondergangh van Flora, Notes
Haarlem I 637. Tweede Samen-spraeck / Tusschen Waerntondt
Ende Gaergoedt, Zijnde het ven,olgh Van den op ende
ondergangh van Flora, Haarlem I 637. Register Vande Prijzen
der Bloemen / Zijnde De Derde Samen-spraeck / Tusschen
Gaergoed ende Waermond, Inhoudende het vervolgh Van den Op Tulips portrayed. Tulip trade in Holland in the 17th century
ende Onderganghvan FIora, Haarlem 1637. (2nd edition 1643;
3rdedition 1734.) r Most authors simply repeat what other authors wrote before them.
Sautijn Kluit, W. P., 'De tulpen- en hyacintenhandel', Handelingen Among the more important and oÍiginal sources the publication
der Maotschappij der Nederlandsche Letterkunde over het jaar of Solms-Laubach ( I 899) should be mentioned. The publications
I 866,3-7 t of Krelage are authoritative cornpilations. The non-specialist
Segal, S., 'Exotische bollen als statussymbolen' , Kutlstschrift - publications do not always give correct information nor do they
Openbaar Kunstbezit,3, 1981 ,88-97 . necessarily analyse the material corectly. S. Schama's
Segal, S., Tulips b¡, ,\¡1¡þ6ay Claesz 56 Seventeenth Century controversial bookThe Entbarrassment of Riches An
Warercolour Drawings by Antony Claesz (ca. 1607/08 - 1649), hlterpreîetion of Dutclt Culture in the Golden Age (New York
Maastricht 1987. 1987) contains many inacculacies at least as far as the tulip mania
Segal, S., Flc¡wers arul Narure - Netherlandish Flower Painting of is concerned.
Four Centuries, Den Haag 1990. : There are various versions and countless editions ofFitzger.ald's
Solms-Laubach, H. Graf zu, Weizen und Tulpe und deren tlanlations. This translation is stanza no. 40 of his fifth version.
G e s chic ht e, Leipzig I 899. : Levey ( 1 975), 6l-62: ancl Maltels (1 989), 450.
Stamm, G., Karlsruher Tulpenbuch Eine Handschrift der + Ibid.,69.
B ctdis c he n kmde sb i b I i othek, Karlsruhe I 982. s Cf. Ibid., 449-450.
Stork, A. L.,Tulipes sauvages et cultivées, Genève 1894. r The drawings are in the Universitätsbibliothek in El.langen, MS.
Sweert, E., Florilegivm [...], FrankfuÍ am Main 1612. (Various Inv.2386, F.220v andF.466r.Zoller & Steinmann (1991), II, 1S,
editions.) no. 22, described as Tulipa spec., is presumably the r.ed
Trcw, J., Hortus Nitidissimus [...], Nürnbelg 17 50-52. 'Kurdistanic fulip',Tulipa stapfü; this is the original dr.awing for
Vallet, P., Le Jardin du Ro¡'Tres Chrestien Henry IV [...],Pùr's the woodcut of the 1561 publication. F.213r, I 10-l I l, no. 476,
I 608. Tulipa spec., is probably the yellow 'Wood Tulip', Talrya
Visscher, R., Sinnepoppen, Amsterdam 1614. (Edited by L. sylvestris. In the album of watercolours of 1563 Kreutterbuchby
Brummel, Den Haag 1949.) Johann Kentmann, in the Sächsischen Landesbibliothek in
Walthern, G. C., Die Tulpe, zum Ruhm ilres SchöpJfers, uncl Dresden, a yellow tulip appears with the natneTulipa turciccr.
Vergnügung edler Gentüther, bescltrieben von dem Ve(asser This is presumably the just mentioned Tulipa sylvestris, cf .
clerer Gedancken über das reich derer Blum¿n, Dresden & Kaiser & Vetter (1985),7. I have not had rhe opporrunity to srudy
Leipzig 1741. this album. Kentmann was in contact with Gesner.. The dr.awing
White, C., The Flower Dratvings of Jan van Huysum, Leigh-on-Sea of the lirst tulip had been sent to Gesner before he had observed
1964. fhe tulip hìmself. Prof, Dr. H. Zoller considers that the second
Zoller,H. & M. Steinmann, Conracli Gesneri Historia Plantarutn drawing together with those of a number of Mediteranean plants
[...] Nachlass von Conrad Gessner (l 5 I 6-] 565 ) in der by the same artist were sent to Gesner from Padua, Venice or
Un¡versitätsbibliothek Erlangen, 2 vols., Dietikon -Zürich 1987 - Bologna (letter dated 17-l-1992).
1991. r Conrad Gesner in Valerius Cordus (1561) F.213-214, with the
illustration of the red tulip. That the illustration definitely is one
of the tulip growing in Augsburg is confirmed by Gesner's notes
of 1560, see Frerz (1948),294.
s Edition 1569,205 and20'7.
ç Lobelius (1581), 160-169. Presumably new marerial became
available after this text was written. The numbers froni the list are
written next to the woodcuts; one of these has the number 49.
ro Clusius (1601), 137 -152.
r r Vy'althern (11 41), 129-17 6.

r2 Var. = variety, ssp. = subspecies. After the scientific Latin name


(in italics) the 'author's' name is listed, that is the name of the
person who first published the valiety in question following
internationally accepted norms. The names of authors who had
another notion about its classification are inbrackets. Tulipa
chryscuttha is not described as a botanical 'species' but is
recognized in horticulture (hort.). For an attempt to attribute
botanical varieties to the tulips described by Clusius see DUk
(19s1).
r: Edition 1969,204.
r¿ Levi d' Ancon a (19'7 1 ), 390-39 1 . In the book of Hieronymus
Bosch a tulip has also been identified inconectly.
rs Segal (1990), 161, no. 13, 162,no.14, and 163, no. 15.
rc Ibid,., 162, no. 14D.
r: Edition 1581, 166, no. 16.
ra F.[5], F.5, F.8, no. I and Lentedeel F.27, respectively.
rs Cf. Damme (1916), 16-17 and 23; Krelage (1946),471-413.|n

78
the N e de rlandsc h M a gazij n of I 838, I 5, a price as high as f Intery)returion of Dutclt Culture in the Golden Age, New York
I 3.000 was recorded for one bulb. 1987,365.
zo The spelling of the names is sometimes different in diffelent s For a brief introduction see J. de Kleyn, 'Een paar piramiden in
sources, for instance Viceroy andViseroi. Colonial Williamsburg (U.5.A.)', MededeIingenblctd Vrienden
:r Anonymous, Florilegium Artis Naturam Imiîantls, Bibliothèque van de Nerlerlandse Cerantiek,40, 1965, 15-21, 16; and D. F.
Royale Albert I, Brussel, inventory no. 350 A 173; also in Pieter Lunsingh Scheurleer, Delft, N iede rltintlische Fa),ence, München
van Kouwenhoorn, Verzanteling van Bloenten naor cle Natuur 1984, 86 (Lunsingh Scheurleer,Fayenc¿). Both authors mention
geteekend, Lindley Library, London, an album of drawings from 'pyramids' or 'pagodas' in 'ancient archives'; The author of the
the same period. present article has only come across the mention of pyramids.
22 Walthern (l'741), 44-45. c Aelbrecht Keyzer (or De Keyzer), was bunied I I January 1667.
z: A number of distinguishing features are not visible or usable in Havald's attributions have affected the determination of objects;
the watercolours; the lattel, for instance, is the case with the cf. H. H. Ressing, 'Delfts aardewerk in Zweden, een ceramiekreis
leaves because the leaves were often painted separately from the in de zomer van 1990', Mededelingenblad Neclerlandse
flowers. Vereniging van Vrienden van de Ceramiek, 143, l99l,27 .
u+ Trew (1750-17 52), no. 59. r For a few exemples: J. S. Benall, A Historl, of p¡6vru
:s Lobelius (1 576), 65; Lilio-Narcissus phoeniceus percuttoøus oris Atangemenr, London 1969 (ed. princ. 1953), l0-1 l, nos. l-3.
luteis; ofLobelius (1581), 168; also in Clusius (1601), Sweert See also: A.Lane, Later Iskunic Pottery, Persicr, S1,ria, Eg¡,pt,
(1612),F.9. no. 13, Passe (1614), Lentedeel,F.29;Tulipa Duris. Tu rkey, London 1951,'7 3, no. 85 a.

:o Price accordin g to the Derde Santen-spraeck, see Roman ( I 637); s Berrall, op. cit.,25-26,nos.22-23: M. Archer', 'Pyramids and
for 1000 'aces' (48 grams) of Viceroy one could reckon to pay Pagodes fol Flow ers', C o unt ry Life, I 59, 197 6,1 66-1 69, I 68, no.
f 6.700. 6 (Archer, Pyramids); Lunsingh Scheut'leer,Fa.l,ence,86 and 163,
:r Helmus (1990),474. note 828.
:s Cornelis Danckerts III after Pieter Nolpe; see Segal ( I 990), no. q For the small ltalian vase see R. J. Challeston (ed.), Masterpieces
22, together with further details and bibliography. of Westem and Near Eastent Ceramics,8 vols., Tokyo 1979, V
r Crispyn de Passe the Younger in imitation of Hendrick Pot. Pot's (Italian Ceramics), 292, no. 107.
painting is in the Frans Halsmuseum in Haarlem. ro Antonio Guidobono ( 1605- I 685) or his son Baltolommeo
¡o 124, modern edition (1987), 67-68. Guidobono (also called Guidoboni, I 657- I 709) See E.
:r Hondius (1621), 9\-92, and 241. Schlumbelger, 'Eloge de la Tulipièr'e', Connaissance cles Arts,
:z Stamm (1982). 1960, 153-159, 154, 158, no. l4; H.-P. Fourest, Defis
r Segal (1987),94. aardewerk, Amsterdan 1981,21 (ed. princ., La Failence cle Delft,
r+ Krelage (1942a),201-202, notes 60-73 and75-'77; numbered Friboulg-Paris, 1980). About Guidobono see G.Batini, L'Amico
from A to S. rle lla C e rami ca [... ], Firenze I 974, I 80 (Fioriera) ; and E.
a tulip book by Pieter Saenredam is
:s In the literature on the subject Pichelkastner and E. Hölzl, B ruc kntcuttt' s Fcty e nc e - Le xikon,
erroneously mentioned (Bergström (1948),302, note 89). Thele München 1981,261.
are however drawings of plants that are known to be by this r r For these spherical vases see F. T. Scholten, 'Delftse

painter of architecture. 'pitarnides", Mededelingenbl ad N ede rlandse Ve rení gin g vcut


16 Graft (1943), 139 and Kun'srho¿k, 28, no. l0l. Vrienden vcm de Cerqmiek,130-131, 1988. 47-51. 47 (Scholten,
¡r Graft (1943), 147 and Kunstbo¿k, 30, nos. 9-15. Pirantkles), L. L. Lipski and M. Archer (eds.), Dated Englislt
:s White (1964), nos- 32-84. D e l.ftwar e, Ti n- g lazed Eart he nw a re I 600- I 800, London, I 984,
1 2, 355, nos. I 564- I 565, 356, no. 156'7 . The numbers 1564-1565

are decorated with a cartouche, number 1567 with a Chinese


Turkish tulips and delft flowerpots motif.
r: Erkelens points to the ceiling decoration in Mary's bedroom in
r P. Biesboer (ed.), China - Delft Europa - Chinoiserie (exblb. Het Loo, showing four straw baskets with flowers. See A. M. L. E.
cat. Museum 'Het Prinsenhof'), Delft 1976, 9-15 andlT ff. See Erkelens, "s Koninginnes Gonst, Delftse vazen van Mal'y Stuart
also idem, 'De chinoiserie in Nederland', Antiek, 13,1978,99- (1663-1695)' ,Antiek,23,1988, 88-92, 89-90, no.4 (cf. 88, no. 1)
111 . (Erkelens, Delftse vaz.en). The audience toom of Het Loo has a
z See the Van der Burgh archive in the Stedelijk Museum 'Het tompe-l'oeil ceiling with floral garlands and garden vases with
Prinsenhof', Delft (copies from the city archive), no. 923, I flowers designed by Marot ( I 692). See also W. K. Zieleman,
November 1684, V, no. 80, 107, not. Philips de Bries. 'Een bloeiend verleden, koninklijke bloemsierkunst', Groei &
¡ It concerns an inventory of valuables, furniture and paintings B Lo e i, 6, 1988, 24; and Berrall, o p. c i t., 25 and 29, no. 26.

partly in 'Huis ten Bosch', 'Huis in het Noordeinde' and the r¡ Erkelens, Delftse vazen, 92, note 22: Algemeen Rijksarchief,
castle of Turnhout: S. W. A. Drossaers and Th. H. Lunsingh Nassausche Domeinen, Register-Generaal, 602, fol. 234; and
Scheurleer, lnventarissen van de inboedels in de verblijven van Zieleman art. cit.,22.
de Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken, I 567'1795,'s- r+ C. S. Oldenbulger-Ebbers, 'Historisch onderzoek ten behoeve
Gravenhage, 191 4- 197 6, I (no. I 47), 250, no. 27 8. van het opstellen van het beplantingsplan Museumtuin Paleis Het
¿ H. Havard, Catalogue des Failences de Delft, composont lo Loo' , Groen,40,1984,246 and249. See also J. Dixon Hunt and
collection de Mr. John F. Loudon, Paris 1877, 15,no.20 and2l E. de Jong (eds.), 'The Anglo-Dutch Garden in the Age of
(fan-shaped); idem, Histoire de Ia Fat'ence de Deft, Amsterdam, William and Mary' / 'De Gouden eeuw van de Hollandse
I 878, I 3, no. 8 (triumphal arch); I 80, no. XII (pyramids); 245, Tuinkunst', Journal ofGarden History,8, 1988, 2-3 (= exhib. cat.
nos. 200 and 101 (fan-shaped). See also idem, l¿¡ Céramique Rijksmuseum Paleis 'Het Loct', Apeldoorn 1988) London-
Hollandaise, Histoire des Failences de Delft, Haarlent, Rotterckun Amsterdam 1988,288, cat. no. 139, no. IV.
1.../,2 vols., Amsterdam 1909, I, 8, no.4 (triumphal alch); II,94, rs P. Thornton, Seventeenth-Century- Interior Decoration ín
nos.292 and 19 (fan-shaped). For the hyacinthomania see E. H. England, France & Holland, New Haven-London 1983,263-264,
Kre\age, Bloemenspecularie in Nederlutd, de tulpomartie van 3'7 , no. 43, and 404 (ed. princ. I 978).

I 636-37 en de hyacintltenhandel I 720-36, Amsterdam 1942, 142 re Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleer', op. cit.,7,233, nos. 1 188-
ff.; and S. Schama, The Embarrassmenl of Riches, an ll 9t.

79
r? Th. H. Lunsingh Scheurleer (ed.), De Stadhouder-Koning en Zijn Prinsenhof', Delft (copies from the city alchive), no. 930, l9
Tijd,l650-1950, exhib. cat. Rijksmuseum, Amsrerdam 1950, 103- Nov. I 686, VII, no 98, I 08, not. Philips de Bries. In rhis documenr
I 04, cat. no. 43 I ; and M. Archer, 'Delft at Dyrham', Z/re concerning the sale of De Grieksche A to Adriaen Cocx, the latter
Nationa I Trust Year Book, I 97 5 - I 976, London I 975, I 2-l 8., 5,
1 is also obliged to buy the pottery already produced.
no.8 (Archer, Delft a¡ D¡,l.þa¡n); Thornton, op. cit.,266,no.253; ¡s For Pieter Adriaensz. Kocks' tlademark see E. Neurdenburg,
and Hunt and De Jong, op. cir.,294, cat. no. 147 . 'Niet Adriaen Pijnacker maar Pieter Adriaansz Kocks en diens
rs V. Woldbye, Geyveven boeket,exhib. cat. Rijksmuseum, weduwe in de 'Griekse A' te Delft', Oudheidkurtdig Jaarboek,
Amsterdam 1971,5-12. 12, 1943,3 1-33. After Pieter Adriaensz Kocks death in I 703 his
rs Thornton, op. cit.,287 , nos.277-278; and S. Bursche, Tafelzier widow, Johanna Kocks-van der Heul, continued to employ the
rle s Ba rock, M ünchen I 91 4, nos. 23-26. trademark until I'122. See also Archer, Delft at Dyrham, 13.
:o lbid.,49. :q E. Neurdenburg, Oude Nederlandse Majolica en Tegels / Delftsch
:r A.-Ch. Gluber, 'Les Décors de table éphérnères aux XVIIe et Aa rdev e rk, Amsterdam 1943, 53J 6.
XVIIIe siècles', Gnzette des BeauxAr¡s, LXXXIII, 116 (6th ro Archer, Queen Mary's Delft, 19. The author comes to the same
series), 1914,296. conclusion in his unpublished master thesis 'Deffie Porcelijne'
zz Erkelens, Delftse vazen,90-91. See also Thornton, op. cit., 103, 1.../, Delft 1990.
no. l0l, 176, 267,381,note 100; Drossaers and Lunsingh +r J. Wilson, 'A Phenomenon of Taste: the China Ware of Queen
Scheurleer, op. cit., I, 25'l , nos. 557 -559. The same inventory Mary II', Apollo,96 1912, 116- I 19. Wilson based his
mentions two crates with four large 'French bouquets' to be conclusions mainly on A. Lane, 'Queen Mary II's Porcelain
placed on a bed (27 5, no. l0l7). Collection at Hampton Court' , Trutsactiotts of the Oriental
z: For pyramids see H. E. van Gelder, 'L'obelisque en majolique de Ceramic Society, 25, 1949 - 1950, 2l-3 I (Lane, H ampton Court).
Delft', Faenat,36, 1950, 77;D.F. Lunsingh Scheurleer, Defrs See also China und Europa, Chinaverstiindnis und Chinunode int
Blauw, Bussum l9'15,48 (Lunsingh Scheurleer, Delfts Blautv); 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, exhib. cat. Schloss Charlottenburg,
idem, Fayence,56; C. J. A. Jörg, Oosters porcelein / Delfts Bellin, 1973,39.
aarcleyverk / Wisseltverkingen,Groningen 1983, cat. no. 33 (JöLg, rr Erkelens, D e lfts e v o ze n, 92; Lane, H a ntpt on C ou rt, 24; Biesboer,
Oosters porcelein); and Br'.Tietzel, Fayence I, Niederlande, op. cit.,24. Marot probably designed for Mary the 'Indian
Frcnkreiclt, England, Koln 1980, 147. Cabinet' in Honselaersdijk whele for the first time in the
:¿ See also: M. Archer, 'Queen Mary's Delft' , Oude Kunst in de Netherlands minors were employed on a large scale. The source
Nieuwe Kerk, exhib. cat. Amsterdam 1983, 18-25, l9 (Alcher, for this practice is probably the 'Cabinet du Dauphin' in
Queen Mory's Delft). Versailles. See A. M. L. E. Erkelens, 'Delfts aaldewerk op Het
zs Berrall, op. cir.,72-73, no. 85 (Hollar). For the painting by Loo' , Neclerlonds Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek, 31, I 980, Haarlem
Emanuel de Witte see Thornton, op. cit.,265,224,no.XIII. 1981,263-212,210-272, note 23 (Erkelens, Het Loo); and S.
ro S. Donahue Kuretsky,'Hetschilderen van bloemen in de lTde Hafiog Enkele indrukken van Nederlandse porseleinkanrcrs en
eeuw, Flora & Pictura, bloemen en schilders in de lTde eeuw', verzatnelingen vcm cle zeventiende tot begin achftientle eewv
Kwtstschrift,3l , 198'7 ,85-86, no. 3. (unpublished master thesis), Leiden 1986, 37.
ur S. Segal,A Prosperous Past, rhe Sumptuous Still Life in the ¿¡ A. M. L. E. Erkelens, 'In Willem en Mary's Huis', Antiek, l4-15,
Netherku'tds 1600-1700, Den Haag 1988, 109, 235,no.23. 1979-1980, 433445,444,.suggests a relation between Mar.ot and
:r For these llou'er vases 75 cm in height (ca. I 700), preserved in the De Grieksche  factory, in Adliacn Kocks pcriod. See also
the Musée de la Chartreuse in Douai (France), see Erkelens, Elkelens, Het Lc¡o, 268-21 1.
Delftse va7en,90-9 I , no. 6; Fourest, op. cit., 50, no. 36. Hunt and ¿+ For Marot see M. D. Oztnga, Dutiël Marot, de schepper van tlen
de Jong, op. cit.,297, no. 150; Lunsingh Scheurleer, Fayence, Sg- Hollnndschen Lodewijk XIV-stijl, Amsterdam 1938; and P.
90; and Scholten , Piramitles,49-50, no. 4. Jessen, Das Ornantentyverk des Dutiël Marot, Bellin 1892.
:e Archer, Pyramids, 168-169, nos. 7-8; and Hunt and De Jong, op. +s Erkelens, Het Loo,263 ff.; idem, Delftse vazen,88 ff .
cit.,314-315, no. 11 L ¿a Erkelens, 11¿¡ Loo,266-267; J.F. van Someren (ed.), 'Journal of
:o Krelage, op. cit., 691, and Erkelens, D¿ lftse vazen, 90. Dagverhaal, van een Plaisir Reisje, van Groningen na Kleef, in
¡r De Mol van Oud Loosdlecht, 'Oude tulpen in oude vazen' , Oud 1740 door P. Muntinghe en A.H.W. de Vriese.....', D¿
Nederkmrl, 4, 1950, 165-112. Navorscher,45 (second series, 28), 1895, 366. Drossaers and
t Ibid., 171-112. Cf. A. Lane, 'Daniel Marot, Designer of Delft Lunsingh Scheurleer, op. cit., I (no. 147),65 8, nos. 285-296, 659,
Vases and of Gardens at Hampton Court', The Connoisseur, nos. 297-305,685, no. 1018. Erkelens, Delftse vazen,91.
1949, 19-24,21 (Lane, Marot). +: This does not concern Mary's collection, which was donated to
:: See for examples of the denial of the functionality De Kleyn, arr. Arnold Joost van Keppel, Duke of Albemarle ( I 669- 7 I 2). See 1

cit.,16-111' De Mol van Oud Loosdrecht, art. cit., 172; and Archer, Pyrantids, 169 (Archer mentions George Monck, Duke of
Lunsingh Scheurleer, Fayence,89 and 164, note 870. Albemarle); Erkelens, Het Loo,270; and Wilson, art. cit., 122-
:¿ For an l8th-century description ofthe production process see 123. Wilson discusses the Kensington Hoì"rse Collection which
Genit Paape, De plateelbakker of Delftsch aardetverkmaaker, was given to Van Keppel on 24 Novembel 1 699.
Dordrecht 1794. +s Drossaers andLunsingh Scheurleer, op. cit.,I(no. 147), 453, 464,
:s It concerns two pyramids (De Grieksche A: AK, ca. 1690- 1700), nos. 23 5 -237, 4'1 0, no. 42'7, 41 6, no. 592- 593 and 608-609, and
I 30cm in height, Gloucestershire, The Blathwayt Collection, 411 , no. 627 .

Dyrham Park (National Trust). See Archer, Delft at Djrhatn, 12- ¿q Ibid., I, 466-46'1, nos. 323 and325-335;Hartog, op. cit.,35-36.
14, no. l; Hunt and De Jong, op. cit.,296, no. 149,308-309, no. Lane, Hünpton Court, 25, no. 6; Scholten, Piramides, 50,.
165; and G. Jackson-Stops, The Treasure Houses ofBritain, Flv¿ Wilson, ¿rt. cit.,116-117, no.l; and G. Upmark, 'Ein Besuch in
Hundred Years o;f Private Potronage and Art Collecting, Holland 1687, aus den Reiseschilderungen des schwedischen
Washington-New Haven-London 1985, 11 2- I 7 3, no. 104. Architecten Nicodemus Tessin d.J.', Oud Holland,lS, 1900, 146.
:o Archer, Queen Mary's Delft, 19; Iacob Stodel, De Glorie van so Scholten, P i rcuni de s, 47 -48; and Upmark, art. c i t.,l 52.
Delft, 125 jaar Stodel, (Salomon Stodel), Amsterdam,l984; and sr Elkelens, Deftse va1en,97; Thornton, op. cit.,266; andDe
M. E. W. Goosens, BIue Delftware, 1680-1720, (Salomon Kleyn, art. cit.,17.
S tode I ), Amsterdam 197 9, 20. sz For the Douai vases see note 28; and Erkelens, Delftse vazen,
:r See the Van der Burgh archive in the Stedelijk Museum 'Het 90-9 l .

80
53 Lane, Marot,19 ff.; idem, Hamptort Court,26-281' idenl, 'Delftse Drossaers and Lunsìngh Scheurleer, op. cit.,II (no. 148), 196, no.
tegels uit Hampton Court en Daniel Marot's werkzaamheid 1225,320, no.20l.
aldaar' , Bulletin wut het Rijksnutsetun,'/,1959, 12 2l (Lane, or Scholten, Piranùdes,48-49. For exarnple, the tomb olWillem de
Delftse tegelS); Wilson, r¡¡¡. cit.,ll9-l2l and I. C. E. Peelen, Zwijger in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft ( 1623) is decofated with
'Versieringen op tegels naar ontwerpen van Daniël Marot', obelisks.
Ourlheitlkundig Jaarboek, s.l. 1923, 160 f|. o.s Fol triunrplral processions see D. P. Snoep, Protrl tntl
¡¿ Middlesex, Hampton Court Palace (The Royal Collection): two Proptrgurlrr, Triuntpltalia in de Noordelijke Neclerlattdett itt cle
obelisks on an uln-shaped base (ca. 100 cm in height), two ut'ns 16de and lTcle eeuw, Alphen a.d. Rìjn 1975,9l ff. See also R. W.
with a lid (ca. I00 cm in height) and two hexagonal pyramids Chr'. Dessing, Kortirtg-statlltouder Willem III Tríonfutor,Den
(145 crn in height). See Erkelens, Het Loo,268, no.6; Fourest, Haag I 988. Goosens indicates the relation between this kind of
o p. c i t.,44, nos. 21 -28, 42-43, no. 26i Lane, M cu'ot, I 9, nos. I-III, flower vase and tliunphal arches. See Goosens, op. cit.,44-45,
and 23, rro. XV; Lane, Delftse tegels, 1 3, 1 7, no. 6; Lunsingh cat. no.3l.
Scheurleer,F¿.y¿ nce, 88-89,26 1 , nos. 209 ancl 210a,263, no.21 l: 66 Cesale Ripa, Icortologia rl tt¡,tbeeld'rtglte des verstrtttcls, Soe'st
G. Mellor, 'Dutch Delft l, Country Li;fe,58,1925,923-926,923, 197 l, 440-441 (ed. princ. Amsterdam l644); and Scholten,
no.2,924, no.8, and 925;and Schlurnberger', art. cit.,156,no.6' Piranüdes,49,no.3, and 51, note 14.
ss Archer, Qtreen M or¡" s D elft, 191, Archer, P¡'ramids, I 69; Lane, cr Nieuliof belonged to the delegation lecl by Jacob de Keyset and
Marot,20;Lane, Delftse tegels, 13 I. C. Goodison, 'Dutch Delft Pieter de Goyer, that was received I 7 Jr"rly 1656 at the Peking
pr-rrchased by Queen Mary' , Cowttry Life,59,1926,67. Another inperial court. See Biesboer, op. cit., l01' and Cltítttt tuttl Euro¡,tt,
trace forms the Calendal of Tteasury Books. On 5 ApLil I695 the I 58. See also C. J. A. Jörg, 'De pagode van Paolinxi and ander

following delively is mentioned: '[...] to Sir ChLìstopher Wren a Chinees export ivoor', Antiek,24, 1989,530-531, no. 1.
chest containing 600 tiles paìnted according to a pattern sent to aa For a pagoda depicted on a tile see A. Berendsen, Elseviers
Holland by the late Queen's directions, to supply such as were Tegelboek,Amstet'dam-Brussel 1965, 142-143.
fallen flom the bolders undel the hangings in the Palace of os Biesboer, op. cit.,l0. Scholten, Piranùtle.s,49-50.
Gre enwich'. See Archer, P),ramids,169. ro An incornplete delft-ware oliginal (late l7th. century, De
sc Archer, P),rantids,166 and 169, states that the absense of Grieksche A: AK) is in the Museum für Kunst ttnd Gewerbe,
depicted llowervases is due to the fact that they gained popularity Hamburg. The Chinese copies are not ol the same quality as the
only in England. The f'ew vases on the continent were in his delft originals; some details have been changed, but the
opinion sent flon.r England by cor.rrtiels, such as the Duke of traden.ìark is well irnitated. See M. de Visser, 'A Delfì and a
Albemafle who no doubt sent a part of his collection to The Chinese vase rnarked AK', Burlington Magazirte,53 1928,312
Haque. Archel published his alticle before the excavations of Het fT., 317, no. B. The Nedellands Keramiek Museum 'Het
Loo had started @fter 1977). See Erkelens, Het Lt¡o,210-27 l: Princessehof' (Leeuwarden) has two Chinese copies in its
Sclrolten, Piramitles,4S and 51, note 8. collection; another pair is in the collection of the Mttseum voor'
¡z Wilson, art. cit.,l22; Atcher, Del;ft at Dyrlnn, 131,Lane, Stad en Land, (Groningen). See Jörg, Iör'g, Oosters porcelein, tto.
Hampton Court,2l-22.Tietzel, op. cit., 145. Tietzel even 33; C. J. A. Jör'g, húeructiort in Certunics, Oriental Porceluitt &
assumes that Mary herself invented the flowerpots. Delfttt'ore, exhib. cat. Museum of Afi, Hongkong 1984, 76 and
ss Derbyshire, Chatswot'th (The Trustees of the Chatsworth 77, no. 33 Schlur.nbet'ger, art. cit., I55; and De Visser, ¿r'¡. cl¡.,
Settlement). Exenples are a spherical vase on a base (De 312, no. A.
Glieksche A: AK) (see Archer, P),rantids, 166-167 , no. l; Hunt r Scholten, Pircunitles,50. Scholten l'efers to an acctllnttlation of
and De Jong, op. cit.,309, nos. I 66 and XVIb; Jackson-Stops, op. polcelein in Honselaersdijk, as desclibed by Tessin.
cit.,l'/2, no. 103; Lane, Marot,20-21, no. Vi; F. T. Scholten, r: Fol'the history of Tr"rrco-Dutch relations see H. Theunissen, A.
'Een Delftse wijnkan van de faiencebakker Adriaen Kocks', Abelmann and W. Meulenkamp (eds.), Tnpkapr & Turkortttutie,
Antiek, 18, 1983,247-251,249,251 , no. 4) and four pyranids Arnsteldam 1989.
(De Grieksche A: AK) (see Archer, Pyrantids, 167 , no.3, 169, ¡ A. C. A. W. van der Feltz, 'Belanglijke meubelen uit het tijdperk
no. 9). van Stadhouder Koning Willem lII, in de Stichting 'Hannema-de
sq K.-M. Walton, 'An Inventory of 17l0 flom Dyrham Park', Il¿ Steurs Fundatie' , Antiek,13,1919,397 ff.; and E. Elzenga (ed.),
Jountcl of the Funtitm'e Hislot'¡' Society,22,1986,25-80., 55 (1), Het Witte Loo, Vnn Lodex,ijk Napoleotl rd Wilhelmina 1806-
s6 (6-'/), s8 (12-15 and l9), 59 (23,26'28),61(30,32,34-35); on l962,exhil't. cat. Riiksmuseum Paleis Het Loo, Apeldoorn 1992,
page 7 I another couple of'Flower potts' is indicated. (the ts9,t64.
numbels between brackets refer to Walton's plan). See also r+ Alcher, Plrcunicls, 167. Archer assumes drat the ìntelest fbr this
Archer, Delft at Dyrham, 12ff .; and Tietzel, op. cit.,l45' kind of pottery did not last morc than two decades, lron loughly
Lunsingh Scheut'leer's assumption that the flowerpots were 1688 to 1710.
purely decot'ative objects, is at least premature. See Lunsingh z: These flowerpots are in the collection of the Harlìnger Aaldewerk
Scheurleer', Fa¡'ence, 89. Museurn (Collection Van den Akker'), Hallingen. The objects
ro Van Gelder, art. cit.,JJ ff., nos. XXIIa-XXIIb. Van Gelder under discussion are a heart-shaped fan with five spouts (ca.
sìiggests that the flowerpots could have been inspired by pagodas 1770, decolation by Gatse Sietses, Makkum) and a comparable
as well. See also Goosens, op. cit., 12-13, no. 5; Lunsingh one with nine spouts (ca. 1750, made in Bolsward).
Scheurleer, Fayence, 56-57; SchlumbergeÍ, út't. c¡¡., 155; and ro Lunsingh Scheurleer, Fayence, 87 and 163, note 840; Archer,
Tietzel, op. cit., l4'7-148. P),rantids,168.
ar This implies that the obelisk was used as a decorative element ;r Modern tulip vases were exhibited by Marijke Gérnessy of
throrÌghout the century. See Drossaers and Lunsingh Scheurleel', Galerie Westeinde in The Haque: 'De tulpenvaas in ere liersteld'
op. c it., I (no. I 47), 203, no. 5 12, 207, no. 612, 208, nos. 633 and ( I 989). See H. Oort-Dengerink, 'Tulpenvazen aan het

644,209, nos. 652, 665 and 668. Westeinde', Keranùek, I , 1989, I 2- I 3. Other exhibitiÕlìs were
a: Scholten, Pi¡znùdes, 5l,note 8. Inventory of the Estate Nienoold: 'De tulpenvaas in ere helsteld' in Arcen ( I 99 1 ); The Dutch
Rijksarchief Groningen, Huisarchief Nienoord l'7 37, no. 825, 29:. Pavillion, World Exhibition Sevilla ( 1 992) and 'Moderne
4. Tulpenvazen' in the Stedelijk Museut.t.t 'Het Prinsenhof', Delft
o¡ Sclrolten, Pirunitles,49; Schlumberger, art. cit.,l55',Bursche, (1992).
o p. cit., 48 and 7 I, nos. 22 and 2'7 ; Gruber, arr. c i t., 293 -296; ar¡d zs Sclrolten, P i rmnitle s, 5O-5 l.

81
Tulips, Turks and tiles 7 Baytop, Phnts,4.
r Ibid.,1.
r K. Pool, 'Turkse en Nedellandse ker.amiek: 'iznik' en 'Nieuw s Z. R. W. M. von Martels, Augerius Gislenius Busberluius. Leven
Delfts Driekleulen", H. Theunissen, A. Abelmann and W. en werk vot de keizerlijke gezant oan het hofvcut Síilel,mon de
Meulenkarnp (eds.), Topkapr & Turkontcmie,Amsterdam 1989, Gro¡¿, Dissertation Groningen 1989, 449-452.
107 -1 t] .
r0 E. S. Forster, Tlte Turkish Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq,
: A. Berendsen, Elseviers tegelboek, Amsterdam 1964,36. Oxford,1927,24.
: O. Wijands, 'Tulpen naar Amstel.dam: plantenverkeef tussen r Martels. op. cir..449-452.
Nedelland en Turkije', H. Theunissen, A. Abelmann and W. r: C. Schefer, Jountal d'Antoine Gallantl penrkutt sort séjour à
Meulenkamp (ed,s.), Topkap & Turkontcmie,Amster.dam 1989, Constcrntittople ( I 672- I 673 ), Paris I 88 I , 70.
91-t06. r: T. Baytop, 'The Genus Tulipa in Europe anTttrkey' , Journal of
¿ B. Haak, Tlte GoldenAge, London 1984, 118, no.2l8. Íhe Facul\, of P|tamncy Istotlbul,XI, 1975,67;idem, Plants,
s S. Schama, Tlte Entbarrassntent ofRiches, New York 1987,355, 100; and W. Marais, 'Tulipa L', P.H. Davis (ed,.), FIora of Turkey
no.159. rutcl the Eost Aegean Islancls, Edinburgh I 984, VIII, 302.
o A. Brouwer-Bl'and, 'Bloemtegels in de l7e eeow',Tegel,19, r+ Nuluosmaniye Library, MS. 355114011: Ali Çelebi, çükûfenante-í
199t, t3-34. M u s avv e r (istanbul I 667) ; Ali Emiri Efendi Library, MS. I 74:
; J. D. van Dam, 'Het ornament op Nederlandse tegels 1560-1625', $eyh Mehmed Lãleza:{, Mizcutü 't-Ezhar (istanbul ca. l'703-
Tege l, 12, 1984,2-27 . 1730; Ali Erniri Efendi Library, MS. 157 and li2: Mehrned
r D. Kolf, Tegels,Haarlen 1979. Remzî, Goncat Lâlerurt Ba!-t Kodin iistanbul I 703); and Ali
q G. J. M. de Ree, 'Een bijzondere tegel',Tegel, 17,1989,10-ll. Emiri Efendi Library, MS. 162: Mehmed b. Ahmed Ubeydî,
ro R. Marggraf, Niederländi.çclrc Wantlfliessen in N e t af i¿ ¡' l - Ez.ha r (istanbul 1 699).
Norrlwestdeutscltland,Osnabrúck 1984, l6-18, no. XIV. See also r: $eyh Mehmed Lãlezarî, M i zct it'l-A¿l¡¿i. ( istanbul ca. I 703-
t t

P. F. Knochenhauer, N iede rlcind ische F liesen-O nutntente. Berlin 1730),F.4-7 .


I 886 (repr. Hannover I 988), VI, no. 2 and VII, no. I . rc $eyh Mehmed Lãlezafi, Mizanü 'l-Ezhar (istanbul ca. lj03-
r r C. van Sabben and J. HoIlen, Antieke Zagels, Rockanje I 987, t730),F.12-15.
136,no.425. n H. F. von Diez , Tulpen uncl Nat'cissen-Bau in der Turke,,, uus tlem
r: C. H. de Jonge, Nederlandse tegels, Au.rsteldam 1971, nos. 3l Türkisclrcn des Scheiclt Mulnntnted Lalézari, Halle-Berlin 1 8 15.
and 3la. rs W. S. Mumay, 'The Introduction of the Tulip, and the Tulipornania',
r¡ J. Jansen, 'Prent en tegel; Een beschouwing over een drietal Journal of the Royal HorricLthural Society, XXXV, 18, London.
tegels, waarvool het boekje'Dracht Thoneel' van Zachaias rq Ali Emiri Efendi Library, MS. 162: Mehmed b. Ahmed Ubeydî,
Heyns (Amsterdam l 60 l ) model heeft gest aan', Te g e l, 1 9, 199 1, Neta¡ti¿¡ 'l-Ezhar (istanbul 1699),F.1 .
38-42. 2o Baytop, Pkuts,3.
r+ D. F. Lunsingh Scheurleer, 'Tegels met zeventiende eeuwse : r M. H. Hoog, 'On the Origin of Tulipa' , Lilies tutd other Lilittceae
Oranjevorsten', A nti ek, lil, 6, 1969, 321 -336. Year Book,London 1973,41 .
rs J. van Loo, 'Over wederdopels en klein-for.rnaat portrettegels', :: T. Baytop, 'Osmanh lãlesi', Líile, i, 5, 1987, 6 (Baytop, Osntanlt
Tegel,10,1982,2-l l. See also G. de Goederen, 'In duysenr liìlesi)
vreesen', Vrienden van de Nederlandse cerruniek,2T , 1962, l4-24. ¡ Ibid.,7-8.
ro This tile is fegarded to be a portrait of Sultan Süleyman the r lbid.,8.
Magnificent. Cf . Collectíe G. tle Goetleren, Exhib. Cat. Steclelijk ¡ Ali Emili Efendi Liblary, MS. 162: Mehmed b. Ahmecl Ubeydî,
Museum De Lakenhal, Leiden s.a., 6. A sonrce for the portraits of Nerq,icü 't-Ezhar (Ïstanbt I I 699), F.6- I 07.
sultans has been J.-J. Boissard's (1533-1598) Viroe et lcones zo C. Rüqdî, 'Sultan Mehmed-i Râbi' devr.inde çiçek enctimen-i
Stthcutorum Turcicorwn, Principum Persctrum [... ],Frankfurt dãniçi', Edebiyar-t Unrutniye Mecntuau,I,3, 1911,69; Ali Emiri
1596. Efendi Library, MS. 157 and I'/2: Mehmed Retnzî, Gonca-t
n Nicolas de Nicolay, De schipvoert ende rvsen gedaen int landt Líilezart Balt Kculim (istanbul 1703), F.8. Rüçdî, arr. clr., 69;
van Turke¡,en [ ... /, Antwerpen 1576. and S. Ünver, 'The Histoty of Tulips in Turkey', The Daffodil
rs M. Roding, "Die met dit zoot't van volk wil verkeeren...', het cutrl Tulip Year Book, London I 968, 46.
beeld van de Turk in de Nederlandse grafiek (1450-1900)', H. :r M. M. Aktepe, 'Damad ibrahim Paça devrindelãle',Tctrih
Theunissen, A. Abelmann and W. Meulenkamp (eds.), Topkapt & Dergisi,IY,7, 1952,7 ;V, 8, 1953, 85; VI, 9, 1954,23 (Aktepe,
TLrrkonurni e, Amsterdam I989, 1 l. Lâle); idem,'Damad ibrahim Paça devrinde lâle'ye dair bir
p R. Marggraf, 'Nederlandse siettegels inPofiugal' , Arylegos v estka', Tü rkiy at M e cn tuct s r, XI, |95 4, 1 I 5 (Aktepe, Vesrkn);
gisteren en vcutclctcrg, Blussel 1991, 3l-36. B ay fop, O s nn nl t Iâl e s i, 3 ; and îdem, i s t cutb u I I â I e s i, Ankar a
uo Ibid., 3l-36.
See also J. M. dos Santos Simoês, Carreaux 1992, 4-1 0, (Baytop, i sxutbul tâlesi).
céranùques Holltrnduis au Portugal er en Espctgne, Den Haag :s Baytop, Osntanh líìlesi, 4: idem, Ìsmnbul lâlesi, 4; ünver, art.
19s9. cit., 46; and Ali Emiri Efendi Library, MS. Ió2: Mehrned b.
zr H. van Lemmen, Delfttvare Zlles, Aylesbury 1986,26. Ahrned Ubeydî, Neîqticij 'l-Eztlar listanbul 1 699.¡, F.6- 107.
zr Nurnosrnaniye Libraly, }i4S.3551/4077: Ali Çelebi, Sükíifenante-i
M us cu¡v e r (isÍanbul I 667), F.52-54.
The tulip in istanbul during the Ottoman period :o E. H. Ayverdi,XVill. ctstrda 1ri1e. istenbul 1950, 6; and Baytop,
istanbut lâlesi, 4.
r T. Baytop and B. Mathew, The Bulbous PkutÍs of Turke\',London :r Thlee of the illustrations are signed with the name Mehmed.
1984, 1 and 100 (Baytop, P/anrs). r. Bayfop, istrutbut lâlesi,4-10.
: Ibid.,1. :: Refik, o p. c i t., 20 ; Aktepe, IÅ I e, 85 ; idem, Ve s i kcr, I I 8; and,
z Ibid.,2. Cevdet Paça, Tarih, istanbtl 1 853, I, 41.
t Ibid.,2. :+ Aktepe, Iiile,95; and idem, Vesika, ll8.
s lbid., l. :s Baytop, lsranbut tâtesi,7.
o A. Refik (Altrnay), Onbirinci asr-t hicrî'de istcutbul hayott :o F. Bayramoflu,TLtrkislt Glass Art rutd Beyl¡67Ware, istanbul
( I 592- I 688), istanbul I 988, 3.
1976,14.

82
Tulips in Ottoman Turkish culture and art F. Baylamoflu, Turkish Gkss Art and Beykoz-War¿, istanbul
1976,4; and, Atasoy and Raby, op. cl¡., 35, no. 14.
r Topkapr Palace Liblary, MS. H.425, F.3v-4r, and elsewhele. :s Bayranrollu, op.cit., 14-16.
z There are different handwritten copies olthese books, e.g. in the :s Canav, op.cit.,l03.
istanbul University Library, MS. T. 3923; Topkapr Palace :o For a detailed study ofthe rürbe and its decoration see Y.
Library, MS. H.425; and Nuruosmaniye Lìbrary, MS. 3704. Demiriz, 'Piyale Paqa türbesi ve lahitleli üzerine bir ara-çhrma',
: Topkapi Palace Liblary, MS. H. 425, F.6v-8v; and Topkapt Vakrflar Dergisi, XIII, 198 I , 387 -4231and idem, 'Das Piyale
Palace Library, MS. H. 2365, F.2v. Paça Mausoleum und seine dekolierten Sarkophage', Ars
r B. Kellner-Heinkele and D. Rohwedder (ed.),Türkische Ktutst Turcica, Akten des VI. intentationalen Kongresses für türkisclte
und Kultur aus osnrcuùsclter Zeit,2 vols., Recklinghausen 1985, K¿¿ns¡ (München 1979), München 1988, 197-200.
II,57, no. l/17 (Kellner-Heinkele and Rohwedder (ed.), rr g. Yetkin, Historical Turkish Carpets.istanbul 1981, nos. 64 and
Türkische Kunst)', andN. Atasoy an<i J. Raby, iztik sertnttikleri, 67; and J. M. Rogels and R. M. Wañ,, Sclttitze ctus dent Topkapr
London 1989,35,no.12. Serail. Das Zeitalter Sülq,ntan des Prtichtigert, Berlin 1988, 200,
s For more inlormation on the Sunnnte see N. Atasoy and F. nos. I 32 and I 33.
Çafrnan, Turki sh M in iatut'e P aintin g, istanbul 197 4, 39 -42. :: $. Yetkin, 'Zwei türkische Kilims', In Mentoricun Ertlst Diez,
o istanbul University Libraly, MS. T.5964: Matlakçr Nasuh, istanbul 1963, I 82-88; idem, 'The kilims in Ottoman court style
Be¡,an-t Menazil-í Sefer-i lrakeyn-i Sultan Süle1'nnn Hcut,F.19r, discovered in Divlili Ulu Mosque', Fifth Intenutiottal Congress
F.19v, and F.l09r'. A facsirnile edition of the manusct'ipt, edited of Turkislt Art, Budapest l9'15,907-9201' and idern, 'Osmanlt
by H. G. Yurdaydtn was published in Ankara in 1976. saray sanatr üslûbundaki kìlirnlerden yeni iki örnek', Vakfhr
r Y. Demiriz, Osmanlr kitap sanatutda narurúlist üslupto çíçekler, De rgisi. XÍll. I 98 ì. 375-8 l.
ÌstanbLrl 1 986, 1 12, no. I I (Derniliz, Ç i ç e kl e r). :: For more inlonnation on the subject and examples see N. Gürsu,
I ldem, 'Birçiçek risalesinin Topkapr Sarayr Kütüphanesi ve The Art of TurkishWeaving, Designs through rfte Age.i, istanbul
Münchner Stadtmuseum'daki da!rlmrç bölümleri hakktnda', l 988.

Atatürk'e Arnnþ¿n, Ístanbul 1981, 381-406. :+ F. Altay, Kaftanlar,istanbul 1979.


e For a complete description ol the book see E. H. Ayverdi, X111. :s Kellner-Heinkele and Rohwedder (ed.), Türkische Kunst,264,no.
astrda lâle, istanbul 1950; and T. Baytop, lstnttbul lâlesi, Ankan 5il6.
1992. ¡e G. Fehér, Türkisclrcs Lutd balkanisches KLutstllüldwerk,Bùdapesr
ro Y. Petsopottlo s (ed.), T u li p s, A ro be s q ue s a rrl Tu rbtut s, London 1915, 12-14, nos. III-IV and l-10.
1982, 142, and no. 1 47. :r Anonymous, 'Les leliutes aux armes', L'Estturtpille,54, June
n E. Atrl, Tlrc Age of Sulton Süleynrun tlte Magnifícertt, New York 1974,22-23. Fol the shoes see N. Atasoy, 'Shoes in the Topkapr
1987 , 68-69, no.26. Palace Museum, a rarely explored branch of Turkish
n For some examples see G. Ünver, 'Tiirk sltn'atlrìda vazolu ve craltmanship', Journal oJ the Re gional Cultural Institute, III, I ,
vazosuz çiçek dernetleri', V akfl a r D e r g i s i, IX, l9l 1, 321 -325. 1969,24-25, nos.2-23.
r¡ A. S. Ünvel and G. Mesara, Türk ince o¡tna scuuttr 'kaat't', x Afrl, o p. c i t., 203-205, nos. I 36- 1 37; and Petsopoulos (ed.), o p.
Ankara I 980, 36, nos. 3, 9, 16-19,24-25, and 29 (not nurnbered). cit.,142-143, no. 147, and 144, no. 155.
r+ N. Titley, Plants and Gartlens in Persian, Mughal anrl Turkislt :s Kellner-Heinkele and Rohwedder (ed.), Türkisclrc Kunst,II,268,
A¡¡, London 1979,33-34, no. l9; Kcllncr-Hcinl<clc and no. XXX, and 365, no. I l/25o. For o rich collection of such itet.ns
Rohwedder' (ed.),Türkische Kunst,II, 12l, nos. I/106 a-d; G. see E. Petrasch (ed.), Die Karlsruher TürkenbeLt¡¿, München
l.lesüa,Tärk sanatmda ince kâltÍ o)'ì1loctltÈI (Katt'), Ankan I.
199
1991, nos. 33-34; and Atrl, op.cir., 108, no. 49. n Afrl,op.cit.,148-150, no. 84.
rs For a list of the different plants in this manuscript see Demiliz, +r T. Tezcan, Silahlar, istanbul 1983, 22 and 40, and the back cover;

Çiçekler, 168-180, nos. 104-l 14. For some very similar and Atrl, op. cit.,160-161, no. 102.
unfinished patterns prepared for such a book see Kellner- qu Petrasch (ed.), o p c i t., 3 l7 -320, no. 282; D i e T ürke n v o r W i e n,

Heinkele and Rohwedder (ed.),Türkische Kans¡, II, I 18, no. Exhib. Cat. Vienna I 983, I 04- I 05, no. I I /2 | ; and Z. Zdzrslaw,
t /104. 'Turkish Alt in Poland', Sevenrh Inlentationctl Congress of
ro For more information see M. U. Det'man, Türk sonatutrkr ebrû, Turkish Art, Warsaw 1990, 290, no. 5.
istanbul 1977,46,53, and 55.
r; Demiriz, Çiçekler,64-65, nos. 36-37.
rs Ibid.,66, nos.38-39; and Atrl, op.clr.,58-60, no. 18a.
rs Ibid.,60-61, no. 19.
¡ Ibid.,38-39, no. l.
zr For these and other examples of arjizs see A. Nadir, Ostncutlt
padiçahferntonlan (lmperial Ottontan Fennans),London 1986.
:: In F. Dayrgil, 'istanbul çinilerinde lãle' ,Vakflar Dergisl, I, 1938,
83-90; and II, 1942,232-230. A great nutnber of different tulips
are designed on the tiles.
r Atrl, op.c ít., 21 8-27 9, no. 207.
:r Atasoy and Raby, op.cit., no.361 .
¡ An exhibition of Ìznik ceramics brought together many of the
most important ceramics of the Íznik workshops. For a complete
catalogue containing numerous examples of tulip vases and tulip
decoration see Atasoy and Raby, op.cir.
rc Formerly in the Ayveldi Collection (istanbul), now in the De
Beldel Collection (Belgium). For an illustration see Ayverdi,
o ¡t. c i t. (not numbered).
,r Ü. Canav, Türkí¡'e çiçe ve Ccnt Fabrikalart A. .$. cam eserler
koleksil,ortu, istanbul 1985, I 33. For the miniatìire see

83
Photo Credits

Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen (via Prof. Dr. H. ZolIer,


Basel): 1,2.
Documentation collection Dr. S. Segal, Amsterdam: 3-12;
15-18.
Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem: 13, 14.
Rilksmuseum, Amsterdam: 17.
Museum Sypesteyn, Loosdrecht: 19.
Haags Gemeentemuseum, Den Haag: 20a/b,23.
Gemeentemusea Amsterdam: 2 1.
Stedelijk Museum Het Prinsenhoi Delft: 22,32,33.
Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam: 24-27, 38.
Kunsthandel Pieter Hoogendijk, Baarn: 28.
Christie's Amsterdam: 29.
Hooykaas Fine Arts BV, Den Haag: 30.
Drs. R. Blouwer, Delft: 31.
Museum 'Het Princessehof', Leeuwarden: 34-37 , 39a/b,
4t-44, 46 &.47 .

Dhr. J. ten Broeke, Rijswijk: 40.


Dr. W. Joliet, Königswinter: 45.
Documentation collection Dr. T. Baytop: 48-55,70.
Documentation collection Prof. Y. Demiriz: 56-69,71-78.

85
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