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Republic of the Philippines UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHEASTERN PHILIPPINES College of Governance, Business and Economics Davao City

Declaration of Originality

I, SAIDAMIN P. BAGOLONG, declare that this research is

original to the best of my knowledge. I declare further that this activity

was undertaken by me.

SAIDAMIN P. BAGOLONG Researcher

March 31, 2009 Date Signed

SAIDAMIN P. BAGOLONG Researcher March 31, 2009 Date Signed Electronic copy available at:

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1867847

ABSTRACT

BAGOLONG, SAIDAMIN P., College of Governance, Business and

Economics, University of Southeastern Philippines, Obrero Campus,

Davao City, April, 2009. “THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MADRASAH

COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION PROGRAM IN

DAVAO CITY”.

Adviser: Professor Emilia P. Pacoy

This

study

was

designed

to

evaluate

the

effectiveness

of

Madrasah Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program in

Davao City.

To achieve the objective of the study, the descriptive-evaluative

method was used and which utilized a survey questionnaire as the

primary source in acquiring data.

Findings showed that Madrasah Comprehensive Development

and Promotion Program has a total of 133 employees. Its annual

budget allocation of 10 million pesos was taken from the Local School

Board which passes from the city budget’s office.

The priority programs of MCDPP focused on the following:

construction of madrasah classrooms, renovation of accredited centers,

of madrasah classrooms, renovation of accredited centers, Electronic copy available at:

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1867847

provision

of

classroom

facilities,

conduct

of

capability

building

training/seminars,

educational

tour

and

academic

and

sports

competition. Its curriculum and design comprised two levels; the

kinder and the Grade I-IV levels.

Furthermore, respondents have agreed that the instructional

materials used by the ustadzes and the curriculum development

program of MCDPP were effective.

The

recruitment

and

selection

process,

training

and

development for ustadzes and personality attributes of ustadzes were

perceived to be highly efficient.

However, funding sources and budget allocation, both necessary

in the operation of the madrasah, were perceived as moderately

adequate.

Similarly, the effectiveness of MCDPP in the enhancement of the

Spiritual and intellectual growth of the Muslim youth and in the

coordination with other madrasah educational program were perceived

as effective.

It is recommended that the government should continually

support the program of madrasah in so far as the education of the

Muslim youth is concerned. Special attention should be given to the

instructional materials and curriculum development so as to realize

the end goal of achieving the development of the Muslim community.

goal of achieving the development of the Muslim community. Electronic copy available at:

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1867847

APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree, Master of Public

Administration, this thesis entitled “The Effectiveness of Madrasah

Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program in Davao City”,

prepared and submitted by SAIDAMIN P. BAGOLONG, is hereby

recommended for approval and acceptance

EMILIA P. PACOY Adviser

Date Signed

Approved by the Thesis Advisory Committee.

GLADYS FLORANGEL I.ORTIZ Chairman

EULALIO C. PATAYON Member

Date Signed

Date Signed

ANTONIO M. FAUNILLAN Member

Date Signed

Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

Master of Public Administration

as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Public Administration MARCELO M. ANGELIA

MARCELO M. ANGELIA Dean

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MADRASAH COMPREHENSIVE

DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION PROGRAM

IN DAVAO CITY

A Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty of the College of Governance, Business and Economics

University of Southeastern Philippines

Obrero, Davao City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Public Administration

By

Saidamin P. Bagolong

April 2009

Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Public Administration By Saidamin P. Bagolong

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The researcher deeply expresses his sincerest gratitude and

grateful appreciation to the people who supported and assisted in

pursuing this noble academic and professional pursuit;

Foremost, to ALLAH (SWT) for the courage, strength, knowledge

and countless blessings, His spiritual guidance and the gift of wisdom

in doing the right things in the right time for, without Him, this

humble piece of work would not be possible;

To my parents, Hadjie Mohammad Nhor Bagolong and Hadja

Sittie Rohania Bagolong for their constant love and moral support to

my endeavor;

To my wife Noraima Abdul Jabbar Bagolong, for her loving

support and for the continuing inspiration as well as her endless

patience from the start to the end of this work.

To

Capt.

Department

Amer

D.

Bantuas,

of

Transportation

MPA,

and

Regional

Director,

Communications-

Telecommunications Office XI where I am connected for allowing me to

continue with my studies and for believing in my capacity as employee

of his office;

vi

To Professor Emilia P. Pacoy, my thesis adviser, for her

patience, wisdom and giving heart in sharing her knowledge with the

researcher;

To the thesis advisory committee for their valuable comments

and suggestions in the refinement of this work;

To House Speaker Prospero Nograles, for the scholarship that

he has given to me as one of the recipients of Oplan Kaalam;

To the Librarian and staff of the colleges and universities

including the city library of Davao for their help during the data

gathering phase of my thesis;

To the MCDPP staff especially to Mr. Sappal Jaulali, for the

positive response and for the provision of the data necessary for this

research; and

To all my professors for their selfless effort in imparting their

expertise

as

we

learned

what

management,

organization,

public

information, public policy, fiscal administration, statistics and human

resources is all about.

vii

DEDICATION

This humble piece of work is lovingly dedicated

to

my beloved parents, brothers, sisters and my wife,

my thesis adviser

and to

Samer Said A. Bagolong, my son.

SAIDAMIN P. BAGOLONG

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY

i

ABSTRACT

ii

APPROVAL SHEET

iv

TITLE PAGE

v

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

vi

DEDICATION

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ix

LIST OF TABLES

xiv

LIST OF FIGURE

xvi

Chapter

1.

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

1

Statement of the Problem

4

Objectives of the Study

5

Significance of the Study

6

Scope and Limitation of the Study

7

Definition of Terms

8

ix

2. REVIEW OF LITARATEURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Related Literature and Studies

10

The History of Madrasah Educational System in Davao City

21

Constraints on Madrasah

23

Non-Existence of a Clear Policy Framework for Extending Adequate Assistance to Private Madrasah For their Sustainability

23

Un-economical enrolment Size in Madrasah

24

Unfavorable Policy on Teachers’ Deployment and Provision of Physical Facilities

24

Inadequacies of Evaluation

25

Physical Resources

26

Instructional Materials

29

Curriculum Development Program

31

Human Resources

35

Recruitment and Selection

37

Training and Development

39

Personality Attributes

40

Financial Resources

41

Funding Sources

43

x

Budget Allocation

44

Theory Base

45

Conceptual Framework

46

Research Assumption

48

3. METHODOLOGY

Method Used

50

Sources of Data

51

Data Gathering Instrument

52

Sampling Technique

53

Procedure of the Study

54

Statistical Treatment

54

4. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

MCDPP Profile

55

Vision

57

Mission

58

Objectives

58

Budget

59

Priority Programs

60

Curriculum and Design

61

Personnel Services

61

Qualifications of Supervisor, ClusterHead and Ustadz/Ulama

62

xi

Organizational Structure

62

Executive Board

62

Executive Program Director

63

Executive Assistant

63

Secretariat

63

District Supervisors

64

Cluster Head Teachers

64

Mudarresin

64

Level of Effectiveness of the Physical Resources

65

Table for Instructional Materials

66

Table for Curriculum Development Program

67

Level of Efficiency of the Human Resources

68

Table for Recruitment and Selection

70

Table for Training and Development

72

Table for Personality Attributes

73

Level of Adequacy of the Financial Resources

74

Table for Funding Sources

75

Table for Budget Allocation

78

xii

Level of Effectiveness of MCDPP

78

Table for Enhancement of Spiritual and Intellectual Growth of Muslim Youth

80

Table for the Coordination with other Madrasah Educational Program

82

Feedback on MCDPP

82

5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

86

Conclusion

89

Recommendation

91

REFERENCES

94

APPENDICES

A. Request Letter

100

B. Survey Questionnaire

101

C. Permission to Conduct the Study

107

D. MCDPP Organizational Structure

108

CURRICULUM VITAE

109

xiii

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

Page

1 Scale and Descriptive Interpretation of the Variables

53

2 Sample Size of the Study

53

3 Curriculum and Designs of MCDPP

61

4 Qualifications of MCDPP Employees

62

5 Level of Effectiveness of Physical Resources of

MCDPP in Terms of Instructional Materials

66

6 Level of Effectiveness of Physical Resources of

MCDPP in Terms of Curriculum Development

Program

67

7 Level of Efficiency of Human Resources of

MCDPP in Terms of Recruitment and Selection

70

8 Level of Efficiency of Human Resources of

MCDPP in Terms of Training and Development

72

9 Level of Efficiency of Human Resources of

MCDPP in Terms of Personality Attributes

73

10 Level of Adequacy of Financial Resources of

MCDPP in Terms of Funding Sources

75

11 Level of Adequacy of Financial Resources of

xiv

MCDPP in Terms of Budget Allocation

78

12 Effectiveness of MCDPP in Terms of

Enhancement of Spiritual and Intellectual

Growth of Muslim Youth

80

13 Effectiveness of MCDPP in Terms of

Coordination with Other Madrasah Educational

Program

82

xv

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure No.

Page

1 Schematic Diagram Showing the Variables

of the Study

49

2 Diagram Showing the Feedback on MCDPP

85

xvi

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

1

The globalization of madrasah has made an impact on the lives

of many Muslims. This is because many of the global issues have been

pinpointed to these Muslim schools. Such issues are related to

terrorism and others are mainly on religious aspect. It cannot be

denied that the teachings of madrasah are neither against the will of

God nor the will of the people. Literally, madrasah is derived from an

Arabic word darsun meaning lesson. It is a Muslim educational

institution, a center for studies, teaching and research. In its technical

usage, the term stands for an institution specializing in the teaching of

the Arabic language and Islamic studies (Banglapedia). Madrasah

teaches the value of Islam, Arabic language and even the history of the

early prophets and some of the great Muslim leaders in the world.

In the United States, the parents of Muslim children are facing

the challenge of picking the right school for their children. Parents can

choose the school their children will attend and a school that promotes

academic excellence and a value centered educational environment.

That is why, madrasah has been put at stake to this idea. All of these

have great influence on and impacts the Muslims living in America,

has been put at stake to this idea. All of these have great influence on and

2

especially the children and youth. Hence children are to maintain

these values at home environment. Outside the home, the children are

in

a

totally

different

environment.

At

times

the

outside

social

environment is in opposition to what Muslim children are learning at

home. As a result of this conflict, children are fighting a psychological

battle in their minds (Syed, 2000).

Here in the Philippines, madrasah was given much attention

because education was on Christian ways. It was only recognized

during the time of then President Ferdinand Marcos pursuant to Letter

of

Instruction

1221

integrating

madrasah

into

the

academic

curriculum under the Department of Education. This was supported

by Letter of Instruction 17-A that all Filipino Muslims shall use the

Arabic language as mandated by Executive Order No. 283 and

Department of Education No. 51 series of 2004 which prescribed the

standard curriculum for madrasah education in the Philippines.

One of the cities in the Philippines that recognize the importance

of madrasah is the city of Davao. Former Mayor Elias B. Lopez

spearheaded the move to institutionalize the program. It was further

strengthened during the term of Mayor Rodrigo R. Duterte. It was on

his

administration

that

madrasah

was

institutionalized

and

incorporated in Project HOPE, the acronym of “Help Our Preschoolers

Everywhere” (City Library Files).

and incorporated in Project HOPE, the acronym of “Help Our Preschoolers Everywhere” (City Library Files).

On

December

12,

2005,

the

Development

and

Promotion

Program

3

Madrasah

Comprehensive

was

created

for

Muslim

communities committed to learning throughout life in a unified form in

accordance with the government policy and the need for development

not only in the City of Davao but in the whole of Mindanao.

Throughout Muslim history, this Muslim school has played a

significant role in attaining the full knowledge of life despite problems

and concerns. Madrasah continues to sustain its thrust-which the

promotion of the Arabic language, Islamic values and Islamic religion.

The problems and concerns among madrasah lie largely

on

its

operation. These are related to financial revenues, lack of cooperation,

curriculum, lack of building, classrooms, lack of qualified teachers,

among others. These prompted the asatidz to widely focus madrasah

education on the teachings of Islam.

This in turn stirred and led this study to focus and evaluate the

effectiveness of Madrasah Comprehensive Development and Promotion

Program in Davao City.

study to focus and evaluate the effectiveness of Madrasah Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program in Davao

Statement of the Problem

4

This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of

Madrasah Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program in

Davao City.

Specifically,

questions:

the

study

attempted

to

answer

the

following

1. What is the profile of Madrasah Comprehensive Development

and Promotion Program in terms of:

a) Vision;

b) Mission;

c) Objectives;

d) Budget;

e) Human Resources; and

f) Organizational Structure?

2. What is the level of effectiveness of the physical resources of

Madrasah

Comprehensive

Program in terms of:

Development

and

a) Instructional Materials; and

Promotion

b) Curriculum Development Program?

3. What is the level of efficiency of the human resources of

Madrasah

Comprehensive

Development

Program in terms of:

is the level of efficiency of the human resources of Madrasah Comprehensive Development Program in terms

and

Promotion

a) Recruitment and Selection;

5

b) Training and Development; and

c) Personality Attributes?

4. What is the level of adequacy of the financial resources of

Madrasah

Comprehensive

Program in terms of:

Development

a) Funding Sources; and

b) Budget Allocation?

and

Promotion

5. How effective is the Madrasah Comprehensive Development

and Promotion Program in terms of:

a) Enhancement of spiritual and intellectual growth of

Muslim youth; and

b) Coordination

Program?

with

Objectives of the Study

other

Madrasah

Educational

In general, the research undertaking addressed itself towards

describing

and

evaluating

the

effectiveness

of

Madrasah

Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program in Davao City.

Specifically,

it

sought

to

describe

the

effectiveness

of

the

physical resources of MCDPP, to assess the efficiency of the human

resources of MCDPP, to determine the adequacy of the financial

resources of MCDPP, to assess the efficiency of the human resources of MCDPP, to determine the

6

resources of MCDPP, and to evaluate the effectiveness of MCDPP

resources

and

the

variables

associated

with

this,

such

as

the

enhancement of spiritual and intellectual growth of Muslim youth and

the coordination with other madrasah educational program.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study offer benefits to the following:

Asatidz.

The

findings

of

the

study

will

further

enhance

their

knowledge, skills and abilities in developing methods and techniques

in their performance towards the morits (students).

Local Government Unit of Davao. The results of the study will

provide feedback to the Local Government Unit on the operation of the

program and give re-orientation to its employees on the effectiveness of

the madrasah.

Other Stakeholders. This study will help widen their knowledge about

the effectiveness of Madrasah as an organization and as an Arabic

school.

The Sangguniang Panglungsod of Davao City. The findings will give

information to aid in policy legislation, and eventually improve the

administrative system of Madrasah.

findings will give information to aid in policy legislation, and eventually improve the administrative system of

7

Ulama. The findings of

this study

will help

spur them in

the

preparation of

textbooks and other materials that could be used by

the children.

Future Researchers. This study may serve as a reference material on

future studies on the same field.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study was limited to the perceptions of the respondents

from the First District of Davao City which has 16 madrasah centers,

38 asatidz and 1,454 students. Quantitative and qualitative data were

determined in this study to assess how effective is the program.

Madrasah Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program

was formally institutionalized in 2005, thus, this was conducted to

measure the resources present in their program including the teaching

systems of the asatidz and the ulama. Moreover, this study was

limited to those who were aware of the existence of the madrasah.

of the asatidz and the ulama. Moreover, this study was limited to those who were aware

Definition of Terms

8

To have better understanding of this study, the following terms

were operationally defined.

Asatidz. This refers to the personnel of Madrasah Comprehensive

Development and Promotion Program which is equivalent in English

term as teachers.

Fatwa. This refers to a legal decision or ruling by an Islamic religious

leader.

Fazil.

This

refers

to

the

professional

degree

equivalent

to

baccalaureate degree received by a Muslim student and later be called

as alim.

Financial Resources. These refer to the funding sources and budget

allocation of this office in maintaining the program.

Human

Resources.

These

refer

to

the

employees’

capacity

on

performing their duties and responsibilities as asatidz and ulama

including recruitment, selection, training and development as well as

their personality attributes.

Madaris. This refers to the plural form of Madrasah.

Madrasah. This refers to the Muslim educational institution, a center

for studies, teaching and research.

of Madrasah. Madrasah. This refers to the Muslim educational institution, a center for studies, teaching and

9

MCDPP. This refers to Madrasah Comprehensive Development and

Promotion

Program,

an

organization

which

is

created

for

the

enhancement of Spiritual and Intellectual Growth of Muslim Youth

and coordination with other Madrasah Educational Program.

Mudarresin. This refers to the employees (asatidz and ulama) of the

Madrasah Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program.

Physical

Resources.

These

refer

to

the

physical

facilities

and

materials including textbooks and other school necessities such as the

instructional material and curriculum program of the asatidz and the

ulama.

Stakeholders Respondent. This refers to a respondent who is not

employed

by

the

Madrasah

Comprehensive

Development

and

Promotion Program but is directly involved in the operation such as

the

City

of

Muslim

Affairs

Office,

City

Human

Resource

and

Management Office and the City Budget Office.

Ulama. This refers to the plural form of alim, an Islamic learned

person.

Ustadzes. These refer to general term use for asatidz and ulama.

to the plural form of alim , an Islamic learned person. Ustadzes. These refer to general

Chapter 2

10

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter deals with the literature and studies that have

relevance to the present study. This also includes the history of

Madrasah

Education

System,

the

Theory

Base,

the

Conceptual

Framework and the Research Assumption.

Related Literature and Studies

Many Muslim people complain about various aspects of the

present roles and conditions of madrasah. An often heard complaint

about the madrasah concerns the curriculum program including

textbooks

and

other

schools

facilities

needed

by

the

children.

Continuing to ignore the growing and powerful challenge posed by

anti-Islamic and anti-Muslim forces in the global media in which this

madrasah was allegedly the source. Media tend to depict any effort on

the part of Muslims to live by the tenets of their faith and mould their

lives

and

institutions

on

Islamic

lines

as

obscurantism

and

medievalism. Another is that madrasah have failed to equip their

teachers and students with the skills, idiom and language of the

present times and instead, continue within their traditional framework

of fatwa and fierce polemical debates; this is even reflected in the

instead, continue within their traditional framework of fatwa and fierce polemical debates; this is even reflected

11

pulpits of the mosques (Daily Muslims, 2007). Contrary to the negative

views about the madrasah system among the educated elites and the

middle class, madrasah students and scholars have highly positive

self-views. They all seem to appreciate madrasah education, as it

combines spiritual and religious knowledge with modern subjects and

technology. Yet, everyone is aware that the system is far from perfect

(Abdalla, et al. 2004).

It is said that the Islamic education system is universal; it is not

to serve any ethnic, racial, national or communal interest. The early

Muslim educational institution wherein Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)

was the first teacher believed that the foundation of this system

should be based on unity of the Creator, unity of creature (human

beings), and accountability on the Day of Judgment.

This system is beyond and above the communities, nations,

countries and time and space. These concepts provide the Islamic

education system a stature and exaltation where education becomes

worship. Meaning, during the time of education in the classroom,

students and teachers engage in worship. With this concept, the

purpose of education is no more just for a professional or material gain,

it is also for moral and spiritual gain. This concept changes the

environment of the school and the classrooms and also the characters

of students, teachers and all the people that are involved in this

the school and the classrooms and also the characters of students, teachers and all the people

system (Muslims Weekly, 2004).

12

According to oral traditions, before the coming of the Spaniards

in the Philippines, there were already some Qur’anic lessons given in

the houses of the gurus in the Muslim areas in the manner already

described above. In other areas namely, Luzon and the Visayas, some

reading and writing as well as the elements of moral education were

taught in the homes. It was believed that in the home, the mother was

usually the teacher. There were no formal schools, no formal curricula

or written objectives for education (Lacar and Moner, 1986).

The Muslims in the Philippine South were never incorporated

into the Spanish system of education. The Americans, however, were

able to introduce some public schools at the elementary level in the

Muslim areas. During the Commonwealth regime, in the late 30s,

there was an attempt to enlarge the public elementary system. The

constitutional provision was for the government to provide for an

adequate system of public education with at least a free primary

education. But with inadequate resources, the government could not

fully implement the constitutional mandate. If the schooling in Luzon

and the Visayas was inadequate, that in Mindanao was even worse. In

this island, there were relatively fewer schools and teachers as well as

relatively poorer instructional materials (Filipinas Foundations, Inc.

1991).

fewer schools and teachers as well as relatively poorer instructional materials (Filipinas Foundations, Inc. 1991).

13

According to Dr. Borhany (2007), the effectiveness of basic

education systems is at the crux of the development and of their

potential

to

moderate

the

negative

influence

of

low

growth,

unemployment, wrapping social services and despair. The quality and

manner of instruction is not up to date. In the Muslim rural areas,

children from the masses have the only source of learning. It is the

need of the time to improve the quality of education by drastic changes.

A strong mechanism for the development of madrasah is indispensable.

Government should control the education policy and introduce a

country-wide syllabus. Modern subjects like Mathematics, General

Science and Information Technology should be introduced. If we

examine the Church controlled schools, we find them well organized in

all manners. Christian missionaries are trained through well known

Trinity Academic Institutions, where they learn modern subjects and

languages as well. Thus, producing a seasoned person who can play

the role of a bridge between the material and spiritual world. He added

that the clergy of the madaris should not try to teach technical as well

as professional subjects unless they have command, ability and

qualification. The government of course has to be dynamically involved.

The responsibility of providing the required resources and finances for

such operations descends primarily on the government’s shoulders. A

modest increase in budget allocated annually to education can serve a

primarily on the government’s shoulders. A modest increase in budget allocated annually to education can serve

14

grand purpose in this regard. Furthermore, a reform in education

through announcement is not enough, practical changes are needed.

As theorized by Drucker (1992), “management of all institutions

is responsible for their by-products, that is, the impact of their

legitimate

activities

on

people

and

on

the

physical

and

social

environment. They are increasingly expected to anticipate and to

resolve social problems”. This modern organization exists to provide a

specific service to society. It therefore, has to be in society. It has to be

in community, has to be a neighbor, has to do its work within a social

setting. It also impacts inevitably to beyond the specific contribution it

exists to make.

The

government’s

intervention

in

upgrading

Muslim

basic

education was given importance since this has been a problem on how

it will mainstream it into the larger system of education considering

that only a few madrasah teachers have acquired higher education. It

is believed that this is only the solution to educate the children on the

value of Arabic language and the teachings of Islam. During the term

of President Marcos, several Letters of Instruction (LOI) were issued

mandating the integration of the madrasah into the

Philippine system

of education, and authorized the use of Arabic Language as a medium

of instruction. Dr. Onofre D. Corpus, then Secretary of Education, was

the lead Cabinet Secretary on this endeavor. However, the efforts to

D. Corpus, then Secretary of Education, was the lead Cabinet Secretary on this endeavor. However, the

xxx

mainstream

madrasah

education

were

15

not

extremely

successful

(SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2004). This is because of some associated

threats that people heard about such as suicide bombings and

terrorism.

Boransing, (as cited by Esplanada, 2007) said it was only during

the Arroyo administration when the Department of Education came up

with an Islamic-friendly school curriculum for local Muslims. In 2004,

DepEd Order No. 51 formally integrated the madrasah into the

mainstream education system. The Department of Education currently

has

459

public

schools

nationwide

implementing

the

madrasah

program, excluding those in ARMM which is supposedly autonomous.

Like many of the other public schools, Muslim schools have apparently

failed to deliver quality education because of insufficient or irrelevant

textbooks and instructional materials, lack of academically qualified

teachers and lack of funds.

As

Moulton

(2008)

said,

madrasah

teaches

literacy

and

numeracy along the lines prescribed by the government, though the

curriculum may not be in full compliance with the state curricula.

These madaris are community based and operate on funds collected

by the community. Most teachers have an Alim or Fazil degree but no

formal teaching credential from the Ministry of Education in India.

Parents generally send their children to these madaris to gain basic

credential from the Ministry of Education in India. Parents generally send their children to these madaris

16

grounding in their religion and to get a better education than that

provided by nearby government schools, where quality is perceived to

be very low. A general estimate is that about 10 percent of the Muslim

17

children residing in rural and urban slum areas attended madaris.

In her thesis, San Agustin (1989) noted that the government

educational program for the whole country was so standardized in that

it

provided

for

the

same

curriculum,

the

same

textbooks

and

pedagogical techniques. Although she observed that there were the

beginnings of a tendency to make the curriculum more flexible, the

religion, culture and customs of the Filipino Muslims were so different

from those of the Christian majority that a new and radical method to

deal with Muslim students in public schools had to be adopted but the

system proposed has to be of such a kind as to prevent a wedge

between Christian and Muslim Filipinos. Her researches revealed that

some distinctive elements of the culture of the Muslims were absent in

the content of the public education. For instance, their picturesque

rituals in marriage and literary excerpts form the Qur’an, and that

some of the reading materials in public schools textbooks offended

Muslim sensibilities and their religion, example, stories about pigs and

pork. Progressive imams and scholars who dare to propose expanding

the madrasah curricula to include lessons of more practical value are

often “silenced, humiliated, or chased out of their homes.” According

to include lessons of more practical value are often “silenced, humiliated, or chased out of their

to

Abdul-Hamid

Abu

Sulayman,

president

of

the

International

Institute for Islamic Thought, “The Muslim scholar is either caught

between the ignorant Mullahs threatening him with (hell) or the

corrupt rulers threatening him with jail.” Imams continue to man the

front line, protecting and defending their faith. To the extent that we

can help them realize that the most enlightened way to do so is

through liberal, secular education, the better off we will be. There will

be compromises in working toward our goals. However, the more we

(and they) understand that religion can still permeate madrasah

curricula, administration, and teacher conduct, the less conflict,

suspicion,

and

skepticism

we

will

encourage.

The

objective

of

education must be to form the whole person–body, senses, memory,

imagination, intellect, and will. Even the Jesuits, perhaps the Catholic

Church’s most zealous missionaries, understood that “development

will be defective and even dangerous unless it is strengthened and

completed by the training of the will and the formation of character.”

Due to their backward curricula, madrasah often produce students

who feel alienated from or even repulsed by the fast-changing world in

which they live. These students “suffer from an intense inferiority

complex, hating everybody with modern education.” The alarmingly

high rates of unemployment among Muslim youth are in direct

correlation to the deficient education they currently receive (Schmidt,

xxxiii
xxxiii

2008).

Dabbay

(1968)

did

an

important

18

study

on

the

significant

educational problems that confront the Muslims of Piapi, Davao city.

Many Muslims in Piapi had no interest in acquiring knowledge as

shown by their refusal to attend classes in school be it in public or

their own madrasah school. The level or status of literacy even in their

own native dialects proves very low.

She added that they find it

difficult to adjust to the general curriculum offered by the public

schools because it seems to them the curricula do not fit into their way

of life. Textbooks used in the public school seem to them offensive to

the Filipino Muslims’ sensibilities like the use of the term moros.

Alipulo, (as cited by Oledan, 2007), said that it is very important

to guide madrasah students to the realization that it is possible to

have a worldly success without neglecting religious duties. In the end,

it should be recognized that knowledge about the world in which we

live is the main instrument to achieve this balanced way of life.

Understanding the Madrasah system of education is necessary to fully

understand the culture of Muslims and correct prevailing stereotypes.

It is believed that secular education will create a more balanced view of

life among students, and this will subsequently lead them to a more

balanced attitude toward life. Education in the madrasah is very much

oriented toward religious life. The philosophy followed by madrasah is

toward life. Education in the madrasah is very much oriented toward religious life. The philosophy followed

19

that life in the hereafter is much more important than life in this

profane world. Hence, the tradition among madrasah that religious

education is of the utmost importance. This situation has grave

consequences. Graduates of madrasah are not sufficiently equipped to

take an active role in the modern sector

of life. They cannot be

employed and have to make their living in the traditional sector of the

economy. They are very disadvantaged when they have to compete

against graduates of non-religious schools.

In his book “Integration or Secession?”, Glang’s (1969), observed

that in the field of education, the Muslims lag very far behind. Poverty

and lukewarm government attention did not make education fare well

among

them.

Many

of

the

educated

Muslims

interviewed

have

admitted that the government has failed in its educational campaign

with

the

Muslims.

The

reason

for

this

is

the

lack

of

suitable

educational policies suited to the temperament and complex of the

people.

Facilities needed for the implementation of the educational

programs have not been enough and this works against the Muslims

because of their poverty. Most of them have barely enough to provide

for the basic necessities of life to spare some money for school

contributions, or the outfitting of their children and support of their

stay in school.

20

Madrasah does not need to be closed, contained or cut down to

their children and support of their stay in school. 20 Madrasah does not need to be

xxxv

size. Thousands play an important social role. And the leaders of most

madrasah

are willing to consider

changing the way they work,

although they are bound to defend what they stand for (Evans, 2006).

A poor environment results in low quality of education, while a more

prosperous environment can provide sources for a better standard of

education. Financial resources are generally insufficient to meet the

increasing

demands

for

quality

of

education.

As

a

result,

the

madrasah administrator cannot provide the facilities even minimally

necessary.

Education offers the best means to cleanse away the mass

prejudices, hatred and misunderstanding that has gathered around

the Muslim-Christian relation. That is why, let us remember this

education becomes an instrument for national development which

ought to play an active role in the promotion of national integration. It

should

be

made

more

responsive

and

relevant

to

the

people’s

aspirations for

a

better

quality

of

life.

It

should

develop

every

individual in the society to be economically self-sufficient, politically

stable, socially responsive and spiritually as well as morally upright so

that he becomes an asset to the nation (Lacar and Moner, 1986).

21

The History of Madrasah Educational System in Davao City

becomes an asset to the nation (Lacar and Moner, 1986). 21 The History of Madrasah Educational

xxxvi

Former City Mayor Elias B. Lopez, who is also a member of the

Bagobo tribe, an indigenous group, has asserted that education is the

great

equalizer

and

believes

that

knowledge

is

power.

Through

education, the poor could equal with the rich. During his first term in

1968, the opportunity to bridge this disparity finally came through the

establishment

of

a

project

aimed

to

remedy

the

education

for

handicapped and poor families. He called this project HOPE, or Help

Our Preschoolers Everywhere.

When

Mayor

Rodrigo

R.

Duterte

took

over,

in

1988,

he

continued the implementation of this program as the only project

developed by the local government of Davao city since its birth. It was

on his administration that madrasah was given concentration and

incorporated in Project HOPE. In support to the Madrasah Educational

System, the Mayor with the support of the City Council, created the

City of Muslim Affairs Office where there is a deputy for Muslims

holding its official functions in handling the Madrasah program and

activity operations.

The financial support budget for Mudarresin was legalized

pursuant to LOI 1221, the proposed integration of madaris, into the

mainstream

of

academic

curriculum

under

the

Department

of

Education. The LOI 17-A stated that all Filipino Muslims shall use

Arabic language as also mandated by Executive Order No. 283.

LOI 17-A stated that all Filipino Muslims shall use Arabic language as also mandated by Executive

xxxvii

22

In the year 2003, because of the bombings that transpired in

Davao City pointing to the Muslims as the perpetrators, the Project

HOPE

intended

for

mudarresin

was

neutralized.

The

military

concluded that madaris impact radical Islamic ideas and are breeding

future Moro rebels and suicide bombers. The plan and the conclusion,

however, drew strong reactions from religious and Moro civic leaders

who denounced the scheme as unfair and the Military Intelligence

community’s

assumption

as

inaccurate.

In

this

note,

Muslims

especially in Davao City prove to be worthy of the local government as

a matter of Mayor Duterte’s personal conviction to uplift the condition

of Muslims and should be given Arabic education. This is because of

the emphasis in Qur’an in acquiring knowledge in Islam, as it is a

right for all to have the equality of standard education regardless of

ethnic group, political preferences and religion.

On the 12 th day of December 2005, Honorable Mayor Duterte

inaugurated the very first madrasah program in the country which

was initiated by the Local Government of Davao and hailed as

Madrasah Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program or

MCDPP (City Library Files).

Constraints on Madrasah

Madrasah Comprehensive Development and Promotion Program or MCDPP (City Library Files). Constraints on Madrasah xxxviii 23

xxxviii

23

As

studied

by

Faiq

(2008),

the

following

constraints

are

encountered in madaris which results to inequity or allocation and

development of madrasah education:

Non-Existence of a Clear Policy Framework for Extending

Adequate

Assistance

Sustainability.

to

Private

Madrasah

for

Their

About 90 percent of madrasah are private, but they operate in

partnership. Only a small fraction of them receives extremely limited

inputs from the government in the form of small grants, textbooks and

seconded teachers. There is a need to appreciate the substantial role

private madaris are playing in providing basic education without

significant inputs from the government. It is necessary to draw up a

clear policy framework for extending assistance to private madrasah

on a systematic and long-term basis under carefully formulated

criteria. Since free basic education is the constitutional right of each

child, provision of basic education cannot be left entirely to the private

sector without substantial assistance from the government, especially

when most pupils who enroll come from lower income groups, and

when the majority of the madaris are located in the poorer rural, or

urban-under-served areas. Without the government inputs, the quality

of private madrasah is declining. There is a need to carefully review

Without the government inputs, the quality of private madrasah is declining. There is a need to

xxxix

24

the operational needs of madrasah, especially of those run by private

yayasan

(foundation)

or

religious

groups,

in

terms

of

teachers,

instructional materials and facilities, and provide them the basic

inputs required for the delivery of quality education. Therefore, it is

necessary

to

draw

up

a

clear

policy

framework

for

extending

assistance to private madrasah on a systematic basis under carefully

formulated criteria for their long-term sustainability (Faiq, 2008).

Un-economical Enrolment Size in Madrasah

The madrasah average school enrolment size is less than 150 in

most provinces because of their location in rural and remote areas. A

small madrasah is not very economical and is indicative, if it is to be

fully financed though tuition fees and donations from the local

communities which are pre-dominantly poor (Faiq, 2008).

Unfavorable Policy on Teachers’ Deployment and Provision

of Physical Facilities.

According

to

general

education

production

function,

an

educational output (achievement) depends upon a mix of several

inputs (e.g.

student’ intelligence and

preparation, parents socio-

economic background, home environment, teachers qualification and

experience, textbooks, peer group, school management, etc). Although

the

impact

of

some

of

these

traditional

inputs

on

educational

achievement

has

been

questioned

in

the

research

findings,

yet

 

xl

25

approximate equity of inputs will have to be achieved gradually for

achieving the equity of output, because findings of these studies are

controversial due to sample and design problems. At present, quantity

as well as quality of education inputs in madrasah are determined.

Teachers’ upgrading is one of the serious challenges, since it is a

fundamental requirement for qualitative improvement and successful

implementation of the new curriculum. There are similar disparities

among madaris in their physical facilities and in availability of science

laboratories, libraries and books (Faiq, 2008).

Inadequacies of Evaluation

For

any

qualitative

improvement

in

the

teaching-learning

process, corresponding reforms in educational testing and evaluation

methodologies are

also

required.

The

existing evaluation

system

cannot discriminate between various levels of learning, with the result

that there is no significant difference between the students’ pass

percentages in schools with different qualitative inputs and endeavors.

At present, government assistance to most of madrasah is non-

existent

or

extremely

inadequate.

Consequently,

the

resources

available or expenditure per student in the madrasah, are less than

26

half of their counterpart government schools (Faiq, 2008).

Physical Resources

student in the madrasah, are less than 26 half of their counterpart government schools (Faiq, 2008).

Madaris

have

facilities

which

are

sorely

inadequate

and

substandard. Some do not even have a building of their own. They

may be in the houses of their owners, in the mosques or some other

places that are not conducive to learning. Even those which have

buildings of their own lack the basic furniture for instructional

purposes.

Many

make

do

with

improvised

chairs,

tables

and

blackboards because of the financing situation. As a result, learning

the Arabic language which is commonly taught in the local Madrasah

became ineffective and may affect Islamic education (Lacar and Moner,

1986).

In a speech delivered during the opening of the 1st International

Conference held at Elena Tower Inn, Iligan City, Hariri, (as cited by

Madale, 2004), said that madrasah should be developed and enhanced

in order to contribute in educating and training future generations of

the Muslim communities so that they will be able to participate in

developing and building their countries and also to become better

citizens. He added that to achieve such ambitious objectives, he

outlined the financial assistance which may be provided by the Islamic

Development Bank for a madrasah which may be accredited by the

Department of Education in the Philippines such as schools, health

centers and vocational training centers; the establishment of computer

laboratories and

sports

facilities;

retraining

training centers; the establishment of computer laboratories and sports facilities; retraining xlii of existing teachers;

xlii

of

existing

teachers;

27

revision of its curriculum to make it more relevant to the needs and

problems of students; vocational training for high school students; and,

formation of a networking scheme for madrasah in the Philippines. He

also emphasized in his speech that capacity building and upgrading of

madrasah in the Philippines by IDB needs the encouragement and

support

of

partnership

the

Philippine

government

through

the

concept

of

with local agencies. He

also said

that to

start the

programs, some madrasah should be recommended for accreditation

by the Philippines with the Muslim communities to serve as model

madrasah for quality education.

Islamic education connotes two aspects. One is compulsory

education in which every Muslim is required to learn a solemn

obligation to all believers. Another aspect is voluntary education which

is acquired education, not compulsory. The madrasah provides many

Muslim children with the first educational experience augmenting that

of the home. Pursuant to the injunctions of the Holy Qur’an and

Hadith on education and reflection on natural phenomena, they

spread themselves throughout the world for acquisition of knowledge

and made a tremendous headway in every branch of learning. However,

the growth of madrasah is decreasingly observed. This is because of

inadequate resources particularly on physical facilities which are

crucial to the construction of religious authority. Two of the resources

on physical facilities which are crucial to the construction of religious authority. Two of the resources

xliii

28

which are prevalent in this problem are the instructional materials

and the curriculum development program used by the ulama and the

teachers (Lacar and Moner, 1986).

According to Arce (2000), curriculum ideas are about- who you

are, what you have done, and how you will impact the lives of young

children. Your basic ideas about children evolved from your childhood

and adult experiences as a member of a family and community. As you

assume the role of teacher, teacher assistant or director, you will

incorporate the growing knowledge of the early childhood profession

into your own understanding and beliefs. Much of what you learn will

validate your understanding of the children. Some ideas, however, will

change your way of thinking about children and how you will interact

with them. She added that curriculum involves both planned and

unplanned experiences and results from the values and attitudes of

the

teachers,

the

staff,

the

families

and

the

community.

The

curriculum is also influenced by funding sources, sponsoring agencies

and state and national legislative policy. The goals of a school will also

affect the way the curriculum is planned for the young children.

The

instructional

materials

contain

the

information,

either

written or mediated, that a student will use to achieve the objectives.

This includes materials for the major objectives, and any remedial or

enrichment materials. When

a teacher uses a variety of instructional

for the major objectives, and any remedial or enrichment materials. When a teacher uses a variety

xliv

29

resources, he or she plays a greater role in materials management. By

providing a learner guide for available materials, teachers may be able

to increase the independence of the materials and free themselves to

provide additional guidance and consultation for students who need it

(Dick and Carey, 1996).

Instructional Materials

Instructional materials play an integral part in motivating pupils

to learn and in sustaining classroom participation. For the young boys

and girls, the absence of these devices in stimulating colors, shapes

and texts makes for a dull learning environment, quipped Soraida

Noor, BEAM Materials Development Manager for Autonomous Region

in

Muslim

Mindanao

(ARMM).

According

to

Under-secretary

for

Muslim Affairs

Manaros Boransing, the promulgation of a Standard

Basic Education Curriculum for Public Schools and madaris

should

include the development of instructional materials in five

learning

areas, such as Arabic language and Islamic values in all elementary

grade levels in public schools, Qur’an, Aqeeda and Fiqh, and Seerah

and Hadith in private madaris; and for secondary public schools and

private madaris are Arabic languages, Islamic values and Islamic

studies. The instructional materials should be culturally sensitive and

contextualized

under

(Manuel, 2005).

the

Revised

Basic

should be culturally sensitive and contextualized under (Manuel, 2005). the Revised Basic xlv Education Curriculum

xlv

Education

Curriculum

30

Although, at some point, many of the common items that you

find in these madaris are blackboards, dilapidated desks/chairs,

chalks and erasers. Some of the textbooks are obsolete and most of

the teachers have not updated themselves for the latest required

textbooks. Given the centrality of this institution in the preservation

and production of knowledge, madrasah students, both those who are

studying as well as those who have completed their education, are

aware of the demand for education. Normally, syllabi of religious

madrasah do not include modern subjects on science and technology

which are useful for modern and lucrative jobs. Necessity was being

felt for a long time to include modern subjects in madrasah education

without affecting traditional education. In fact, according to the World

Islamic Call Society (WICS) of Libya, there are 270, 000 Arabic

Language Grade textbooks, another 270, 000 Islamic Values Grade

printed and 10, 000 Arabic and English translation copies of textbooks

released and distributed (Lynch, 2006).

The effectiveness of a learning material is guided by three

primary

factors:

Comprehension,

Retention

and

Recollection.

Comprehension

of

the

content

is

governed

by

factors

such

as

presentation,

relevance,

and

difficulty

level

of

the

content.

The

comprehension of the content is the effectiveness of the content itself.

On the other hand, retention and recollection are governed, partly by

is the effectiveness of the content itself. On the other hand, retention and recollection are governed,

xlvi

31

the effectiveness of the structure of the learning material and partly by

the individual memory of the learner. While a lot of effort is spent on

designing an effective structure of the course, individual memory is

seemingly the more untouched and somehow neglected aspect of our

efforts to develop effective learning solutions. There is a need to add a

psychological perspective of memory and retention/recollection to the

way we design learning solutions (Singh, 2006).

Curriculum Development Program

The long history of our formal education system which dates

back as far as the incipience of Spanish education in the Philippines in

the 16 th century has shown an increasing relevance of the curriculum

to the actual needs of the people and the conditions of the time. The

madrasah curriculum is patterned after that of formal schooling in

Middle East countries.

Filipino Muslims are exposed to two types of formal schooling,

namely, the madrasah and the Philippine “western type” school system.

The irony is that credentials earned from one type of school cannot be

used for admission to the other school. A review of the subjects taught

in the madaris indicated that secular subjects are neglected. The

poetry taught, if there is any, is limited to a few Arabic poetry. Science

is not taught. It seems that the Philippine madrasah curriculum

is any, is limited to a few Arabic poetry. Science is not taught. It seems that

xlvii

32

focuses entirely on the religious, moral and spiritual aspects of

education.

The standard curriculum for elementary public schools and

private Madaris had been approved and prescribed by the Department

of Education.

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)

had adopted the national standard curriculum by virtue of ARMM RG

Executive Order No. 13-A, s. 2004.

With these issuances, Madrasah

educational system has now been upgraded as a vital component of

the national educational system, similar to the Christian and Chinese

schools systems (Lynch, 2006).

According to DepED Order 51, 2004, all public schools and

private madaris in Muslim communities are enjoined to implement

this standard curriculum starting SY 2005-2006. The Curriculum

formulated would be responsive to the needs of Muslim Filipino

children. It aims to establish a smooth transfer of students from public

to private madrasah or vice versa; unify the long history of dichotomy

among Muslims; and promote the Filipino national identity.

In terms of curricular offerings, not all madaris provide students

with complete courses from Kindergarten through the secondary level.

That is, a madrasah may not only offer one or two years of primary,

preparatory or secondary education. The greater number of madaris

concentrates

on

the

teaching

of

students

or secondary education. The greater number of madaris concentrates on the teaching of students in the

in

the

lower

grades.

33

Instructions range from simple reading of Holy Qur’an to the full

primary

education

curriculum.

Two

types

of

madaris

may

be

distinguished in terms of regularity of school services. One type offers

courses during regular days from Monday to Friday and the other

operates

only

during

weekend,

from

Saturday

to

Sunday.

The

Madrasah

Comprehensive

Development

and

promotion

Program

follows the second type and the vast majority of madaris follows the

first type.

The relationship of parents, teachers and the community may

contribute to the developmental growth of the students. Partnership

requires their presence especially in planning curriculum; this is

because of their contribution that could determine the needs of their

children. In studies reported by Sanders and Epstein, (1998), children

benefit

from

well-designed

and

well-implemented

partnerships

between the school, family and community. Partnerships result when

teachers consistently inform parents about the curriculum and about

their

children’s

progress

and

needs,

thus

utilizing

parents

as

resources. These partnerships result in higher achievement levels of

the children, benefiting the children, the schools and the families.

As studied by Mangandang (1957), the curriculum used is

considered “basically Christian”. It is not adapted to the maturation

level of Muslim children because data on their ages are not available. A

Christian”. It is not adapted to the maturation level of Muslim children because data on their

34

sort of special education should be developed for the Muslims who

leave the school early. This highlighted the problems of peer enrolment,

which he considers due to an inherent trait, a wrong attitude towards

education as a result of the American attraction policy, irrelevant

curriculum, the pressure of parents and politicians, and the presence

of non-professionally trained teachers.

To address the problem, DepEd has been building up the Basic

Education Madrasah Program as well as the Alternative Learning

Program for Muslim out-of-school youth.

A report by the DepEd

earlier warned that decades of neglect have made tens of thousands of

Muslim out-of-school youth in Metro Manila and other urban districts

susceptible to recruitment by both Islamic extremists and criminal

elements. Many of the Muslim out-of-school youth are the products of

extreme poverty and the lingering armed conflict in Mindanao, the

report said. Cebu Rep. Eduardo Gullas said the fresh funding for

Islamic

schools

would

give

more

meaning

to

the

Constitutional

mandate for the State “to establish, maintain and support a complete,

adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of

the people and society”. The increased subsidy would enable the

government to train additional teachers in English, Arabic and Islam,

develop

new

instructional

materials,

and

rigorously

monitor

the

performance of a new standard curriculum (Lacbao, 2007).

develop new instructional materials, and rigorously monitor the performance of a new standard curriculum (Lacbao, 2007).

35

According to acting Education Secretary Fe Hidalgo, (as cited by

Sorza, 2006) the education of our Muslim children is an important

concern. Madrasah classes provide these children equal access to

our prescribed basic education curriculum besides learning the

Arabic Language and Islamic Values. Besides the pilot areas in Metro

Manila where Madrasah education was implemented in 2005 (Manila,

Taguig,

Pasay,

Paranaque

and

Quezon

City),

the

Divisions

of

Caloocan, San Juan, Pasig and Muntinlupa will also be carrying out

the implementation of the Madrasah curriculum (Hicap, 2006). She

added on IslamOnline.net that the education of our Muslim children

is an important concern of our President (Gloria Arroyo). Our

government is very much committed to ensuring a bright future for

our Muslim children. Thousands of Muslim students, particularly

those outside of the southern island of Mindanao, Islam's birthplace

in the Philippines and home to most of its Muslims, will enjoy the

privilege of learning more about Islam within their schools.

Human Resources

Another problem encountered by this organization is on human

resources. These deal with the recruitment and selection process of

how the asatidz, the ulama and the staff were being hired and selected.

This may also include the training and development undergone by

the ulama and the staff were being hired and selected. This may also include the training

36

them as well as their personality attributes which in effect is helpful in

understanding their methods and strategies.

Dr. Isidro’s study (1968) has shown the alarming attrition rates

in public schools found in Muslim areas which could have been

caused

by

educational

unqualified

facilities.

He

teachers

was

also

and

inadequate

puzzled

by

the

school

and

government’s

attitude of at first convincing Muslims to go to school and then

neglecting them by not supporting their schools.

Furthermore, as stated by Lunenberg and Ornstein (2000),

school organizations typically plan their future needs for supplies,

equipment, building capacity and financing. Human resource planning

involves identifying staffing needs, forecasting available personnel and

determining what additions or replacements are required to maintain a

staff of the desired quantity and quality to achieve the organization’s

mission.

Good human resource planning involves meeting current and

future

personnel

needs.

The

school

administration

ensures

that

personnel needs are met through ongoing analysis of performance

objectives, job requirements and available personnel, coupled with

knowledge of employment law.

Likewise, in support to the Madrasah Educational System,

Mayor Rodrigo

R.

Duterte

created the Madrasah Comprehensive

law. Likewise, in support to the Madrasah Educational System, Mayor Rodrigo R. Duterte created the Madrasah

37

Development and Promotion Program and included this as his top

priorities. The City Human Resource and Management Office (HRMO)

has 48 Madrasah centers with 98 asatidz and 22 ulama, 13 staff and

more than 3,000 enrolled students. Because of its contribution to

Philippine education and the city’s effort to foster and build a culture

of peace, the City Government of Davao has given its full support and

has taken an interest to accredit and recognize the Madrasah System

of Education. At present, the madrasah centers are sufficient to cater

the educational needs of the Muslim constituents (City Library Files).

Recruitment and Selection

Once

personnel

have

been

identified,

recruitment

involves

locating qualified applicants to satisfy the organization’s personnel

plans. After carefully evaluating applicants in the recruiting pool, the

organization makes a selection of candidates who meet the job

requirements.

In the government sector, particularly in the teaching force, the

teaching

personnel

are

required

by

law

to

pass

the

Licensure

Examination

for

Teachers

(LET)

as

given

by

the

Professional

Regulation

Commission

(PRC)

before

they

are

given

a

regular

appointment. Moreover, for purposes of expediency, some teachers

who lack the above qualifications had been recruited on a temporary

basis. In higher institutions of learning, on account of their specialized

had been recruited on a temporary basis. In higher institutions of learning, on account of their

38

qualifications, they are not required to take the examination.

Based on the Philippine Constitution (Article IV, Section 8 of the

Bill of Rights) it can be stated that no religious qualification is required

for a person to teach in a public educational institution. In private

educational institutions, however, especially if they are religious ones,

there

is

nothing

to

stop

the

school

officials

from

favoring

the

recruitment of co-religionists. As governed by law on how to apply for

mudarris for the Davao City Madrasah Comprehensive Development

and Promotion Program, the City Human Resource and Management

Office sets the following requirements: an application letter addressed

to the City Mayor, a resident of Davao City for at least three years,

Form

212

(Personal

Data

Sheet)

with

recent

2x2

ID

pictures,

Transcript

of

Records,

Diploma

or

Form

138

(Authenticated),

Certification

of

Masters

earned

if

any,

Certificates

of

trainings/Seminars attended, and interview/actual demonstration as

scheduled by the HRMO.

However, these requirements are not always followed because

there are times when the HRMO cannot determine if this applicant is

good in Arabic language or not. One way of qualifying the applicant is

his readiness of Arabic language and Islamic values. This is usually

done by allowing the applicants to take a test different from the HRMO

exam. The test is given by the ulama and the Cluster Head of MCDPP.

the applicants to take a test different from the HRMO exam. The test is given by

39

However, there are cases when the City Mayor may select

applicants who have not undergone the process done by HRMO. This

is usually done on the basis of the recommendation by higher officials

of MCDPP.

Training and Development

Training involves improving employees’ present

skills while

development is concerned with preparing the personnel for additional

responsibilities or advancement in the organization (Lunenberg and

Ornstein, 2000). According to Muddathir G. Palis, President of the

Association

of

Islamic

Educators,

the

ustadzes

undergo

weekly

upgrading of Arabic lessons so students will also be able to enhance

their learning. They are given trainings and seminars on methods of

teaching and the preparation of lesson plan. The ustadz should at

least a high school graduate of Arabic education with two years work

experience and a resident of Davao for at least three years (Quiero,

2006).

For effective teaching, asatidz and the ulama on Islamic and

Arabic education should be equipped with the principles, methods and

techniques of teaching or they must have fundamental knowledge on

the psychology of education in addition to their Islamic and Arabic

education (Dindang, 1981). This would make the madrasah a major

avenue in providing the overall educational requirements for Filipino

1981). This would make the madrasah a major avenue in providing the overall educational requirements for

Muslims.

40

As reported by Tamano on his letter to Dr. Majul, Dean of

Institute of Islamic Studies, University of the Philippines System, the

teachers in madrasah were not academically prepared to handle

classroom instructions. Most of them are elementary graduates or are

just in secondary levels. A negligible number had teacher-training

preparation. In short, the improvement in the madrasah will depend

on the effectiveness of teachers, the sufficiency of funds for school

buildings, libraries and facilities as well as upgrading of academic

background of teachers.

Personality Attributes

One major factor in determining the effectiveness on how well

the students learned in the process of learning is by way of knowing

the personality attributes of their teachers. At times, these attributes

are measured on how presentable they are, normally, the physical

appearance, emotional stability and mental health of the teachers is at

stake. According to Hassoubah (1980), the madrasah teachers in the

Philippines are not effective because of their non-preparation as

guidance-oriented instructors. In reality, Islamic education recognizes

teachers

to

be

guidance-oriented.

An

ustadz

is

required

to

be

affectionate toward his students and to treat them like his own

children. He is expected to take advantage of every opportunity to

toward his students and to treat them like his own children. He is expected to take

counsel and guide them.

41

According to de los Santos (1961), in his article, he reiterated

that unless certain deviant practices of the Muslims are eradicated it

may not be possible for the Muslims to become integrated into the

mainstream of Philippine national life. This is so because he believes

that there are attitudes and practices which are implicit in the role of

Filipino citizens. But he did not think that these attitudes and

practices are present among the Muslims, hence the need for them to

change.

Financial Resources

The Philippines is a secular state. It is unconstitutional to use

government funds for the promotion of a specific religion. In as much

as the madrasah is known in the Philippines as a Muslim religious

school, government subsidy or endowment cannot be availed of. The

financial assistance for the madaris in the Philippines generally comes

from the donations of concerned Filipino Muslims. Some assistance

from the Middle East countries was given to some madaris. Some have

become stable on account of this assistance. However, the greater

majority are experiencing deplorable physical and financial conditions.

In fact, madaris in this country are privately operated. The type of

facilities available to the learners is highly dependent on the financial

resources of the operators. Some madaris are assisted from external

to the learners is highly dependent on the financial resources of the operators. Some madaris are

42

sources, but small or newly established ones are left to the initial

funding of the operators. While some fees are collected from the

parents of the pupils, it is really a negligible amount even to support

the meager pay of the ustadzes. This could be some of the valid

reasons why there is not much investment in madrasah to upgrade its

facilities because the return of investments is virtually nil. In fact,

some forms of services are rendered on free basis. It is altruism

beyond comparison (Pandapatan, 1972).

Ralph Recto (2007) has called on government to institutionalize

madrasah education as a way of promoting peace and development in

Mindanao and weaning away young Muslims away from the lure of

extremism. He noted that the government started the implementation

of the educational curriculum for madaris in 2006 and allotted P150

million

for

the

program,

which

was

designed

to

foster

mutual

understanding among Christians and Muslims." Likewise, madaris

should be an institution that would promote the solid foundation of

Islamic values and cultural traditions and foster better understanding

among Christians and Muslims. They would serve as a beacon for the

enlightenment of our people, illuminating our way towards religious

harmony". The September 2, 1996 agreement between the government

and

the

Moro

National

Liberation

Front

(MNLF)

backed

the

establishment

of

the

private

madrasah

system,

which

was

Front (MNLF) backed the establishment of the private madrasah system, which was

43

institutionalized in 2004 through Executive Order No. 13 of the

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and Memorandum

Order 51 of the Department of Education (DepEd), which incorporated

regular education subjects like English, mathematics, science, Filipino

and civics into the traditional madrasah curriculum.

The situations seem paradoxical when it is considered that all

along, the government has pledged interest in the education of the

Muslims to enable them to find national identification with their

brother Christians from the north and yet, when the Muslims accepted

the schools, the government failed to provide the funds to maintain the

schools effectively (Isidro, 1968).

Funding Sources