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1) Is an oil pipeline a simplex system, a half-duplex system, a full-duplex

system, or none of the above? What about a river or a walkie-talkie-style
communications? (2 Marks)

Answer: Like a single railroad track, it is half duplex. Oil can flow in either
direction, but not both ways at once. A river is an example of a simplex
connection while a walkie-talkie is another example of a half-duplex


2) A Modem constellation diagram has data points at the following coordinates:

(1,1), (1, –1), (–1,1), and (–1, –1). How many bps can a modem with these
parameters achieve at 1200 symbols/second? (2 Marks)

Answer: There are four legal values per baud, so the bit rate is twice the baud
rate. At 1200 baud, the data rate is 2400 bps.


3) Ten signals, each requiring 4000 Hz, are multiplexed onto a single channel
using FDM. What is the minimum bandwidth required for the multiplexed
channel? Assume that the guard bands are 400 Hz wide. (2 Marks)

Answer: There are ten 4000 Hz signals. We need nine guard bands to avoid any
interference. The minimum bandwidth required is 4000(10) + 400(9) = 43,600


4) Explain where the following fit in the OSI reference model: (4 Marks)

a) A 4 kHz analog connection across the telephone network.

b) A 33.6 kbps modem connection across the telephone network.

c) A 64 kbps digital connection across the telephone network.


a) Physical layer: the actual 4 kHz analog signal exists only in the physical
layer of the OSI reference model.
b) Data-Link layer: a 33.6 kbps modem uses framing, flow-control, and error
connection to connect a user to the switch.

c) Physical layer: the digital link across the network is controlled by many
higher layer functions, but the 64 kbps signal that carries user information
analogous to the 4 kHz signal used over the twisted pair that runs to the user’s


5) Why does a conventional telephone still work when the electrical power is
out? (2 Marks)

Answer: The telephone company supplies each of its telephone lines with power
at the central office. This power is stored in the form of wet batteries that can
alternately be charged by a backup battery in the event of power failure at the
central office. These huge batteries occupy entire floors in telephone offices.


6) Suppose the signal has twice the power as a noise signal that is added to it.
Find the SNR in decibels. Repeat if the signal has 10 times the noise power? 2 n
times the noise power? 10k times the noise power? (4 Marks)


SNR dB = 10log10x2/n2 = 10log102 = 3.01 dB

SNR dB = 10log1010 = 10 dB

SNR dB = 10log102n = 10n log102 = 3.01n dB

SNR dB = 10log1010k = 10k dB


6) A 10 kHz baseband channel is used by a digital transmission system. Ideal

pulses are sent at the Nyquist rate and the pulses can take 16 levels. What is
the bit rate of the system? (2 Marks)

Answer: Nyquist pulses can be sent over this channel at a rate of 20000 pulses
per second. Each pulse carries log216 = 4 bits of information, so the bit rate is
80000 bits per second.

7) Suppose that a low-pass communications system has a 1 MHz bandwidth.
What bit rate is attainable using 8-level pulses? What is the Shannon capacity
of this channel if the SNR is 20 dB? 40 dB? (2 Marks)

Answer: Nyquist pulses can be sent over this system at a rate of 2 million
pulses per second. Eight level signaling carries 3 bits per pulse, so the bits rate
is 6 Mbps.

The Shannon capacities are:

C = 1000000 log2(1+100) = 6.6 Mbps.

C = 1000000 log2(1+10000) = 13.3 Mbps.


8) Suppose that a modem can transmit 8 distinct tones at distinct frequencies.

Every T seconds the modem transmits an arbitrary combination of tones (that
is, some are present, and some are not present). (2 Marks)

a) What bit rate can be transmitted using this modem?

b) Is there any relationship between T and the frequency of the signals?


a) Each tone is either present or absent, hence there are 28 possible

combinations of tones that can be transmitted every T seconds. The
corresponding transmitted bit rate is 8/T bps.

b) Yes, there is a relationship. T must be long enough of each sinusoid can be

observed to determine its frequency. This implies that the periods of all the
sinusoids must be less than T.


Question 1: (7 Marks)

Design (show only the network) a LAN system for small five-story building. One
floor is dedicated to two mail servers and separated three database servers.
Each of remaining floor has four computers with broadband access. Your
design should meet the following restrictions and conditions: three-input hubs,
one bridge, and unlimited Ethernet buses. The incoming broadband Internet
access must be connected to a six-repeater ring, no bus LAN is allowed outside
of a floor, and a traffic analyzer must be attached to the network.


Question 2 : (5 Marks)

What is the length of contention slot in CSMA/CD for (a) a 2-km twin-lead
cable (signal propagation speed is 82% of the signal propagation speed in
vacuum)?, and (b) a 40-km multimode fiber optic cable (signal propagation
speed is 65% of the signal propagation speed in vacuum)?


(a) Signal propagation speed in twin lead is 2.46 × 10 8 m/sec. Signal

propagation time for 2 km is 8.13 μsec. So, the length of contention slot is
16.26 μsec. (b) Signal propagation speed in multimode fiber is 1.95 × 10 8 m/s.
Signal propagation time for 40 km is 205.13 μsec. So, the length of contention

slot is 410.26 μsec.


Question 3: (3 or 4 Marks)
Why do LANs tend to use broadcast networks? Why not use networks
consisting of multiplexers and switches?


The computers in a LAN are separated by a short distance (typically <100 m) so

high speed and reliable communication is possible using a shared broadcast
medium. The cost of the medium is negligible and the overall cost is dominated
by the cost of the network interface cards in each computer. In addition, the
LAN users usually belong to the same group where all users are generally
trusted, so broadcast does not pose much security danger.

The original reason for avoiding a multiplexer and switch approach to LANs is
that centralized, a expensive “box” is required. The availability of Application
Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) has reduced the cost of switching boxes
and made switch-based LANs feasible, and in some environments the dominant


Question 4: (2 Marks)

Suppose that the ALOHA protocol is used to share a 56 kbps satellite channel.
Suppose that frames are 1000 bits long. Find the maximum throughput of the
system in frames/second.


Maximum throughput for ALOHA = 0.184

Max. throughput in frames/sec =

(56000 bits/sec) x (1 frame/1000 bits) x 0.184 = 10.304

The maximum throughput is approximately 10 frames/sec.


Question 5: (4 Marks)

Provide a brief explanation for each of the following questions:

(a) Under a light load, which LAN has a smaller delay: Ethernet or token ring?

(b) Under a high load, which LAN has a smaller delay: Ethernet or token ring?

(a) Ethernet has smaller delay under a light load. In Ethernet under a light
load, there is little or no contention for the channel, the delay incurred is close
to the frame transmission time. In token ring, however, there is always the
additional delay incurred from circulating the token around the ring.

(b) Token ring has smaller delay under a high load. In Ethernet there is more
contention for the channel, much of the time is spent in collision and backoff,
so on average the frames experience longer delay and higher delay variability.
In comparison, token ring provides each station with an orderly and round-
robin access to the channel by passing the token around. When the number of
frames transmitted per token is limited, and frames are kept at a fixed length,
token ring can guarantee a maximum delay for each station.


Question 6: (2 Marks)

Sketch the Manchester encoding on a classic Ethernet for the bit stream


The signal is a square wave with two values, high (H) and low (L). The pattern



Question 7: (2 Marks)

Which statement is true with regard to LAN?

A. Distributed across a large geographical area

B. High Speed

C. Leased from a telecommunications company

D. Requires a server

Answer: B

A LAN is a high-speed data network covering a small geographical area.

Question 8: (2 Marks)

What transport protocol is used for broadcasts?





Answer: C

Broadcast and multicast traffic both use UDP.


Question 9: (3 or 4 Marks)

In the following list, identify the OSI layer where the information would be

 UDP 52


 PDF document

 5-5-5-5-5-5

 TCP 80


 Bit pattern

Answer: Layer 4, Layer 3, Layer 7, Layer 2, Layer 4, Layer 3, Layer 1


Question 10: (3 or 4 Marks)

Using the following list, write the layer of the TCP/IP model at which each
protocol operates.












Frame Relay

Answer: ICMP: Internet

DNS: Application

TFTP: Applciation

ARP: Internet

Ethernet: Network Access

IP: Internet

SMTP: Application

UDP: Transport

FTP: Application

TCP: Transport

IGMP: Internet

Frame Relay: Network Access

Question 11: (5 Marks)

Identify whether each of the following IP addresses can be assigned to a





D. 192.168. 200.255








A. Yes.

B. Yes.

C. No. This is the network ID for the network.

D. No. This is the broadcast address for the network.

E. Yes.

F. No. This is the network ID for the network.

G. No. This is the broadcast address for the network.

H. Yes.

I. Yes.

J. No. The network is reserved for network diagnostics.

Question 12: (5 Marks)

For each of the following IP addresses, identify the network ID of the network in
which it lies.













Question 13: (5 Marks)

You need to create 652 networks with the class B address

a. What is the subnet mask?

b. List the first three valid network numbers.

c. List the range of host IP addresses on those three networks.

d. List the last valid network and range of IP addresses.

e. How many subnets does this solution allow?

f. How many host addresses can be on each subnet?



c. – – –

d. Network:

Range of IP addresses: –