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BIOREMEDIASI

COMPOSTING BASED BIOREMEDIATION


KULIAH 12
MK BIOREMEDIASI
SEKOLAH ILMU DAN TEKNOLOGI HAYATI
INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG
2018
DEFINITION

• Compost bioremediation refers to the use of a biological system of


micro-organisms in a mature, cured compost to sequester or break
down contaminants in water or soil.

• Compost used in bioremediation is referred to as “tailored” or


“designed” compost in that it is specially made to treat specific
contaminants at specific sites

KULIAH BIOREMEDIASI - SRI_HARJATI-SITH-ITB


WHAT IS COMPOSTING?

• Composting is a process during which organic materials are


degraded, or eaten, by microorganisms, resulting in the
production of organic and/or inorganic by-products and energy in
the form of heat.

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WHY COMPOSTING?

• composting is widely used to treat wastewater sludges, processing


wastes, and municipal refuse.

• The primary benefits gained by composting these materials are


• reduction of the volume and moisture content of the waste,
• destruction of pathogens and odor producing nitrogen- and sulfur-
containing compounds,
• stabilization of the waste for ultimate disposal or use as a marketable
product.

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BACKGROUND

• The potential for bioremediation of contaminated environmental matrices using


composting is promising primarily because of the intensity of the microbial activity
within a composting matrix.

• This activity is facilitated by the generally warm, moist, aerobic, and nutrient and
carbon rich environment.

• The production of metabolic heat and the insulative properties of the physical matrix
create a self-heating environment that serves to further stimulate microbial activity.

• Microbial communities develop and turnover in response to this metabolism driven


temperature rise.
WHY COMPOSTING?

the overall transformation potential for contaminants within a composting mass


is worthy of consideration for several reasons.

1. Elevated (thermophilic) temperatures facilitate a higher reaction rate than


that generally achievable at ambient conditions.

2. The opportunity for cometabolism (degradation of a recalcitrant compound


while a microorganism is obtaining its carbon and energy from more
utilizable compounds) is enhanced due to the range of alternative substrates
present and the high level of metabolic activity.
WHY COMPOSTING?

3. The changing physical/chemical microenvironments within a


composting mass result in a diversity of microbial
communities and metabolic activity, thereby increasing the
number and type of microorganisms to which a contaminant
is exposed.

4. Elevated temperatures typically result in increased


contaminant solubility and higher mass transfer rates,
making contaminants more available for metabolism.
KULIAH BIOREMEDIASI - SRI_HARJATI-SITH-ITB
GOAL

• The ultimate goal in any remediation project is to return the site


to its precontamination condition, which often includes
revegetation to stabilize the treated soil.

• In addition to reducing contaminant levels, compost advances


this goal by facilitating plant growth.
• → compost provides soil conditioning and also provides nutrients to a
wide variety of vegetation

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COMPOSTING SCHEME
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SRI_HARJATI-SITH-ITB
Issues in Composting Based Bioremediation

• Soil Hydrophobicity
• Bioavailability
• Moisture
• Temperature
• Oxygen
• Inorganic Nutrients
• Organic Nutrients Agents
• Salinity
• Soil Texture and Class Effects in Remediation
• Use of Special Inoculant Cultures
Moisture
• Composting petroleum contaminated soil (1.7% oil and grease) with added
leaves and alfalfa in a laboratory system, Beaudin et al. (1996) maintained
moisture within a range of 50 - 60%.

• McMillen and Gray (1994) composted a oily sludge with added tree waste, horse
manure and soil, with a total mix extractable hydrocarbon content of 5.94% and
found 39% moisture good.

• With very lightly amended Diesel invert mud and cuttings, biodegradation
studies by Danielson (1994) worked with a moisture content of 20 - 22%.

• A matric potential of -10kPa is optimal for composting activity (Miller 1989). A


potential of -10kPa might represent 60-70% moisture for organic materials but
perhaps around 30% for field soils
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TYPE OF COMPOSTING TECHNOLOGY

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AERATED STATIC PILE

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AERATED STATIC PILE

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STATIC PILE

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WINDROW COMPOSTING

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CROSS SECTION OF WINDROW

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WINDROW COMPOSTING

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Aerated (Turned) Windrow Composting

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Aerated (Turned) Windrow Composting

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IN VESSEL COMPOSTER

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IN VESSEL COMPOSTER

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IN VESSEL COMPOSTING

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IN VESSEL COMPOSTING

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APPLICATION

• Compost bioremediation has proven effective in degrading or


altering many types of contaminants, such as
• chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons,
• wood-preserving chemicals,
• solvents,
• heavy metals,
• pesticides,
• petroleum products,
• explosives

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• Contaminated soil is excavated and mixed with bulking agents
and organic amendments such as wood chips, hay, manure, and
vegetative (e.g., potato) wastes.

• Proper amendment selection ensures adequate porosity (for the


oxygen, moisture & nutrient supply) and provides a balance of
carbon and nitrogen (apt nutrients) to promote optimum
microbial activity.

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CROSS-SECTIONAL SCHEMATIC OF COMPOST PILE WITH ROOF

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PILE CONDITION

• Composting is a controlled biological process by which organic contaminants


(e.g., PAHs) are converted by microorganisms (under aerobic and anaerobic
conditions) to innocuous, stabilised byproducts.

• Typically, temperatures of 54 to 65 °C must be maintained - to properly


compost soil contaminated with hazardous organic contaminants. The increased
temperatures result from heat produced by microorganisms as they biodegrade
the organic matter in the waste.

• Usually uses indigenous (native/existing) microorganisms.

• Soils are excavated and mixed with bulking agents and organic amendments
(e.g. wood chips, animal, and vegetative wastes) - to enhance the soils porosity.

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PILE CONDITION

• Maximum degradation efficiency is achieved through maintaining oxygenation (e.g.,


daily windrow turning), irrigation as necessary, and closely monitoring moisture
content, and temperature.

• The two most common process of composting are aerated static pile composting
(compost is formed into piles and aerated with blowers or vacuum pumps) and
windrow composting (compost is placed in long piles (windrows) and periodically
mixed with mobile equipment).

• Windrow composting is usually considered to be the most cost-effective composting


process but it may also have the highest fugitive emissions.

• If VOC or SVOC contaminants are present in soils, off-gas control may be required.
Uses:

• Commonly applied to soils and lagoon sediments when


contaminated with biodegradable organic compounds.

• Aerobic composting (with temp~50degrees C) is able to reduce the


concentration & toxicity of explosives (TNT, RDX, and HMX) and
PAH-contaminants to acceptable levels.

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Limitations:

• Large space requirement.


• Excavation of contaminated soils is required → cause the uncontrolled release
of VOCs.
• If volatile organic, requires collection/control of off-gas.
• The addition of bulk materials (e.g. wood chips) increases soil volume.
• Not applicable if high concentrations of heavy metals present (toxic to MOs).
• Although levels of metals may be reduced via dilution, heavy metals are not
treated by this method.
• High levels of heavy metals can be toxic to the microorganisms.
Cost: Highly variable

Dependent on

1) the soil volume requiring treatment,


2) the soil fraction in the compost,
3) contaminant type and concentration,
4) the soil density
5) the availability of the nutrients & bulk materials required.
6) availability of amendments,
7) the type of process design employed.

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Key Cost Drivers

• Contaminant:
• Contaminant type is the primary cost driver for composting.

• Soil type/total organic content (TOC)


• Soils of higher density (in general, fine-grained sands and gravels) have
lower composting costs
• soils of higher TOC have higher composting costs.
• The density influences the mass of soil to be treated, while the percent TOC
indicates the level of contamination.

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Cost Analysis

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