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Computer Software

Computer Software Kelas Sarjana Week 03  Arie Satia Dharma, S.T., M.Kom  Institut Teknologi Del

Kelas Sarjana

Week 03

Arie Satia Dharma, S.T., M.Kom

Institut Teknologi Del Laguboti, Toba Samosir

Outline Software
Outline
Software

System SoftwareOutline Software Applications Software Productivity and Collaborative Software Programming Language The Issues Associated

Applications SoftwareOutline Software System Software Productivity and Collaborative Software Programming Language The Issues Associated with

Productivity and Collaborative SoftwareOutline Software System Software Applications Software Programming Language The Issues Associated with Legally Software 2

Programming LanguageSoftware Productivity and Collaborative Software The Issues Associated with Legally Software 2 Arie Satia

The Issues Associated with Legally SoftwareSoftware Applications Software Productivity and Collaborative Software Programming Language 2 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017

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and Collaborative Software Programming Language The Issues Associated with Legally Software 2 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Objectives 
Objectives

Mahasiswa dapat mengerti apa yang dimaksud dengan software, pengelompokan software, dan ruang lingkup

penggunaan dari software

Mahasiswa dapat membedakan dan menjelaskan fungsi dari kedua jenis software yaitu System Software dan Application Software.

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fungsi dari kedua jenis software yaitu System Software dan Application Software . 3 Arie Satia Dharma
Software 03/10/2017 4 Arie Satia Dharma
Software
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Sumber: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-leicestershire-18594155
Sumber: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-leicestershire-18594155

A Set Tools for Productivity and Creativity …

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A Set Tools for Productivity and Creativity … 5 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Software Definition
Software Definition

Software is the electronically encoded instructions that tell the computer hardware what to do.

- Williams & Sawyer, 2015

Software is the general term for various kinds of programs used to operate and manipulate computer and their peripheral devices.

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- O’Brien & Marakas, 2011

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and manipulate computer and their peripheral devices. 6 Arie Satia Dharma - O’Brien & Marakas, 2011
Types of Software
Types of Software

The major types and functions :

Systems software - software that enables the

application software to interact with the computer

and helps the computer manage its internal and external resources.

Applications software - software that has been

developed to solve a particular problem for users such as to perform useful work on specific tasks or to provide entertainment.

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for users such as to perform useful work on specific tasks or to provide entertainment. 7
System Software 
System Software

System software is the interface between the user and the application software and the computer hardware.

System software enables the application software to interact with the computer and helps the computer manage its inter-nal and external resources.

There are three basic components of system software :

Operating systems - An operating system is the principal component of system software in any computing system.

Device drivers - Device drivers help the computer control peripheral

devices.

Utility programs - Utility programs are generally used to support,

enhance, or expand existing programs in a computer system.

Programming language translators - A programming language is a set of

rules that tells the computer what operations to do

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- A programming language is a set of rules that tells the computer what operations to
9 Arie Satia Dharma Williams & Sawyer, 2015 03/10/2017
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Williams & Sawyer, 2015

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9 Arie Satia Dharma Williams & Sawyer, 2015 03/10/2017
Application Software 
Application Software

Application software performs information processing tasks for end users.

Application software such as word processing, spreadsheet, database management, graphics, an communications packages are commonly used tools for

increasing people’s productivity.

Application software can be classified in many uses. :

Perangkat lunak hiburan

Perangkat lunak individu

Perangkat lunak pendidikan

Perangkat lunak produktivas kerja

Perangkat lunak khusus

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lunak pendidikan  Perangkat lunak produktivas kerja  Perangkat lunak khusus 10 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
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System Software 03/10/2017 12 Arie Satia Dharma
System Software
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Operating System
Operating System

The operating system (OS) consists of the low-level, master system of programs that manage the basic operations of

the computer.

Provide resource management services.

Control and use of hardware resources, including disk space, memory, CPU time allocation, and peripheral devices.

Purpose of an operating system is to maximize the

productivity of a computer system.

It minimizes the amount of human intervention required during processing.

It helps your application programs perform common operations such as accessing a network, entering data, saving and retrieving files, and printing or displaying output.

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a network, entering data, saving and retrieving files, and printing or displaying output. 13 Arie Satia
Types of OS Supercomputer :
Types of OS
Supercomputer :

UNICOS / COS

Mainframe :

MVS / VM / OS/2

Networking :

Novel Netware / 2008 Server / Linux / Unix

Chrome OS

Pada lingkungan PC :

DOS / Windows / Linux / Macintosh OS

Cellphones :

iOS / Android / BlackBerryOS / Windows Phone

AMOS

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/ Macintosh OS Cellphones :  iOS / Android / BlackBerryOS / Windows Phone  AMOS
Operating System
Operating System

The operating system (OS) consists of the low-level, master system of programs that manage the basic operations of

the computer.

Provide resource management services.

Control and use of hardware resources, including disk space, memory, CPU time allocation, and peripheral devices.

Purpose of an operating system is to maximize the

productivity of a computer system.

It minimizes the amount of human intervention required during processing.

It helps your application programs perform common operations such as accessing a network, entering data, saving and retrieving files, and printing or displaying output.

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a network, entering data, saving and retrieving files, and printing or displaying output. 15 Arie Satia
Basic Function of Operation 
Basic Function of Operation

Providing a User Interface End User/System and Network communications.

Resource Management managing the use of hardware

resources like as CPU, memory, secondary storage, and peripheral devices.

File Management managing data and program files.

Task Management managing the accomplishment of tasks like as storing, printing, or calculating.

Utilities and Support Services providing a variety of

support services like as Security management.

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Services – providing a variety of support services like as Security management. 16 Arie Satia Dharma
The User Interface 
The User Interface

User interface is the part of the operating system that allows you to communicate with it so you can load

programs, access files, and accomplish other tasks.

Three main types of user interfaces :

Command-driven

Menu-driven

Graphical user interfaces

of user interfaces :  Command-driven  Menu-driven  Graphical user interfaces 17 Arie Satia Dharma
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of user interfaces :  Command-driven  Menu-driven  Graphical user interfaces 17 Arie Satia Dharma
of user interfaces :  Command-driven  Menu-driven  Graphical user interfaces 17 Arie Satia Dharma

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of user interfaces :  Command-driven  Menu-driven  Graphical user interfaces 17 Arie Satia Dharma
Resource Management 
Resource Management

An operating system uses a variety of resource management programs to manage the hardware and networking resources of a computer system.

Memory management The operating system also manages memory

within main memory where the programs and data are stored. It can

swap portions of data and programs between main memory and secondary storage, as so-called virtual memory. This capability allows a computer to hold only the most immediately needed data and programs within main memory.

Queue, buffer, and spooling Programs and data that are to be

processed wait on disk in queues . A queue is a first-in, first-out sequence

of data and/or programs that “wait in line” . The disk area where the programs wait is called a buffer. Print jobs are usually spooled into a buffer, where they wait in a queue to be printed. This happens because the computer can send print jobs to the printer faster than the printer can print them, so the jobs must be stored and then passed to the printer at a

rate it can handle. (The term spooling dates back to the days when print

jobs were reeled onto spools of magnetic tape)

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spooling dates back to the days when print jobs were reeled onto spools of magnetic tape)
File Management 
File Management

A file is a named collection of data or a program that exists in a computer’s secondary storage, example :

a word processing document, a spreadsheet, images, etc.

program files are a word processing program itself.

An operating system contains file management programs

that control the creation, deletion, and access of files of

data and programs.

Finding & handling files

Organizing files: directories, sub-directories, & paths

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& handling files  Organizing files: directories, sub-directories, & paths 19 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Task Management
Task Management

The task management programs of an operating system help accomplish the computing tasks of end users.

The task management functions can allocate a specific

slice of CPU time to a particular task and interrupt the CPU at any time to substitute a higher priority task.

Example : Task Manager in Windows.

The task management classify into :

Multitasking - more than one program can run at a time using a single processor

Time-sharing - multiple users can simultaneously use the

resources of a single processor

Scalability - easy adaptation to more users or tasks

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resources of a single processor  Scalability - easy adaptation to more users or tasks 20
Security Management 
Security Management

Operating systems allow users to control access to their computers especially when several people share a

computer or network.

Protection against unauthorized access provide Logins and passwords, users gain access in the same manner as accessing their email.

Protection against damage a computer system protected by security management software, like as firewall and antiviruses / antispyware.

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protected by security management software, like as firewall and antiviruses / antispyware. 21 Arie Satia Dharma
Applications Software 03/10/2017 22 Arie Satia Dharma
Applications Software
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Productivity Software Based on productivity software :
Productivity Software
Based on productivity software :

Word Processing allows you to use computers to create, edit, format, print, and store text material, among other things.

Spreadsheets allows users to create tables and financial schedules by entering data and formulas into rows and columns arranged as a grid on a display screen.

Groupware or Collaboration software that helps workgroups and teams collaborate to accomplish group assignments.

Database software is a program that sets up and controls the structure

of a database and access to the data.

A personal information manager (PIM) is software that helps you keep track of and manage information you use on a daily basis, such as addresses, telephone numbers, appointments, to-do lists, and miscellaneous notes.

Specialized Software software that enhanced productivity at

particular tasks.

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 Specialized Software – software that enhanced productivity at particular tasks. 23 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Word Processing
Word Processing

Word processing software computerize the creation,

editing, revision, and printing of documents (e.x.,

letters, memos, reports) by electronically processing text data.

Word processing packages also provide other helpful

features, like a formatting and spelling checker.

Example top word processing packages.

Microsoft Word, Lotus WordPro, Corel WordPerfect, and OpenOffice Writer.

Google Docs

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Microsoft Word, Lotus WordPro, Corel WordPerfect, and OpenOffice Writer.  Google Docs 24 Arie Satia Dharma

Word Processing

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Spreadsheet
Spreadsheet

Electronic spreadsheet or spreadsheet is a worksheet

of rows and columns that can be stored on your PC.

Commonly used for maintaining formulas, functions, recalculation, & what-if analysis. Furthermore spread- sheet packages using to create analytical graphics.

Example programs :

Microsoft Excel, Corel Quattro Pro, dan IBM’s Lotus 1-2-

3.

Google Spreadsheet

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Microsoft Excel, Corel Quattro Pro, dan IBM’s Lotus 1-2- 3.  Google Spreadsheet 26 Arie Satia
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Collaboration-Database
Collaboration-Database

A database is a collection of interrelated files in a

computer system. These computer-based files are

organized according to their common elements, so that they can be retrieved easily.

The most common database application is database

management system (DBMS). Example:

Microsoft Access.

Microsoft SQL Server

Oracle Database

MySQL or MariaDB

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Microsoft Access.  Microsoft SQL Server  Oracle Database  MySQL or MariaDB 28 Arie Satia
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Spreadsheet
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Specialized – Presentation Graphics
Specialized – Presentation Graphics

Presentation graphics software uses graphics,

animation, sound, and data or information to make

visual presentations.

Presentation graphics more effective than tabular presentations of numeric data for reporting and

communicating in advertising media, management

reports, or other business presentations.

Presentation graphics software Example

Microsoft PowerPoint, OpenOffice Impress, Lotus Freelance, or Corel Presentations.

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 Microsoft PowerPoint, OpenOffice Impress, Lotus Freelance, or Corel Presentations. 30 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Graphics Programs
Graphics Programs
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Graphics Programs 31 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Software Alternatives
Software Alternatives

Many businesses are finding alternatives to acquiring,

installing, and maintaining business application

software purchased from software vendors or developing and maintaining their own software in- house with their own software developer employees

A large and fast-growing number of companies are

turning to

application service providers (ASPs).

The low cost of initial investment

The short time needed to get the Web-based application

set up and running

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investment  The short time needed to get the Web-based application set up and running 32
Enterprise Application Software 03/10/2017 33 Arie Satia Dharma
Enterprise Application Software
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Enterprise Application Software 03/10/2017 34 Arie Satia Dharma
Enterprise Application Software
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Programming Languages 03/10/2017 35 Arie Satia Dharma
Programming Languages
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Programming Languages 
Programming Languages

Kumpulan kata kunci, simbol, dan sistem aturan untuk membuat pernyataan dimana manusia dapat

mengkomunikasikan instruksi yang akan dieksekusi oleh

komputer

Penerjemah bahasa pemrograman :

Assembler menerjemahkan kode sumber bahasa rakitan ke dalam bahasa mesin.

Compiler menkonversi semua kode sumber menjadi kode objek yang dapat dijalankan oleh komputer.

Interpreter menerjemahkan satu persatu instruksi dan langsung menjalankannya di komputer.

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– menerjemahkan satu persatu instruksi dan langsung menjalankannya di komputer. 36 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Evolution of Programming Languages 03/10/2017 37 Arie Satia Dharma
Evolution of Programming Languages
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First-Generation Languages
First-Generation Languages

Machine Language the basic language of the computer, representing data as 1 and 0

Machine Language  the basic language of the computer, representing data as 1 and 0 38
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Machine Language  the basic language of the computer, representing data as 1 and 0 38
Second-Generation Languages Assembly Language
Second-Generation Languages
Assembly Language

a low-level programming language that allows a

programmer to write a program using abbreviations or more easily remembered words instead of numbers

to write a program using abbreviations or more easily remembered words instead of numbers Arie Satia

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to write a program using abbreviations or more easily remembered words instead of numbers Arie Satia
Third-Generation Languages
Third-Generation Languages

COBOL procedural/object-oriented, language resembles some human language such as English

 procedural/object-oriented, language resembles some human language such as English 40 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
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 procedural/object-oriented, language resembles some human language such as English 40 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Fourth-Generation Languages
Fourth-Generation Languages

QUERY LANGUAGES

A query language is an easy-to-use language for accessing and manipulating data from a database management

system.

language for accessing and manipulating data from a database management system. 41 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
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language for accessing and manipulating data from a database management system. 41 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
The Issues Associated with Legally Software 03/10/2017 42 Arie Satia Dharma
The Issues Associated with Legally
Software
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Legal Issues
Legal Issues

The legal issue for free software and technologies,and the information society in general, being:

Copyright Law or Intellectual Property Rights is referring to

the system of protection of original, literary, artistic or scientific creations, which include software, and which reserve to their owners the rights to reproduction, transformation,

distribution and public communication.

Patent and Trademark Law also known as Industrial Property Rights is referring to the legal instrument used by the owner of a work (software or other content) to

grant permissions to third parties to use such work, in

exchange for an economic remuneration or not.

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to third parties to use such work, in exchange for an economic remuneration or not. 43
Software Terminology Based on obtaining application software :
Software Terminology
Based on obtaining application software :

Proprietary Software dijual secara komersil, memiliki hak

cipta yang melarang seseorang untuk menyalin dan

mendistribusikan kepada orang lain.

Shareware Free for period of times, but you should pay to continue using it.

Freeware Available free

Open Source Software diperoleh secara bebas, tidak dilarang untuk menyalin dan mendistribusikan kepada orang lain, dapat mengakses kode sumber untuk melakukan modifikasi atau pengembangan.

Free Software serupa dengan open source software hanya berbeda filosofi yaitu free sotware menjamin bahwa

turunannya tetap berupa free sotware.

Public Domain Software tidak memiliki hak cipta sama.

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berupa free sotware .  Public Domain Software – tidak memiliki hak cipta sama. 44 Arie
Software Licensing 
Software Licensing

When an individual or company buys a software application.

They have not purchased rights of ownership.

They have purchased a license to use the software under the terms of the software licensing agreement.

Software is generally licensed to better protect the vendor’s intellectual property rights.

Prohibits reverse engineering, modifying, disclosing, or transferring the software.

The license is right for not to duplicate or resell multiple copies of the software.

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 The license is right for not to duplicate or resell multiple copies of the software.
Software Piracy
Software Piracy

Pirated software is software obtained illegally, as when you make an illegal copy of a commercial video-game.

Software vendors are working hard to preventing

software piracy.

To discourage software piracy, many software manufacturers, such as Microsoft, require that users register their software when they install it on their computers.

Many software pirates are reported to such organizations as the Software and Information Industry Association, the

Interactive Digital Software Association, and the

Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association.

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Software Association, and the Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association. 46 Arie Satia Dharma 03/10/2017
Thank You 03/10/2017 47 Arie Satia Dharma
Thank You
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Daftar Pustaka
Daftar Pustaka

WILLIAMS, BRIAN K and SAWYER , STACEY C. 2015. Using Information Technology: A Practical Introduction to Computers and Communications, Eleventh Edition.

New York : Mc Graw Hill.

O’Brien, James A and Marakas, George M. 2008. Management Information Systems, Eighth Edition. New York : McGraw-Hill.

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George M. 2008. Management Information Systems, Eighth Edition. New York : McGraw-Hill. 48 Arie Satia Dharma