Sei sulla pagina 1di 65

PHYLUM

MAGNOLIOPHYTA

A. Class Magnoliopsida

B. Class Liliopsida

MAGNOLIOPHYTA A. Class Magnoliopsida B. Class Liliopsida Renzo D. Romero Department of Biology College of Arts

Renzo D. Romero Department of Biology College of Arts and Sciences Our Lady of Fatima University

Angiosperm

The largest and most diverse of the

phyla of the Plant Kingdom

Etymology of the word angiosperm from the Greek words angeion, meaning “vessel” which is the

carpel of the plant and sperma,

meaning “seed

Presently considered as Phylum Magnoliophyta

l” which is the carpel of the plant and sperma, meaning “ seed ” • Presently
l” which is the carpel of the plant and sperma, meaning “ seed ” • Presently
Pistil and Stamen

Pistil and Stamen

Pollen in anther w/ male gametes

Pollen in anther

w/ male gametes

Ovary = “enlarged area” w/ ovules (immature seeds)

Ovary = “enlarged area” w/ ovules (immature seeds)

Ovary = “enlarged area” w/ ovules (immature seeds)

Development of Gametophytes

Tip of stamen is the anther, which contains the microsporangia

produce microspores

grow into pollen grains,

housing male gametophyte

(only 2 cells big!)

Anther releasing pollen grains (after meiosis)

Anther releasing pollen grains

(after meiosis)

Anther releasing pollen grains (after meiosis)
Anther releasing pollen grains (after meiosis)

Base of carpel = ovary, protective structure that contains ovules

the megaspore inside each ovule grows into the female gametophyte

1 egg nucleus

2 polar nuclei, which will become the endosperm

Double Fertilization

Pollen grain has 2 cells

1 grows into pollen tube, penetrates ovary

has 2 cells 1 grows into pollen tube , penetrates ovary other 1 forms 2 sperm

other 1 forms 2 sperm:

sperm #1 fertilizes egg

sperm #2 fuses with both polar nuclei to form the endosperm

(3N, triploid)

Endosperm becomes food for the growing

embryo

Double Fertilization

Double Fertilization Each ovule is initially surrounded by two integuments After fertilization, these become the

Each ovule is initially

surrounded by two

integuments

After fertilization, these become the hardened seed coat

The whole ovary wall then thickens into the pericarp, the thick outer wall of the fruit

Ovule becomes seed, ovary becomes fruit

Ovule becomes seed , ovary becomes fruit Campbell & Reece 2002

Campbell & Reece 2002

Dissemination (Dispersal)

The transfer of fruits and seeds to distant places

Agents of seed and fruits dispersal are:

1. Wind

Seeds and fruits dispersed by wind are generally light and may have structural adaptations like wings and plumes

Some are simply dispersed by the violent splitting of the pericarp

2. Animals

Seeds and fruits are dispersed by animals having spines or barbs that adhere to animal fur

Seeds of many fruits pass through the digestive tract without being digested and are still viable when egested

3. Water

Fruits dispersed by water are buoyant

wind-dispersed seeds are fluffy or have “wings” to increase drag
wind-dispersed seeds are fluffy or have “wings” to increase drag
wind-dispersed seeds are fluffy or have “wings” to increase drag

wind-dispersed seeds are fluffy or have “wings” to increase drag

This flower has a mechanism causing

stamens to arch over and dust the back of a honeybee with pollen

to arch over and dust the back of a honeybee with pollen Plants pollinated by nocturnal
to arch over and dust the back of a honeybee with pollen Plants pollinated by nocturnal

Plants pollinated by nocturnal animals (moths, bats) have flowers that bloom at night

Many flowers are distinctively shaped so only a co-evolved pollinator has the right length appendage

Many flowers are distinctively shaped so only a co-evolved pollinator has the right length

appendage to reach in, get the nectar reward

Hummingbird pollinated flowers are

usually red with long tubes

right length appendage to reach in, get the nectar reward Hummingbird pollinated flowers are usually red

Some flowers have patterns in ultraviolet part of light spectrum

- invisible to us but clear to insect eyes; can form landing strips

have patterns in ultraviolet part of light spectrum - invisible to us but clear to insect
have patterns in ultraviolet part of light spectrum - invisible to us but clear to insect
Most plants invest lots of energy in their fruit for one reason:  This disperses

Most plants invest lots of energy in their

fruit for one reason:

This disperses the offspring of the plant,

as the animal eventually poops out the

undigested seeds somewhere else

eventually poops out the undigested seeds somewhere else  The seeds of many plants cannot develop

The seeds of many plants cannot develop until they have passed through

an animal’s digestive system!

Trends of Specialization and

Classification in Flowering

Plants

Based on the presence or absence of floral

parts:

Based on the presence or absence of floral parts: Complete Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Gumamela) Incomplete

Complete Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis

(Gumamela)

of floral parts: Complete Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Gumamela) Incomplete Flower Plumeria rubra (Kalachuchi)

Incomplete Flower Plumeria rubra (Kalachuchi)

Based on the sexuality of the flower:

Based on the sexuality of the flower: Perfect Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Gumamela) Imperfect Flower Cucurbita

Perfect Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Gumamela)

of the flower: Perfect Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Gumamela) Imperfect Flower Cucurbita maxima (Squash/Pumpkin)

Imperfect Flower Cucurbita maxima (Squash/Pumpkin)

Based on the size and shape of floral

parts:

Based on the size and shape of floral parts: Regular Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Gumamela) Irregular

Regular Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Gumamela)

of floral parts: Regular Flower Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Gumamela) Irregular Flower Dendrobium anosmum (Common Orchid)

Irregular Flower Dendrobium anosmum (Common Orchid)

Based on floral symmetry

Based on floral symmetry Catharanthus roseus (Chichirica) Dendrobium anosmum (Common Orchid)
Catharanthus roseus (Chichirica)
Catharanthus roseus
(Chichirica)

Dendrobium anosmum

(Common Orchid)

Based on the position of the ovary

HYPOGYNOUS PERIGYNOUS EPIGYNOUS
HYPOGYNOUS
PERIGYNOUS
EPIGYNOUS

CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA

Buttercup Family (Ranunculaceae)

Latin ranunculus “little frog”

Nearly 1,500 members of this family are herbaceous

The flowers, whose petals often vary in number, have numerous stamen

and several to many pistils with superior ovary

Most members are bisexual

Contains protoanemonin, alkaloids, glycosides, and other toxic substances

Well known representative include ornamental plants such as:

1. Buttercup (Ranunculus aquatilis)

2. Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris)

3. Larkspur (Delphinium staphisagria)

4. Anemone (Anemone hupehensis)

5. Monkshood (Aconitum noveboracense)

Laurel Family (Lauraceae)

Lauraceae’s primitive flowers have no petals but have six sepals that are sometimes petal-like

1000 species in this family are tropical evergreen shrubs and trees, many with aromatic leaves

Stamens occur in three or four whorls and the ovary is superior

Contains alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and other substances

Was used by ancient Greeks to crown victors in athletic events and

used in conferring of academic honors

Members of this family includes:

1.

Avocado (Persea americana)

2.

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

3.

Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora)

4.

Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)

Poppy Family (Papaveraceae)

members of this family are herbs distributed throughout temperate and subtropical regions north of the equator

Usually herbaceous, few are shrubs and trees. Most are planted as ornamentals

They are lactiferous, producing latex, and produces alkaloids.

Hermaphroditic Have numerous stamens, but most have a single pistil

Includes:

1. Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)

o Used as insect repellent and cure for ringworm,

2. Opium poppies (Papaver somniferum)

o

Mostly used as a drug as treatment of circulatory diseases

o

Contains 50% edible oils used in making margarines and shortening

Mustard Family (Brassicaceae)

Latin name: Cruciferae, four petals of the flowers that are arranged in the form of a cross

The flowers have also 4 sepals, 4 nectar gland, and six stamens

Produces silique or silicle fruits

2,500 species produces pungent, watery juice, and nearly all are herbs

Cover widely cultivated edible plants like:

1. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)

2. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)

3. Brussels spouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera)

4. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

5. Radish (Raphanus sativus)

6. Turnip (Brassica rapa)

Rose Family (Rosaceae)

Includes more than 3,000 species of trees, shrubs, and herbs distributed throughout much of the world Flowers are fused into a cup at the basal part with sepals and numerous stamen attached to the rim

Group with inferior ovary produces pomes

With superior ovaries produces follicle, achene, and drupes

Include:

1.

Rose (Rosa sp.)

8. Blackberries (Rubus sp.)

2.

Cherries (Prunus avium)

9. Raspberries (Rubus idaeus)

3.

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca)

10. Strawberries (Fragaria ananassa)

4.

Peaches (Prunus persica)

5.

Plums (Prunus domestica)

6.

Apple (Malus domestica)

Legume Family (Fabaceae)

Originally referred to as Leguminoseae, the largest of the approximately 300 families of flowering plants Most are irregular flowers

Includes:

1.

Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

2.

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

3.

Mimosa (Mimosa pudica)

4.

String bean (Vigna unguicuata subsp. Sesquipedalis)

5.

Narra (Pterocarpus indicus)

6.

Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus)

7.

Mung bean (Vigna radiata)

8.

Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus)

Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae)

Spurge family are tropical and widely distributed in temperate regions of equator The stamen and pistil are produced in separate flowers that often lack a corolla

Flowers of this family are sometimes surrounded by brightly colored bracts

Produces a milky latex and some are poisonus

Members of this family are:

1.

Poinsettia

(Euphorbia pulcherrima)

2.

Castor (Ricinus communis)

3.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

4.

Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiiensis)

Cactus Family (Cactaceae)

1,500 species occurs in drier subtropical region, can tolerate high temperatures, and some can withstand up to several years without moisture

Generally slow growing and some are edible

Includes:

1. Barrel cacti (Echinocactus grusonii)

2. Hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus triglochidiatus)

3. Peyote cacti (Lophophora williamsii)

4. Paddle cactus (Opuntia monocanta)

5. Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus)

Mint Family (Lamiaceae)

Have a unique combination of angular stems that are square in cross section, opposite leaves and bilaterally symmetrical flowers

Most members of this family produces aromatic oils in the leaves and stems

Included in the family are such well known plants such as:

1.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) 9. Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

2.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

10. Lagundi (Vitex negundo)

3.

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

4.

Oregano (Coleus blumei)

5.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

6.

Lavander (Lavandula sp.)

7.

Catnip (Nepeta sp.)

Coleus blumei Vitex negundo
Coleus blumei
Vitex negundo

Nightshade Family (Solanaceae)

Flowers have fused petals , with the stamen filaments fused to the corolla that appears to be arising from it Superior ovary develops into a berry or a capsule

Many nightshades produce poisonous drugs and some have medicinal uses

Well known representatives are:

1. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

2. White potato (Solanum tuberosum)

3. Eggplant (Solanum melongena)

4. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

5. Petunia (Petunia hybrida)

Carrot Family (Apiaceae)

Have savory-aromatic herbage

Flowers tend to be small and numerous and are arranged in umbels The ovary is inferior, and the stigma is two-lobed

2,000 members of this family are:

1.

Dill (Anethum graveolens)

2.

Celery (Apium graveolens)

3.

Carrot (Daucus carota)

4.

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)

5.

Anise (Pimpinella anisum)

Pumpkin Family (Cucurbitaceae)

Plants are prostrate or climbing herbaceous vines with tendrils

The flowers have fused petals, and female flowers have an inferior

ovary with three carples

All are unisexual, but some species have both organs on the same plant, while others have only male or female on one plant

The family has about 700 members and several of which have many horticultural varieties

Well known members are:

1.

Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima)

6. Vegetable sponge (Luffa

2.

Gourd (Momordica charantia)

aegyptiaca)

3.

Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus)

4.

Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis)

Sunflower Family (Asteraceae)

The second largest of the flowering plant families in terms of number of species Individual flowers are called florets Well known members of this family includes:

1.

Sunflower (Helianthus anuus)

2.

Daisy (Bellis perennis)

3.

Dandelions (Taxacarum sp.)

4.

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

CLASS LILIOPSIDA

Grass Family (Poaceae)

More numerous and more widely distributed than plants of any other flowering plant family Flowers of this family are typically wind-pollinated

The calyx and corolla are represented by tiny, inconspicuous scales, and the flowers are protected by boat-shaped bracts.

Includes 9 of the 10 most important crop plants in the world

Members of this family are:

1.

Common wheat (Triticum aestivum)

2.

Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

3.

Rye (Secale cereale)

4.

Oats (Avena sativa)

5.

Rice (Oryza sativa)

6.

Corn (Zea mays)

Lily Family (Liliaceae)

Particularly abundant in the tropics and sub-tropics, but they occur in almost any area that supports vegetation Flowers are often large, and their parts are all in multiples of three, with the sepals and petals frequently resembling each other in color and form

Family members are:

1. Lilies (Lilium orientalis)

2. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)

3. Squill (Urginea maritima)

4. Meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale)

5. Tulip (Tulipa aucheriana)

Orchid Family (Orchidaceae)

The flowers are exceptionally varied in size and form, and the habitants of the plants are equally diverse

Many are epiphytic on the bark of trees

Includes:

1.

Common orchid (Dendrobium anosmum)

2.

Euanthe (Euanthe sanderiana)

3.

Cattleya orchid (Cattleya labiata)

4.

Flat-Leaved Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia)

( Euanthe sanderiana ) 3. Cattleya orchid ( Cattleya labiata ) 4. Flat-Leaved Vanilla ( Vanilla
( Euanthe sanderiana ) 3. Cattleya orchid ( Cattleya labiata ) 4. Flat-Leaved Vanilla ( Vanilla

Amaryllis Family (Amaryllidaceae)

Family of herbaceous, perennial and bulbous flowering plants

Flowers are usually bisexual and symmetrical, arranged in umbels

on the stem

Allyl sulfide compounds produce the characteristic odour of the onion subfamily

Members of the family are:

1. Onion (Allium cepa)

2. Garlic (Allium sativa)

3. Hippeastrum (Hippeastrum reginae)

4. Daffodil (Narcissus poeticus)

5. Amaryllis (Amaryllis belladona)

Palmae Family (Arecaceae)

Most palms are distinguished by their large, compound, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, arranged at the top of an unbranched

stem

Best known and most extensively cultivated plant families

Have great economic importance including oils, dates, palm syrup, ivory nuts, rattan cane, and palm wood

Includes:

1.

Betel nut (Areca catechu)

2.

Coconut tree (Cocos nucifera)

3.

Rattan palm (Calamus rotang)

4.

Nipa palm (Nypa fruticans)

Bromeliad Family (Bromeliaceae)

The only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries Able to store water in a structure formed by their tightly- overlapping leaf bases

Includes:

1. Guzmania (Guzmania brumeliad)

2. Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

their tightly- overlapping leaf bases • Includes: 1. Guzmania ( Guzmania brumeliad ) 2. Pineapple (
their tightly- overlapping leaf bases • Includes: 1. Guzmania ( Guzmania brumeliad ) 2. Pineapple (

Arum Family (Araceae)

Flowers are borne on a type of called inflorescence called “spadix

Usually accompanied by, and sometimes partially enclosed in, a

spathe or leaf-like bract

Some species contain calcium oxalate crystals in the form of raphides. When consumed, these may cause edema, vesicle formation, and dysphagia

Includes the following species:

1.

Flamingo Flower (Anthurium andraeanum)

2.

Alocasia (Alocasia acuminata)

3.

Caladium (Caladium bicolor)

4.

Taro (Colocasia esculenta)

5.

Dumb cane (Dieffenbachia seguine)

6.

Calla lily (Zanthedeschia aethiopica)