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RESEARCH PROPOSAL

DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF LEARNING STYLES AND LEARNING


STRATEGIES OF JAVANESE STUDENTS IN LEARNING ENGLISH AS
FOREIGN LANGUAGE

A. Background of the Research


English is the universal language. Learning English has become
one of important things that we have to do. It is because we are in the
globalization era which makes English exists almost in every sector of our
life. Moreover, Indonesia has to prepare its human resources to be able to
compete in the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). In AEC, there will
be a free trade among the countries in ASEAN. So, each country should
prepare its human resources which are skilled or competent, educated, and
competitive. One of skills which should be owned by Indonesian is being
able to use English.
In some countries such as India, Philippine, and Singapore, English
has become the official language. In those countries, English may be the
first or second language. But, it is different from Indonesia. Indonesian
learn English as foreign language. It is because the mother tongues of
Indonesian are mostly Javanese, Sundanese, Batak, and etc. Then, the
second language of Indonesian is Bahasa Indonesia. Bahasa Indonesia
becomes the official language in Indonesia. So, in this condition English
still becomes a foreign language for them. English is not the official
language in Indonesia. It is because Indonesian do not use English in their
daily conversation.
Learning English is difficult for some Indonesian. There are many
factors which hinder Indonesian to learn English such as lack of
vocabularies, pronunciation, grammar, and practice. One of the difficulties
to learn English is that the pronunciation of English words is not

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appropriate with the written words. Indonesian often pronounces a word
according to the spelling of the written form. Javanese students who learn
English often encounter many problems. The problems can emerge from
outside or inside the learners. The problems which come from the outside
may appear in the form of environmental disorder. It can be the
environment which is not support them to learn English such as the
environment seldom use English in their communication. The problems
which come from the inside may be caused by learners’ motivation itself.
If there is no motivation to learn English, it will be difficult to accept
English in their life. Therefore, Javanese students should have their own
strategies to make the learning English process to be more effective.
Although it is difficult, the enthusiasm of Indonesian to learn
English is still high. We can see that from the number of university
students which take English as their major. For example, the number of the
English Education Department students of IAIN Salatiga has increased in
the last three years. In 2013, the students who enrolled English Education
are 120 students. Majority, English Education Department students of
IAIN Salatiga are Javanese, although there are some students from other
island. They come with different background and objective, so it is
interesting to do a research about their learning style and strategy in
learning English.
The strategies usually depend on their learning style. So, each
learning style has its own strategies. Learning style has a contribution in
the successful of learning English. That is why, in this research entitled
“​DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH OF LEARNING STYLES AND
LEARNING STRATEGIES OF JAVANESE STUDENTS IN
LEARNING ENGLISH AS FOREIGN LANGUAGE​, the writers will
investigate about Javanese students learning style and also their strategies.

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B. Questions of the Problems
Based on the background above, the writers formulate some
problems that will be discussed, as follow:
1. What are the types of Javanese students’ learning style in learning
English as a foreign language?
2. What are the learning strategies of the Javanese students in learning
English as a foreign language?
3. How do the strategies characterize each type of learning style?

C. Objectives of the Research


The objectives of this research are derived from the problems
above, as follow:
1. To know the types of Javanese students’ learning style in learning
English as a foreign language.
2. To explore Javanese students’ learning strategies in learning English as
foreign language.
3. To map Javanese students’ learning strategies regarding their learning
style.

D. Benefits of the Research


The writers expect that the results of this research can give
contribution for academic field and practical field, as follows:
1. Theoretical
This research is hoped to be able to be one of references of
other researches which is related to this research.
2. Practical
This research can be one of resources for the English
lecturers to develop their teaching designs. This research can also

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be one of resources for university students to understand about
strategies in learning English.

E. Definition of Key Terms


To clarify the topic of the research, the writers present definition of
the key terms that are used in this research, as follow:
1. Javanese Speakers
Javanese speakers are people who are Javanese descendent
and have Javanese language as mother tongue. Further explanation
will be discussed in chapter II.
2. Learning Styles
The concept of learning style describes individual
differences in learning based on the learner’s preference for
employing different phases of the learning cycle (Kolb, 2005).
3. Learning Strategies
Learning strategies are the specific actions taken by the
learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more
self-directed, more effective and more transferrable to new
situations (Oxford, 1990).
4. English as A Foreign Language
English as a foreign language (EFL) is a term where
English is learnt by non-native speakers who live in a country
which don’t use English in their daily communication but English
is taught in school (Gilby, 2011).

F. Review of Related Literatures


Relationship between learning style, culture and learning strategies
has been discussed in many research of the expert. One of these studies is
the research that was conducted by Joy &Kolb (2009). Joy & Kolb

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examined the role of culture in individual learning. They used 533
participants from 7 countries which were assumed represent their cluster,
group of similar culture that was studied by Global Leaderships and
Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE). They
examinedparticipants’ learning preferences respect to their culture, age,
gender, level of education and area of specialization; also they examined
the effect of culture dimensions toward learning style preference. The
finding is that culture has affected the respondents’ learning style
preference.
In case of learning strategies and culture, Selma Deneme (2008)
conducted a research to examine the preference of language learning
strategies of Turkish students in learning English. Descriptive research
model was used and she utilized SILL Questionnaire by Rebecca Oxford
to find out the language learning strategies preference of 50 students. The
result was most of the participants used compensation strategy and
metacognitive strategy rather than the others strategy. In 2010, Deneme
conducted a research that was aimed to compare language learning
strategies preference of three cultural backgrounds that are Jordanian,
Spanish, and Turkish. Her research used comparative-descriptive research
and collected data from 55 participants. As the result, there was a
difference of language learning preference between Jordanian, Spanish,
and Turkish students. The research indicated that learning language
strategies are influenced by the culture.
After reviewing the researches above, the writers are interested in
examining the learning styles and learning strategies of Javanese students
in learning English as foreign language. This research differs from
Deneme’s research and Joy & Kolb’s research in some elements. First, this
research focuses on Javanese students. Deneme’s research used Turkish,
Jordanian, and Spanish students. It triggers the writers’ desire to research

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Javanese students. Joy & Kolb’s researchis still in wide scope, because it
used GLOBE’s framework of categorizing cultures. Even though the
framework of categorizing cultures was arranged in carefully research, it
still will be found some differences among the cultures in the same
clusters.So that, this research will make the scope become more specific
by only emphasizing in Javanese students. Then, this research combines
the learning styles, which were investigated by Joy & Kolb’s, and learning
strategies, which were investigated byDeneme’s. The writers will try to
find out the relationship between learning styles and learning strategies.

G. Theoretical Framework
The writers construct some notions related to the topic. The notions
are constructed based on the previous research and theories. The notions
are follows:
1. Javanese Students
Language can bedefined as verbal, physical, biologically
innate, and a basic form of communication. Culture isthe
characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything
from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and
arts(Choudhury, 2014).Javanese also have those kinds of things.
Javanese have BahasaJawa as their language. In BahasaJawa there are
several characteristics which define each kind of BahasaJawa such as
dialect, vocabulary, term, and level. Javanese also have aksaraJawa or
Java written words to write in BahasaJawa. Javanese have many arts
such as Wayang, Macapat, and other traditional arts. These all
characteristics in Javanese influence Javanese students in their English
learning process. Sometimes Javanese students still use their Javanese
dialect when they speak using English. Culture finds its expression in
language so, learning anew language without familiarity with its

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culture remains incomplete (Choudhury, 2014). Therefore, Javanese
students who learn English as a foreign language should learn and
unite with the English culture although they also have Java culture.
Culture as a body of knowledge of common beliefs, behaviors and
values appear to be the factor to establish and interpret meaning in
both verbal and nonverbal language (Yagiz&Izadpanah, 2013)
2. Learning Styles
Brown (2000) cited in Gilakjani (2012) defines learning styles
as the manner in which individuals perceive and process information in
learning situations.Inbrief, learning style is the way of students to
learn. Learning style of each student is different. Previous research
(Kolb, 1984) has shown that learning styles are influenced by
personality type, educational specialization, career choice, and current
job role and tasks.Yamazaki (2002, 2004a) has recently identified
cultural influences as well.Students may choose their own learning
style based on those factors. The concept of learning style describes
individual differences in learning based on the learner’s preference for
employing different phases of the learning cycle (Kolb, 2005). Kolb
has identified four learning styles using the Learning Style Inventory
(LSI). They are diverging, assimilating, converging, and
accommodating.
An individual with diverging style has CE (Concrete
Experience) and RO (Reflective Observation) as dominant learning
abilities. An individual with an assimilating style has AC (Abstract
Conceptualization) and RO (Reflective Observation) as dominant
learning abilities. An individual with a converging style has AC
(Abstract Conceptualization) and AE (Active Experimentation) as
dominant learning abilities.An individual with an accommodating style

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has CE (Concrete Experience) and AE (Active Experimentation) as
dominant learning abilities.
3. Learning Strategies
Many experts have defined learning strategies. The writers
construct this notion based on some definition from the experts. First,
learningstrategies is“specific actions taken by the learner to make
learning easier, faster, moreenjoyable, more self-directed, more
effective, and more transferable to new situations” (Oxford, 1990, p.8).
Wenden (1987, p. 7-8) defined learning strategies as “the various
operations that learners use inorder to make sense of their learning”.
Then, O’Malley and Charnot(1985, p.1) stated that learning strategies
are “the special thoughts or behaviors that individual use to help them
comprehend, learn, or retrain new information”. From these definitions
the writers infer that learning strategies are ways to make learning
more effective.
Since this research’s topic is about learning style and strategy
in learning English as Foreign language, the writers use more specific
notion about learning strategies in language learning, called language
learning strategies. This research uses Oxford’s language learning
strategies. She divided language learning strategies into two major
groups: direct and indirect; each group, then, divided into three
sub-groups, and those sub-groups are memory, cognitive,
compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social (Oxford, 1990). To
identify one’s tendency in those strategies, Oxford developed
Strategies Inventory of Language Learning (SILL). The questionnaire
will be used in this research to identify respondents’ strategies in
learning English.
4. English as Foreign Language

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English as foreign language (EFL) is a term where English is
learnt by non-native speakers who live in a country which don’t use
English in their daily communication but English is taught in school.
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL), which is also known
as Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) or
English Language Teaching (ELT), involves the process of teaching
the English language to students whose first language is not English
(Gilby, 2011).English is the official or joint official language in over
75 countries worldwide and is therefore recognized as the language of
international communication.TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign
Language) is the most common term used in the UK and refers to
Teaching English to students whose first language is not English most
often in their country of origin.

H. Research Methodology
This part presents comprehensive research design that will be
conducted. It includes research approach and method, location of the
research, sources and types of the data, technique of data collection, data
analysis, data validation, and research phases.
1. Research approach and method
The research belongs to descriptive qualitative research. Bodgan
and Taylor (1975: 2) define qualitative research as a kind of research
that produces descriptive data as the result include theoretical review,
people’s common perspective and unique human’s behavior.​Qualitative
research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific
information about the values,opinions, behaviors, and social contexts of
particular populations (Mack et al. 2005).​Thewriters use the descriptive
research. This research’s purpose is to describe students’ learning style
and strategies in learning English.

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2. Setting of the research
The research will be conducted in IAIN Salatiga on campus 3
that located at Jalan LingkarSelatan, Pulutan, Salatiga. This research is
scheduled from 10 June – 30 September 2016 for English Education
Department Students of IAIN Salatiga.
3. Data Sources
Data sources are divided into primary and secondary sources
(Sumanto, 1990:11). In order to know more detail, the writer will
present as below:
a. Primary sources
It is a source of data that is written by the writer. It has
relation with the object of the research. The primary resources in
this research are students as a respondent, the result of
questionnaire, and interview transcript.

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b. Secondary sources
There are source of data, which support and complete the
primary data source. This data are acquiring from any kinds of
literary books and sources, dealing with underlying theories of
literary work and articles.
4. Technique of data collection
To gather data from the sources, the writers use some
techniques. Those are as follow:
a. Documentation research
According to Arikunto (2002,p.206), documentation
research is searching for data of things or variables in forms of
notes, transcripts, book, letters, magazines, agendas, etc. In this
research, the writers use some related document, such as, students
list of IAIN Salatiga, books and journals that are related to the
topic, etc.
b. Questionnaire
According to Widodo (2004, p.49), questionnaire is
questions list that is made based on some indicators of the
research’s variables and that should be answered by respondent.
The writers use this technique to gather the data about students’
strategies in learning English by using Strategies Inventory of
Language Learning (SILL) Questionnaire by Rebecca Oxford. To
gather data about learning style, the writers use Kolb’s Learning
Style Inventory 3.1 questionnaire.
c. Interview
Sugiyono (2006,p.317) defines interviews as the meeting of
two persons who exchange information and ideas through question

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and answer in order to find meanings in a certain topic. The
samples that will be attended interview are the students who are
chosen regarding the learning style and the questionnaire result.
Interview is used to confirm and to validate the data.

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5. Data analysis
The writers useflow model of qualitative data analysis. Those
phases are data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing
(Engel&Schutt, 2005). After collecting the data through the techniques
above, the data will be reduced and be organized into some categories.
Then, the writers displays the data and the last the writers will make
conclusion.
6. Data validation
Between-method triangulation is used to validate the obtained
data. According to Denzin (1978), triangulation is the combination of
methodologies in the research of the same phenomenon.
Furthermore,Denzin called the use of two or more method to validate
data as between-method triangulation. In this research, the writers used
questionnaire to obtain the data and confirming the data by interview.
7. Research phase
In order to make this research clear and systematic, the research
will be conducted in three general phases. In each general phase, there
are some activities that must be done by the researchers. The table
below presents the research phases.
Phase Activity
riters prepare the questionnaire.
riters choose 100 respondents from population by using
snowballing sampling.
1 riters ask the respondents to answer the questionnaire.
riters analyze the questionnaire result and classifying the
respondents based on their learning style and their
learning strategies.
2 riters arrange the interview questions.

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riters choose respondents from population by using
purposive sampling for interview regarding their learning
style.
riters contact the samples and make appointment for
interview.
riters conduct the interview.
riters analyze the interview result.
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riters write the research paper.

I. Paper Outline
The research paper will be arranged in five chapters. Each chapter
discusses different parts of the research. Chapter I is introduction. This
chapter discuss about background of the research, research problems and
objectives, benefit of the research, definition of key terms and the research
paper outline.
Chapter II will discuss about Literature Review. The writers will
explain more about the research topic by reviewing previous related
research. This chapter also discusses more the theoretical framework of the
research. Next chapter is research methodology. The writers will describe
design of this research in this chapter. It includes the research approach
and method, the subject of the research, sources and types of data, data
collection technique, data analysis technique, data validation technique,
and research phases.
Chapter IV will present the findings and discussion. It includes the
analysis of the writers about the Javanese students’ learning style and their
strategies in learning English. Chapter V is Closure. In this chapter the
writers will conclude the research and give some suggestion for the further
research related to this topic.

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J. References
Arikunto, S. (2002).​ProsedurPenelitian: SuatuPendekatanPraktek​.
Jakarta: RinekaCipta.
Choudhury, R.U. (2014). ​The Role of Culture in Teaching and Learning of
English as a Foreign Language.​ Jazan University. Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and
mixed method approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Deneme, S. (2008). Language Learning Strategy Preferences of Turkish
Students. ​Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 4, 83-93.
Deneme, S. (2010). Cross-Cultural Differences in Language Learning
Strategy Preferences: A Comparative Research. ​Language Society
and Culture​. Retrieved from
http://www.educ.utas.edu.au/users/tle/JOURNAL/
Denzin, N. K. (1978) ​The Research Act (2nd ed.). New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Engel, R. J., &Schutt, R. K. (2005).​The Practice of Research in Social
Work.​ Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gilakjani, A.P. (2012). ​Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic Learning Styles and
Their Impacts on English Language Teaching​.Islamic Azad
University.Lahijan, Iran
Gilby, Clare. (2011). ​Teaching English as a Foreign Language​. Edge Hill
University
Joy, S., & Kolb, D. A. (2009). Are There Cultural Differences in Learning
Styles? ​International Journal of Intercultural Relations 33, 69-85.​
doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.11.002
Kolb, A.Y. & Kolb, D.A.(2005).​The Kolb Learning Style Inventory –
Version 3.1 2005 Technical Specification​. Case Western Reserve
University

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Kolb, D. A. (1984).​Experiential learning: Experience as the source of
learning and development​. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Oxford, R.L. (1990). ​Language Learning strategies​. USA: Heinle and
Heinle Publishers
Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning, 3-13. Englewood
Cliffs,
Sugiyono.(2006). ​MetodePenelitianPendidikanKualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan
R & D​. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Wenden, A. L. (1987). Conceptual background and utility. In A. L.
Wenden & J.
Yamazaki, Y. (2002). L​earning styles and typologies of cultural
differences: A theoretical and empirical comparison.​
Workingpaper.Department of Organizational Behavior, Case
Western Reserve University.
Yamazaki, Y. (2004). ​An experiential approach to cross-cultural
adaptation: A research of Japanese expatriates’ learningstyles,
learning skills and job satisfaction in the United States.​ Ph. D.
dissertation, Department of Organizational Behavior.Case Western
Reserve University.
Language Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and
Teaching. (n.d.). Retrieved May 29, 2016, from
http://iteslj.org/Articles/Hismanoglu-Strategies.html
Learning Strategies in the Classroom.(n.d.). Retrieved May 29, 2016, from
http://www.mun.ca/educ/faculty/mwatch/vol2/seifert.html NJ:
Prentice-Hall.

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