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Aviation Industry

■ What is an Airport ???
a complex of runways and buildings for the
take-off, landing, and maintenance of civil
aircraft, with facilities for passengers.

An airport is an aerodrome with extended

facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
Airports often have facilities to store and
maintain aircraft, and a control tower.

■ airport consists of a landing area, which

comprises an aerially accessible open space
including at least one operationally active
surface such as a runway for a plane to take
off or a helipad, and often includes adjacent
utility buildings such as control towers, hangars
and terminals. Larger airports may
have fixed-base operator services, airport
aprons, taxiway bridges, air traffic control
centres, passenger facilities such as restaurants
and lounges, and emergency services.

■ The Airports Authority of India (AAI) was formed on 1st April 1995 by
merging the International Airports Authority of India and the National
Airports Authority with a view to accelerate the integrated
development, expansion, and modernization of the operational,
terminal and cargo facilities at the airports in the country conforming
to international standards. Today, AAI is a major airport operator
managing 125 airports across the country and also entrusted with
the sovereign function of providing air traffic services in India.
■ To enhance airport infrastructure in India, modernization of existing
airport infrastructure in metro and non-metro cities and construction
of Greenfield airports were contemplated. In recent times, Kolkata
and Chennai airports were refurbished with a cost of Rs 2,325 crore
and Rs 2,015 crore, respectively. The newly built terminals were
thrown open to public in January 2013.

Reasons cited for privatization
■The AAI has invested substantial resources in modernizing the airports.
However, there have been complaints related to the quality of work and
management of operations at modernized airports.
■Maintenance of Chennai airport has been far from satisfactory. A few
days ago, some passengers were stung by bees that have built a hive
on the premises. Although AAI has spent a huge money to modernize
the airports, it has been argued that AAI can not upkeep them because
of lack of professional staff and being a government body.
■The government was keen on rope in the public-private partnership
mode to professionally manage these airports. It has been argued that
operation of large AAI airports through the public private partnership
(PPP) model is a good idea. The airports at Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad
and Bangalore are consistently ranked among the top by global
agencies due to the PPP Model.

Changing nature of Airports
Airport Operations

► AOCC (airport operation

control center)
► Airside Operations
► Terminal 0perations
► City side Operations
► Air Traffic management
■ Airport consists of runways, taxiways apron
hanger and the terminal building
■ Terminal Building has two sides
■ Air Side
■ Land Side

What is an aerodrome??

■ It is a defined area on land or water intended

to be used either fully or in part for arrival,
departure or for movements of the aircrafts.

■ An aerodrome or airdrome is any place from
where flight operations can take place. This can
include an airstrip in the middle of nowhere to a
commercial airport in the biggest city in the
world. An airport is a special type of aerodrome
that has satisfied certain certification criteria or
regulatory requirements of the ICAO that a
regular aerodrome may not have achieved.

■ an aerodrome or airdrome is any place from where flight
operations can take place. This can include an airstrip in
the middle of nowhere to a commercial airport in the
biggest city in the world. The term aerodrome is more
commonly used in UK and other Commonwealth States,
rather than in America or rest of the world.
■ The main function of an aerodrome is to allow a flight to
land and takeoff; regardless of whether the flight
contains cargo, passengers, or neither. It may also
include provisions to any other related activities such as
re- fueling, hangers, etc.

■ The term aerodrome includes small general
aviation airfields, large commercial airports, and
military airbases. In fact, a water aerodrome is
an area of open water used regularly by
seaplanes or amphibious aircrafts for landing
and taking off.

Comparison between Airport and Aerodrome
Airport Aerodrome

Any location where

aircrafts such as Any place from where
Definition fixed-wing aircraft, flight operations can
helicopters, and blimps take place.
take off and land.

Must meet all No specific guidelines

Guidelines guidelines as set for an except safety
airport by the ICAO. regulations

Allow a plane to land

and takeoff.
Allow a plane to be Allow a plane to land
stored. and takeoff.
Guide general air

Runway, Helipad,
Hangers, Control
Towers, Terminal
Buildings, Water for
takeoffs and landings,
fixed base operator Some sort of an area for
Consists services, seaplane planes to land and
docks and ramps, air takeoff.
traffic control, passenger
facilities such as
restaurants and
lounges, and emergency

Small local airports,

Small general aviation
large commercial
airfields, large
Includes airports, heliport,
commercial airports, and
seaplane base, and
military airbases

UK and Commonwealth
The airside Operations:

► Runway
► Taxiway
► Taxi-lanes
► Apron
► Bays/Stands
► Runway lights
► Runway markings

According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO),

a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for
the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a man-made surface
(often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of both) or a natural surface
(grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or salt).


Busy airports typically construct high-speed or rapid-exit taxiways to

allow aircraft to leave the runway at higher speeds. This allows the aircraft
to vacate the runway quicker, permitting another to land or take off in a
shorter interval of time. This is usually accomplished by making the exiting
taxiway longer, thus giving the aircraft more space in which to slow down,
before the taxiways' upcoming intersection with another (perpendicular)
taxiway, another runway, or the ramp/tarmac.

Alaska, USA

■ Aprons - the Portion of an airport usually paved in front of Terminal
building, for Parking, Loading & Unloading of Aircraft. Holding bays
are also known as holding aprons, they are provided at busy airports
near the runways. They hold Planes Before its Takeoff to wait till the
runway is cleared.

Types of Aprons

■ Terminal Apron-The area designed for aircraft maneuvering and

parking adjacent to passenger’s terminal facilities. From terminal
apron passengers board the aircraft.

■ Cargo Apron- Aircrafts that carry only freight and mail may be
provided a separate cargo apron adjacent to cargo terminal building.

■ Parking Apron- Parking apron is the apron where aircrafts can be
parked for a specific period of time. It may be used for light periodic
servicing and maintenance. Parking aprons are located as close to
the terminal apron as possible.

■ Service and Hanger Aprons- It is an apron where maintenance and

repairing of an aircraft is carried out under a hanger.

■ General Aviation Apron- General aviation aircrafts, used for

business or private flying which requires several categories of
aprons to support different general aviation activities.

■ Transient Apron- The aprons used for temporary parking of aircrafts

is known as transient aprons. As access to fueling and other


Air side
■ Not open to public
■ Restricted access
■ It has all areas accessible to aircraft
■ Includes runways ,apron, stand etc
■ Parking space for Ground Handling

Land side
■ Terminal building divides airside and landside
■ It has parking place for the visitor car
■ Taxi Stand
■ Rail Terminals
■ Bus service
■ Parking area
■ Reserved parking area
■ Approach Road
■ Directional signage


What will be the passenger flow of arriving


E.g. Apron---airside---carpark


Commercial Activities
■ Thus the activities which is associated with
the acceptance of the passenger & Cargo for
transporting them from the point A to B is
known as “Commercial activity”
■ This accounts different procedures to follow,
without hampering any security rules and

Terminal Building of Dulles Airport

Terminal Building
■ An airport building with the range of facilities
where pax check-in before boarding and
their plane and where they arrive when their
plane lands.
■ All commercial activities are done from and
in the terminal building
■ Building has Two areas (some time three)
1. Departure Hall
2. Arrival Hall
3. Transit Hall
Terminal Operations

1. Direct passenger Service

- Parking/ Trolleys/ Restrooms/ Seating/ water/ medical/
recreations / Air conditioning/ Left luggage lockers/ Signage/ Telephones/ Post office/ Banks/
Service for physically challenged

2. Airlines related passengers service

- Q-managers/ FIDS/ Helpdesk/ Resource allocations / various counters….

3. Governmental activities
- Security checks/ Immigration checks/ Customs checks/ Health

4. Non-passenger related airport authority functions

- Customer feedback/ Quality surveys/ Public relation/ Maintenance/ VVIP
handling/ Aircraft Emergencies/ Engineering

5. Airline functions
- Ticketing/ check-in/ baggage handling/ transporting to and from aircraft/ preparation of
Load and trip sheet/ Facilitation
Planning In Airport
■ Counter Allocation
■ Stand Allocation
■ Bay Allocation
■ Gate Allocation
■ Baggage belt Allocation
■ Slot Management
Commercial Activities
■ Commercial activities are of two types

Departure activities
Arrival activities

Departure Hall Activities
■ Mini Reservation Office
■ Reservation counters
■ X-Raying of Baggage
■ Check in activities
■ Excess Baggage Counter
■ Facilitation counter
■ Information Desk
■ Holding area after security
■ Gate control activities
■ Departure Gates

Departure Hall Activities continued
■ lounges
■ Accepting of registered baggage and
sending to the baggage make up area
■ Transportation of the Pax to aircraft
■ Boarding the passenger from the terminal

Check in Counter
■ First point of contact with the passenger
■ Pax report for taking the flight boarding cards at
check-in counter which is in the departure area main
■ Hand over their flight ticket PNR and baggage for
check in and obtain boarding cards.
■ Bags are checked in at the counters according to the
weight system if domestic and piece, if flying


■ Security questions are asked regarding

the check-in and carry on bags.
■ Proceed for security check and wait into
sterile area for boarding.

Departure activities

■ This can be further sub divided into two

■ Pre Departure
■ Post Departure


■ Pre Departure
■ A major area for airlines
■ Issuance of ticket and Excess Baggage
■ Allocation of staff for various counter for
Check in
■ Pax facilitation &, VIP handling
■ Enquiry counter

Post Departure functions

■ Counting and accounting of traffic

documents with the number of passenger
■ Accounting of cash with the number of
document issued
■ Sending of message to the en-route and
destination station

Departure Activities-continued

■ Control room, announcement of flight,

security check.
■ Preparation of Flight document (Trim sheet,
Pax list, VIP list etc.
■ Embarking and disembarking of pax
■ Movement of Cargo and Baggage

step by step airport procedures
step 1
It is unnecessary to visit the check-in counter
when using online check-in or automated
- you approach the check in counters with your
- boarding card is issued.

- There is a counter for passengers flying

economy class.

STEP 2 Checking in baggage

■ Drop off check-in baggage at the Baggage

Drop-Off Counter.
■ Fragile luggage checked in will be given a
special tag or sticker.

STEP 3 Security Check
Baggage will need
to be checked at
the security
There may be long
lines depending on
the airport and
time of day, so
please proceed to
the security
checkpoint with
adequate time to

Screening of Baggage

■ As per security regulation

■ All baggage of the passenger are screened
through X Ray by the security personal

STEP 4 Immigration
■ You must present your travel documents.
Immigration is completed at this step.

STEP 5 Boarding and Disembarking

Boarding will proceed after the elderly,

passengers traveling with small
children, expectant mothers, those who
require help, and passengers flying first
class and business class have boarded.

・Disembark after passengers flying first

class and business class.

Boarding of the flight
■ Flight is announced after its inspection by
engineering and other tech depts.
■ Pax are taken to the aircraft for boarding in a
transport or through aerobridges
■ Incase pax doesn't turn up to board and has
baggage in hold
❖ No passenger no bag

❖ No pooling of bags unless same PNR or

travelling in group.

■ Receiving the flight

■ Assisting the passengers in disembarkation
■ Delivering the registered baggage
■ Information desk
■ Transfer desk
■ Mishandle Baggage unit

STEP 6 Baggage Claim

Pick up your
baggage after
passengers flying in

Commercial Activities
Arrival Hall
■ Receiving of the passenger
■ Delivering their registered baggage
■ Handling complaint in case of mishandling of
baggage (damage and non –receipt)
■ Assisting transit passengers
■ Looking after physically challenged persons
■ Attending all queries

Arrival picture of a terminal building

Revenues for the Airport
▪ Non Aeronautical revenues
- Duty free shops
- Airlines terminal rent
- Banks
- Parking charges
- Multiplexes
- Sports
- Cafes
▪ - Advertisements and displays space charges
- Taxi services
Revenues for the Airport

■ Aeronautical revenue

- Landing, housing and parking charges

- Terminal navigation landing charges

- Ground handling
- Air bridge
- Route navigation facilitation charges
Back up office

■ Each airlines has a back up office

■ Not visible to the passenger
■ Back Bone of the commercial activities
■ Two Major components
❑ Control Room
❑ Staff duty allocation room

Control Room

■ Monitor the movement of aircraft

■ Monitors the activities of the departure and arrival
■ Keep track of the clearance of the aircraft
■ Weather clearance
■ Crew availability
■ Inform the passenger
■ Response the emergency and eliminate delay
■ Record of the activities and fix responsibility in case
of delay

Staff duty allocation duty

■ Ensure availability of the staff at various

counter and other duty point
■ Arranges extra staff required to meet
emergency. Due to weather or other
mechanical reason
■ Relocation of the staff to ensure the
maximum output
■ Ensure manning all the critical point at all
Back up office

■ Prepare all documents for the flight

■ Passenger list, VIP List, Executive/First class
Pax list
■ Liaise with Cargo and advise the load and
space available for the flight
■ Prepare weight and balance sheet
■ Through control room liaise with other
operating department

Back up office
Disseminate the information
■ Arrival )
■ Departure ) of the aircraft or flight
■ Delay )

Inform other destination and

enroute station status of the flights.

(Its role and functions)
(I) d Al
Stand Allo lo (D

Asso. Manager FID

g in

IT Helpdesk Maintenance desk


AOCC Manager
Services at AOCC
⚫ FIDS desk performs the following functions:
⚫ To receive messages
⚫ To monitor ground frequency
⚫ To receive telephone calls from airlines
⚫ To update FIDS

⚫ To allocate bays/stands to aircraft

⚫ To deal with weather warnings
Present Services at AOCC continued…

⚫ Planning desks performs the following function

⚫ to assign bays/stands to aircraft as per the schedule in

advance and provide pre-assigned allocation plan.

⚫ Airport Communication Desk is responsible to update all

happenings around the airport and apprise its management on
Information Required at AOCC
⚫ Departure Message from Origin Airport
⚫ Flight Plan- documents filed by a pilot documents filed by
a pilot or flight dispatcher documents filed by a pilot or flight
dispatcher with the local Civil Aviation Authority documents filed by
a pilot or flight dispatcher with the local Civil Aviation Authority prior to
departure which indicate the plane's planned route or flight path.
⚫ Arrival Messages
⚫ Departure messages
⚫ Flight Delay messages
⚫ Flight Cancellation Delays
⚫ MET Reports
⚫ NOTAM - a written notification issued to pilots before a flight, advising
them of circumstances relating to the state of flying.
⚫ Periodic Incident reports
Baggage Handling Services
■ Carriage of baggage to check-in
■ Check-in procedures including tagging and on occasions weighing
■ Conveyance of baggage into airside
■ Sorting and make-up into aircraft loads (Load and trim sheet)
■ Transport of baggage to planeside
■ Loading onto aircraft

• Unloading from aircraft
• Transport to terminal airside
• Sorting- loading onto claim devices
• Conveyance to reclaim area
• Presentation of baggage to passengers from reclaim
• Carriage from reclaim area
Types of Passenger

■ Interlining Passenger
-passengers, who change from one
aircraft to another at the airport.
Types of Passenger

■ Transit Passenger

-those arriving and departing at an airport

on the same aircraft
Transit Hall

■ Meet and assist the passenger in transit

■ Assist in providing connection
■ Assist them for rules and regulation of transit

Transit Hall

■ Generally at the airport where international

operation is to be carried.
■ Passenger arriving from one country and
going via other country to next destination
■ Pax are received, looked after and guided for
their next flight
■ Normally by the receiving carrier.

Non technical activity
■ Very vital in aviation
■ Particular after the hijacking
■ More so after 9/11
■ Security starts from the entry point in the
terminal building to the step ladder frisking at
the aircraft
■ Rule of no pax no bag came into practice
after blasting of many aircrafts in past.


■ Two types of security personal

■ State personal man the gate control, waiting
areas, boarding gates and other vital
■ Internal– X-raying of the baggage and
stepladder frisking
■ All jobs to de done without annoying the

All airline priority:

■ Airlines requires handling of aircrafts between

the time of arrival and departure.
Three basic requirements of all airlines are:
1. To ensure safety of the aircraft

2. Maximum ground time

3. To ensure on time departure

Ground Handling Services
■ Baggage check/ Baggage Handling/ Baggage claim
■ Ticketing and check-in/ Pax loading and un-loading
■ Transit passengers handling
■ Handling of Elderly and physically challenged
■ Load control
• Ramp service: Supervision / Marshaling/ Start-up/ Moving and
towing the aircraft/ Safety measures
• On Ramp aircraft services: Repair of fault/ Fueling/ Wheel and tire
check/ Ground Power supply/ Toilet servicing
• On board servicing: cleaning/ catering/ In-flight entertainment/
• External ramp equipment: Passengers steps/Mail and equipment