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DISCIPLINES AND IDEAS IN THE APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES

Applied Social Sciences

A multi-disciplinary approach

Focuses on the application of concepts and theories of social science

Practical and alternative solutions to societal issues; collaboration of disciplines

Fields of Applied Social Sciences

1. Counseling

o

Professional guidance given to an individual by applying psychological methods

o

Guidance counselors, life coaches, career counselors, personal growth

o

Counseling is a helping profession

2. Social Work

o

Focuses on the improvement of individual and collective well-being of families, groups, communities

o

Addresses social issues

3. Communication

o

Provide training for careers on the field of journalism and mass communication

o

Write, produce, report, develop news accurately

o

Understand the needs and consumption patterns of the viewing public

Counseling as a Discipline

According to Nyustul (2003), counseling is both a science and an art

Counseling as an Art

o Subjective, flexible, creative

Counseling as a Science

o Objective

A psychiatrist is a counselor who prescribes medicine

Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004

An integrated approach to the development of a well-functioning individual

To establish a kind of connection

Development and Empowerment

This definition talks about empowerment of individuals, families, groups, and communities toward reaching goals in life

Formal Help

Legal, recognized, and professional

Informal Help

Casual, conversational

Goals of Counseling (Gibson and Mitchell, 2003)

Development

o Overall social,

development

Preventive

personal, psychological

o Prevent undesired outcome

Enhancement

o Enhance special skills and abilities

Remedial

o Overcome

development

Exploratory

and

treat

undesirable

o Examining and trying new options

Reinforcement

o Recognize what they’re doing is fine

Cognitive

o Basic foundation of learning

Physiological

o For physical health

Psychological

o Instill good social interaction, emotional control, positive self-concept

John McLeod’s Counseling Goals (2003)

Make critical decisions in life

Develop ability to cope

Enhance effectiveness

Improve quality of life

Specific Goals of Counseling

Insight

Relating with others

Self awareness

Self acceptance

Self actualization

Enlightenment

Problem solving

Psychological education

Acquisition of social skills

Cognitive, behavior, systemic change

Empowerment

Restitution

Generativity

Ethical Dimensions of Counseling

Informed consent

o Agreement; what to expect

Confidentiality

o Information stays between the parties

Protection and development

Professionals and Practitioners in Counseling

Counseling is a helping profession

Specially-trained and licensed to perform a unique service for fellow human beings

Roles and Functions of Counseling

1. Individual Assessment

o Promotes client’s self – understanding, characteristics, and potentials

2. Individual Counseling

o Relationship is established between counselor and client; core activity

3. Group Counseling and Guidance

o Groups are means of providing

organized and planned assistance

4. Career Assistance

o Provide career planning and adjustment assistance to clients

5. Placement and Follow-Up

o Emphasis on educational placements in course programs

6. Referral

o Practice of helping clients find needed expert assistance

7. Consultation

o Helping a client through a third party or helping systems to improve its service

8. Research

o To advance the profession of counseling; it can provide empirically based data

Career Opportunities and Areas of Specialization

1. Marriage and Family Counseling

o Helping couples and families discover options and opportunities for effective family living

2. Child and Adolescent Counseling

o

Helping children and adolescents acquire coping skills through promotion

of resiliency, positive attachment relationship, emotional and intellectual intelligence

o

Common problems of children:

Child abuse, anti-social behavior, child depression

3. Group Counseling

o

Offers opportunities for members to

learn from observing group members

o

Members are encouraged to offer help to others

4. Career Counseling

o Aids on decisions and planning concerning career; Wagner model

5. School Counseling

o Refers to the process of reaching out to students with concerns on drugs, family, and peers or gang involvement

6. Mental Health Counseling

o Manifested by the challenges posed by its clientele with mental disorders

Ethical Principles in Counseling

1. Autonomy of individuals

o

Right to self determination

o

Clients may act/ think freely even if others disagree

2. Principle of Non-maleficence/ Benevolence

o All helpers must do no harm

Riskiness of therapeutic

technique; choosing the helper

3. Principle of Justice

o Fair distribution of resources, unless a client must be treated differently

4. Principle of Fidelity

o

Presence of loyalty, reliability, dependability, action in good faith

o

Confidentiality reveals importance of fidelity

The Clienteles and Audience of Counseling

1. Neurotic

o

Long term tendency to be in a negative emotional state

o

Witness client progress on his own; end sessions, review counseling course,

o

Severe depressed mood

closure, and discussion of the future

2. Psychotic

6. Research and Evaluation

o

Severe mental disorder

o Can be undertaken at any point of the

o

Detachment form reality

process; analysis of raw data

o

Symptoms: delusions, hallucinations

3. Personality Disorder

Methods in Counseling

o Long-term pattern of thoughts and behaviors that are unhealthy, inflexible

Types of Clienteles

1. People who abuse drugs

1. Psychoanalytic

o Free association, interpretation to insight, resistance

a. Freud’s Psychoanalysis

b. Adler’s Individual Psychology

2. People who abuse tobacco

Affective/

2. Existentialist

Humanistic/

3. People who abuse alcohol

Experiential

4. Women and children

o

Self actualization

5. Older adults/ the elderly

o

Access “genuine self”

6. People with AIDS

a.

Roger’s Person – Centered Theory

7. Victims of abuse

b.

Fritz Perl’s Gestalt Theory

8. Gay men and lesbian women

3. Behavioral

 

o

Eliminate unwanted behavior

Work Settings of Counseling

o

Replace behavior through positive

1. School

2. Community setting

o Activated by volunteerism

3. Private sectors

4. Government

Process of Counseling

1. Relationship Building

o

Establish connection and rapport between client and counselor

o

Heart/ foundation of the counseling process

2. Assessment and Diagnosis

o Analysis of the root causes of the problem; thorough appreciation of the client’s condition

3. Formulation of Counseling Goals

o Parameter of work and the client counselor relationship

4. Intervention and Problem-Solving

o

Strategies for intervention; mapping of different approaches to help the client

o

Nonmaleficence; possible risk and benefits

5. Termination and Follow-Up

(counterconditioning) or negative (aversive) reinforcement

4. Cognitive

o

Focuses on what you think

o

Changing what we say to ourselves

Social Work as a Discipline

Social work must be responsive and visionary

o Developed through time as its finds meaning and relevance

Social Work as a Profession

Promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships, and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being

In the Philippines, it is concerned about the person’s adjustment to her/ his environment – social functioning

Social Functioning

Effect on the individuals performance in her/ his multiple roles in the society

Scope of Social Work

Child Development

Medicine Social Work

Administrative and Management

Local Social Work

International Social Work

Social Work in Acute Psychiatric Hospital

Social Work as Community Organizer

Goals of Social Work

Caring

o

Focuses on the well-being or the welfare and comfort of the individual

o

Enhancement of quality of life

Curing

o Treating people with problems in social functioning

Changing

o Active participation of the social workers in social reforms

Core Values of Social Work

1. Right to Self Fulfillment

2. Responsibility to Common Good

3. Responsibility of the Society

4. Right to Satisfy Basic Needs

5. Social Organizations required to Facilitate Individual’s Effort at Self – Realization

6. Self Realization and Contribution to Society

Principles in Social Work

1. Acceptance

o

Respecting clients under circumstances

o

Understanding the meaning and causes of clients’ behavior

o

Recognizing people’s strength and potentials, weakness and limitation

2. Client’s Participation in Problem Solving

o Client is expected to participate in the process, planning ways, etc.

3. Self Determination

o Individuals, communities who are in need have the right to determine their needs and how they should be met

4. Individualization

o Understanding client’s unique characteristics and different methods for each client

5. Confidentiality

o Client should be accorded with appropriate protection, within limits of the law, without any harm that might

result from the information given to the social worker

6. Worker Self Awareness

o Social worker consciously examines her

feelings, judgments, biases, responses, if

it is professionally motivated

7. Client Worker Relationship

o The client is in need of help in social functioning and the worker is in the position to help

Professionals and Practitioners in Social Work

Social work focuses on the individuals social functioning by assisting the individuals with the environment, himself, and the community.

Roles in Social Work

1. Resource Broker

o The role is about the direct provision of material and other resources that will be helpful in reducing situational deficiencies

2. Social Broker

o

Involves a process of negotiating the service junglefor the clients

o

Networking is the linkage to different sponsors and relationships with community entities for support

3. Mediator

o Includes acting as intermediary or conciliator between persons or in- groups; resolving disputes/ conflict

4. Advocate

o Aims to influence another party in the interest of the client through arguing, bargaining, negotiating, and manipulating the environment

5. Enabler

o Involves the workers task of performing

a supportive and empowering function

to facilitate the clientsaccomplishment

of a particular goal or task

6. Counselor/ Therapist

o

Intends to restore, maintain, or enhance the clients capacity to her/ his current reality

o

Listen and empathize

Functions of Social Work

1. Rehabilitative Function

o

o

Restorative, curative, and remedial actions to a balanced state of social functioning

A problem occurs because there is an imbalance between the people and the environment

2. Preventive Function

o

Detects impending balance between the individuals or groups with the environment

o

Early detection, control, and eradication of situations

3. Developmental Function

o

Ascertains and strengthens the full potential in individuals, groups, and communities

o

Full use of her/ his potentials and capabilities

Disciplines of Social Sciences

1. Anthropology

o A holistic study of human beings and their culture

2. Demography

o The study of human population; studies how people move from place to place

3. Economics

o Study of allocation of scarce resources in order to satisfy unlimited human needs and wants

4. Geography

o Studies the interaction between the natural environment and the people living in it

5. History

o Study of recorded past; discipline that attempts to reconstruct the past given the available source

6. Linguistics

o Studies the nature of language through

an examination of the formal properties of natural language, grammar, and the process of language acquisition

7. Political Science

o Study of politics, power, and government

8. Psychology

9.

o Study of behavior and natural processes; includes the physical state and the mental state and how this all related to the environment of the individual Sociology

o Systematic study of human society; studies how they work as a whole in the larger society

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