Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

ary of Abbrbviations

Alkali-Aggregate Reaction
:Alternating Current
Annual Compound Growth Rate
Asian.DtivelopmetBank
Annual Development Plan
Average Incremental Cost
Acres Reservoir Simulation Program
Barrel
Billion Cubic Feet 4

Billion Cubic Feet Pei Day


Olitish Thermal Unit
Combined Cycle
Cubic Feet
'Canadian lnleniational Development Agency
:.Cdst, Insurance and height
,

• Consumer Price Index


Centislokes
Combustion Turbine
Direct Current
Demand Side Management
Dead Weight
Economic Cooperatio,n Organization
Extra High Voltage
Envlronmenlal Impact,Statement
National Energy Conservation Centte
Ei Mini tmental Prolection Agency .

Enviloh snout and Wm /Whirs Division


'Expected Unserved Energy
Fuel Adjustment Surcharge
Fluidized Bed Combustion
Flue Gas De-Sulphurization
- -------Free on Board
ik
rain perlitre
tOcla"
&ern
mm, s) .•
IPA
Moe a:Rascal
.!tiantle•Tivutit
MOD' Wm's° Operation Level
Monet's° Ifr,,tikEngineering Company Limited.
MOU4:r •um of Understanding
•MSA Isp um Size Aggregate •
MST' ilUonShort Tons
Maja!VoftAmpere
PAIN; '7'.1 (Mega Watt '
:Moment Magnitude (of Earthquakes)
N. 'W-,.J4
Areas
NA I.
' NEQS
i 'r
Environmental Quality Standards •

•4.i .4 .•
NFB Mi• Fire Protection Assocfation
.
Nei' ian Geotechnical Institute
NGOs,r( ovemmental Organizations
Noe t umbers'
NPC;03;1/2 National Power Control Centre
NPV'• ; • ii ;met Present Value
NTDQ, ;.
, i:Natbnal Transmission and Dispatch Company
North.Wesr Frontier Province
0&M„ 4 9peration and Maintenance

OSP: Operating:Basis Earthquake


°COL :Open Cycle Gas Turbine
earSit .144 131.Firerl Steam Plant
Orrlinai ryPortland Cement
pe. ptpand Development
t FaCtoi
410.0.
nAtonlic Energy Commission .
Council of Scientific and industrial Research
eflisEF.nyironmental Protection ACt

I'e>t 3nqund Acceleration •


yeldstan International Airlines
It

PakistaniMetedrologicel Services
Probable Maximum Flood
is Panel of,Expetts
_
,Parts Per,Million ,•,
:'Power System Simulation/Engineering
Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited
Present Value
Poly Vinyl Chloride
Square of CorrelationlCo-efident
Resettlement Action plan
Roller Compacted
re, GSM, Rounded BoUlder Gnfvel Material
Right of Way
Rock Mass Letting
Revolutions' Per Minute
r;Rodc Quality Designation
Pakistani Rupees
Survey and Mapping
-

. System International
Sodium Abiorption Ratio
Survey of Pakistan Stsindard Bench Merck
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
Surge Impedance Loading
Survey of Pakistan
Standard Penetration Test
Sulphate Resisting Cement .
Scott Wilson Piesokl jJmited, U.K
'4. •
Surface Waiter Hydrology Project, WAPDA
IA: Topographic and Mapping Division WAPDA,
TAMS Tippets•Abbett-McCarthy-Strarffan International Corporation
Temporary Bench Meek
Table of Contents
Terms of Reference
United States Dollar
Uniaxial Compressive Strength
Upstream
Ultra High Voltage
NOP United Nations' Development Programme
Sons Educational SCientific & Cultural Organization
pted Power Supply
StabisDollin
Unkiicifetates Bureau of Reclamation
i/ValirTApportionment Accord
o• .if • I
,

land PowerDevelopment Authority (Pakistan)


WeiniAutomatic System Planning .
World:Health Organization
VViriciowiesed Frequency Analysis Prograny(Software Released by UK
Wilkie of Hydrology)
;vitt Meteorological Organization
'IdeitResources Management Directorate
Mild Wide Fund for Nature

f!

ellger
yr
01Atibreviallons - 2

Full Supply Level


Fiscal Year (July 1 to June 30)
Gross Domestic Product
Government of Pakistan
German Agency for Technical Cooperation
Giga Waits
Glgawall Hours
Hectare
PEP Hydro Electric Prefects
. , REPO Hydra Electric Planning 4Organization •
HESS' .Household Energy Strategy Study
HFO Heavy Fuel Oil
HSD High Speed Diesel
HSF0 High Sulphur Fuel Oil
High Voltage
HVDC High Voltage Direct Current
international Atomic Energy Agency
IBRD International for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
ICB International Competitive Bidding
IDC Interest During Construction
ILA • international Lending Agency
IMF International MohetatY Fund
KESC Karachi Electric Supply Corporation
kV Kilo Volts
Kilowatt Hours
Left Bank Outfall Drain
Load Duration Curve
Low Heating Value
Loss of Ldad Expectation
Loss of Load Probability
Long Run Marginal Cost
Low Sulphur Fuel Oil
Thousand Cubic Feet
Million Btu's
Million Cubic Feet Per pay
List Of. Abbreviations - 3

MOU Memorandum of Understanding


WOE Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent
Milliori Tonnes Per Veal
MIJ\I Index Manufactdrers' Unit Value Index
ii:11/AR Mega Volt-Amperes, Reactive
MW Mega Watts
I I
NCS • ,, National Conservation Strategy
NEPOV
. - .. ' National Environmental Protection Ordinance
NESPAK —... National Engineering Services (Pakistan) Ltd
NOx • % I Nitrogen Oxides
NPe. National Power Plan
NPV Net Present Value
NWFP North West Frontier Province
7
O&M - Operations & Maintenance
OECD Oiganization of Economic Cooperation and Development
oopp.- Oil & Gas Development Corporation
of Islamic Countries
PAEC Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
PARCO Pak-Arab Refinery Co.
PC-! • Planning Commission Proforma 1
PEPO Pakistan Environmental Protection Ordinance
PERAC Petroleum Refinery and Petrochemical Corporation
PF 'Power Ffictor
PMS Pailer Market Survey
POL Reim!, Oil and Lubricants
Psb Project Steering Committee
PSDP Public Sector Development Program
now mod of Way
SCF.
• Standard Conversion Factor
SHYDO Sarhad Hydel Development Organization
,Surge Impedance Loading
Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited
2 Sulphur Dioxide
".SSGC Sui Southern Gas Company Limited
Tonne-Kilometre 1
.

Usl of Abbreviations - 4

TCF Trillion Cubic Feel


TOE Tonnes of OiliEquivalent.
TOR Terms 5if Reference
TPA . Tonnes Per Anntim
UHV Ultra High Voltage
. UNCED United Mimi) Contemns° on Environment and Development
II.
UgAID United Slates Agency for International Development
1.1$GIS United States Geological Survey
INAPDA Water and Power Development Authority
INAZP Wein Automatic Systemi Planning
WS: World Bank
WPPO WAPDA-Private Power Organization

Note:
Al dollars referred to are US$.
t4

.LIST OF ABBIREVcit
, ,TjON§
, AND SYMBOLS
usroF ABBREVIATIONS:
. CCA z ' Culturable Corn Area
CCADP Chashma Coni Area Devetnpment Project .
. DRIP '
Drainage ResearSiistitute of takistan (presently Drainage Research
Institute - DRI) '' ;,
• DSS- ,A1.113 Departmentof Soil* Environmental Science, NWFP Agriculture
University, PeshaWar. S
;DINM-AUf Department of WatiiManagement, NWFP Agriculture University,
Peshawar
EC . Electrical Conductivity ' .
1", FAO
Food and Agriculttire Organization of the United Nations
FDP.
Fourth Drainage Project.
I, 1.. FES .
Fordwah Eastern Sadigia South
GCA 7., , Gross Command Area
GOP, Government of Pakistan .

ILRI r International Instityte for L and


' Reclamation and Improvement (The
Netherlands)
IWASKI International Waterlbgging and Salinity Research Institute
Lower. Swat Canal.? . ;. .
MICDP: Mirpurithas
Tile Drainage Project
MS1,4. 11` Mardan SCARP Project
NDP i. iii. National Drainagerptogramme3
NESP4K...4... .....National Engineering Servicesigf Pakistan,
NRAP- • Netherlands Research Assistance Project
NWFP , North West Frontier ProVince h
.

O&M ' Operation and Maintenance


PE. - ‘ Polyethylene
PID - - - Punjab Irrigation Department
PIDA Provincial Irrigation & Drainage Authority
PVC Polyvinyl Chloride
.

RAP Revised ACtion Programme


SAR Sodium Adsorption Ratio
SCARP ' Salinity Control and Reclamation Project
SM9 .. ..... ___ SCARPS Monitoring Organisation. Wapda
I Soil Survey of Pakistan
f TOR,. Terms of Reference
'' USBR: • United States Bureau of Reclamation
WAPDA , Water and Power Development Authority

LISTOF SYMBOLS:

Hydraulic Conductivity
KD TransmissTiaty
% Percentagi/Percent
Less than .
More than
Security Deposit

In every running bill client deduct (10% of tha running bill of Contractor) as security
deposit. It would be returned after completion of maintenance period.
• Purchases at negotiated rates
During tendering process if it seems that the quoted price of a firm is too much high, then
negotiation shall be made with the firm for low prices and if agreed, it is called purchases
atnegotiated rates.
Force Majeure

• When due . tto some unavoidable circumstances (War, Labour Strike, Shortage of
.Construction Material etc) work has been delayed, then a technical clause Force Majeure
would be implemented by the client It would then, affix responsibility that why work has
been delayed. This clause is called as Force Majeure.
Earnest Money
Every tenderer has to submit. 2% money with his tender while filling his tender. This
money is called as-Earnest Money. It is retained to unsuccessful tenderers.
Demurrage
.: --When due to . some unavoidable circumstances, construction process delayed, then
•authority affix demurrage to the Contractor itsproved that work has been delayed by the
itontnictor side.
*ti.
n ••
tittle List

tiring foreign Deputation, those employees who do not report back to WAPDA after
;T:extended period, name of such employee removed from the original seniority list and
placed another separate list which is called Static List.
Abbreviations
050 Grid System Opequion
GSC Grid System Construction
ECNEC Executive Committee of National Economic Council
CDWP Central Development Working Party
• CCI Council for Common Interest
PDWP Provincial Development Working Party
IRSA Indus River System Authority
WASTE'" Water & Soil Investigation DiviSion
LIRBP Lower Indus Right Bank Project
IBMR Indus Basin Model Revised
PEC Pakistan Engineering Council
PCC Plan Coordination Committee
"SMO Scarps Monitoring Organization
LBOD Left Bank Outfall Drain
RBOD Right Bank Outfall Drain
CRBQ: Chashma Right Bank Canal
IWASRI International Waterlogging and Salinity Research Institute
Cbeint Central Material Testing Laboratory
PHLC Pehur High Level Canal.
C&M Coordination .& Monitoring
MD Planning and Design
M&S Monitoring and Surveillance
H&WM Hydrology and Water Management.
NPCC National Power Control Centre
...National Transmission and Dispat4h Company
GBHP Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project.
• MAT..:' Million Acre Feet
•MW Mega Watt
ADP Annual Development Plan
. P.SDP Public Sector Development Plan
Stcy. Million Cubic Yards
FY Fiscal Year
ENV Earth Work •
SCARP Salinity Control and Reclamation Project
•pso Dams Safety Organization.
•NDC National Drainage Consultants.
• Lower Indus Water Management & Research Project.
Independent Power Producers/fir
•Man Power Tiansition
Technical SeiVices Group

Total Cancities of the Projects


Million Acre Feet (For water storage capacity).
MW Mega Watt: (For Power Generation Capacity).
Warsak Dam Project 0.04 MAF (210 MW)
Rawal Dam Project 0.004 MAF
tr a°4
Tarbela Dam Project 9.7111AF live (3431 MW) Height 485 Ft Length 9000 Ft Gross 11.06 MAP Arre •
Mangla Dam Project 5.34 MAF (1000 MW) Height 380 Ft, Length 10,300 Ft %fin .0
Khan Pur Dam Project 0.106 MAF
Hub Darn Project 0.106 MAF
Tanda Dam Project 0.078 MAF
GBHP 1450 MW
Chashma 184 MW
Guddu 1655 MW (under Genco-2)
- -• lamshoro 850 MW (under Genco-1)
Muzak Garh. 1350 MW (under Genco-3)
Steam ?mei Station Faisalabad • 132 MW
Gas Turbine Power Station FSD 244 MW
l■ patc: .Rawal and Khanpur dam are Drinking Water Projects

%MA 8ri 3 ‘eyn(r114 )

IL
,• t x i
tedeonsoIling Engineers- (Pvt) 'ted

Gravity.Concrete Dam

4y.5

Vi t: '‘:"-
nip !flack B Veatch,UK
•:

r ilit Ccrate
on G

aehtral Development Working Party


447'
COncreto Faced Rockfill Dam '

n International Dove
• ,•
Cor trUctIon Industry Reseatch.and.info - Association
. •

. 11OckfiliDam

Sure •

actor of Safety

Sli Reservoir Level


- • ;
eogrttphic information System ••• -

iciest:slated Switchyard
t •-- : • •„ z,
• kectutbUrst : FloCid''
Glossary of Terms

Active flood plain: A strip of land beside a river or stream which is


flooded at least once dunng most years, and is
capable of being reworked subject to frequent
deposition.
Aquifer: A water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand
or gravel.
Area, assessed: An area irrigated on which water rates are levied.
Rates vary according to the cropping period.
canal-commanded: The area which it is possible to irrigate by flow
from .a given outlet on .11 canal, whether the
whole area is actil#11Y. initiated Of not. • '
.cropped: The -sum. of areal, under Itharicand nbi crops
plus twice the area:under perennial, crops.
cultivated: Land. which has been under annual or perennial
crop within the sivious 18 months.
cul turable: (CA): . The sum of the cultivated area plus the culturable
wasteland.
culturable That portion of the culturable area .which is core.
commanded (CCA): • mended by canal irrigation,
gross (GA): ' The total area within extreme limits set by a
project, system or canal.
gross That portion of the gross area which is com-
• commanded (GCA): manded by canal irrigation. GCA includes vil-
lages, canals, roads, and some desert wasteland
as well as CCA.
irrigated:
That part of the 'farmlands within an irrigation
system on which water is applied during a crop-
ping season.

An area which has been designated to receive


allocations of canal water throughout the year.
Authorized full sOpply,
(APS): The maximum discharge (usually; the design ca-
: pacity in antes) authorized for , an irrigation
channel.

297
298 Wink AND POWER RESOD' OP WEST. PAKISTAN I
13
Balanced recharge;
t ap used inlreference to groundwater pump-
`meaning, that amount of water pumped
our of the aquifer over a period is equal to the
amount Whichieeps in.

Urdu term describing i.ainfed agriculture. •

Ai gated diversion structure across a river. This


structure is a part of the headworks of an irriga-
thin canal.
Thitt part of the total power load at the base of
the - load curve which is continuous, as distin--
- guished from that which fluctuates as the total
aptem load changes from hour to hour or season-
- ally.
Bund: • A;lirgezirtificial embankment which retains water,
•..out Onstecte tigriettltural lands -from river floods. .
. - The 'tan is also applied. to small earth :ndges
' separating two fields or sections of fields.
Canal capacity Size o‘ a canal, expressed as the volume of water
(irrigation): " that it can carry at any specified point.
Canal-commandedl ares;: . See under Area.
i<
Capability • The maximum demonstrated continuous depend-.
(maximum): . able output of a pncrator under routine operating
Chalons, expiessed . kilowatts or rniipwatts.
Critical wester year: The year when the sum of flows from October
,thrOugb May of the Chenith, Indus and Jhelum
Meets ;measured at Marala, Attock and Mangle
was minimum between 1922/23 and 1962/63.
' .Theecritical water year was :1954/55.
Cropping intensity: The cropped area expressed as a percentage of
the' CCA.
Cropping pattern: The sequence in which crops are grown in any
given area during a single year and the proportion
of cropland devoted to each crop during the year.
Dead storage capacity: That portion of the reservoir capacity which its
not used for operational purposes. Dead storese
means the corresponding volume of water.
Dead storage level: The level of water in a reservoir below which
fills:reservoir does not operate.
Delta: Tract of alluvium formed at the mouth of a
river.
Delta (irrigation).: . The depth of water applied to cropland.

2-9 1
: ✓
GLOSSARY OF TERMS 299 1,3
Demand
. [ (electrical): l
The aniount of electric power required (or de-
- livens!) at a giveztiSnoment at any specified point
or points in I I Osten; wally expressed in kil
• wilt :Mr mefixwaib, Often used in the report o-
synonymously with !maximum demand.
Design intensity:
Tbe mopping intax/toodzad
system 'in an area ' which the irrigation
•water supplies.' to provide adequate
t.
lactic: • he -out I
Tlet
ca nalscapacity,,fran distributary
ry d minor
to watercourses expressed as
1 .000 acres of CCA; also known as auras per
ance. water allow- -
Dbpatclting load:
The process of assigning generating. plants to
various positions owl a load curve in Order to
indicate the amount :of energy ,
.by each plant in a certain period. to be.; . generated
Dbtributuy
(irrigation): A caner of medium size, smaller than a branch
canal and larger than a minor canal.
Distribution system
(electric): That portion 'of an electric system used to deliver
electric energy from points on the transmission or
bulk supply system to the consumers.

Small territorial unit ;in West Pakistan fur pur-


poses! of :ciiil..administration (about 50 in tbe
Pniyince)c
Diversity:
That quality or characteristic
by which individual
maximum idemands °mut at different times. There
is hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and annual
diversity,

large territorial unit .for purposes of civil ad-


ministration (12 in Province) •
Doab:
An Urdu term referring to the land between any
two adjacent rivers in the Punjab:
DrUidowni
In tubewells: the
water level in difference between the static
a well and the stabilized water
level attained afte•contbuous pumping at a con-
slant rate of discharge. _

In reservoirs: the extent


to,which the water level
of a reservoir is lowered w 4
tion and/or rower exceed theeninflow.
releases for irriga-
Electric system loss:
Total electric energy loss 'in the electric system.
It consists of transmission,, transformation, and
distribution losses, and .unaccounted-for
losses energy
delivery.between sources of supply and points of

2-9 9
Lor W la I rattaa I AN 1 1r1

Evapotranspiration: ;The amount of the water consumed in' t given


area during a specified time by transpiration from
• vegetation and evaporation from the soil.
Extra high voltage Term applied to voltage levels of transmission
(EHV): tithes which are higher than the voltage levels
{commonly used. Often used in the report as
synonymous with either 380 kv Or 500 kv.

Firm power: POwer intended to have assured availability to


the customer to meet all or any agreed-Upon por-*
tiOn of his load requirements.
Full delta: ;The level of irrigation supplies at which crop •
yields reach the maximum attainable in the light
of all the other-circumstances of the agricultural
i rqgime. In the case of West Pakistan full delta
supplies were in addition defined to include an
' allowance for the control of soil salinity.

Headworks: The works constructed at the oh-take of a main.


Canal: It Includes the weir or barrage • on. the..
river • as 'well : as :the control striictura :arias the •
head of the canal.
Horizontal drainage: Tile, pipe or open channel land drainage or a
combination of these.
Hydrological 'year: . Year .beginnint toivards• the end .61 kharif,- run-
ning from October'l to September 30.
impounding: Filling.} reservoir with water.
Installed capacity: The total of the capacities as shown by the name-
plates d. apparatus such as generatirig units, tur-
bine": synchronous condensers, transformers or
.• other equipment in a station or system.

Interconnection: ;' &transmission be permitting a flow of energy be-


en the faCilities of two electric systems
• laterruptible load: Electric power load which may be curtailed At
the supplier's diicretion, or in accordance with a
contractual agreement.
Inundation canal: . Canal which is dependent upon the surface level
of water in a river for its supplies and is there-
fore generally filled only at times of 'flood flow.
Kharif: An Urdu term for the summer growing season,
which includes the six months beginning April
14 and ending October 15.
Kharif-Rabi ratio: Ratio of the areas cropped in the two growing.
SCUMS.

Leaching: • W ling down into the earth of salts in the top-

300
GLOSSARY OF TERMS 101

Leaching requirement:
The amount of water entering the soil that must
Pin through tale root zone in order to prevent
soil salinity Men -exceeding a specified value,
It! is wed primarily under steady state or long-
die average eondidons.

Live storage capacity: The reservoictl eapacity excluding dead storage


capacity.

Load:
The amount of electric power required or de-
•• livered at a *cilia point, .usually expressed in
kilowatts or megawatts. (Mao often loosely used
.

alt inclusively to designate demand and. energy


such as in Load.Porecast: )

A curve indicating the amounts of energy required


at different instantaneous loads over the course
of a period. -

The ratio in perm' t- between the average load


over a:reified period and the maximum or peak
load occurring during the period.

Lost and unaccounted for The calculated difference between energy sent out
(electric energy): from genet:stint stations and the sum of energy
sales and energy accounted for but not sold.

A main irrigation supply canal off-taking from a


river.

The' greatest of ;ell sinitiltaneous demands on an


installation or *was of power supply within a
specified time.

Mean water year: •Average monthly or 10-day river flows over the
4I-Year Petitit„1922/23 through 1962/63.

Mean-year flow; Sri Msan- eiitter year.

Median flow: The values of flows such that half the recorded
flows are above and ,half are below in amount.

Mining: Extraction of groundwater beyond balanced re-


. ' charge.

Nameplate rating: , The full-load continuous capability of a generator


and its primat mover, in terms of megawatts, under
specified conditions, as designated by the manu-
facturer.

• . ;. •
• Nonfinn : • Power supplied (or purchased). under an arrange-
ment !which does:not hive the continuous avail-
-, ability guarantee Jeanne of firm power.
• •.
302 .WATER AND POWER RESOURCES OF WEST PAKISTAN I
Sc, tS
rperennial canal: al - Canal designed to receive water supplies for a
part of the year only, usually April 16 to October
_15 (i.e. kharif) and fed from , a permanent bar-
rage spanning the source river; Control of river
flow is the chief feature differentiating non-
perennial and inundation canals. .
Off-peak energy: Energy supplied during periods of relatively tow
sa system demands.
On-peak energy: Electric energy supplied during periods of rela-
tively high system demands.
Overload capability: The maximum load that a machine or device can
carry for a specified period of time under specified • .
conditions when operating beybnd its normal ret-
ing but within safe limits predetermined.
Overpumping: See Mining (of groundwater).
. .
I
Peak deriand: Demand at the instant of greatest load•n a period.
Peaking capability: The maximum output, specified in kilowatts or
megawatts, that a generator or system can sustain
for short periods, of time.
I
Peak load: The maximum load in. a Stated perky!! - 54. attn.
Peak4oad station: A generating station which is normally operated
only to protide.capacity during peak-load periods.
Peremdid canal: Canal designated to receive water supplies all
the year round and fed from a permanent banes
spanning the source river. .
Persian wheel: A mechanism powered by bullocks or camels used
for lifting Water from wells, canals; . Or: Streams,
Perspective Plain . An outline of: a plait for the's:cone/Ida develop- .
ment of Pakistan over the period 196545,: pre--
pared by the Pakistan Planning ComMission:
Province: West Pakistan.
Rabi: An Urdu: term for the . winter growing season
which includes the six months from October 15
to April 15.
Rated capacity: See Nameplate rating.
Reactive power: Power that does no work, measured in volt-
reactive (Van of Kvar).
Recharge (groundwater): The process whereby water, at or near the ground
t. surface. percolates downwards- into the DON of
groundwater thus replenishing water which was
removed.
aro

GLOSSARY OF TERMS 303

Regulated strearollow: The coign:died of low at • given point re-


sulting from operation.

Re-regulating dam: A dam or barri Makin a stream below a main


dam to provide eepplanental storage in order to
smooth Water from the main dam.
- - 7s. rare.
nerve (electrical): . The'difference between generating capability and
load on the generators at a specified time, gen-
erally loosely -. in this report as the difference
between peak capability And peak load.

Reservoir capacity: The iron voltune,of water which can be stored in
the reservoir.

Stations established , on main rivers, near where


they enter the I 'dus plains, at which the flow is .

gauged.

The Active flood.,:plain lands along main rivers.

• A saline ccinditfon in soils or water which is


•detrimental to plant growth.

Scouring: Removal of silt or ,other material by flow of water.

Sediment: * Matter carried -1*, riven which settles at the


• , bottom of the

Siltation: The deposition. of;silt or sediment on the bottom


and sickle of a reservoir.

Sluicing: Passing water through low level outlets or sluices


at a dam or barrage, generally in an attempt to
remove some of the sediment deposited.

Spillway: Structure for discharging superfluous water flows


at a•inervoir or on a river.

Storage capacity The grass volume. of a reservoir available to


(reservoir): • store water.

Subsurface drainage: Water table control by either horizontal or ver-


tical drainageheillties.

capacity:
Superstores* Storage capacity at enable in a reservoir between
normal maxinium• water' elevation (FSL) and
maximum elttatio4 to which water can safely be
raised' fcr short periods.
. -
Removal of surface effluent water by use of open
channels
Level of water at foot of structure in a river,
such as dam or bar rage.
- -
-

Aihninisirative subdivision of a district comprised ti ■

of several Union Councils.


WATER AND POWER RPFSOURCES 0 wWEST PAKISTAN I '


o Ontal drains lined with tiles.
'MS drains:
Transpiration: The
h bylwhich plants draw water into their
root** either building. plant tissue or passing
thrOugh leaves into the atmosphere.

Tama: A drinedjsvell, cased and screened, usually gravel


packed. ),1
Turbine (hydraulic): A=1 rotary type of prime mover in which
m
cunt is produced by the force of
water dinscted against blades fastened to a vertical
or horizons! shaft.

Turbine (steam or gas): An enclosed rotary type of prime mover in which


heat energy iri steam or gas is converted into
mechanical energy by the force of a high velocity
now of *earn cc gases directed, against successive
.rows of, iblades fastened to a central daft

Underwatering: The on of insufficient water to sustain


the maximum yields which would be attainable in ,
,

the , ligh4 of-AI the other circumstances of the


I .agiculutre regime.
&Union Council: The smallest political subdivision composed
Several villages.
Value added: Ubtput at; factor cost, net of purchased inputs.
Vertical drainage: Dralnanby tubewell pumping.

Watercourse: - Famser&channel, carrying water from a Govern-


ment dig' to the fields Also used in reference to
I ■
the area irrigated: from such a channel. •

State of the land with' groundwater lying at or„


near the ',surface. The use of the term, !Skater
thatgroupdwater is so high that crop growth ;is
preclude& or crop yields lessened by it for at
least part of the year.
The height in the ground to which the earth 'is
. saturated with water.

Watu year: " See Hydrological year.

Weir: A structure across a dyer designed to pond water


and thus:raise its level for purposes of diversion
• 4 into irrigittion canals.

Names
Agricultund pevelopment Bank.

Agricultural development Corporation.

3
sib
11, GLOSSARY OF TERMS 305

Agriculture Cilosultant: International i Land Development Consultants


N.V., and Hunting , Minks, kServices Ltd.
Study Group: A Stoup of staff Soupy, of-the International
Batt for Rectinstrtitei and , Development as-
signed to assist'eatick in the execution of
the Indus Spacial Study.
Disk & Partners, Con tent to WAPDA.

'Coode: • • Coode & Partners,


• i Consultant to WAPDA.
C114: Chas. T. Main 'late 'anal,. Inc., Dam Sites
•Consultant to the Study.,
Dam. Sites Constant: Chas. T. Main International, Inc.
Gibb: • • Sir Alexander- Gibb. & Partners, Irrigation Con-
:. i =Must andrtrteartlinat ' Of consultants to the
• -:, Stuck : I . 1- 4 -'•• -, ; . .
GOP: • Government, of Pakistani

Herrn:
Ires
Haute Engineering Cortany, International, gen-
. end engineering. Consult t to WAPDA.
HTS: ' Hunting Tanked Serti Limited, Agricultural
Consults to the Study.

IAC4: •Irrigation and Agriculture Consultants Associa-
fion.

181113* International Bank for Reconstruction and De-


velopment (World Bank),

lGc Indus Gas. Company, which distributes Sui gas


in the Sind (suktur, Hrtrabad, etc.).
'

ILACO: • faternational Las. DevelopMent Consultants


N.V., Agricultural. Constant to the Study.
' • 1
Irrigation Consultant: Sir Alexander Gil* & Partners..-

KESCO Karachi Electric, Supply Corporation, Ltd.

KerC: , Karachi thlf Companyl which distributes Sui


Os in the Karachi area.
UP: . Lower Indus Project: regional study carried out •
by Hunting Technical. Services Limited and Sir
Murdoch Macdonald & Partners.

LWDB: Land and Water DevelopMent• Board.


ito
MESCOt The Multaa Electric Supplj Company, Ltd.

PMS: Power Market Survey. Organization.

3 °S-
306 , • WATER AND POWEg ,RESOURCES OP WEST- PAKISTAN I

Power Consultant: Stone & Webster Overseas Consultants, Inc.,


Power Consultant to the Study.
REPC: The Rawalpindi Electric Power Company, Ltd.
SCARP: . Salinity Control and • Reclamation Project.
SOTC: Sui Gas Transmission Company, responsible for
transmitting gas from Sui to the South.
1
Sui Northern Gas Pipelines, Ltd., responsible for
transmitting Sui gas to the North and distributing
it and the gas from Dhulian field there.
S&W: Stone & Webster Overseas Consultants, Inc.
.TAMS: Tinpettsabbett-McCarthy-Seratton International
Corporation,- Consultants to WAPDA on Tarbela
Dam.
T&K: Tipton and 'Kalmbach, Inc., Consultent, to
WAPDA.
WAPDA: raitertud Power Development Authority of West

WASID: Water and Soils. Investigation Division (of


WAPDA).

Units of Weig‘, Measures, Currency, etc.

Acrit-foot. (AF): A. measure of volume - of water, corresponding to


. 43,560 cubic, the volumetric equivalent of
ona acre coveed to a depth of one foot. .
Unit of .measurement - of the intensity of .electric
current,. being that produced by one :SR • acting
through a resisting. of one Ohm. ' • -
Animal Unit (AU): livestock expressed in terms of units determined
by their, respective feed requirements compared
with the requirements of a standard. b.ulloct:The .
standard bullock is taken to equal one animal unit.
..Bale (cotton): 1 bale _7:- 392 pounds.
Btu: British thermal unit, the standard unit for measur-
int quantity of heat energy such as heat content
of.fuel. I Btu = 0.29307 watt-hours.
Cubic feet per second.
1 cfs/month = 59.45 AF (30-day month) or
61.43 AF (31-day month).
One cubic foot per second, used to describe the
rate Of flow of water.

• 306
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
307
Cosec-hour:; • 1 „t
At one cubic loot berisecond, the volume of
water for one hour would be 3,600 cubic feet or
0.086 acre-foot or 2800 US gallons.
cy:
Cubic yard.
Fps:
Fel per wont!.
FSf z :

Full supply level.


G INA
Gross production value (output x. prices).
Horsepower (hp):
Unit of mechanical power equivalent to 550
foot-pounds of work per second; 33,000 foot-
pounds per minute. 1 horsepower-hour = 0.7437
kwh.

Kilovars:
1,000 reactive;volt-amperea
Kilovolt •(kv)
1.600 volts.
Kilovolt-ampere (kva):
1.000 Qoitikoperes.
Kilowatt (kw):
1,000" watts:
Kilowan-hOur (kirk): ' -
Unit oI electrical work; work done by one kilo-
watt of power in one hour. 1 kwl) = 1,000 watt-
hours.
Mac:
Million acres.
MAF:
Million acre-feetI MAP 1233 million cubic
meters.
MAF/month:
.1 hfAF/month =16,850 cfs. = 477.2 me/sec.
Maund:
A Pakistani unit of. Weight equal:to 82.28 lbs.
Mcf:
Thousand cubic feet (gas measurement).
Megawatt (mw):
Unit of electric power. equivalent to 1,000 kilo-
watts. •
Megawatt-boar (mwh):-
Unit of electrical Work; work done by 1,000 kilo-
watts of power in one hour.
MMd•
Million cubit feet (gas measurement).
NW:
Net production value (GPV lees input costs).
Ohm:
Unit of electrical resistance.
One hundredth of a Rupee.
Pd:
Pounds per ruble foot. 4

Ppm: .
. Parts per million:
MATER AND POWER RESOUR4ES OF WEST PAKISTAN I


• Pakistani Rupees. Official rate is Rs 4.76 = USSI
Or 1 Rupee = $0.21.
Standard Pakistan Datum (based on "mean sea
Wei at Karachi).
Total digestible nutrients which are the sum of
all digestible organic nutrients, viz. protein crude
fiber, nitrogen-free 'extract, and fat TDN repre-
SelltS the approximate heat energy value of a feed.

Ton (long): 2,240 pounds.

Trillion:

Volt: Unit of electromotive force (or electric pressure ,

analogous to water pressure) being that which


when coupled to a conductor with a resistance of
, one ohm will produce a current of . one.ampere.
Rate of energy transfer equivalent to one ampere
flowing under the pressure of one volt at unity
power. factor.
Work done in an hour at the steady rate of one
watt.

3 0e

• Water and Power Resources of West .Paklifan


3.


Volume Two •
PROGRAM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT" IRRIGATION
AND. AGRICULTURE IN WEST PAKISTAN

Introduction •
I. it Past and Present Performance of the Agicultural Sector
II. Agricultural Development Potential
III. Delielopment of Wolof Resources
IV. Priority Developmeat Projects
V. Program for Irrigation Development
VI. ` Agricultural Inputs and Supporting Services
VII. Financial Requirements of the Development Program
VIII. Comparison of Supply and Demand t

Annexes • ,
•Watercourse Studies

2. Analysis of !ACA's Production Projectitins by Agricultural Zones in
the Canal Commanded.Areas
• 3. Factors Affecting Chopping. Intensities 4..
_ 4. JAC.A. Estimates of Cost of, Groundwattr Mining
5. Sequential Analysis of a Program for litigation and Power
Mistime= in West Pakistan 1.1
6. ' Review by Irrigation and Agricultural. Consultants of
Tarbela Project '•
7. Review. Procedures for Groundwater Including a Detailed Review of
One Project I'
8. Prospects for Supply, Distribution and Use of Fertilizer in
West Pakistan
The Program for Artificial lasemiriation,Extracts
10. Assumptions Used in Output and Demand Projections

Volume Three
BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY--S1JPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
• • •
General Intradrctinn •
PS ONE—Macroeconomic Framework
• Introduction to'Part One
• I. Macroeconomic Framework
II. The Load Forecast and The economic ,Framework
r. 111. ',he Price of Thermal Fuel fcr Planning Purposes

309
a.
ABBREVIATIONS .

Austialisn Agency-for ternationel-Development

Calcium

Centre of Eecellence stir Resources Engineering

• Cirbonate

Electrical Conductivity

. Farm Ytird Manuie


:HCO3" Bi-carbonate
' • •
IWASRI International Weterloging and Salinity Research Institute

Potassium

, Megnesiu m:
thethorandit of Undetittanding

Phosphorus

Residual Scrium ate F


r

Sodium Adsorption

United Natibtts ['eve! sent Project


ACRQNYMS

ACRONYI S

Culturable Command Area;


gge.4.- Cubic feet pet second I . .1
CW.MW Command Water Management
CINMr ;COMmand VAter.Menamiint P ect
. DEW Deputy DireCtor AgticultkireilExte '20
bG'
DGoE
J pirector General, * • "•
Director General Agricultural Extension.
DGAV, ;Director General Agricultural Information
FE.6;4,4„, fdreign Exchange
.PEB(N)5 Fordwah Eastern Sadiciia (North), roject
:FES(Syq' Fordwah Eastern Sadiciia (South) Project
FYM Farm Yard Manure
.

GIB' Geographic Information System


General Manager
International Irrigation Management Institute
ILRI international Land Reclamation Institute, Netherlands '
InternationalSedimentation.Research Institute, WAPDA
IWASRIL, International Waterloggina ‘and Salinity Research Institute
MREP 4- ' 4 na Reclamation Experimental Project
NIAEC Nuclear Inititute for Agriculture and Biology
NRAW •.:Netherlands Research Assistance Project
PCCii .ilProject Coordinating Committee
PD LOlanning Division WAPDA
PIrn'tk Ptaijab Provincial Irrigation DepaOment
PIO?: Planning and Investigation Organization. PD, WAPDA.
SARI Staff Appraisal Report (World Bank) "
SCARP Salinity Control and Reclamationtroject
SM4;;;..; .Scarps Monitoringerganization, WAPDA
SUOARCO Space & Upper Atmosphere Research commission
SVVR-. Surface Water Hydrology Directofate, PD, WAPDA
SWHP 4.' Surface Water' Hydrology Project!
TA ' Technical Assistance
uyee 1Umbrella Technical Group Fordwah Eastern Sadiciia (South) Irrigation and
Drainage Project
WAPDA` 1 Water & Power Development. Authority, SMO, WAPDA
VVEC WAPDA Environmental Cell:PD: WAPDA
VVHED ;Watercourse Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AAPak Action Aid Pakistan , .
AGAR Australian Centre International Agricultural Research
0
•• Ag0 . Agriculture Extension Department
MAE American Society of Agricultural Engineers
ASCE . American Society of Civil ;ngineers
AusAf0 Australian Agency for Interational Development
BRBD , Bambanwala Raii BedianOepalpur
CEWRE. Centre Of Excellence On Water: Resources Engineering;
. University-Of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
CMS Community Management Structure
CP Cropping Patterns
CRBC Chashma Right Bank Canal
CSSRI Central Soil Salinity Research Institute Kama!, India
• DFID Department for International Development, U.K.
. DLR Directorate of Land Reclamation .
DRI Drainage Research Institutes , Cairo, Egypt •
DRIP Drainage and Reclamation Institute of Pakistan, Tando Jam .
DSA Drainabllity Survey Area
EDC Enterprises and Development Consultants
EKTD Khairpur Tile Drainage • •
EPDM Ethylene Propylene Dienetlonomer
FDP Fourth Drainage Project, Faisalabad
FDST • Feasibility Design Study Team of the AusAID
FESS, - Fordwah Eastem Sadiclia (South) Project
GOP Gthemment of Pakistan
GPS Global Positioning System,
HDPE • High Density Polyvenyl Ethylene
HR Hydraulics Research, Wallingford, U.K.
ICID International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage
IDA International DeVelopment Agency •
1DIP Integrated Draina-ge and ligation Project
• vii
IWASRI Annual Repast 199114(

PFI Pakistan Forest ♦titute, Peshawar


PFRI Punjab Forest Research Institute, Faisalabad .
PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal
SARC SalinriAgricuttureftesearch Cell
SAU Sindh 'Agriculture University, Tandojam •
• !SCARP Salinity Control AndReclamation Project
COPE Society for ConsetSration and Protection of Environment
. SCR Salt Concentrationin Root Zone
SEP Salinity Education Programme
SGMP Standard Groundwater Model Package
SMO • SCARPs Menitori Organization
SOP Survey of Pakista n
SSC Swab' SCARPCollsultants
SSP Soil Survey of Pakistan
SSRI Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian
SUPARCO Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
SWHP Surface Water Hydrology Project
TOR Terms of Reference
TSS Technical Support Services
UAF University of AgricUlture, Faisalabad
UN • United Nations
UNDDSMS United.•NatiOns, Department for Development Support System
and ManagementIeryices
•UNDP • United NationiDevelopment Programme
UTG Umbrella Technical Group
WAPDA WatiAnd Power Development Authority
WASLU Welfare*asociatioq of Saltland Users
WEC • WAPDA Environmental Cell
WMED Watercourse Monitoring and Evaluation Directorate
WTD Watertable.Depth
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

$
- I .

IWMI-Pak International Water Manag , entInstitute-Pakistan


ILRI International Institute for tend Reclamation and Improvement,
The Netherlands.
IPTRID. International Programme f Technical Research in Irrigation and
Drainage
-
!RI . , Irrigation Research Institute; Lahore
ISRIP International Sedimentation Research Institute Pakistan
IUCN . • International Union for the Conservation of Nature
IWASRI International Waterlogging tind Salinity Research Institute
JICA , Japan International Cooperating Agency
JSPP Joint Satiana Pilot Project 't • —
LIM Lower Indus Water Manag
t anent and Reclamation Re'search
• Project, Hyderabad
MP , •b Management Practices
MREP. Mona Reclamation and ExreflmentaI Project, Bhalwal
MTRA Mid Term Research Agenda.
NADLIN National Documentation Centre, Library and Information Network
• ,: ' PCRVVR
-
NDC National Development Consultants, Lahore
NDP • National Drainage PrOgramine
NE National Engineers
NGO Non Government Organization
NAB Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology.
,NRA • - National ResearchAgenda;
.NRAF' - `• Netherlands Research Assistance Project
• NSL Natural Surface Level
NVVFP North Western Frontier Province
Operation and Maintenance,:
t ODU. Overseas Development Une, U.K.
. .
OFWM On-Farm Water Management
OECF Overseas European Commjnity Fund
PARC • ' Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
• PCRWR Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources. Islamabad
PCSIR Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
viii
,GLOSSARY' sirrionks
adi A small unit of Mon .*
sAID Australian Agencyrfor int lopment
ak Village having a:consol*
Cetrintuiiity Facilitator 7
Organiiet:
Chef Tachnical Advisor
Electrical ConduCtivty
EWL-tro4Magnetic Device,Venon 38
.:
.Fernale..Agricultural Field Atant
'71010 Interventions. Manual
Acid Sites. Coordinator
,Gq ignphical Information,
Government of Australia..:
' . Government of Pakistan
GlOal Positioning System
income Generation Activity
SRI International Waterloggin an SaUnity esesrch Institute
JAW Sitiana PilOt Fitt°
EFFO MaleAgricultural Extension d Ferm F restry'Officer
O FeMale Agriculturalt Exten Officer.
FA Male Agricultural Field Assistant:.
az -:Administrative unit that cons* orynio .Councils•
National Project• Director
-'hlon- Governmentak Organization
NiiclearInstitute. fet, Agriculture and BfolOgy
Pakistan Agriculture.Resea 'Council
. 4. •

POpjabAgrictittutatEadens Departm
Pribject Cycle Operationa
Pui,lati Forestry Research I e_12
Ptinjallkirest Sector DevelOpme ntpro
Pr ect.Operational GuidefineSIMaritial ,
Cordinat
inity Control and Reclamation Project
Salt Land User Group
Marager
Salinity Research Institute
4Seiliot Technical Officer 3-
Technical Advisory Group. ,
AdMinistrative unit that consists of a number of markaz
',Union Council - Administrative unit that consists of villages
United Nations Developmen t
:1,, United Nations Office of Project Services
'.'Water and Power Development Authoriti
opt Interest Group ''
kic 4
ATonskin

peed Dhotel.011

Iowan:

tt hour.
17. •
• kV ki lovolt •

kllitmotOr-

a.
•kilo litre

kilogram,

pus

Mum" • .

volt Ahipore
.••
ncl Cubic "et
tft.
lilotrlo

paisa

Volt

Watt •

r Racal yor
Ending 30th.Juno
LC.G.R ouatcOMEOUND
°WM
•• , RATE

2:2 • t:

PARC Pakistan AgriCidairat Research Council


PFI • Pakistan Forest Institute
PFRI Punjab Forestry Research.Institute
PSDIPtuijab Forest Sector Development Project
POGM Project Operational Guidelines Manual
e RSC Residual SodiUth Carbonate
S&E Salinity and Environment
SAR Sodium Adsorption Ratio
SARC Saline Agyiatdture research Cell
SCARP Salinity ContrOl and Reclamation Project
SLUG. Salt Land User Group
SSRI Soil Salinity Research Institute
SMO SCARPS Monitoring Organization
UAF University of Agriculture Faisalabad
UNDP • : United Nations Development Programme
UNOPS. United Nations Office for Project Services
WAPDA Water and Power development Authority
WIG Women's Interest Group
Lid:7 OR.ABBREVIATIONS
.
. :
Srak ActionnAid Pakistan
Australian Oentra,tar nal Agricultural Resea
AdIAR
Agriculture Extension, ent
AED .

American , Sotietf ral Engineers


ASP E
ASCE American Society of , 1 Engineers
AusAlb, Australian Agency for International Development
BRAD Bambanwala Ravi.Becilin.. Depalpur
CEWRE • Centre of Excellente In Water Resources Engineering,
University pf Englniertg and Technology, Lahore
CMS Community Management Structure
CP. Cropping patterns
CRBC Chastena Right Bankpanat;
CSSRI • • Central Sail SetiekiResesirch. Institute Kemal, India
. DAD Department for ;International Development U.K.
DIR -• Directorate of Latid:Ridiantation
OR!: , Drainage . Researchineetiti!tel:Calra, Egypt
Drainage.and institute of Pakistan, Tando Jam
DRIP ,
EAT : Total Drain Di ., .
EDC : ■
EnternristerniaDe ierprnent Consultants
• WC, - • Eiserietrauk,* .por,i ...
EPDM Ethylene PrOpYlirnalthenit *moms' ,
-FDP - - ' Fourth Drainage Proleat, Faisalabad
FOST .Feasibilitfbesign Study Team of the AusAID
FESS ! Foilireah EasternSadiala (South) Project
:
GOP Government of Pakistan'
. P

HOPE High Denlity Rolyvenyl Ethylene


HR : Hydraulics Research, Wallingford, U.K.
jl•ImarlMislastess

• r

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ICID Internatbrlattponinissioi on Irrigation and Drainage


IDA International 'Development Agency
IDIP• Integrated Drainage andliftgation Project
• IWMI-Pak International Water Manaipment Institute-Pakistan •
t ILRI • International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement,
The Netherlands.
IPTRID Intemationalerogrammepr Technical Research in Irrigation and
Drainage
• (RI Irrigation Research Institute, Lahore
laRIP International Sedimentation Research Institute. Pakistan
-,.., !UDR: • International Lipkin for thero Conservation of Nature
• • IWASRi International V,Vaterloggkigthd.Silliiiiy Research institute •
„ • 1. .JICh • Japan Intemalional Cooparatiiii Agency
JSPP, Joint Satiana piot projeclr • .
`LIM Lower. Indus ,Ityeter - Mantgetnent end Reclamation Research

Managenient PraCtIces 41
MRE ' Mona Redinicspi*?dE
lanentS Project, Bhalwal
MTRA- Mid Term Reses." ,
NAOLIN National DocuMentation Care, Library and Information Network
of PCRWR
NDC :• National: DevelopMent Consultants, Lahore
NaP : ' National Drainage Piagranis
NE' National Engineers . ••
;•,.
.NGO Non Government Orwizalion
NIA13-. H Nuclear Institute of and Biology
National Research Agenda!
fNRAP. ,
Netherlands Research Assistance Project
. • NSI„, •••• • Natural Surface Level • •
NWFP North West Frontier PrOvince
O&M I Operation and Maintenance

xlv

fr
?

MASAI Annual Report 10.7411

ODU Overseas Development Unit, U.K.


OFWM On-Farm Water Managaelent
QECF Overseas European rant nunity Fund
PARC Pakistan Agricultural Retiparch Council
PCRWR • Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, Islamabad
PCSIR Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
PFI Pakistan Forest InstitUateashaviar
PFRI Punjab Pore* ResearcItstibite, Faisalabad
PRA Participatory Rural. Appraisal
SARC Saline Agriculture, Research Cell
SAU Sindh AgricolluteUrthretlity, Tandojam
SCARP: SaiinitiConbal AnctRaditaatkiti Project
SCOPE Society for ConserVationtand Protection of Environment •
SCR Salt Concentration in Rot Zone
SEP:_ Salinity Education PrOgrabre
SGMP Btandard Groundwater Model: Package
SMO • SCARPs Monitoring Organization
SSC • 'Swab' SCARP tonsUitants
SSP Sol Survey of Pakistan •
SSFU Soil Salinity' Research Inefitute, Pindi Bhattian
SUPARCO Space and Upper'Atmosphere Research Commission
SWH Surface Water,HYSPI09Y.'OireCtorate
TOR? Terms of Referance
Technical Sii6ortServices
UAr University of Agditulturs; Faisalabad
UN United Nations' •
UNOOSMS : United Nationi Departmetd for Development Support System and
Management Services - • .
UNDP United Nations DevelopAent Programme .
UTG Umbrella Technical Group
WAPDA Water And Power Development Authority

UST OF ABBREVIATION•

A WASLU Welfare AsSOciation. of SIUand Users


WEC . WAPDA Environnlental
WMED . ■
•Watertoursei Monttoringlind E raluationiDirectorate
' VVTD ... . Watertable Depth ' I -

.
. .

a . •
• - •• ...e 44-!":>•• t• • ,...- •
30
IWASRI Annual Report 1997411

LIST OF SYMBOLS
I

. Percent •
pS/cm. • Micro Siemens per centimeter--
Avg . ° AverageI •i
, •• 1
Ca Calcium
• cfs - Cubic feed per ttecond
cm .. Centimeter , •
CO, •' Carbon Dioxide
CO, Carbonate
Cr Chromium • •1. :
dS/m Desi Siernens-per meter • .4i. .
EC, 'a. Apparent Eleebitriai tonduclivity t
EC, Electrical Conckictivittrof Sliturabon Extract
Ei IrrigationIfffciencyl, , ° lb
EM-38 Electromagnetic-38, A davits t. for measuring salinity
ft'/sec Cubic feet per seconcti. t
ireatrt" ' ' . • t. "- - ..:(°.
..,ha ' Heotare t
K Hydrairlic Conductivity
Kg Kiognam
m/d Meter per day
•m Meter -
° mg/I 4 Milligram per litre
ml/mirt Millilitre per minute
•Mlilimeter
° mmotTt- . l.
. MillimOle
• . .
pet litre:" ,
. . . ...

msf 14!. Stith square 'pet


my . . Milli volt 'I
P ' Penetration ." I • •,
pH Hydrogen ion concentration
Parts per million°
Discharge °-
gas Discharge of Drrinable Surplus
R • Recharge
SAR Sodium Adsorption Ratio
Si Irrigation Sufficiency
T : Treatment

xvii

"" veissimpt Janelows